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Department ofBotany

No. 228
December 2003

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In This Issue

Turning the Tide on Coral Reef Decline

Not very long ago, coral reefs were considered to be relatively stable and healthy in Kuna-Yala, Caribbean Panama. Between 1970 and 2001, however, the reefs declined by 79 percent, while the indigenous population of the Kuna people increased by 62 percent. Coral mining, mismanagement of other natural resources, and land-filling practices to accommodate population growth have significantly compromised the reef ecosystem and will have serious long-term consequences. Natural disturbances have also accelerated the demise of the reefs, with coastal erosion increasing as a result of the lack of a protective natural barrier and a 2.0 centimeter yearly rise in local sea level.

In the October issue of Conservation Biology, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute staff scientist Héctor Guzmán and colleagues propose eight priority conservation areas within the Kuna reserve (17: 1396-1401. 2003). Based on these results, the Kuna people and their leaders are considering a cultural change, which may include a gradual and organized migration to the mainland, and have optimistically accepted these scientists' proposal.

Black-Footed Ferrets: Lost and Found

North America's only native ferret once inhabited the Great Plains from Canada into northern Mexico, preying almost exclusively on prairie dogs. When prairie dogs were declared a pest species because they competed with livestock for forage, an effective extermination campaign decimated them and their principal predator — the black-footed ferret.

One of over 100 black-footed ferret kits produced by artificial insemination at the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. When more mature, most of these ferrets are reintroduced to the wild as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Black-Footed Recovery Program.

During the 1980s, the Wyoming Fish and Game Department (WFGD) sent some newly discovered black-footed ferrets to selected breeding facilities, including the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center (CRC), whose staff had developed and mastered artificial insemination techniques that could increase ferret populations and maintain vital genetic diversity. Their breeding successes led to the release of 49 ferrets into Wyoming's Shirley Basin in October 1991, that were believed to have been wiped out by sylvatic plague three years later. Despite this setback, over the next twelve years, more than 1,600 black-footed ferrets were released onto seven sites in the Great Plains, with 90 of the animals released provided by CRC.

In August 2003, a WFGD biologist found a surviving group of about 40 ferrets some distance from the original 1991 release site. DNA analysis found that the population was inbred, confirming assumptions that the original population in Wyoming was drastically reduced by plague and remained at low numbers for many generations. CRC scientists were extremely gratified that not only has their hard work paid off with the success of more recent reintroductions, but that all along, the initial release in 1991 had actually been a twelve-year success. This discovery bodes well for the future of the tough little black-footed ferret on the Great Plains.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Three years into the most extensive biological inventory ever attempted, scientists working on the Census of Marine Life (CoML) <> have already found over 200,000 marine species — just a fraction of what they expect to find at the end of this 10-year project. The CoML Web site "is designed to provide quick and easy access the all elements of the CoML and basic information about each element," including field project overviews and reports, timely news articles, and other resources. Readers will also find the recently released "Baseline Report of the Census of Marine Life 2003" and a draft plan outlining the next 7 years. The site also includes fantastic photos of newly described species, QuickTime movies from the field, and other features.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2003.

The Southeastern Rare Plant Information Network (SERPIN) <> is a joint project of the State Botanical Garden of Georgia and Duke University Biological and Experimental Science Library. SERPIN "aims to make large and small museum and library collections more easily available to researchers, teachers, students, land managers, and the public in the Southeast and worldwide." The SERPIN database currently includes botanical data, literature, and many other resources for all state or federally listed plants found in Georgia, north and central Florida, and the Carolinas.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

Current Literature

Abrams, M.D. 2003. Where has all the white oak gone? BioScience 53(10):927-939.

Aldridge, C.L., and Brigham, R.M. 2003. Distribution, abundance, and status of the greater sage-grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 117(1):25-34.

Alkorta, I., Albizu, I., and Garbisu, C. 2003. Biodiversity and agroecosystems. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2521-2522.

Alonso, J.C., Martin, C.A., Palacin, C., Magana, M., and Martin, B. 2003. Distribution, size and recent trends of the great bustard Otis tarda population in Madrid region, Spain. Ardeola 50(1):21-29.

Amarnath, G., Murthy, M.S.R., Britto, S.J., Rajashekar, G., and Dutt, C.B.S. 2003. Diagnostic analysis of conservation zones using remote sensing and GIS techniques in wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats - an ecological hotspot, Tamil Nadu, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2331-2359.

Baguette, M., Mennechez, G., Petit, S., and Schtickzelle, N. 2003. Effect of habitat fragmentation on dispersal in the butterfly Proclossiana eunomia. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S200-S209.

Ball, S.J., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Possingham, H.P. 2003. The predictive accuracy of population viability analysis: a test using data from two small mammal species in a fragmented landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2393-2413.

Barbosa, A.M., Real, R., Olivero, J., and Vargas, J.M. 2003. Otter (Lutra lutra) distribution modeling at two resolution scales suited to conservation planning in the Iberian Peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):377-387.

Bauer, H., De Iongh, H.H., Princée, F.P.G., and Ngantou, D. 2003. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S112-S118.

Bearzi, G., Reeves, R.R., Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara, G., Politi, E., Canadas, A., Frantzis, A., and Mussi, B. 2003. Ecology, status and conservation of short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis in the Mediterranean Sea. Mammal Rev. 33(3-4):224-252.

Bedford, B.L., and Godwin, K.S. 2003. Fens of the United States: distribution, characteristics, and scientific connection versus legal isolation. Wetlands 23(3):608-629.

Beja, P., and Alcazar, R. 2003. Conservation of Mediterranean temporary ponds under agricultural intensification: an evaluation using amphibians. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):317-326.

Benayas, J.M.R., and de la Montaña, E. 2003. Identifying areas of high-value vertebrate diversity for strengthening conservation. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):357-370.

Biggins, D.E., and Godbey, J.L. 2003. Challenges to reestablishment of free-ranging populations of black-footed ferrets. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S104-S111.

Blakesley, D., Pakkad, G., James, C., Torre, F., and Elliott, S. 2004. Genetic diversity of Castanopsis acuminatissima (Bl.) A. DC. in northern Thailand and the selection of seed trees for forest restoration. New Forests 27(1):89-100.

Bosetti, V., and Pearce, D. 2003. A study of environmental conflict: the economic value of grey seals in southwest England. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2361-2392.

Boshoff, A. 2003. Conservation of thicket biodiversity in South Africa. Oryx 37(3):281-282.

Bossuyt, B., and Hermy, M. 2003. The potential of soil seedbanks in the ecological restoration of grassland and heathland communities. Belgian J. Bot. 136(1):23-34.

Bouchard, V., Tessier, M., Digaire, F., Vivier, J.P., Valery, L., Gloaguen, J.C., and Lefeuvre, J.C. 2003. Sheep grazing as management tool in Western European saltmarshes. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S148-S157.

Boyer, S., and Rivault, C. 2003. La Réunion and Mayotte cockroaches: impact of altitude and human activity. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S210-S216.

Brooker, L., and Brooker, M. 2003. Local distribution, metapopulation viability and conservation of the blue-breasted fairy-wren in fragmented habitat in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Emu 103(3):185-198.

Brotons, L., Monkkonen, M., Huhta, E., Nikula, A., and Rajasarkka, A. 2003. Effects of landscape structure and forest reserve location on old-growth forest bird species in northern Finland. Landscape Ecol. 18(4):377-393.

Brzosko, E. 2003. The dynamics of island populations of Platanthera bifolia in the Biebrza National Park (NE Poland). Ann. Bot. Fenn. 40(4):243-253.

Burgess, N., Doggart, N., Doody, K., Perkin, A., Negussie, G., and Sumbi, P. 2003. New information on the lowland coastal forests of eastern Africa. Oryx 37(3):280-281.

Burke, A. 2003. How special are Etendeka mesas? Flora and elevation gradients in an arid landscape in north-west Namibia. J. Arid Environ. 55(4):747-764.

Burnett, C., Fall, A., Tomppo, E., and Kalliola, R. 2003. Monitoring current status of and trends in boreal forest land use in Russian Karelia. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):8. <>

Burrows, N.D., Algar, D., Robinson, A.D., Sinagra, J., Ward, B., and Liddelow, G. 2003. Controlling introduced predators in the Gibson Desert of Western Australia. J. Arid Environ. 55(4):691-713.

Byrne, M. 2003. Phylogenetics and the conservation of a diverse and ancient flora. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S73-S79.

Carpentier, A., Paillisson, J.M., Marion, L., Feunteun, E., Baisez, A., and Rigaud, C. 2003. Trends of a bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus) population in a man-made ditch network. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S166-S173.

Cavalli, L., Pech, N., and Chappaz, R. 2003. Diet and growth of the endangered Zingel asper in the Durance River. J. Fish Biol. 63(2):460-471.

Chapron, G., Legendre, S., Ferrière, R., Clobert, J., and Haight, R.G. 2003. Conservation and control strategies for the wolf (Canis lupus) in western Europe based on demographic models. C.R. Biologies 326(6):575-587.

Chapron, G., Quenette, P.Y., Legendre, S., and Clobert, J. 2003. Which future for the French Pyrenean brown bear (Ursus arctos) population? An approach using stage-structured deterministic and stochastic models. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S174-S182.

Chari, K.B., Abbasi, S.A., and Ganapathy, S. 2003. Ecology, habitat and bird community structure at Oussudu lake: towards a strategy for conservation and management. Aquat. Conserv. 13(5):373-386.

Chaulya, S.K. 2003. Air quality standard exceedance and management in an Indian mining area. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):266-273.

Chistyakova, A.A., and Leonova, N.A. 2003. The state of protected forest communities in the European forest-steppe zone of Russia and prospects for their reconstruction: a case study of specially protected areas of Penza Oblast. Russian J. Ecol. 34(5):285-291.

Clark, A.M., Moler, P.E., Possardt, E.E., Savitzky, A.H., Brown, W.S., and Bowen, B.W. 2003. Phylogeography of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) based on mtDNA sequences. J. Herpetol. 37(1):145-154.

Clarke, S.J., Bruce-Burgess, L., and Wharton, G. 2003. Linking form and function: towards an eco-hydromorphic approach to sustainable river restoration. Aquat. Conserv. 13(5):439-450.

Coesel, P.F.M. 2003. Desmid flora data as a tool in conservation management of Dutch freshwater wetlands. Biologia 58(4):717-722.

Conte, R., Nodari, R.O., Vencovsky, R., and dos Reis, M.S. 2003. Genetic diversity and recruitment of the tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart., in a natural population from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Heredity 91(4):401-406.

Courchamp, F., Chapuis, J.L., and Pascal, M. 2003. Mammal invaders on islands: impact, control and control impact. Biol. Rev. 78(3):347-383.

Crozier, G.E., and Gawlik, D.E. 2003. Wading bird nesting effort as an index to wetland ecosystem integrity. Waterbirds 26(3):303-324.

Currie, D., Bristol, R., Millett, J., Hill, M., Bristol, U., Parr, S.J., and Shah, N.J. 2003. Habitat requirements of the Seychelles black paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone corvina: a re-evaluation of translocation priorities. Ibis 145(4):624-636.

Currie, D.J. 2003. Conservation of endangered species and the patterns and propensities of biodiversity. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S98-S103.

Day, T.D., Matthews, L.R., and Waas, J.R. 2003. Repellents to deter New Zealand's North Island robin Petroica australis longipes from pest control baits. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):309-316.

De Fabricius, A.L.M., Maidana, N., Gómez, N., and Sabater, S. 2003. Distribution patterns of benthic diatoms in a Pampean river exposed to seasonal floods: the Cuarto River (Argentina). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2443-2454.

de Gevigney, C. 2003. Biodiversity Conservation and Management - International Congress - Vouziers, France, July, 4-7th, 2002 - Foreword. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S2.

De La Vega-Salazar, M.Y., Avila-Luna, E.G., and Macías-Garcia, C. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Zoogoneticus tequila Webb & Miller 1998 (Goodeidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(1):14.

de Segura, A.G., Tomaas, J., Pedraza, S.N., Crespo, E.A., and Raga, J.A. 2003. Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around Columbretes Islands Marine Reserve, Spanish Mediterranean. Mar. Biol. 143(4):817-823.

Deng, W.H., Wei, G., and Guang-Mei, Z. 2003. Nest and roost habitat characteristics of the grey-faced buzzard in northeastern China. J. Raptor Res. 37(3):228-235.

Devin, S., Piscart, C., Beisel, J.N., and Moreteau, J.C. 2003. Ecological traits of the amphipod invader Dikerogammarus villosus on a mesohabitat scale. Arch. Hydrobiol. 158(1):43-56.

Dignard, N., and Gervais, C. 2003. Eco-geographical and cytological notes on the entire-leaved daisy, Hulteniella integrifolia (Asteraceae), in Quebec. Can. Field-Natural. 117(1):66-69.

Dorland, E., Bobbink, R., Messelink, J.H., and Verhoeven, J.T.A. 2003. Soil ammonium accumulation after sod cutting hampers the restoration of degraded wet heathlands. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):804-814.

Dowling, D.K., Antos, M., and Sahlman, T. 2003. Dispersal and recruitment of juvenile red-capped robins, Petroica goodenovii. Emu 103(3):199-205.

Dubois, A. 2003. The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S9-S21.

Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2003. Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6(6):503-523.

Elmarsdottir, A., Aradottir, A.L., and Trlica, M.J. 2003. Microsite availability and establishment of native species on degraded and reclaimed sites. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):815-823.

Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M., and Rinkevich, B. 2003. Applying forest restoration principles to coral reef rehahilitation. Aquat. Conserv. 13(5):387-395.

Esqueda, M., Herrera, T., Perez-Siva, E., and Sanchez, A. 2003. Distribution of Geastrum species from some priority regions for conservation of biodiversity of Sonora, Mexico. Mycotaxon 87:445-456.

Eubanks, J.O., Michener, W.K., and Guyer, C. 2003. Patterns of movement and burrow use in a population of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Herpetologica 59(3):311-321.

Eybert, M.C., Geslin, T., Questiau, S., and Feunteun, E. 2003. Shorebird community variations indicative of a feneral perturbation in the Mont-Saint-Michel bay (France). C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S140-S147.

Ferrer, M., Penteriani, V., Balbontín, J., and Pandolfi, M. 2003. The proportion of immature breeders as a reliable early warning signal of population decline: evidence from the Spanish imperial eagle in Doñana. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):463-466.

Frankham, R. 2003. Genetics and conservation biology. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S22-S29.

Freckleton, R.P., Matos, D.M.S., Bovi, M.L.A., and Watkinson, A.R. 2003. Predicting the impacts of harvesting using structured population models: the importance of density-dependence and timing of harvest for a tropical palm tree. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):846-858.

Fustec, J., Cormier, J.P., and Lodé, T. 2003. Beaver lodge location on the upstream Loire River. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S192-S199.

Galindo-Leal, C., and Camara, I.D. (Eds.). 2003. The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity Status, Threats, and Outlook. State of the Hotspots. Island Press. Washington, D.C. 408 pp.

Garner, T.W.J., Angelone, S., and Pearman, P.B. 2003. Genetic depletion in Swiss populations of Rana latastei: conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):371-376.

Giangrande, A. 2003. Biodiversity, conservation, and the 'taxonomic impediment'. Aquat. Conserv. 13(5):451-459.

Gibbons, J.W. 2003. Terrestrial habitat: a vital component for herpetofauna of isolated wetlands. Wetlands 23(3):630-635.

Giliomee, J.H. 2003. Insect diversity in the Cape Floristic Region. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(3):237-244.

Gillingham, S., and Lee, P.C. 2003. People and protected areas: a study of local perceptions of wildlife crop-damage conflict in an area bordering the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Oryx 37(3):316-325.

Glover, A.G., and Smith, C.R. 2003. The deep-sea floor ecosystem: current status and prospects of anthropogenic change by the year 2025. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):219-241.

Godefroid, S., Massant, W., Weyembergh, G., and Koedam, N. 2003. Impact of fencing on the recovery of the ground flora on heavily eroded slopes of a deciduous forest. Environ. Manage. 32(1):62-76.

González, C.A.L., Brown, D.E., and Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. 2003. The ocelot Leopardus pardalis in north-western Mexico: ecology, distribution and conservation status. Oryx 37(3):358-364.

González, J.A. 2003. Harvesting, local trade, and conservation of parrots in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):437-446.

Goulson, D. 2003. The conservation of bumble bees. Bee World 84(3):105-106.

Grill, A., and Cleary, D.F.R. 2003. Diversity patterns in butterfly communities of the Greek nature reserve Dadia. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):427-436.

Gubbi, S. 2003. Court saves unique wildlife habitat in India. Oryx 37(3):282.

Guinand, B., and Scribner, K.T. 2003. Evaluation of methodology for detection of genetic bottlenecks: inferences from temporally replicated lake trout populations. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S61-S67.

Hackett, H.M., and Pagels, J.F. 2003. Nest site characteristics of the endangered northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in southwest Virginia. Am. Midl. Nat. 150(2):321-331.

Hartl, G.B., Zachos, F., and Nadlinger, K. 2003. Genetic diversity in European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): anthropogenic influences on natural populations. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S37-S42.

Hartley, S.E., Gardner, S.M., and Mitchell, R.J. 2003. Indirect effects of grazing and nutrient addition on the hemipteran community of heather moorlands. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):793-803.

Haukos, D.A., and Smith, L.M. 2003. Past and future impacts of wetland regulations on playa ecology in the southern Great Plains. Wetlands 23(3):577-589.

Hepper, F.N. 2003. Phenological records of English garden plants in Leeds (Yorkshire) and Richmond (Surrey) from 1946 to 2002. An analysis relating to global warming. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2503-2520.

Hobbs, R.J., and Yates, C.J. 2003. Impacts of ecosystem fragmentation on plant populations: generalising the idiosyncratic. Aust. J. Bot. 51(5):471-488.

Hokit, D.G., and Branch, L.C. 2003. Habitat patch size affects demographics of the Florida scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi). J. Herpetol. 37(2):257-265.

Holehouse, K.A., Hammond, R.L., and Bourke, A.F.G. 2003. Non-lethal sampling of DNA from bumble bees for conservation genetics. Insect. Soc. 50(3):277-285.

Holmes, C.M. 2003. The influence of protected area outreach on conservation attitudes and resource use patterns: a case study from western Tanzania. Oryx 37(3):305-315.

Huettmann, F., and Linke, J. 2003. An automated method to derive habitat preferences of wildlife in GIS and telemetry studies: a flexible software tool and examples of its application. Z. Jagdwiss. 49(3):219-232.

Hughes, F.M.R., and Rood, S.B. 2003. Allocation of river flows for restoration of floodplain forest ecosystems: a review of approaches and their applicability in Europe. Environ. Manage. 32(1):12-33.

Ishihama, F., Nakano, C., Ueno, S., Ajima, M., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2003. Seed set and gene flow patterns in an experimental population of an endangered heterostylous herb with controlled local opposite-morph density. Funct. Ecol. 17(5):680-689.

Jacquemyn, H., Van Rossum, F., Brys, R., Endels, P., Hermy, M., Triest, L., and De Blust, G. 2003. Effects of agricultural land use and fragmentation on genetics, demography and population persistence of the rare Primula vulgaris, and implications for conservation. Belgian J. Bot. 136(1):5-22.

Jiang, G.M., Liu, M.Z., Han, N.Y., Zhang, Q., and Li, W.J. 2003. Potential for restoration of degraded steppe in the Xilingol Biosphere Reserve through urbanization. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):304-310.

Johnson, R.R., Cartron, J.L.E., Haight, L.T., Duncan, R.B., and Kingsley, K.J. 2003. Cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona, 1872-1971. Southwest. Nat. 48(3):389-401.

Joly, P., Morand, C., and Cohas, A. 2003. Habitat fragmentation and amphibian conservation: building a tool for assessing landscape matrix connectivity. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S132-S139.

Jongkind, C.C.H. 2003. New species of plants discovered in Sapo National Park, Liberia. Oryx 37(3):279-280.

Joyce, D.A., and Pullin, A.S. 2003. Conservation implications of the distribution of genetic diversity at different scales: a case study using the marsh fritillary butterfly (Euphydryas aurinia). Biol. Conserv. 114(3):453-461.

Kalpers, J., Williamson, E.A., Robbins, M.M., McNeilage, A., Nzamurambaho, A., Lola, N., and Mugiri, G. 2003. Gorillas in the crossfire: population dynamics of the Virunga mountain gorillas over the past three decades. Oryx 37(3):326-337.

Karr, J.R., and Kimberling, D.N. 2003. A terrestrial arthropod index of biological integrity for shrub-steppe landscapes. Northwest Sci. 77(3):202-213.

Keitt, B.S., Tershy, B.R., and Croll, D.A. 2003. Breeding biology and conservation of the black-vented shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas. Ibis 145(4):673-680.

Klein, A.M., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2003. Pollination of Coffea canephora in relation to local and regional agroforestry management. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):837-845.

Konishi, M., Hosoya, K., and Takata, K. 2003. Natural hybridization between endangered and introduced species of Pseudorasbora, with their genetic relationships and characteristics inferred from allozyme analyses. J. Fish Biol. 63(1):213-231.

Krishnamurthy, S.V. 2003. Amphibian assemblages in undisturbed and disturbed areas of Kudremukh National Park, central Western Ghats, India. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):274-282.

Kucera, J., and Vana, J. 2003. Check- and Red List of bryophytes of the Czech Republic (2003). Preslia 75(3):193-222.

La Torre-Cuadros, M.D., and Islebe, G.A. 2003. Traditional ecological knowledge and use of vegetation in southeastern Mexico: a case study from Solferino, Quintana Roo. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2455-2476.

Laliberte, A.S., and Ripple, W.J. 2003. Wildlife encounters by Lewis and Clark: a spatial analysis of interactions between native americans and wildlife. BioScience 53(10):994-1003.

Lee, R.J., Riley, J., Hunowu, L., and Maneasa, E. 2003. The Sulawesi palm civet: expanded distribution of a little known endemic viverrid. Oryx 37(3):378-381.

Lefeuvre, J.C., Laffaille, P., Feunteun, E., Bouchard, V., and Radureau, A. 2003. Biodiversity in salt marshes: from patrimonial value to ecosystem functioning. The case study of the Mont-Saint-Michel bay. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S125-S131.

Legras, S., Micheneau, C., Dupont, J., and Pailler, T. 2003. Reproductive biology of a threatened species on Reunion island (Corymborkis corymbis: Orchidaceae): implications for its conservation. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 58(3):271-282.

Lei, F.M., Qu, Y.H., Tang, Q.Q., and An, S.C. 2003. Priorities for the conservation of avian biodiversity in China based on the distribution patterns of endemic bird genera. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2487-2501.

Leibowitz, S.G. 2003. Isolated wetlands and their functions: an ecological perspective. Wetlands 23(3):517-531.

Leibowitz, S.G., and Nadeau, T.L. 2003. Isolated wetlands: state-of-the-science and future directions. Wetlands 23(3):663-684.

Lemauviel, S., Gallet, S., and Rozé, F. 2003. Sustainable management of fixed dunes: example of a pilot site in Brittany (France). C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S183-S191.

Lemons, J., Victor, R., and Schaffer, D. (Eds.). 2003. Conserving Biodiversity in Arid Regions: Best Practices in Developing Nations. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Boston, MA. 520 pp.

Lesbarrères, D., Pagano, A., and Lodé, T. 2003. Inbreeding and road effect zone in a Ranidae: the case of Agile frog, Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S68-S72.

Lichko, L.E., and Calhoun, A.J.K. 2003. An evaluation of vernal pool creation projects in New England: project documentation from 1991-2000. Environ. Manage. 32(1):141-151.

Lodé, T., Pereboom, V., and Berzins, R. 2003. Implications of an individualistic lifestyle for species conservation: lessons from jealous beasts. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S30-S36.

Loehle, C. 2003. Competitive displacement of trees in response to environmental change or introduction of exotics. Environ. Manage. 32(1):106-115.

Lorimer, C.G. 2003. The decline of oak forests. BioScience 53(10):915.

Loucks, C., Brown, N., Loucks, A., and Cesareo, K. 2003. USDA Forest Service roadless areas: potential biodiversity conservation reserves. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):5. <>

Lounibos, L.P., O'Meara, G.F., Nishimura, N., and Escher, R.L. 2003. Interactions with native mosquito larvae regulate the production of Aedes albopictus from bromeliads in Florida. Ecol. Entomol. 28(5):551-558.

Lovett-Doust, J., Biernacki, M., Page, R., Chan, M., Natgunarajah, R., and Timis, G. 2003. Effects of land ownership and landscape-level factors on rare-species richness in natural areas of southern Ontario, Canada. Landscape Ecol. 18(6):621-633.

Lu, X., and Zheng, G.M. 2003. Reproductive ecology of Tibetan eared pheasant Crossoptilon harmani in scrub environment, with special reference to the effect of food. Ibis 145(4):657-666.

Lucchini, V. 2003. AFLP: a useful tool for biodiversity conservation and management. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S43-S48.

Marker, L.L., Dickman, A.J., Jeo, R.M., Mills, M.G.L., and Macdonald, D.W. 2003. Demography of the Namibian cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):413-425.

Marker, L.L., Dickman, A.J., Mills, M.G.L., and Macdonald, D.W. 2003. Aspects of the management of cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus, trapped on Namibian farmlands. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):401-412.

Martinez, J.A., Martinez, J.E., Zuberogoitia, I., Garcia, J.T., Carbonell, R., De Lucas, M., and Diaz, M. 2003. Environmental impact assessment on raptor populations: difficulties in implementation and a search for solutions. Ardeola 50(1):85-102.

Matthews, K.R. 2003. Response of mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, to short distance translocation. J. Herpetol. 37(3):621-626.

McClain, M.E., and Cossío, R.E. 2003. The use of riparian environments in the rural Peruvian Amazon. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):242-248.

McIntyre, N.E., and Thompson, T.R. 2003. A comparison of conservation reserve program habitat plantings with respect to arthropod prey for grassland birds. Am. Midl. Nat. 150(2):291-301.

Mésochina, P., Bedin, E., and Ostrowski, S. 2003. Reintroducing antelopes into arid areas: lessons learnt from the oryx in Saudi Arabia. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S158-S165.

Mgumia, F.H., and Oba, G. 2003. Potential role of sacred groves in biodiversity conservation in Tanzania. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):259-265.

Miller, G.L., and Miller, D.R. 2003. Invasive soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and their threat to US agriculture. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105(4):832-846.

Moffatt, S.F., and McLachlan, S.M. 2003. Effects of land use disturbance on seed banks of riparian forests in southern Manitoba. Ecoscience 10(3):361-369.

Morris, J. 2003. Oryx: continuity and change. Oryx 37(3):267-268.

Myers, N. 2003. Biodiversity hotspots revisited. BioScience 53(10):916-917.

Neely, D.A., Hunter, A.E., and Mayden, R.L. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Etheostoma sellare (Radcliffe & Welsh) 1913 (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 67(4):340.

Ng, S.L., and Leung, S. 2003. Behavioral response of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) to vessel traffic. Mar. Environ. Res. 56(5):555-567.

Norris, K., and McCulloch, N. 2003. Demographic models and the management of endangered species: a case study of the critically endangered Seychelles magpie robin. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):890-899.

O'Brien, S., Emahalala, E.R., Beard, V., Rakotondrainy, R.M., Reid, A., Raharisoa, V., and Coulson, T. 2003. Decline of the Madagascar radiated tortoise Geochelone radiata due to overexploitation. Oryx 37(3):338-343.

Oldfield, S. (Ed.). 2003. The Trade in Wildlife: Regulation for Conservation. Earthscan Publications Ltd. London, England. 232 pp.

Pagano, A., Dubois, A., Lesbarrères, D., and Lodé, T. 2003. Frog alien species: a way for genetic invasion? C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S85-S92.

Pakeman, R.J., Hulme, P.D., Torvell, L., and Fisher, J.M. 2003. Rehabilitation of degraded dry heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] moorland by controlled sheep grazing. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):389-400.

Pandit, B.H., and Thapa, G.B. 2003. A tragedy of non-timber forest resources in the mountain commons of Nepal. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):283-292.

Parker, B. 2003. Conservation on the move. Oryx 37(3):279.

Parsons, E.C.M., Warburton, C.A., Woods-Ballard, A., Hughes, A., and Johnston, P. 2003. The value of conserving whales: the impacts of cetacean-related tourism on the economy of rural West Scotland. Aquat. Conserv. 13(5):397-415.

Paschke, M.W., Redente, E.F., and Brown, S.L. 2003. Biology and establishment of mountain shrubs on mining disturbances in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Land Degrad. Dev. 14(5):459-480.

Pearl, C.A., Adams, M.J., Schuytema, G.S., and Nebeker, A.V. 2003. Behavioral responses of anuran larvae to chemical cues of native and introduced predators in the Pacific northwestern United States. J. Herpetol. 37(3):572-576.

Peltier, D., and Lodé, T. 2003. Molecular survey of genetic diversity in the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S49-S53.

Perovic, P., Walker, S., and Novaro, A. 2003. New records of the Endangered Andean mountain cat in northern Argentina. Oryx 37(3):374-377.

Piazzi, L., and Cinelli, F. 2003. Evaluation of benthic macroalgal invasion in a harbour area of the western Mediterranean Sea. Eur. J. Phycology 38(3):223-231.

Pierpaoli, M., Riga, F., Trocchi, V., and Randi, E. 2003. Hare populations in Europe: intra and interspecific analysis of mtDNA variation. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S80-S84.

Pons, P., and Quintana, X.D. 2003. Unsuitable reintroductions and conservation priorities. Oryx 37(3):285.

Powell, V.J., and Wehnelt, S.C. 2003. A new estimate of the population size of the Critically Endangered Rodrigues fruit bat Pteropus rodricensis. Oryx 37(3):353-357.

Powers, G.L.J., and Mayden, R.L. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Etheostoma percnurum Jenkins 1993 (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 67(4):358.

Prendini, L. 2003. Revision of the genus Lisposoma Lawrence, 1928 (Scorpiones : Bothriuridae). Insect Syst. Evol. 34(3):241-264.

Prieto, J., González-Solís, J., Ruiz, X., and Jover, L. 2003. Can rats prey on gull eggs? An experimental approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2477-2486.

Probst, J.R., Donner, D.M., Bocetti, C.I., and Sjogren, S. 2003. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA. Oryx 37(3):365-373.

Raimondi, N., and Kermode, A.R. 2004. Seedling growth and establishment in natural stands of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) seedlings derived from the use of modified seed dormancy-breaking treatments. New Forests 27(1):55-67.

Ramade, F. 2003. Introductory conference: on the relevance of protected areas for the research on conservation ecology: from fundaments to applications. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S3-S8.

Randi, E. 2003. Conservation genetics of carnivores in Italy. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S54-S60.

Reis, J. 2003. The freshwater pearl mussel [Margaritifera margaritifera (L.)] (Bivalvia, Unionoida) rediscovered in Portugal and threats to its survival. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):447-452.

Richardson, A.J., and Taylor, I.R. 2003. Are rice fields in southeastern Australia an adequate substitute for natural wetlands as foraging areas for egrets? Waterbirds 26(3):353-363.

Romo, J.T. 2003. Reintroducing fire for conservation of fescue prairie association remnants in the northern Great Plains. Can. Field-Natural. 117(1):89-99.

Ron, S.R., Duellman, W.E., Coloma, L.A., and Bustamante, M.R. 2003. Population decline of the Jambato toad Atelopus ignescens (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Andes of Ecuador. J. Herpetol. 37(1):116-126.

Samways, M.J. 2003. Marginality and national Red Listing of species. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2523-2525.

Schlaepfer, M.A. 2003. Successful lizard eggs in a human-disturbed habitat. Oecologia 137(2):304-311.

Schmidt, B.R. 2003. Count data, detection probabilities, and the demography, dynamics, distribution, and decline of amphibians. C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S119-S124.

Schmidt, N.M., and Jensen, P.M. 2003. Changes in mammalian body length over 175 years—adaptations to a fragmented landscape? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):6. <>

Scholte, P. 2003. Curriculum development at the African regional wildlife colleges, with special reference to the Ecole de Faune, Cameroon. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):249-258.

Seddon, P.J., Ismail, K., Shobrak, M., Ostrowski, S., and Magin, C. 2003. A comparison of derived population estimate, mark-resighting and distance sampling methods to determine the population size of a desert ungulate, the Arabian oryx. Oryx 37(3):286-294.

Selvam, V., Ravichandran, K.K., Gnanappazham, L., and Navamuniyammal, M. 2003. Assessment of community-based restoration of Pichavaram mangrove wetland using remote sensing data. Curr. Sci. 85(6):794-798.

Service, R.F. 2003. Endangered Species Act - Report says listings draw on sound science. Science 302(5642):35.

Sewall, B.J., Granek, E.F., and Trewhella, W.J. 2003. The endemic Comoros Islands fruit bat Rousettus obliviosus: ecology, conservation, and Red List status. Oryx 37(3):344-352.

Sharitz, R.R. 2003. Carolina bay wetlands: unique habitats of the southeastern United States. Wetlands 23(3):550-562.

Silveira, L., Jácomo, A.T.A., and Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. 2003. Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):351-355.

Singh, K.K., Kumar, S., Rai, L.K., and Krishna, A.P. 2003. Rhododendrons conservation in the Sikkim Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 85(5):602-606.

Smith, C.H. 2003. Alfred Russel Wallace, societal planning and environmental agenda. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):215-218.

Sobek, E.A., and Zak, J.C. 2003. The Soil FungiLog procedure: method and analytical approaches toward understanding fungal functional diversity. Mycologia 95(4):590-602.

Sodhi, N.S., Peh, K.S.H., Lee, T.M., Turner, I.M., Tan, H.T.W., Prawiradilaga, D.M., and Darjono. 2003. Artificial nest and seed predation experiments on tropical southeast Asian islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2415-2433.

Solomon, M., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Biggs, H.C., and Knight, M.H. 2003. Conservation targets for viable species assemblages? Biodivers. Conserv. 12(12):2435-2441.

Solórzano, S., Castillo-Santiago, M.A., Navarrete-Gutiérrez, D.A., and Oyama, K. 2003. Impacts of the loss of neotropical highland forests on the species distribution: a case study using resplendent quetzal an endangered bird species. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):341-349.

Stave, J., Oba, G., Bjora, C.S., Mengistu, Z., Nordal, I., and Stenseth, N.C. 2003. Spatial and temporal woodland patterns along the lower Turkwel River, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(3):224-236.

Stevenson, D.J., Dyer, K.J., and Willis-Stevenson, B.A. 2003. Survey and monitoring of the eastern indigo snake in Georgia. Southeast. Nat. 2(3):393-408.

Streever, W.J., McKendrick, J., Fanter, L., Anderson, S.C., Kidd, J., and Portier, K.M. 2003. Evaluation of percent cover requirements for revegetation of disturbed sites on Alaska's North Slope. Arctic 56(3):234-248.

Stringer, I.A.N., Bassett, S.M., McLean, M.J., McCartney, J., and Parrish, G.R. 2003. Biology and conservation of the rare New Zealand land snail Paryphanta busbyi watti (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Invertebr. Biol. 122(3):241-251.

Thuiller, W. 2003. BIOMOD - Optimizing predictions of species distributions and projecting potential future shifts under global change. Global Change Biol. 9(10):1353-1362.

Timmins, R.J., Duckworth, J.W., Robson, C.R., and Walston, J.L. 2003. Distribution, status and ecology of the mainland slender-tailed treeshrew Dendrogale murina. Mammal Rev. 33(3-4):272-283.

Turner, M.G., Pearson, S.M., Bolstad, P., and Wear, D.N. 2003. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA). Landscape Ecol. 18(5):449-464.

Turner, W.R. 2003. Citywide biological monitoring as a tool for ecology and conservation in urban landscapes: the case of the Tucson Bird Count. Landscape Urban Plan. 65(3):149-166.

Uphyrkina, O., and O'Brien, S.J. 2003. Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). C.R. Biologies 326(Suppl. 1):S93-S97.

van Heezik, Y., Ismail, K., and Seddon, P.J. 2003. Shifting spatial distributions of Arabian oryx in relation to sporadic water provision and artificial shade. Oryx 37(3):295-304.

Velázquez, A., Durán, E., Ramírez, I., Mas, J.F., Bocco, G., Ramírez, G., and Palacio, J.L. 2003. Land use-cover change processes in highly biodiverse areas: the case of Oaxaca, Mexico. Global Environ. Change 13(3):175-184.

Wade, T.G., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., and Jones, K.B. 2003. Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):7. <>

Walters, B.B. 2003. People and mangroves in the Philippines: fifty years of coastal environmental change. Environ. Conserv. 30(3):293-303.

Wethered, R., and Lawes, M.J. 2003. Matrix effects on bird assemblages in fragmented afromontane forests in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 114(3):327-340.

Wilcox, C., and Elderd, B. 2003. The effect of density-dependent catastrophes on population persistence time. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(5):859-871.

Wilson, C.J. 2003. Distribution and status of feral wild boar Sus scrofa in Dorset, southern England. Mammal Rev. 33(3-4):302-307.

Wishart, M.J., and Davies, B.R. 2003. Beyond catchment considerations in the conservation of lotic biodiversity. Aquat. Conserv. 13(5):429-437.

Yahner, R.H. 2003. Terrestrial vertebrates in Pennsylvania: status and conservation in a changing landscape. Northeastern Nat. 10(3):343-360.

Young, G.I., and Yahner, R.H. 2003. Distribution of, and microhabitat use by, woodland salamanders along forest-farmland edges. Can. Field-Natural. 117(1):19-24.

Young, J.A., and Clements, C.D. 2003. Rangeland monitoring and invasive weeds. Arid Land Res. Manag. 17(4):439-447.

Zedler, P.H. 2003. Vernal pools and the concept of "isolated wetlands". Wetlands 23(3):597-607.

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