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Department ofBotany

No. 229
January 2004

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In This Issue

Threatened Medicinal Plant Cultivation Succeeds in Himachal Himalaya

By Hemant K. Badola and Jitendra Singh Butola

Over 650 recorded medicinal plants are found in Himachal Himalaya in India, of which over 133 species are threatened. In Himachal, in-situ harvesting of medicinal plants is legally allowed to the natives as one of their traditional rights, which forms one of the important economic resources to them. In recent times, commercial exploitation of high value species by traders and resulting threat to wild populations has made the situation more acute. The conservation of these sensitive taxa has been taken with utmost seriousness for Himachal, and for that ex-situ cultivation has been identified as one of the major solutions.

In 2000, a three-year project began, sponsored by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, to target high value threatened taxa for community based cultivation, particularly focusing on women as major beneficiaries, in addition to marginal and progressive farmers. Promoting accessibility and empowerment of rural women on economic resources and traditional primary health care by introducing ex-situ cultivation as the major objectives were very well supported by propagation and multiplication trials, setting up of nurseries for germplasm, demonstration plots establishments, and low-cost technology interventions. Crop demonstrations helped immensely in two villages in Parvati valley of Kullu district to adopt medicinal plant cultivation in their agricultural fields. Vermi-based bio-composting was given high priority in the project, which not only helped enhance crop productivity but also proved to be an important economic resource. Several mobilization meetings helped villagers understand the value of medicinal plant cultivation, which hitherto practiced only traditional agriculture. Over 150 villagers were trained on conventional propagation, agronomy, post-harvesting and marketing.

The high value targeted taxa were Aconitum heterophyllum, Angelica glauca, Dioscorea deltoidea, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Hedychium spicatum, Heracleum candicans, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Podophyllum hexandrum, Saussurea costus and Valeriana jatamansi. Seven of these taxa were recently prioritized for conservation through ex-situ cultivation in an international workshop on endangered medicinal plants (Badola and Pal, 2002. Current Science 83: 797-798). The program successfully mobilized more than 70 households for cultivation. Scientific assessment on species adaptability to agro-climatic zones, growth potential, agronomic yield, and economics of cultivation, specially, suggested A. heterophyllum, A. glauca, P. kurrooa, S. costus and V. jatamansi as highly promising taxa both in terms of providing economic benefits to farmers as well as substantial quality raw material. Mass seed production of Angelica, Aconitum and Saussurea offers high hopes for expansion of their conservation program.

The project not only successfully generated sensitization amongst farmers in the valley and adjacent areas in the state but also realized as a precursor of awareness and education on conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use to the society. Periodical monitoring and encouragement to local folks have been recommended in the future, so that the actual benefits goes to marginal farmers in longer run, until the mission is spread over wider areas in the state. For further information contact: Dr. Hemant K. Badola, Scientist-CBD, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Mohal-Kullu, 175 126, H.P., India; E-mail:;

Future Meetings

The Apimondia Pollination 2004 conference on "Tropical Beekeeping: Research and Development for Pollination and Conservation" will be held in Costa Rica on 22-25 February 2004. This conference is being organized by the Centro de Investigaciones Apícolas Tropicales (CINAT) of the National University of Costa Rica, under auspices of the Apimondia Standing Commission for Pollination and Bee Flora. The conference will inform participants about the latest developments concerning the use of tropical bees for pollination, including pollination in greenhouses, about the role bees play in conservation in tropical ecosystems, about the importance of conservation of the bee populations and the impact of the cultivation of genetically-modified crops on pollination. The conference will offer the participants a good opportunity to get to know Costa Rican beekeeping with Africanized honey bees and the exclusively tropical native stingless bees. CINAT has been executing a bee research and beekeeping development program together with Utrecht University, the Netherlands, with importance for the region of Central America. For further information, contact Apimondia Pollination 2004, Conference Secretary, L.A. Sánchez, P.O. Box 475, 3000 Heredia, Costa Rica; Tel: +506 2381868; Fax: +506 2377043; E-mail:; Internet: <>.

Current Literature

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Abbott, C.L., and Double, M.C. 2003. Genetic structure, conservation genetics and evidence of speciation by range expansion in shy and white-capped albatrosses. Mol. Ecol. 12(11):2953-2962.

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Angulo, E., and Villafuerte, R. 2004. Modelling hunting strategies for the conservation of wild rabbit populations. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):291-301.

Bain, R.H., Lathrop, A., Murphy, R.W., Orlov, N.L., and Cuc, H.T. 2003. Cryptic species of a cascade frog from Southeast Asia: taxonomic revisions and descriptions of six new species. Am. Mus. Novit. 3417:1-60.

Balent, K.L., and Norment, C.J. 2003. Demographic characteristics of a grasshopper sparrow population in a highly fragmented landscape of western New York State. J. Field Ornithol. 74(4):341-348.

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Bengtsson, J., Angelstam, P., Elmqvist, T., Emanuelsson, U., Folke, C., Ihse, M., Moberg, F., and Nyström, M. 2003. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes. Ambio 32(6):389-396.

Benstead, J.P., de Rham, P.H., Gattolliat, J.L., Gibon, F.M., Loiselle, P.V., Sartori, M., Sparks, J.S., and Stiassny, M.L.J. 2003. Conserving Madagascar's freshwater biodiversity. BioScience 53(11):1101-1111.

Berger, J. 2003. Is it acceptable to let a species go extinct in a national park? Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1451-1454.

Bernardo, J.M., Ilheu, M., Matono, P., and Costa, A.M. 2003. Interannual variation of fish assemblage structure in a Mediterranean river: implications of streamflow on the dominance of native or exotic species. River Res. Appl. 19(5-6):521-532.

Bernhardt, K.G., and Koch, M. 2003. Restoration of a salt marsh system: temporal change of plant species diversity and composition. Basic Appl. Ecol. 4(5):441-451.

Boarman, W.I. 2003. Managing a subsidized predator population: reducing common raven predation on desert tortoises. Environ. Manage. 32(2):205-217.

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Boyce, M.S., and Waller, J.S. 2003. Grizzly bears for the Bitterroot: predicting potential abundance and distribution. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 31(3):670-683.

Brasher, A.M.D. 2003. Impacts of human disturbances on biotic communities in Hawaiian streams. BioScience 53(11):1052-1060.

Britt, A., Welch, C., and Katz, A. 2004. Can small, isolated primate populations be effectively reinforced through the release of individuals from a captive population? Biol. Conserv. 115(2):319-327.

Brummitt, N., and Lughadha, E.N. 2003. Biodiversity: where's hot and where's not. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1442-1448.

Buchanan, P.K., and May, T.W. 2003. Conservation of New Zealand and Australian fungi. New Zeal. J. Bot. 41(3):407-421.

Burkhart, S.M., and Slooten, E. 2003. Population viability analysis for Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori): a stochastic population model for local populations. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 37(3):553-566.

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Calado, R., Lin, J.D., Rhyne, A.L., Araújo, R., and Narciso, L. 2003. Marine ornamental decapods—popular, pricey, and poorly studied. J. Crustracean Biol. 23(4):963-973.

Caldow, R.W.G., Beadman, H.A., McGrorty, S., Kaiser, M.J., Goss-Custard, J.D., Mould, K., and Wilson, A. 2003. Effects of intertidal mussel cultivation on bird assemblages. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 259:173-183.

Canela, M.B.F., Paz, N.P.L., and Wendt, T. 2003. Revision of the Aechmea multiflora complex (Bromeliaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 143(2):189-196.

Carpintero, S., Reyes-López, J., and de Reyna, L.A. 2004. Impact of human dwellings on the distribution of the exotic Argentine ant: a case study in the Doñana National Park, Spain. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):279-289.

Cegelski, C.C., Waits, L.P., and Anderson, N.J. 2003. Assessing population structure and gene flow in Montana wolverines (Gulo gulo) using assignment-based approaches. Mol. Ecol. 12(11):2907-2918.

Chapman, J.W., Miller, T.W., and Coan, E.V. 2003. Live seafood species as recipes for invasion. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1386-1395.

Chapman, R.E., Wang, J., and Bourke, A.F.G. 2003. Genetic analysis of spatial foraging patterns and resource sharing in bumble bee pollinators. Mol. Ecol. 12(10):2801-2808.

Chruszcz, B., Clevenger, A.P., Gunson, K.E., and Gibeau, M.L. 2003. Relationships among grizzly bears, highways, and habitat in the Banff-Bow Valley, Alberta, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 81(8):1378-1391.

Cox, M.P., Dickman, C.R., and Hunter, J. 2004. Effects of rainforest fragmentation on non-flying mammals of the Eastern Dorrigo Plateau, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):175-189.

Cox, T.M., Read, A.J., Swanner, D., Urian, K., and Waples, D. 2004. Behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, to gillnets and acoustic alarms. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):203-212.

Critchley, C.N.R., Burke, M.J.W., and Stevens, D.P. 2004. Conservation of lowland semi-natural grasslands in the UK: a review of botanical monitoring results from agri-environment schemes. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):263-278.

Culley, T.M., and Grubb, T.C. 2003. Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation in Viola pubescens (Violaceae), a perennial herb with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. Mol. Ecol. 12(11):2919-2930.

Curtis, J.M.R., and Taylor, E.B. 2004. The genetic structure of coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) in a managed forest. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):45-54.

Cuthbert, R. 2003. Sign left by introduced and native predators feeding on Hutton's shearwaters Puffinus huttoni. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(3):163-170.

Cyranoski, D. 2003. Biodiversity schemes take root in China. Nature 425(6961):890.

Czech, B. 2003. Technological progress and biodiversity conservation: a dollar spent, a dollar burned. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1455-1457.

Dahlsten, D.L., Six, D.L., Erbilgin, N., Raffa, K.F., Lawson, A.B., and Rowney, D.L. 2003. Attraction of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its predators to various enantiomeric ratios of ipsdienol and lanierone in California: implications for the augmentation and conservation of natural enemies. Environ. Entomol. 32(5):1115-1122.

Davidson-Hunt, I., and Berkes, F. 2003. Learning as you journey: Anishinaabe perception of social-ecological environments and adaptive learning. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 8(1):5. <>

Dawe, N.K., and Ryan, K.L. 2003. The faulty three-legged-stool model of sustainable development. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1458-1460.

Demaría, M.R., McShea, W.J., Koy, K., and Maceira, N.O. 2004. Pampas deer conservation with respect to habitat loss and protected area considerations in San Luis, Argentina. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):121-130.

Dettmers, R. 2003. Status and conservation of shrubland birds in the northeastern US. Forest Ecol. Manag. 185(1-2):81-93.

Donath, T.W., Holzel, N., and Otte, A. 2003. The impact of site conditions and seed dispersal on restoration success in alluvial meadows. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(1):13-22.

Donlan, C.J., Croll, D.A., and Tershy, B.R. 2003. Islands, exotic herbivores, and invasive plants: their roles in coastal California restoration. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):524-530.

Donoso, D.S., Grez, A.A., and Simonetti, J.A. 2004. Effects of forest fragmentation on the granivory of differently sized seeds. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):63-70.

Doyle, R.D., Francis, M.D., and Smart, R.M. 2003. Interference competition between Ludwigia repens and Hygrophila polysperma: two morphologically similar aquatic plant species. Aquat. Bot. 77(3):223-234.

Drake, D., and Jones, E.J. 2003. Current and future red-cockaded woodpecker habitat availability on non-industrial private forestland in North Carolina. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 31(3):661-669.

Dunn, E. 2003. Using the IUCN Red List Criteria to assess species with declining populations. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1201-1202.

Dutoit, T., Buisson, E., Roche, P., and Alard, D. 2004. Land use history and botanical changes in the calcareous hillsides of Upper-Normandy (north-western France): new implications for their conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):1-19.

Fernández, G.J., Posse, G., Ferretti, V., and Gabelli, F.M. 2004. Bird-habitat relationship for the declining Pampas meadowlark populations in the southern Pampas grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):139-148.

Font, W.F. 2003. The global spread of parasites: what do Hawaiian streams tell us? BioScience 53(11):1061-1067.

Forboseh, P.F., Keming, E.C., Toh, C.L., and Wultof, I.N.B. 2003. Monitoring of Kilum-Ijim forest bird communities: initial findings. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(3):255-271.

Foster, D.R., and Motzkin, G. 2003. Interpreting and conserving the openland habitats of coastal New England: insights from landscape history. Forest Ecol. Manag. 185(1-2):127-150.

Frappier, B., and Eckert, R.T. 2003. Utilizing the USDA PLANTS database to predict exotic woody plant invasiveness in New Hampshire. Forest Ecol. Manag. 185(1-2):207-215.

Fraser, E.D.G. 2003. Social vulnerability and ecological fragility: building bridges between social and natural sciences using the Irish Potato Famine as a case study. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):9. <>

Ganihar, S.R. 2003. Nutrient mineralization and leaf litter preference by the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on iron ore mine wastes. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):475-482.

Garcillan, P.P., Ezcurra, E., and Riemann, H. 2003. Distribution and species richness of woody dryland legumes in Baja California, Mexico. J. Veg. Sci. 14(4):475-486.

Gilbert, J.C., Gowing, D.J.G., and Bullock, R.J. 2003. Influence of seed mixture and hydrological regime on the establishment of a diverse grassland sward at a site with high phosphorus availability. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):424-435.

Gowrie, M.N. 2003. Environmental vulnerability index for the island of Tobago, West Indies. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):11. <>

Gram, W.K., Porneluzi, P.A., Clawson, R.L., Faaborg, J., and Richter, S.C. 2003. Effects of experimental forest management on density and nesting success of bird species in Missouri Ozark forests. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1324-1337.

Greslebin, A.G., and Rajchenberg, M. 2003. Diversity of Corticiaceae sens. lat. in Patagonia, Southern Argentina. New Zeal. J. Bot. 41(3):437-446.

Guo, Q.F. 2003. Disturbance, life history, and optimal management for biodiversity. Ambio 32(6):428-430.

Guzmán, H.M., Guevara, C., and Castillo, A. 2003. Natural disturbances and mining of Panamanian coral reefs by indigenous people. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1396-1401.

Gyllenstrand, N., and Seppa, P. 2003. Conservation genetics of the wood ant, Formica lugubris, in a fragmented landscape. Mol. Ecol. 12(11):2931-2940.

Harding, J.M. 2003. Predation by blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, on rapa whelks, Rapana venosa: possible natural controls for an invasive species? J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 297(2):161-177.

Hatten, J.R., and Paradzick, C.E. 2003. A multiscaled model of southwestern willow flycatcher breeding habitat. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(4):774-788.

Hau, B.C.H., and Corlett, R.T. 2003. Factors affecting the early survival and growth of native tree seedlings planted on a degraded hillside grassland in Hong Kong, China. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):483-488.

Hawkins, J.P., and Roberts, C.M. 2004. Effects of fishing on sex-changing Caribbean parrotfishes. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):213-226.

Heemskerk, M., Wilson, K., and Pavao-Zuckerman, M. 2003. Conceptual models as tools for communication across disciplines. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):8. <>

Heenan, P.B., Molloy, B.P.J., and de Lange, P.J. 2003. Species of Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae) endemic to New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 41(3):447-457.

Heino, J., Muotka, T., Paavola, R., and Paasivirta, L. 2003. Among-taxon congruence in biodiversity patterns: can stream insect diversity be predicted using single taxonomic groups? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60(9):1039-1049.

Hellstrom, K., Huhta, A.P., Rautio, P., Tuomi, J., Oksanen, J., and Kari, L. 2003. Use of sheep grazing in the restoration of semi-natural meadows in northern Finland. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(1):45-52.

Hey, J., Waples, R.S., Arnold, M.L., Butlin, R.K., and Harrison, R.G. 2003. Understanding and confronting species uncertainty in biology and conservation. TREE 18(11):597-603.

Hierro, J.L., and Callaway, R.M. 2003. Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion. Plant Soil 256(1):29-39.

Hill, K., McMillan, G., and Fariña, R. 2003. Hunting-related changes in game encounter rates from 1994 to 2001 in the Mbaracayu Reserve, Paraguay. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1312-1323.

Houlahan, J.E., and Findlay, C.S. 2003. The effects of adjacent land use on wetland amphibian species richness and community composition. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60(9):1078-1094.

Hugonnot, V., Bardat, J., and Boudier, P. 2003. Ecology and distribution of Jamesoniella undulifolia (Nees) Mull. Frib. in metropolitan France. Cryptogamie Bryol. 24(4):341-366.

Inchausti, P., and Halley, J. 2003. On the relation between temporal variability and persistence time in animal populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 72(6):899-908.

Ingerpuu, N., Vellak, K., Liira, J., and Partel, M. 2003. Relationships between species richness patterns in deciduous forests at the north Estonian limestone escarpment. J. Veg. Sci. 14(5):773-780.

Inouye, D.W., and Brewer, C. 2003. A case study of the program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology at the University of Maryland. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1204-1208.

Jacquemyn, H., Butaye, J., and Hermy, M. 2003. Impacts of restored patch density and distance from natural forests on colonization success. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):417-423.

James, D.G. 2003. Synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles as field attractants for beneficial insects. Environ. Entomol. 32(5):977-982.

Jamieson, I.G. 2004. No evidence that dietary nutrient deficiency is related to poor reproductive success of translocated takahe. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):165-170.

Jenkins, M. 2003. Prospects for biodiversity. Science 302(5648):1175-1177.

Johns, D.M. 2003. Growth, conservation, and the necessity of new alliances. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1229-1237.

Johnson, A.B., and Bettoli, P.W. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Fundulus julisia Williams & Etnier, 1982 (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(3):240.

Jordan, M.J., Patterson, W.A., and Windisch, A.G. 2003. Conceptual ecological models for the Long Island pitch pine barrens: implications for managing rare plant communities. Forest Ecol. Manag. 185(1-2):151-168.

Karatayev, A.Y., Burlakova, L.E., Kesterson, T., and Padilla, D.K. 2003. Dominance of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea (Muller), in the benthic community of a reservoir. J. Shellfish Res. 22(2):487-493.

Kati, V., Dufrêne, M., Legakis, A., Grill, A., and Lebrun, P. 2004. Conservation management for Orthoptera in the Dadia reserve, Greece. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):33-44.

Kenney, W.A. 2003. A strategy for Canada's urban forests. Forest Chron. 79(4):785-789.

Knevel, I.C., Bekker, R.M., Bakker, J.P., and Kleyer, M. 2003. Life-history traits of the Northwest European flora: the LEDA database. J. Veg. Sci. 14(4):611-614.

Knick, S.T., Dobkin, D.S., Rotenberry, J.T., Schroeder, M.A., Vander Haegen, W.M., and van Riper, C. 2003. Teetering on the edge or too late? Conservation and research issues for avifauna of sagebrush habitats. Condor 105(4):611-634.

Korb, J.E., Covington, W.W., and Fulé, P.Z. 2003. Sampling techniques influence understory plant trajectories after restoration: an example from ponderosa pine restoration. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):504-515.

Koster, W.M. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxiella pusilla (Mack 1936) (Galaxiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(3):268.

Laiolo, P. 2004. Diversity and structure of the bird community overwintering in the Himalayan subalpine zone: is conservation compatible with tourism? Biol. Conserv. 115(2):251-262.

Lecis, R., and Norris, K. 2004. Habitat correlates of distribution and local population decline of the endemic Sardinian newt Euproctus platycephalus. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):303-317.

Lemes, M.R., Gribel, R., Proctor, J., and Grattapaglia, D. 2003. Population genetic structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) across the Brazilian Amazon, based on variation at microsatellite loci: implications for conservation. Mol. Ecol. 12(11):2875-2883.

Lepczyk, C.A., Mertig, A.G., and Liu, J.G. 2004. Landowners and cat predation across rural-to-urban landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):191-201.

Lepofsky, D., Heyerdahl, E.K., Lertzman, K., Schaepe, D., and Mierendorf, B. 2003. Historical meadow dynamics in southwest British Columbia: a multidisciplinary analysis. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):5. <>

Lesica, P., and Martin, B. 2003. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semiarid grassland. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):516-523.

Lewis, T. 2003. Evaluating conservation biology textbooks - response. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1203.

Lirman, D., and Miller, M.W. 2003. Modeling and monitoring tools to assess recovery status and convergence rates between restored and undisturbed coral reef habitats. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):448-456.

Litvaitis, J.A. 2003. Are pre-Columbian conditions relevant baselines for managed forests in the northeastern United States? Forest Ecol. Manag. 185(1-2):113-126.

Lloyd, K.M., Wilson, J.B., and Lee, W.G. 2003. Correlates of geographic range size in New Zealand Chionochloa (Poaceae) species. J. Biogeogr. 30(11):1751-1761.

Lomolino, M.V., and Smith, G.A. 2004. Terrestrial vertebrate communities at black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) towns. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):89-100.

Lomolino, M.V., Smith, G.A., and Vidal, V. 2004. Long-term persistence of prairie dog towns: insights for designing networks of prairie reserves. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):111-120.

Long, J., Tecle, A., and Burnette, B. 2003. Cultural foundations for ecological restoration on the White Mountain Apache Reservation. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 8(1):4. <>

Longcore, T. 2003. Terrestrial arthropods as indicators of ecological restoration success in coastal sage scrub (California, USA). Restor. Ecol. 11(4):397-409.

Longepierre, S., Grenot, C., and Hailey, A. 2003. Individual, local and subspecific variation in female Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) reproductive characters. Contrib. Zool. 72(4):221-226.

Maestas, J.D., Knight, R.L., and Gilgert, W.C. 2003. Biodiversity across a rural land-use gradient. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1425-1434.

March, J.G., Benstead, J.P., Pringle, C.M., and Scatena, F.N. 2003. Damming tropical island streams: problems, solutions, and alternatives. BioScience 53(11):1069-1078.

Marker, L.L., Mills, M.G.L., and MacDonald, D.W. 2003. Factors influencing perceptions of conflict and tolerance toward cheetahs on Namibian farmlands. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1290-1298.

Martínez-Solano, I., París, M., Izquierdo, E., and García-París, M. 2003. Larval growth plasticity in wild populations of the Betic midwife toad, Alytes dickhilleni (Anura: Discoglossidae). Herp. J. 13(2):89-94.

Matus, G., Verhagen, R., Bekker, R.M., and Grootjans, A.P. 2003. Restoration of the Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum in the Netherlands: can we rely on soil seed banks? Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(1):73-84.

McAfee, B.J. 2003. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in Canada's forests: progress and challenges. Forest Chron. 79(4):761-768.

McClanahan, T., Polunin, N., and Done, T. 2002. Ecological states and the resilience of coral reefs. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):18. <>

McKee, J.K., Sciulli, P.W., Fooce, C.D., and Waite, T.A. 2004. Forecasting global biodiversity threats associated with human population growth. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):161-164.

McLoughlin, P.D., Dzus, E., Wynes, B., and Boutin, S. 2003. Declines in populations of woodland caribou. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(4):755-761.

McPhee, M.E. 2004. Generations in captivity increases behavioral variance: considerations for captive breeding and reintroduction programs. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):71-77.

Meffe, G.K. 2003. Toward further internationalization. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1197-1199.

Meli, P. 2003. Tropical forest restoration. Twenty years of academic research. Interciencia 28(10):581-589.

Milestad, R., and Hadatsch, S. 2003. Organic farming and social-ecological resilience: the alpine valleys of Sölktäler, Austria. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 8(1):3. <>

Morrison, J.L. 2003. Age-specific survival of Florida's crested caracaras. J. Field Ornithol. 74(4):321-330.

Myers, N., and Mittermeier, R.A. 2003. Impact and acceptance of the hotspots strategy: response to Ovadia and to Brummitt and Lughadha. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1449-1450.

Nakata, K., and Goshima, S. 2003. Competition for shelter of preferred sizes between the native crayfish species Cambaroides japonicus and the alien crayfish species Pacifastacus leniusculus in Japan in relation to prior residence, sex difference, and body size. J. Crustracean Biol. 23(4):897-907.

Naves, J., Wiegand, T., Revilla, E., and Delibes, M. 2003. Endangered species constrained by natural and human factors: the case of brown bears in northern Spain. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1276-1289.

Nicoll, M.A.C., Jones, C.G., and Norris, K. 2003. Declining survival rates in a reintroduced population of the Mauritius kestrel: evidence for non-linear density dependence and environmental stochasticity. J. Anim. Ecol. 72(6):917-926.

Nielsen, S., Kirschbaum, C., and Haney, A. 2003. Restoration of midwest oak barrens: structural manipulation or process-only? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(2):10. <>

Nilsson, T. 2004. Integrating effects of hunting policy, catastrophic events, and inbreeding depression, in PVA simulation: the Scandinavian wolf population as an example. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):227-239.

Norman, E.M. 2003. Reproductive biology of Deeringothamnus rugelii and D. pulchellus (Annonaceae). Taxon 52(3):547-555.

Noss, R.F. 2003. A checklist for wildlands network designs. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1270-1275.

Novick, R.R., Dick, C.W., Lemes, M.R., Navarro, C., Caccone, A., and Bermingham, E. 2003. Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) inferred from microsatellite analysis. Mol. Ecol. 12(11):2885-2893.

Olden, J.D., and Poff, N.L. 2003. Toward a mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization. Am. Nat. 162(4):442-460.

Oliveira, E.C., and Qi, Y.B. 2003. Decadal changes in a polluted bay as seen from its seaweed flora: the case of Santos Bay in Brazil. Ambio 32(6):403-405.

Önal, H. 2004. First-best, second-best, and heuristic solutions in conservation reserve site selection. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):55-62.

Ovadia, O. 2003. Ranking hotspots of varying sizes: a lesson from the nonlinearity of the species-area relationship. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1440-1441.

Parkyn, S.M., Davies-Colley, R.J., Halliday, N.J., Costley, K.J., and Croker, G.F. 2003. Planted riparian buffer zones in New Zealand: do they live up to expectations? Restor. Ecol. 11(4):436-447.

Pedynowski, D. 2003. Prospects for ecosystem management in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, Canada-United States: survey and recommendations. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1261-1269.

Peintinger, M., Bergamini, A., and Schmid, B. 2003. Species-area relationships and nestedness of four taxonomic groups in fragmented wetlands. Basic Appl. Ecol. 4(5):385-394.

Pereira, P.M., and Pires da Fonseca, M. 2003. Nature vs. nurture: the making of the montado ecosystem. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):7. <>

Peterson, A.T., Navarro-Sigüenza, A.G., Hernández-Baños, B.E., Escalona-Segura, G., Rebón-Gallardo, F., Rodríguez-Ayala, E., Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M., and Cabrera-García, L. 2003. The Chimalapas region, Oaxaca, Mexico: a high-priority region for bird conservation in Mesoamerica. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(3):227-253.

Peterson, G.D., Beard, T.D., Jr., Beisner, B.E., Bennett, E.M., Carpenter, S.R., Cumming, G.S., Dent, C.L., and Havlicek, T.D. 2003. Assessing future ecosystem services: a case study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):1. <>

Pierpaoli, M., Birò, Z.S., Herrmann, M., Hupe, K., Fernandes, M., Ragni, B., Szemethy, L., and Randi, E. 2003. Genetic distinction of wildcat (Felis silvestris) populations in Europe, and hybridization with domestic cats in Hungary. Mol. Ecol. 12(10):2585-2598.

Primack, R.B. 2003. Evaluating conservation biology textbooks. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1202.

Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., and Kucera, T. 2003. Inclusion of native and alien species in temperate nature reserves: an historical study from Central Europe. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1414-1424.

Raman, T.R.S., and Mudappa, D. 2003. Correlates of hornbill distribution and abundance in rainforest fragments in the southern Western Ghats, India. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(3):199-212.

Reddy, S., and Davalos, L.M. 2003. Geographical sampling bias and its implications for conservation priorities in Africa. J. Biogeogr. 30(11):1719-1727.

Reist-Marti, S.B., Simianer, H., Gibson, J., Hanotte, O., and Rege, J.E.O. 2003. Weitzman's approach and conservation of breed diversity: an application to African cattle breeds. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1299-1311.

Reynolds, M.H., Camp, R.J., Nielson, B.M.B., and Jacobi, J.D. 2003. Evidence of change in a low-elevation forest bird community of Hawaii since 1979. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(3):175-187.

Roemer, G.W., and Wayne, R.K. 2003. Conservation in conflict: the tale of two endangered species. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1251-1260.

Rowe, S., and Hutchings, J.A. 2003. Mating systems and the conservation of commercially exploited marine fish. TREE 18(11):567-572.

Ruthrof, K.X., Loneragan, W.A., and Yates, C.J. 2003. Comparative population dynamics of Eucalyptus cladocalyx in its native habitat and as an invasive species in an urban bushland in south-western Australia. Divers. Distrib. 9(6):469-483.

Sætersdal, M., Gjerde, I., Blom, H.H., Ihlen, P.G., Myrseth, E.W., Pommeresche, R., Skartveit, J., Solhøy, T., and Aas, O. 2004. Vascular plants as a surrogate species group in complementary site selection for bryophytes, macrolichens, spiders, carabids, staphylinids, snails, and wood living polypore fungi in a northern forest. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):21-31.

Salthe, S.N. 2003. Infodynamics, a developmental framework for ecology/economics. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):3. <>

Salvidio, S., and Delaugerre, M. 2003. Population dynamics of the European leaf-toed gecko (Euleptes europaea) in NW Italy: implications for conservation. Herp. J. 13(2):81-88.

Sax, D.F., and Gaines, S.D. 2003. Species diversity: from global decreases to local increases. TREE 18(11):561-566.

Schaefer, J.A. 2003. Long-term range recession and the persistence of caribou in the taiga. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1435-1439.

Schultz, C.B., and Hammond, P.C. 2003. Using population viability analysis to develop recovery criteria for endangered insects: case study of the Fender's blue butterfly. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1372-1385.

Schurbon, J.M., and Fauth, J.E. 2003. Effects of prescribed burning on amphibian diversity in a southeastern U.S. national forest. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1338-1349.

Sedgeley, J.A. 2003. Roost site selection and roosting behaviour in lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) in comparison with long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) in Nothofagus forest, Fiordland. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(3):227-241.

Semlitsch, R.D., and Bodie, J.R. 2003. Biological criteria for buffer zones around wetlands and riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1219-1228.

Shanker, K., Pandav, B., and Choudhury, B.C. 2004. An assessment of the olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) nesting population in Orissa, India. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):149-160.

Shaw, A.J., Cox, C.J., and Boles, S.B. 2003. Global patterns in peatmoss biodiversity. Mol. Ecol. 12(10):2553-2570.

Shiels, A.B., and Walker, L.R. 2003. Bird perches increase forest seeds on Puerto Rican landslides. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):457-465.

Skinner, C. 2003. A breeding bird survey of the natural areas at Holden Arboretum. Ohio J. Sci. 103(4):98-110.

Smith, R.J., Muir, R.D.J., Walpole, M.J., Balmford, A., and Leader-Williams, N. 2003. Governance and the loss of biodiversity. Nature 426(6962):67-70.

Sommer, S. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation and changes of dispersal behaviour after a recent population decline on the genetic variability of noncoding and coding DNA of a monogamous Malagasy rodent. Mol. Ecol. 12(10):2845-2851.

Soulé, M.E., Estes, J.A., Berger, J., and Del Rio, C.M. 2003. Ecological effectiveness: conservation goals for interactive species. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1238-1250.

Stauffer, F.W., Asmussen, C.B., Henderson, A., and Endress, P.K. 2003. A revision of Asterogyne (Arecaceae: Arecoideae: Geonomeae). Brittonia 55(4):326-356.

Steinman, A., Havens, K., and Hornung, L. 2002. The managed recession of Lake Okeechobee, Florida: integrating science and natural resource management. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):17. <>

Stephens, S.E., Koons, D.N., Rotella, J.J., and Willey, D.W. 2004. Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nesting success: a review of the evidence at multiple spatial scales. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):101-110.

Stepp, J.R., Jones, E.C., Pavao-Zuckerman, M., Casagrande, D., and Zarger, R.K. 2003. Remarkable properties of human ecosystems. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):11. <>

Stinchcombe, J., Moyle, L.C., Hudgens, B.R., Bloch, P.L., Chinnadurai, S., and Morris, W.F. 2002. The influence of the academic conservation biology literature on endangered species recovery planning. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):15. <>

Strayer, D.L., Lutz, C., Malcom, H.M., Munger, K., and Shaw, W.H. 2003. Invertebrate communities associated with a native (Vallisneria americana) and an alien (Trapa natans) macrophyte in a large river. Freshwater Biol. 48(11):1938-1949.

Sullivan, M.C., Cowen, R.K., Able, K.W., and Fahay, M.P. 2003. Effects of anthropogenic and natural disturbance on a recently settled continental shelf flatfish. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 260:237-253.

Tainter, J.A., Allen, T.F.H., Little, A., and Hoekstra, T.W. 2003. Resource transitions and energy gain: contexts of organization. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):4. <>

Taylor, E.B., Stamford, M.D., and Baxter, J.S. 2003. Population subdivision in westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) at the northern periphery of its range: evolutionary inferences and conservation implications. Mol. Ecol. 12(10):2609-2622.

Toledo, V.M., Ortiz-Espejel, B., Cortés, L., Moguel, P., and Ordoñez, M.D.J. 2003. The multiple use of tropical forests by indigenous peoples in Mexico: a case of adaptive management. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):9. <>

Tovar-Sánchez, E., Cano-Santana, Z., and Oyama, K. 2004. Canopy arthropod communities on Mexican oaks at sites with different disturbance regimes. Biol. Conserv. 115(1):79-87.

Towns, D.R., Parrish, G.R., and Westbrooke, I. 2003. Inferring vulnerability to introduced predators without experimental demonstration: case study of Suter's skink in New Zealand. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1361-1371.

Trosper, R.L. 2003. Resilience in pre-contact Pacific Northwest social ecological systems. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):6. <>

Tsutsui, N.D., Kauppinen, S.N., Oyafuso, A.F., and Grosberg, R.K. 2003. The distribution and evolutionary history of Wolbachia infection in native and introduced populations of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Mol. Ecol. 12(11):3057-3068.

van der Ree, R., Bennett, A.F., and Gilmore, D.C. 2004. Gap-crossing by gliding marsupials: thresholds for use of isolated woodland patches in an agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):241-249.

Vila-Gispert, A., and Moreno-Amich, R. 2003. Life-history strategies of native and introduced fish species from a Mediterranean lake. Anim. Biol. 53(1):47-57.

Villard, P., De Visscher, M.N., and Balança, G. 2003. Population size, habitats and conservation of Marquesan imperial pigeon Ducula galeata. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(3):189-197.

Wagner, D.L., Nelson, M.W., and Schweitzer, D.F. 2003. Shrubland Lepidoptera of southern New England and southeastern New York: ecology, conservation, and management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 185(1-2):95-112.

Wali, A., Darlow, G., Fialkowski, C., Tudor, M., del Campo, H., and Stotz, D. 2003. New methodologies for interdisciplinary research and action in an urban ecosystem in Chicago. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(3):2. <>

Walker, R.F. 2003. Comparison of organic and chemical soil amendments used in the reforestation of a harsh Sierra Nevada site. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):466-474.

Watson, A., Alessa, L., and Glaspell, B. 2003. The relationship between traditional ecological knowledge, evolving cultures, and wilderness protection in the circumpolar north. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 8(1):2. <>

Westphal, C., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2003. Mass flowering crops enhance pollinator densities at a landscape scale. Ecol. Lett. 6(11):961-965.

Wiles, G.J., Bart, J., Beck, R.E., and Aguon, C.F. 2003. Impacts of the brown tree snake: patterns of decline and species persistence in Guam's avifauna. Conserv. Biol. 17(5):1350-1360.

Wilkins, S., Keith, D.A., and Adam, P. 2003. Measuring success: evaluating the restoration of a grassy uucalypt woodland on the Cumberland Plain, Sydney, Australia. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):489-503.

Williams, P., Whitfield, M., Biggs, J., Bray, S., Fox, G., Nicolet, P., and Sear, D. 2004. Comparative biodiversity of rivers, streams, ditches and ponds in an agricultural landscape in Southern England. Biol. Conserv. 115(2):329-341.

Wilson, S.D., and Pärtel, M. 2003. Extirpation or coexistence? Management of a persistent introduced grass in a prairie restoration. Restor. Ecol. 11(4):410-416.

Zhu, R.L., and So, M.L. 2003. Liverworts and hornworts of Shangsi County of Guangxi (Kwangsi), with an updated checklist of the hepatic flora of Guangxi Province of China. Cryptogamie Bryol. 24(4):319-334.

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