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Department ofBotany

No. 230
February 2004

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In This Issue

Rare Book on Hawaiian Birds Online

As a part of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries' program of making rare books available online, Storrs Olson, Curator of Birds at the National Museum of Natural History, has written the introductory essay to an important rare book in the early history of Hawaiian ornithology: The Avifauna of Laysan and the Neighbouring Islands with a Complete History to Date of the Birds of the Hawaiian Possessions, by Walter Rothschild, published by R.H. Porter in 1893-1900. Leslie Overstreet, Curator of Natural History Rare Books, has also written an introductory essay. With two different indexes online to access, researchers, historians, ornithologists, and lay public can see all the beautiful plates illustrating birds of Hawaii that are now extinct or endangered. The text is accompanied by 83 plates, of which 55 are hand-colored lithographs, mostly by John Gerrard Keulemans(1842-1912), drawn from collected and preserved skins.

The Avifauna of Laysan was issued in 3 parts (parts I and II in 1893, and part III in 1900) in a limited edition of 250 copies. Most of these were lost or cut up for the plates years ago. As a result, online access to this rare book is of extreme importance to all researchers who want to read information only available in the book and to examine the hand-colored lithographs of birds now extinct or endangered from Hawaii. To access the essays and the rare books, visit <>./p>

Call for Proposals

The Research Program at Earthwatch Institute invites proposals for 2005 field grants. Earthwatch is an international, non-profit organization dedicated to sponsoring field research and promoting public education in the sciences and humanities, particularly related to understanding and sustainably managing our environment. Past projects have been successfully fielded in, but are not limited to, the following disciplines: animal behavior, biodiversity, ecology, ornithology, endangered species, entomology, botany, and resource and wildlife management. Interdisciplinary projects are especially encouraged as is multinational collaboration. Information can be found at <> or you can contact Earthwatch at 3 Clock Tower Place, Suite 100, P.O. Box 75, Maynard, MA 01754-0075, USA; Tel: 978-461-0081; Fax: 978-461-2332. E-mail:


NATIVE PLANT CONSERVATION WORKSHOPS: Throughout April 2004 the Carlsbad Caverns/Guadalupe Mountains Association (CCGMA) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, will sponsor the second-annual free programs for the public focusing on native plant conservation. With trailside workshops taking place each weekend, visitors and amateur and professional naturalists, artists, and writers will be converging at the park to participate in interactive workshops lead by professionals, to learn more about park flora, from wildflowers to desert cacti. In addition to its many caves, the Carlsbad Caverns National Park preserves one of the few protected portions of the northern Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem. The desert reveals, upon close examination, complex natural processes that yield an astounding abundance and diversity of plant and animal life. The area is vital habitat for approximately one thousand species of flowering vegetation. From the upper reaches of Walnut Canyon Drive where the red, tri-lobed Woolly Paintbrush and White-Eyed Phlox thrive, along the extensive Visitor Center Nature Walk with its profusions of Claret-Cup Cacti and deep into some of the most picturesque canyons in the Chihuahuan Desert Region, participants can look forward to exciting hands-on activities suitable for most ability and fitness levels. All events are free, except the college credit field course. Space is limited, so advance registration is advised. For the latest updates and to register, please contact Paula Bauer at 505-785-3131 or via e-mail at For schedule of events and background information, visit <>.

Current Literature

Ahlroth, P., Alatalo, R.V., Holopainen, A., Kumpulainen, T., and Suhonen, J. 2003. Founder population size and number of source populations enhance colonization success in waterstriders. Oecologia 137(4):617-620.

Aikman, P. 2003. Using a 30 year old treaty to combat the illegal timber trade. Int. For. Rev. 5(3):307-313.

Alpers, D.L., Taylor, A.C., Sunnucks, P., Bellman, S.A., and Sherwin, W.B. 2003. Pooling hair samples to increase DNA yield for PCR. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):779-788.

Ambika, S.R., Poornima, S., Palaniraj, R., Sati, S.C., and Narwal, S.S. 2003. Allelopathic plants. 10. Lantana camara L. Allelopathy J. 12(2):147-161.

Applegate, R.D. 2003. Compensation issues in natural resource professions. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1475.

Aued, M.B., Chéhebar, C., Porro, G., Macdonald, D.W., and Cassini, M.H. 2003. Environmental correlates of the distribution of southern river otters Lontra provocax at different ecological scales. Oryx 37(4):413-421.

Barbosa, F.A.R., Scarano, F.R., Sabara, M.G., and Esteves, F.A. 2004. Brazilian LTER: ecosystem and biodiversity information in support of decision-making. Environ. Monit. Assess. 90(1-3):121-133.

Beissinger, S.R., and McCullough, D.R. (eds.). 2002. Population Viability Analysis. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 577 pp.

Benes, J., Konvicka, M., Vrabec, V., and Zamecnik, J. 2003. Do the sibling species of small whites, Leptidea sinapis and L. reali (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) differ in habitat preferences? Biologia 58(5):943-951.

Benstead, J.P., Douglas, M.M., and Pringle, C.M. 2003. Relationships of stream invertebrate communities to deforestation in eastern Madagascar. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1473-1490.

Berlow, E.L., D'Antonio, C.M., and Swartz, H. 2003. Response of herbs to shrub removal across natural and experimental variation in soil moisture. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1375-1387.

Besse, P., Dasilva, D., Humeau, L., Govinden-Soulange, J., Gurib-Fakim, A., and Kodja, H. 2003. A genetic diversity study of endangered Psiadia species endemic from Mauritius island using PCR markers. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 31(12):1427-1445.

Bianco, P.G., and Ketmaier, V. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, 1983 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(4):370.

Bibby, C.J. 2003. Fifty years of bird study. Bird Study 50:194-210.

Birnbaum, K., Desalle, R., Peters, C.M., and Benfey, P.N. 2003. Integrating gene flow, crop biology, and farm management in on-farm conservation of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae). Am. J. Bot. 90(11):1619-1627.

Boland, R.C., and Donohue, M.J. 2003. Marine debris accumulation in the nearshore marine habitat of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi 1999-2001. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46(11):1385-1394.

Bond, N.R., and Lake, P.S. 2003. Characterizing fish-habitat associations in streams as the first step in ecological restoration. Austral Ecol. 28(6):611-621.

Borghesio, L., and Ndang'ang'a, P.K. 2003. Habitat selection and the conservation status of Fischer's turaco Tauraco fischeri on Unguja, Tanzania. Oryx 37(4):444-453.

Broderick, D., Idaghdour, Y., Korrida, A., and Hellmich, J. 2003. Gene flow in great bustard populations across the Strait of Gibraltar as elucidated from excremental PCR and mtDNA sequencing. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):793-800.

Brook, A., Zint, M., and De Young, R. 2003. Landowners' responses to an Endangered Species Act listing and implications for encouraging conservation. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1638-1649.

Brzosko, E., and Wroblewska, A. 2003. Low allozymic variation in two island populations of Listera ovata (Orchidaceae) from NE Poland. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 40(5):309-315.

Butler, J.R.A., du Toit, J.T., and Bingham, J. 2004. Free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as predators and prey in rural Zimbabwe: threats of competition and disease to large wild carnivores. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):369-378.

Cantú, C., Wright, R.G., Scott, J.M., and Strand, E. 2004. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):411-417.

Céspedes, M., Gutierrez, M.V., Holbrook, N.M., and Rocha, O.J. 2003. Restoration of genetic diversity in the dry forest tree Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) after pasture abandonment in Costa Rica. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3201-3212.

Chapman, C.A., Chapman, L.J., Vulinec, K., Zanne, A., and Lawes, M.J. 2003. Fragmentation and alteration of seed dispersal processes: an initial evaluation of dung beetles, seed fate, and seedling diversity. Biotropica 35(3):382-393.

Child, L., Brock, J.H., Brundu, G., Prach, K., Pysek, P., Wade, P.M., and Williamson, M. (eds.). 2003. Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions. Backhuys Publishers. Leiden, The Netherlands. 457 pp.

Choudhury, A. 2003. Marat Longri - Assam's latest wildlife sanctuary. Oryx 37(4):402.

Chown, S.L., van Rensburg, B.J., Gaston, K.J., Rodrigues, A.S.L., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2003. Energy, species richness, and human population size: conservation implications at a national scale. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1233-1241.

Chust, G., Pretus, J.L., Ducrot, D., Bedòs, A., and Deharveng, L. 2003. Response of soil fauna to landscape heterogeneity: determining optimal scales for biodiversity modeling. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1712-1723.

Clarke, G.M., and Whyte, L.S. 2003. Phylogeography and population history of the endangered golden sun moth (Synemon plana) revealed by allozymes and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):719-734.

Comstock, K.E., Ostrander, E.A., and Wasser, S.K. 2003. Amplifying nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from African elephant ivory: a tool for monitoring the ivory trade. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1840-1843.

Cooke, F. 2003. Ornithology and bird conservation in North America - a Canadian perspective. Bird Study 50:211-222.

Cooper, J., and Weimerskirch, H. 2003. Exchange of the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans between the Prince Edward and Crozet Islands: implications for conservation. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:519-523.

Coppedge, B.R., Engle, D.M., Masters, R.E., and Gregory, M.S. 2004. Predicting juniper encroachment and CRP effects on avian community dynamics in southern mixed-grass prairie, USA. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):431-441.

Coppolillo, P., Gomez, H., Maisels, F., and Wallace, R. 2004. Selection criteria for suites of landscape species as a basis for site-based conservation. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):419-430.

Courchamp, F., Woodroffe, R., and Roemer, G. 2003. Removing protected populations to save endangered species. Science 302(5650):1532.

Craft, C., Megonigal, P., Broome, S., Stevenson, J., Freese, R., Cornell, J., Zheng, L., and Sacco, J. 2003. The pace of ecosystem development of constructed Spartina alterniflora marshes. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1417-1432.

Crawford, R.J.M., and Cooper, J. 2003. Conserving surface-nesting seabirds at the Prince Edward Islands: the roles of research, monitoring and legislation. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:415-426.

Crawford, R.J.M., Cooper, J., Du Toit, M., Greyling, M.D., Hanise, B., Holness, C.L., Keith, D.G., Nel, J.L., Petersen, S.L., Spencer, K., Tshingana, D., and Wolfaardt, A.C. 2003. Population and breeding of the gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua at Marion Island, 1994/95-2002/03. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:463-474.

Crawford, R.J.M., Cooper, J., Dyer, B.M., Wolfaardt, A.C., Tshingana, D., Spencer, K., Petersen, S.L., Nel, J.L., Keith, D.G., Holness, C.L., Hanise, B., Greyling, M.D., and Du Toit, M. 2003. Population, breeding, diet and conservation of the Crozet shag Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis at Marion Island, 1994/95-2002/03. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:537-547.

Crick, H.Q.P., Baillie, S.R., and Leech, D.I. 2003. The UK nest record scheme: its value for science and conservation. Bird Study 50:254-270.

Crooks, K.R., Suarez, A.V., and Bolger, D.T. 2004. Avian assemblages along a gradient of urbanization in a highly fragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):451-462.

Daily, G.C., Ceballos, G., Pacheco, J., Suzán, G., and Sánchez-Azofeifa, A. 2003. Countryside biogeography of Neotropical mammals: conservation opportunities in agricultural landscapes of Costa Rica. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1814-1826.

Danielsen, F., Mendoza, M.M., Alviola, P., Balete, D.S., Enghoff, M., Poulsen, M.K., and Jensen, A.E. 2003. Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: what are we trying to achieve? Oryx 37(4):407-409.

Danielsen, F., Mendoza, M.M., Tagtag, A., Alviola, P., Balete, D.S., Enghoff, M., Poulsen, M.K., and Jensen, A.E. 2003. On participatory biodiversity monitoring and its applicability - a reply to Yoccoz et al. and Rodríguez. Oryx 37(4):412.

de Thoisy, B., Spiegelberger, T., Rousseau, S., Talvy, G., Vogel, I., and Vié, J.C. 2003. Distribution, habitat, and conservation status of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in French Guiana. Oryx 37(4):431-436.

Deyoung, R.W., Demarais, S., Honeycutt, R.L., Rooney, A.P., Gonzales, R.A., and Gee, K.L. 2003. Genetic consequences of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) restoration in Mississippi. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3237-3252.

Dirnböck, T., Greimler, J., Lopez, P., and Stuessy, T.F. 2003. Predicting future threats to the native vegetation of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1650-1659.

Donlan, C.J., Tershy, B.R., Campbell, K., and Cruz, F. 2003. Research for requiems: the need for more collaborative action in eradication of invasive species. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1850-1851.

Drechsler, M. 2004. Model-based conservation decision aiding in the presence of goal conflicts and uncertainty. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):141-164.

Drechsler, M., and Burgman, M.A. 2004. Combining population viability analysis with decision analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):115-139.

Duarte-Quiroga, A., and Estrada, A. 2003. Primates as pets in Mexico City: an assessment of the species involved, source of origin, and general aspects of treatment. Am. J. Primatol. 61(2):53-60.

Dunn, J.P., Summerfield, C.J., and Johnson, M. 2002. Distribution, seasonal cycle, host plant records, and habitat evaluation of a Michigan threatened insect: the Great Plains spittlebug, Lepyronia gibbosa (Homoptera: Cercopidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 35(2):121-129.

Dupain, J. 2003. The proposed Lomako Forest Reserve of the Democratic Republic of Congo: urgent action needed. Oryx 37(4):403-404.

Ebner, B., Raadik, T., and Ivantsoff, W. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Craterocephalus fluviatilis McCulloch, 1913 (Atherinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(4):390.

Ellsworth, J.W., and McComb, B.C. 2003. Potential effects of passenger pigeon flocks on the structure and composition of presettlement forests of eastern North America. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1548-1558.

Evelyn, M.J., and Stiles, D.A. 2003. Roosting requirements of two frugivorous bats (Sturnira lilium and Arbiteus intermedius) in fragmented Neotropical forest. Biotropica 35(3):405-418.

Evelyn, M.J., Stiles, D.A., and Young, R.A. 2004. Conservation of bats in suburban landscapes: roost selection by Myotis yumanensis in a residential area in California. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):463-473.

Fernández, N., Delibes, M., Palomares, F., and Mladenoff, D.J. 2003. Identifying breeding habitat for the Iberian lynx: inferences from a fine-scale spatial analysis. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1310-1324.

Floyd, M.L., Fleischner, T.L., Hanna, D., and Whitefield, P. 2003. Effects of historic livestock grazing on vegetation at Chaco Culture National Historic Park, New Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1703-1711.

Frank, K. 2004. Ecologically differentiated rules of thumb for habitat network design - lessons from a formula. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):189-206.

Freudenberger, D., and Brooker, L. 2004. Development of the focal species approach for biodiversity conservation in the temperate agricultural zones of Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):253-274.

Friedlander, A., Nowlis, J.S., Sanchez, J.A., Appeldoorn, R., Usseglio, P., McCormick, C., Bejarano, S., and Mitchell-Chui, A. 2003. Designing effective marine protected areas in Seaflower Biosphere Reserve, Colombia, based on biological and sociological information. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1769-1784.

García, M.B. 2003. Demographic viability of a relict population of the critically endangered plant Borderea chouardii. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1672-1680.

Ge, Y., Chang, J., Fu, C.X., and Chan, G.Y.S. 2003. Effect of soil water status on the physioecological traits and the ecological replacement of two endangered species, Changium smyrnioides and Chuanminshen violaceum. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 44(4):291-296.

Gillham, J.H., Hild, A.L., Johnson, J.H., Hunt, E.R., and Whitson, T.D. 2004. Weed Invasion Susceptibility Prediction (WISP) model for use with Geographic Information Systems. Arid Land Res. Manag. 18(1):1-12.

Gkaraveli, A., Good, J.E.G., and Williams, J.H. 2004. Determining priority areas for native woodland expansion and restoration in Snowdonia National Park, Wales. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):395-402.

Gorchakovskii, P.L., and Igosheva, N.I. 2003. Monitoring of orchid populations in a unique area of their concentration in the Middle Urals. Russian J. Ecol. 34(6):363-369.

Grimm, V., Lorek, H., Finke, J., Koester, F., Malachinski, M., Sonnenschein, M., Moilanen, A., Storch, I., Singer, A., Wissel, C., and Frank, K. 2004. META-X: generic software for metapopulation viability analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):165-188.

Grubb, P., Butynski, T.M., Oates, J.F., Bearder, S.K., Disotell, T.R., Groves, C.P., and Struhsaker, T.T. 2003. Assessment of the diversity of African primates. Int. J. Primatol. 24(6):1301-1357.

Gubbi, S. 2003. Elephant deaths in Nagarhole National Park, India. Oryx 37(4):402.

Gubbi, S. 2003. Mitigating encroachment problems in Kudremukh National Park, India. Oryx 37(4):402-403.

Gum, B., Gross, R., Rottmann, O., Schröder, W., and Kühn, R. 2003. Microsatellite variation in Bavarian populations of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus): implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):659-672.

Gutiérrez, D., Menéndez, R., and Méndez, M. 2004. Habitat-based conservation priorities for carabid beetles within the Picos de Europa National Park, northern Spain. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):379-393.

Hare, J. 2003. Wild Bactrian Camel Sanctuary success in China. Oryx 37(4):404.

Harper, G.L., Maclean, N., and Goulson, D. 2003. Microsatellite markers to assess the influence of population size, isolation and demographic change on the genetic structure of the UK butterfly Polyommatus bellargus. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3349-3357.

Hartley, S., and Kunin, W.E. 2003. Scale dependency of rarity, extinction risk, and conservation priority. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1559-1570.

Hayes, G.F., and Holl, K.D. 2003. Cattle grazing impacts on annual forbs and vegetation composition of mesic grasslands in California. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1694-1702.

Hayes, J.P., Weikel, J.M., and Huso, M.M.P. 2003. Response of birds to thinning young douglas-fir forests. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1222-1232.

Henle, K., Davies, K.F., Kleyer, M., Margules, C., and Settele, J. 2004. Predictors of species sensitivity to fragmentation. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):207-251.

Henle, K., Lindenmayer, D.B., Margules, C.R., Saunders, D.A., and Wissel, C. 2004. Species survival in fragmented landscapes: where are we now? Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):1-8.

Henle, K., Sarre, S., and Wiegand, K. 2004. The role of density regulation in extinction processes and population viability analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):9-52.

Hiers, J.K., Laine, S.C., Bachant, J.J., Furman, J.H., Greene, W.W., and Compton, V. 2003. Simple spatial modeling tool for prioritizing prescribed burning activities at the landscape scale. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1571-1578.

Hinten, G., Harriss, F., Rossetto, M., and Braverstock, P.R. 2003. Genetic variation and island biogreography: microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in island populations of the Australian bush rat, Rattus fuscipes greyii. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):759-778.

Holmer, M., Perez, M., and Duarte, C.M. 2003. Benthic primary producers - a neglected environmental problem in Mediterranean maricultures? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46(11):1372-1376.

Holmes, E.E., and York, A.E. 2003. Using age structure to detect impacts on threatened populations: a case study with Steller sea lions. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1794-1806.

Huijbregts, B., De Wachter, P., Obiang, L.S.N., and Akou, M.E. 2003. Ebola and the decline of gorilla Gorilla gorilla and chimpanzee Pan troglodytes populations in Minkebe Forest, north-eastern Gabon. Oryx 37(4):437-443.

Idaghdour, Y., Broderick, D., and Korrida, A. 2003. Faeces as a source of DNA for molecular studies in a threatened population of great bustards. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):789-792.

Jathanna, D., Karanth, K.U., and Johnsingh, A.J.T. 2003. Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling. J. Zool. 261:285-290.

Jenkins, D.A., and Matthews, R.W. 2003. Association of soldier beetle (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) population decline with red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 38(4):706-710.

Johnson, J.A., Toepfer, J.E., and Dunn, P.O. 2003. Contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and microsatellite population structure in fragmented populations of greater prairie-chickens. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3335-3347.

Johnson, P.T.J., Lunde, K.B., Zelmer, D.A., and Werner, J.K. 2003. Limb deformities as an emerging parasitic disease in amphibians: evidence from museum specimens and resurvey data. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1724-1737.

Johnson, W.C., and Collinge, S.K. 2004. Landscape effects on black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):487-497.

Keeley, J.E., Lubin, D., and Fotheringham, C.J. 2003. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1355-1374.

Kimball, S., and Schiffman, P.M. 2003. Differing effects of cattle grazing on native and alien plants. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1681-1693.

Knaepkens, G., Bervoets, L., Verheyen, E., and Eens, M. 2004. Relationship between population size and genetic diversity in endangered populations of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio): implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):403-410.

Kochzius, M. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Chromis pelloura Randall & Allen, 1982 (Pomacentridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(2):142.

Kouamélan, E.P., Teugels, G.G., N'Douba, V., Bi, G.G., and Koné, T. 2003. Fish diversity and its relationships with environmental variables in a West African basin. Hydrobiologia 505(1-3):139-146.

Krauss, J., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2003. Local species immigration, extinction, and turnover of butterflies in relation to habitat area and habitat isolation. Oecologia 137(4):591-602.

Kretzmann, M.B., Capote, N., Gautschi, B., Godoy, J.A., Donázar, J.A., and Negro, J.J. 2003. Genetically distinct island populations of the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Conserv. Genet. 4(6):697-706.

Lammertink, M., Nijman, V., and Setiorini, U. 2003. Population size, Red List status and conservation of the Natuna leaf monkey Presbytis natunae endemic to the island of Bunguran, Indonesia. Oryx 37(4):472-479.

Lance, S.L., Maldonado, J.E., Bocetti, C.I., Pattee, O.H., Ballou, J.D., and Fleischer, R.C. 2003. Genetic variation in natural and translocated populations of the endangered Delmarva fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). Conserv. Genet. 4(6):707-718.

Lavigne, P.M. 2003. Greening the US Constitution. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1485-1486.

Leathwick, J.R., Overton, J.M., and McLeod, M. 2003. An environmental domain classification of New Zealand and its use as a tool for biodiversity management. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1612-1623.

Lei, R.H., Jiang, Z.G., Hu, Z., and Yang, W.L. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Chinese antelopes (subfamily Antilopinae) based on mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene sequences. J. Zool. 261:227-237.

Levin, D.A. 2003. Ecological speciation: lessons from invasive species. Syst. Bot. 28(4):643-650.

Lim, H.C., Sodhi, N.S., Brook, B.W., and Soh, M.C.K. 2003. Undesirable aliens: factors determining the distribution of three invasive bird species in Singapore. J. Trop. Ecol. 19:685-695.

Lira, C.F., Cardoso, S.R.S., Ferreira, P.C.G., Cardoso, M.A., and Provan, J. 2003. Long-term population isolation in the endangered tropical tree species Caesalpinia echinata Lam. revealed by chloroplast microsatellites. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3219-3225.

Loiselle, B.A., Howell, C.A., Graham, C.H., Goerck, J.M., Brooks, T., Smith, K.G., and Williams, P.H. 2003. Avoiding pitfalls of using species distribution models in conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1591-1600.

Lopez-Pujol, J., Orellana, M.R., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanche, C. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on allozyme diversity and conservation status of the coastal sand dune plant Stachys maritima (Lamiaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Biol. 5(5):504-512.

Lusseau, D. 2003. Effects of tour boats on the behavior of bottlenose dolphins: using Markov chains to model anthropogenic impacts. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1785-1793.

Maes, D., Gilbert, M., Titeux, N., Goffart, P., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2003. Prediction of butterfly diversity hotspots in Belgium: a comparison of statistically focused and land use-focused models. J. Biogeogr. 30(12):1907-1920.

Magin, C. 2003. Dominica's frogs are croaking. Oryx 37(4):406.

Marsh, P.C., Pacey, C.A., and Kesner, B.R. 2003. Decline of the razorback sucker in Lake Mohave, Colorado River, Arizona and Nevada. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132(6):1251-1256.

Martini, P., Schlindwein, C., and Montenegro, A. 2003. Pollination, flower longevity, and reproductive biology of Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz and Pavon (Orchidaceae) in an Atlantic forest fragment of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plant Biol. 5(5):495-503.

Mas, A.H., and Dietsch, T.V. 2003. An index of management intensity for coffee agroecosystems to evaluate butterfly species richness. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1491-1501.

McAlpine, J.L. 2003. Conservation diplomacy - one government's commitment and strategy to eliminate illegal logging. Int. For. Rev. 5(3):230-235.

McCulloch, G., Aebischer, A., and Irvine, K. 2003. Satellite tracking of flamingos in southern Africa: the importance of small wetlands for management and conservation. Oryx 37(4):480-483.

Medina-Vogel, G., Kaufman, V.S., Monsalve, R., and Gomez, V. 2003. The influence of riparian vegetation, woody debris, stream morphology and human activity on the use of rivers by southern river otters in Lontra Provocax in Chile. Oryx 37(4):422-430.

Melbourne, B.A., Davies, K.F., Margules, C.R., Lindenmayer, D.B., Saunders, D.A., Wissel, C., and Henle, K. 2004. Species survival in fragmented landscapes: where to from here? Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):275-284.

Meldgaard, T., Nielsen, E.E., and Loeschcke, V. 2003. Fragmentation by weirs in a riverine system: a study of genetic variation in time and space among populations of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) in a Danish river system. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):735-747.

Michaux, J.R., Libois, R., Davison, A., Chevret, P., and Rosoux, R. 2004. Is the western population of the European mink, (Mustela lutreola), a distinct Management Unit for conservation? Biol. Conserv. 115(3):357-367.

Miller, C.R., Adams, J.R., and Waits, L.P. 2003. Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3287-3301.

Minchinton, T.E., and Bertness, M.D. 2003. Disturbance-mediated competition and the spread of Phragmites australis in a coastal marsh. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1400-1416.

Mishra, C., Allen, P., McCarthy, T., Madhusudan, M.D., Bayarjargal, A., and Prins, H.H.T. 2003. The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1512-1520.

Monsen, K.J., and Blouin, M.S. 2003. Genetic structure in a montane ranid frog: restricted gene flow and nuclear-mitochondrial discordance. Mol. Ecol. 12(12):3275-3286.

Moore, J.E., Colwell, M.A., Mathis, R.L., and Black, J.M. 2004. Staging of Pacific flyway brant in relation to eelgrass abundance and site isolation, with special consideration of Humboldt Bay, California. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):475-486.

Moyle, P.B., Crain, P.K., Whitener, K., and Mount, J.F. 2003. Alien fishes in natural streams: fish distribution, assemblage structure, and conservation in the Cosumnes River, California, USA. Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(2):143-162.

Musiani, M., Mamo, C., Boitani, L., Callaghan, C., Gates, C.C., Mattei, L., Visalberghi, E., Breck, S., and Volpi, G. 2003. Wolf depredation trends and the use of fladry barriers to protect livestock in western North America. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1538-1547.

Naughton-Treves, L., Grossberg, R., and Treves, A. 2003. Paying for tolerance: rural citizens' attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1500-1511.

Nel, D.C., Taylor, F., Ryan, P.G., and Cooper, J. 2003. Population dynamics of the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans at Marion Island: longline fishing and environmental influences. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:503-517.

Ng, S.J., Dole, J.W., Sauvajot, R.M., Riley, S.P.D., and Valone, T.J. 2004. Use of highway undercrossings by wildlife in southern California. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):499-507.

Norse, E.A., and Carlton, J.T. 2003. World Wide Web buzz about biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1475-1476.

Novotny, V., Miller, S.E., Cizek, L., Leps, J., Janda, M., Basset, Y., Weiblen, G.D., and Darrow, K. 2003. Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of Papua New Guinea. Ecol. Entomol. 28:704-716.

Ogada, M.O., Woodroffe, R., Oguge, N.O., and Frank, L.G. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1521-1530.

Orr, D. 2003. The constitution of nature. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1478-1484.

Palo, J.U., and Merilä, J. 2003. A simple RFLP method for identification of two ranid frogs. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):801-803.

Park, Y.S., Chang, J.B., Lek, S., Cao, W.X., and Brosse, S. 2003. Conservation strategies for endemic fish species threatened by the Three Gorges Dam. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1748-1758.

Pauchard, A., Alaback, P.B., and Edlund, E.G. 2003. Plant invasions in protected areas at multiple scales: Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae) in the west Yellowstone area. West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(4):416-428.

Pérez-Arteaga, A., and Gaston, K.J. 2004. Wildfowl population trends in Mexico, 1961-2000: a basis for conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):343-355.

Peterson, A.T., Papes, M., and Kluza, D.A. 2003. Predicting the potential invasive distributions of four alien plant species in North America. Weed Sci. 51(6):863-868.

Peterson, D., Vecsei, P., and Noakes, D.L.G. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817 (Acipenseridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(2):174.

Phillips, B.L., Brown, G.P., and Shine, R. 2003. Assessing the potential impact of cane toads on Australian snakes. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1738-1747.

Phillips, P.L., Martínez, R.V., Vargas, P.N., Monteagudo, A.L., Zans, M.E.C., Sánchez, W.G., Cruz, A.P., Timaná, M., Yli-Halla, M., and Rose, S. 2003. Efficient plot-based floristic assessment of tropical forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 19:629-645.

Philpott, S.M., and Dietsch, T. 2003. Coffee and conservation: a global context and the value of farmer involvement. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1844-1846.

Platt, S.G., Ko, W.K., Khaing, L.L., Myo, K.M., Swe, T., Lwin, T., and Rainwater, T.R. 2003. Population status and conservation of the Critically Endangered Burmese star tortoise Geochelone platynota in central Myanmar. Oryx 37(4):464-471.

Posey, M.H., Alphin, T.D., Meyer, D.L., and Johnson, J.M. 2003. Benthic communities of common reed Phragmites australis and marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora marshes in Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 261:51-61.

Potts, S.G., Vulliamy, B., Dafni, A., Ne'eman, G., and Willmer, P. 2003. Linking bees and flowers: how do floral communities structure pollinator communities? Ecology 84(10):2628-2642.

Provencher, L., Litt, A.R., and Gordon, D.R. 2003. Predictors of species richness in northwest Florida longleaf pine sandhills. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1660-1671.

Rader, R.B., Belk, M.C., and Keleher, M.J. 2003. The introduction of an invasive snail (Melanoides tuberculata) to spring ecosystems of the Bonneville Basin, Utah. J. Freshwater Ecol. 18(4):647-657.

Raffensperger, C. 2003. Constitutional experiments: protecting the environment and future generations. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1487-1488.

Rappole, J.H., King, D.I., and Rivera, J.H.V. 2003. Coffee and conservation III: reply to Philpott and Dietsch. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1847-1849.

Redford, K., and Sanjayan, M.A. 2003. Retiring Cassandra. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1473-1474.

Reinhart, K.O., Packer, A., Van der Putten, W.H., and Clay, K. 2003. Plant-soil biota interactions and spatial distribution of black cherry in its native and invasive ranges. Ecol. Lett. 6(12):1046-1050.

Ribon, R., Simon, J.E., and De Mattos, G.T. 2003. Bird extinctions in Atlantic forest fragments of the Viçosa Region, southeastern Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1827-1839.

Riley, S.P.D., Shaffer, H.B., Voss, S.R., and Fitzpatrick, B.M. 2003. Hybridization between a rare, native tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) and its introduced congener. Ecol. Appl. 13(5):1263-1275.

Rivieccio, M., Thompson, B.C., Gould, W.R., and Boykin, K.G. 2003. Habitat features and predictive habitat modeling for the Colorado chipmunk in southern New Mexico. West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(4):479-488.

Robinson, A.T., Bryan, S.D., and Sweetser, M.G. 2003. Habitat use by nonnative rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and native Little Colorado spinedace, Lepidomeda vittata. Environ. Biol. Fish. 68(2):205-214.

Rodríguez, J.P. 2003. Challenges and opportunities for surveying and monitoring tropical biodiversity - a response to Danielsen et al. Oryx 37(4):411.

Roy, P.S. 2003. Biodiversity conservation - perspective from space. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 26(7-8):169-184.

Ryan, P.G., Cooper, J., Dyer, B.M., Underhill, L.G., Crawford, R.J.M., and Bester, M.N. 2003. Counts of surface-nesting seabirds breeding at Prince Edward Island, summer 2001/02. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:441-451.

Ryan, P.G., Smith, V.R., and Gremmen, N.J.M. 2003. The distribution and spread of alien vascular plants on Prince Edward Island. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25:555-562.

Sanchez-Carrillo, D., and Valtierra-Pacheco, E. 2003. Social organization for the exploitation of camedor palms (Chamaedorea spp.) in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas. Agrociencia 37(5):545-552.

Sanderson, S.E., and Redford, K.H. 2003. Contested relationships between biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. Oryx 37(4):389-390.

Schoener, T.W., Clobert, J., Legendre, S., and Spiller, D.A. 2003. Life-history models of extinction: a test with island spiders. Am. Nat. 162(5):558-573.

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2003. Interlinkages between biological diversity and climate change. Advice on the integration of biodiversity considerations into the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol. CBD Technical Series no. 10. SCBD. Montreal. 154 pp. <>

Segarra-Moragues, J.G., and Catalan, P. 2003. Life history variation between species of the relictual genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae): phylogeography, genetic diversity, and population genetic structure assessed by RAPD markers. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 80(3):483-498.

Shivik, J.A., Treves, A., and Callahan, P. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1531-1537.

Silbernagel, J. 2003. Spatial theory in early conservation design: examples from Aldo Leopold's work. Landscape Ecol. 18(7):635-646.

Smith, B.D., Beasley, I., and Kreb, D. 2003. Marked declines in populations of Irrawaddy dolphins. Oryx 37(4):401.

Spector, S., and Ayzama, S. 2003. Rapid turnover and edge effects in dung beetle assemblages (Scarabaeidae) at a Bolivian Neotropical forest-savanna ecotone. Biotropica 35(3):394-404.

Stoner, D.S., Grady, J.M., Priede, K.A., and Quattro, J.M. 2003. Amplification primers for the mitochondrial control region and sixth intron of the nuclear-encoded lactate dehydrogenase A gene in elasmobranch fishes. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):805-808.

Tatin, L., Darreh-Shoori, B.F., Tourenq, C., Tatin, D., and Azmayesh, B. 2003. The last populations of the Critically Endangered onager Equus hemionus onager in Iran: urgent requirements for protection and study. Oryx 37(4):488-491.

Telles, M.P.D., Coelho, A.S.G., Chaves, L.J., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., and Valva, F.D. 2003. Genetic diversity and population structure of Eugenia dysenterica DC. ("cagaiteira"-Myrtaceae) in Central Brazil: spatial analysis and implications for conservation and management. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):685-695.

Theobald, D.M. 2003. Targeting conservation action through assessment of protection and exurban threats. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1624-1637.

Thibault, M., and Blaney, S. 2003. The oil industry as an underlying factor in the bushmeat crisis in central Africa. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1807-1813.

Thornhill, A. 2003. Social scientists and conservation biologists join forces. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1476.

Tissot, B.N., and Hallacher, L.E. 2003. Effects of aquarium collectors on coral reef fishes in Kona, Hawaii. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1759-1768.

Treer, T., Anicic, I., Safner, R., Odak, T., and Piria, M. 2003. Note on the growth of endemic soft-muzzled trout Salmothymus obtusirostris translocated into a Dalmatian River. Biologia 58(5):999-1001.

Treves, A., and Karanth, K.U. 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1491-1499.

Treves, A., and Karanth, K.U. 2003. Special section: Human-Carnivore Conflict: local solutions with global applications. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1489-1490.

Tripathy, B., Shanker, K., and Choudhury, B.C. 2003. Important nesting habitats of olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea along the Andhra Pradesh coast of eastern India. Oryx 37(4):454-463.

Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2003. Development of microsatellite markers in Primula sieboldii E. Morren, a threatened Japanese perennial herb. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):809-811.

Ueno, S., Yoshimaru, H., Kawahara, T., and Yamamoto, S. 2003. A further six microsatellite markers for Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii Nakai. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):813-815.

van der Westhuizen, E. 2003. Reintroduction of black rhino to North Luangwa National Park, Zambia. Oryx 37(4):403.

Vance, M.D., Fahrig, L., and Flather, C.H. 2003. Effect of reproductive rate on minimum habitat requirements of forest-breeding birds. Ecology 84(10):2643-2653.

Vaughan, I.P., and Ormerod, S.J. 2003. Improving the quality of distribution models for conservation by addressing shortcomings in the field collection of training data. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1601-1611.

Vazquez, D.P., and Simberloff, D. 2003. Changes in interaction biodiversity induced by an introduced ungulate. Ecol. Lett. 6(12):1077-1083.

Virgós, E. 2003. Association of the polecat Mustela putorius in eastern Spain with montane pine forests. Oryx 37(4):484-487.

Wesp, H.M., and Gibb, A.C. 2003. Do endangered razorback suckers have poor larval escape performance relative to introduced rainbow trout? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132(6):1166-1178.

Weyrauch, S.L., and Grubb, T.C. 2004. Patch and landscape characteristics associated with the distribution of woodland amphibians in an agricultural fragmented landscape: an information-theoretic approach. Biol. Conserv. 115(3):443-450.

Wiegand, T., Knauer, F., Kaczensky, P., and Naves, J. 2004. Expansion of brown bears (Ursus arctos) into the eastern Alps: a spatially explicit population model. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):79-114.

Wiegand, T., Revilla, E., and Knauer, F. 2004. Dealing with uncertainty in spatially explicit population models. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(1):53-78.

Wintle, B.A., McCarthy, M.A., Volinsky, C.T., and Kavanagh, R.P. 2003. The use of Bayesian model averaging to better represent uncertainty in ecological models. Conserv. Biol. 17(6):1579-1590.

Yoccoz, N.G., Nichols, J.D., and Boulinier, T. 2003. Monitoring of biological diversity - a response to Danielsen et al. Oryx 37(4):410.

Zhang, S.M., Wang, D.Q., and Zhang, Y.P. 2003. Mitochondrial DNA variation, effective female population size and population history of the endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):673-683.

Zwartjes, P.W. 2003. Genetic variability in migratory and endemic island songbirds (genus Vireo): a comparative assessment using molecular and morphological traits. Conserv. Genet. 4(6):749-758.

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