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Department ofBotany



No. 231
March 2004


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In This Issue


Big Cats Thrive in STRI Open Laboratory


Ricardo Moreno is pictured with 'Bobby Comillos' the largest ocelot ever recorded in the wild in the Americas

Scientists on the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's (STRI's) Barro Colorado Island have been monitoring ocelots in the wild to pursue basic eco-physiological, applied management, and conservation questions that are currently beyond scientific reach. In August 2002, STRI's Automated Telemetry Project staff captured an ocelot in one of the island's several wooden traps. They put him to sleep for a few minutes to measure, weigh, and register him, and to install a collar radio transmitter that lets them know where he is, and when he interacts with other animals, kills and eats prey, drinks water, etc. The scientists named the ocelot Bobby Comillos for his canine teeth, and then released him back into the wild. After a year, Bobby was recaptured, and weighed in at 18.4 kg-a significant increase over his 15.8 kg record. Bobby is now the largest ocelot ever recorded in the wild in the Americas, and is one of 11 ocelots the project has successfully monitored using collared radios.


Tracking Wild Dogs in South Africa


Free-living populations of African wild dogs have declined markedly over the past several decades to fewer than 5,000 individuals. They are not alone. Today, many carnivore species are decreasing in number, the victims of habitat fragmentation, competition with other carnivores, contact with humans, and disease.

For African wild dogs specifically, their populations are diminishing mainly because of competition with other large carnivores. Now the conservation community is interested in re-establishing populations of this endangered predator through targeted reintroductions into the wild. Researchers from the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (NZP) and its Conservation and Research Center are working in collaboration with South African scientists and wildlife managers to monitor the movements, behavior, physiology, and health of African wild dogs and their two major competitors: lions and spotted hyenas. Located in South Africa, this initiative is called the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Predator Project.

Currently, 31 wild dogs are being monitored in three packs. The Hluhluwe pack is the largest, with 17 dogs. Two of the alpha females (each pack has one dominant female) each spent one month concealed in underground dens with new litters of pups, but are currently traveling and hunting again with the rest of the pack. The Hluhluwe pack's den is hidden deep within dense vegetation, but the more open habitat around the Umfolozi pack's den has allowed the viewing of a strong and healthy litter of 10 new pups.

Coordinated by NZP's postdoctoral researcher Micaela Szykman, the project is designed to collect information in a novel way-by integrating NZP scientists' expertise in ecology, animal behavior, physiology, and health. Research methods include tracking radio-collared lions, hyenas, and wild dogs; noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring; mapping and contrasting home ranges of each species; and evaluating the health and well-being of reintroduced wild dogs in a competitive environment.

With regard to the dogs, noninvasive endocrine monitoring techniques, in combination with intensive behavioral and ecological monitoring, is expected to yield insight into how the stress of reintroduction affects their reproductive fitness, health, and survival. The research will take several years before results are conclusive.


Fellowships


The Canon National Parks Science Scholars Program is pleased to announce its 2004 competitions. The program is a collaboration among Canon U.S.A., Inc., the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the US National Park Service. Thanks to a generous commitment by Canon U.S.A., Inc., the program will be awarding eight $78,000 scholarships to Ph.D. students throughout the Americas to conduct research critical to conserving the national parks of the region. Research projects in the biological, physical, social and cultural sciences are eligible, as well as projects in a new category-technological innovation in support of conservation science. Applications must be received by 3 May 2004. For further information and an Application Guide, please visit <http://www.nature.nps.gov/canonscholarships/>.


Current Literature


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Allen, R.B., Bellingham, P.J., and Wiser, S.K. 2003. Developing a forest biodiversity monitoring approach for New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 27(2):207-220.

Angelstam, P.K., Butler, R., Lazdinis, M., Mikusinski, G., and Roberge, J.M. 2003. Habitat thresholds for focal species at multiple scales and forest biodiversity conservation - dead wood as an example. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 40(6):473-482.

Aragon, R., and Groom, M. 2003. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51(1):59-70.

Ask, P., and Nilsson, S.G. 2004. Stand characteristics in colour-infrared aerial photographs as indicators of epiphytic lichens. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):529-542.

Augustine, D.J., and Decalesta, D. 2003. Defining deer overabundance and threats to forest communities: from individual plants to landscape structure. Ecoscience 10(4):472-486.

Azian, J.M., and Sharma, D.S.K. 2003. Camera trapping the Indochinese tiger, Panthera tigris corbetti, in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 51(2):421-427.

Baar, R., Cordeiro, M.D., Denich, M., and Fölster, H. 2004. Floristic inventory of secondary vegetation in agricultural systems of East-Amazonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):501-528.

Barnes, D.K.A., and Fraser, K.P.P. 2003. Rafting by five phyla on man-made flotsam in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 262:289-291.

Basse, B., and McLennan, J.A. 2003. Protected areas for kiwi in mainland forests of New Zealand: how large should they be? New Zeal. J. Ecol. 27(2):95-105.

Beckstead, J., and Parker, I.M. 2003. Invasiveness of Ammophila arenaria: release from soil-borne pathogens? Ecology 84(11):2824-2831.

Benítez-Malvido, J., and Martínez-Ramos, M. 2003. Influence of edge exposure on tree seedling species recruitment in tropical rain forest fragments. Biotropica 35(4):530-541.

Berberoglu, S., Yilmaz, K.T., and Özkan, C. 2004. Mapping and monitoring of coastal wetlands of Çukurova Delta in the eastern Mediterranean region. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):615-633.

Bestelmeyer, B.T., Miller, J.R., and Wiens, J.A. 2003. Applying species diversity theory to land management. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1750-1761.

Bigazzi, M., Duman, H., and Selvi, F. 2003. Anchusa limbata Boiss. & Heldr. (Boraginaceae): contribution to the knowledge of an enigmatic species from SW Turkey. Candollea 58(2):339-349.

Blacklow, W.M. 2003. Prospects for biodiversity in salinising landscapes - preface. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):I-IV.

Blandon, I.R., De León, F.J., Ward, R., Van den Bussche, R.A., and Needleman, D.S. 2003. Studies in conservation genetics of tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) - V. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):632-634.

Blanvillain, C., and Thorsen, M. 2003. The biology of the critically endangered Marquesan imperial-pigeon (Ducula galeata), Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Archipelago (French Polynesia). Emu 103(4):381-386.

Bosch, J., Boyero, L., and Martínez-Solano, Í. 2004. Spatial scales for the management of amphibian populations. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):409-420.

Briggs, S.V., and Taws, N. 2003. Impacts of salinity on biodiversity - clear understanding or muddy confusion? Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):609-617.

Britt, A., Welch, C., Katz, A., Iambana, B., Porton, I., Junge, R., Crawford, G., Williams, C., and Haring, D. 2004. The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):635-657.

Browne, S.J., and Aebischer, N.J. 2004. Temporal changes in the breeding ecology of European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur in Britain, and implications for conservation. Ibis 146(1):125-137.

Bull, A.T. 2004. Conservation and mobile peoples. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):291-292.

Burns, C.E., Ciofi, C., Beheregaray, L.B., Fritts, T.H., Gibbs, J.P., Márquez, C., Milinkovitch, M.C., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2003. The origin of captive Galápagos tortoises based on DNA analysis: implications for the management of natural populations. Anim. Conserv. 6:329-337.

Callaway, J.C., Sullivan, G., and Zedler, J.B. 2003. Species-rich plantings increase biomass and nitrogen accumulation in a wetland restoration experiment. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1626-1639.

Carroll, C., Noss, R.E., Paquet, P.C., and Schumaker, N.H. 2003. Use of population viability analysis and reserve selection algorithms in regional conservation plans. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1773-1789.

Chen, X.W., and Li, B.L. 2004. Tree diversity change in remaining primary mixed-broadleaved Korean pine forest under climate change and human activities. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):563-577.

Clarke, R.H., Oliver, D.L., Boulton, R.L., Cassey, P., and Clarke, M.F. 2003. Assessing programs for monitoring threatened species – a tale of three honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Wildlife Res. 30(5):427-435.

Cocks, P.S. 2003. Land-use change is the key to protecting biodiversity in salinising landscapes. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):627-635.

Coltman, D.W., O'Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J.T., Hogg, J.T., Strobeck, C., and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2003. Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting. Nature 426(6967):655-658.

Coomes, O.T. 2004. Rain forest 'conservation-through-use'? Chambira palm fibre extraction and handicraft production in a land-constrained community, Peruvian Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):351-360.

Correia, A.M. 2003. Food choice by the introduced crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 40(6):517-528.

Cozzolino, S., Noce, M.E., Musacchio, A., and Widmer, A. 2003. Variation at a chloroplast minisatellite locus reveals the signature of habitat fragmentation and genetic bottlenecks in the rare orchid Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 90(12):1681-1687.

Cuarón, A.D., Martínez-Morales, M.A., Mcfadden, K.W., Valenzuela, D., and Gompper, M.E. 2004. The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):317-331.

Currie, D., Bristol, R., Millett, J., and Shah, N.J. 2003. The distribution and population of Seychelles black paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone corvina on La Digue: implications for conservation and translocation. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):307-318.

Currie, D., Fanchette, R., Millett, J., Hoareau, C., and Shah, N.J. 2004. The distribution and population of the Seychelles (bare-legged) scops owl Otus insularis on Mahé: consequences for conservation. Ibis 146(1):27-37.

Dahanukar, N., Raut, R., and Bhat, A. 2004. Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. J. Biogeogr. 31(1):123-136.

Dalton, R. 2004. Wildlife attacks hinder conservation efforts. Nature 427(6973):385.

Daniels, R.J.R. 2003. Impact of tea cultivation on anurans in the Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 85(10):1415-1422.

Darden, S.K., Dabelsteen, T., and Pedersen, S.B. 2003. A potential tool for swift fox (Vulpes velox) conservation: individuality of long-range barking sequences. J. Mammal. 84(4):1417-1427.

Davis, J.A., McGuire, M., Halse, S.A., Hamilton, D., Horwitz, P., McComb, A.J., Froend, R.H., Lyons, M., and Sim, L. 2003. What happens when you add salt: predicting impacts of secondary salinisation on shallow aquatic ecosystems by using an alternative-states model. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):715-724.

Davis, J.A., van Blerk, L.L., Kirby, R., and Hecht, I. 2003. Genetic variation in the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1775) (Crustacea: Portunidae) in South African estuaries. Afr. Zool. 38(2):343-350.

de Lucas, M., Janss, G.F.E., and Ferrer, M. 2004. The effects of a wind farm on birds in a migration point: the Strait of Gibraltar. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):395-407.

Dietsch, T.V., Philpott, S.M., Rice, R.A., Greenberg, R., and Bichier, P. 2004. Conservation policy in coffee landscapes. Science 303(5658):625.

Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., and Stern, P.C. 2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302(5652):1907-1912.

Dogan, M., and Akaydin, G. 2003. An undescribed species of Acantholimon Boiss. sect. Staticopsis (Plumbaginaceae) from Turkey, with some notes on its ecology, conservation status, and relationships. Israel J. Plant Sci. 51(3):231-236.

du Rau, P.D., Barbraud, C., and Mondain-Monval, J.Y. 2003. Estimating breeding population size of the red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) in the Camargue (southern France) taking into account detection probability: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 6:379-385.

Dulvy, N.K., Sadovy, Y., and Reynolds, J.D. 2003. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish Fish. 4(1):25-64.

Dupont, L., and Viard, F. 2003. Isolation and characterization of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from the marine invasive species Crepidula fornicata (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):498-500.

Eby, L.A., Fagan, W.F., and Minckley, W.L. 2003. Variability and dynamics of a desert stream community. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1566-1579.

Edman, M., Gustafsson, M., Stenlid, J., and Ericson, L. 2004. Abundance and viability of fungal spores along a forestry gradient - responses to habitat loss and isolation? Oikos 104(1):35-42.

Edwards, T., Goldberg, C.S., Kaplan, M.E., Schwalbe, C.R., and Swann, D.E. 2003. PCR primers for microsatellite loci in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, Testudinidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):589-591.

Eggleston, J.E., Rixecker, S.S., and Hickling, G.J. 2003. The role of ethics in the management of New Zealand's wild mammals. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):361-376.

Eisermann, K. 2003. Status and conservation of yellow-headed parrot Amazona oratrix "guatemalensis" on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):361-366.

Emmerson, W., Cannicci, S., and Porri, F. 2003. New records for Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae) from mangroves in Mozambique and South Africa. Afr. Zool. 38(2):351-355.

Engelskjon, T., Lund, L., and Alsos, I.G. 2003. Twenty of the most thermophilous vascular plant species in Svalbard and their conservation state. Polar Res. 22(2):317-339.

Evans, K.L. 2004. The potential for interactions between predation and habitat change to cause population declines of farmland birds. Ibis 146(1):1-13.

French, G.C., Hollingsworth, P.M., and Ennos, R.A. 2003. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers for British Euphrasia L. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):626-628.

Friedman, C.S., and Finley, C.A. 2003. Anthropogenic introduction of the etiological agent of withering syndrome into northern California abalone populations via conservation efforts. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60(11):1424-1431.

Gainsbury, A.M., and Colli, G.R. 2003. Lizard assemblages from natural cerrado enclaves in southwestern Amazonia: the role of stochastic extinctions and isolation. Biotropica 35(4):503-519.

Garcia, D., and Obeso, J.R. 2003. Facilitation by herbivore-mediated nurse plants in a threatened tree, Taxus baccata: local effects and landscape level consistency. Ecography 26(6):739-750.

Garcia-Rossi, D., Rank, N., and Strong, D.R. 2003. Potential for self-defeating biological control? Variation in herbivore vulnerability among invasive Spartina genotypes. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1640-1649.

Gebrehiwot, K., Muys, B., Haile, M., and Mitloehner, R. 2003. Introducing Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst and its non-timber forest product, frankincense. Int. For. Rev. 5(4):348-353.

Gerber, L.R., Seabloom, E.W., Burton, R.S., and Reichman, O.J. 2003. Translocation of an imperilled woodrat population: integrating spatial and habitat patterns. Anim. Conserv. 6:309-316.

Giese, A.R., and Hedrick, P.W. 2003. Genetic variation and resistance to a bacterial infection in the endangered Gila topminnow. Anim. Conserv. 6:369-377.

Godinez-Alvarez, H., Valverde, T., and Ortega-Baes, P. 2003. Demographic trends in the Cactaceae. Bot. Rev. 69(2):173-203.

Gonzales, E.K., Arcese, P., Schulz, R., and Bunnell, F.L. 2003. Strategic reserve design in the central coast of British Columbia: integrating ecological and industrial goals. Can. J. Forest Res. 33(11):2129-2140.

Goss, K.F. 2003. Environmental flows, river salinity and biodiversity conservation: managing trade-offs in the Murray-Darling basin. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):619-625.

Grau, H.R., Aide, T.M., Zimmerman, J.K., Thomlinson, J.R., Helmer, E., and Zou, X.M. 2003. The ecological consequences of socioeconomic and land-use changes in postagriculture Puerto Rico. BioScience 53(12):1159-1168.

Green, J.L., and Ostling, A. 2003. Endemics-area relationships: the influence of species dominance and spatial aggregation. Ecology 84(11):3090-3097.

Gross, C.L., Bartier, F.V., and Mulligan, D.R. 2003. Floral structure, breeding system and fruit-set in the threatened sub-shrub Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae). Ann. Botany 92(6):771-777.

Gurnell, J., Wauters, L.A., Lurz, P.W.W., and Tosi, G. 2004. Alien species and interspecific competition: effects of introduced eastern grey squirrels on red squirrel population dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol. 73(1):26-35.

Hagelin, J.C. 2004. Observations on the olfactory ability of the kakapo Strigops habroptilus, the critically endangered parrot of New Zealand. Ibis 146(1):161-164.

Hald, A.B., Nielsen, A.L., Debosz, K., and Badsberg, J.H. 2003. Restoration of degraded low-lying grasslands: indicators of the environmental potential of botanical nature quality. Ecol. Eng. 21(1):1-20.

Halse, S.A., Ruprecht, J.K., and Pinder, A.M. 2003. Salinisation and prospects for biodiversity in rivers and wetlands of south-west Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):673-688.

Halupka, K.C., Willson, M.F., Bryant, M.D., Everest, F.H., and Gharrett, A.J. 2003. Conservation of population diversity of Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 23(4):1057-1086.

Hart, B.T., Lake, P.S., Webb, J.A., and Grace, M.R. 2003. Ecological risk to aquatic systems from salinity increases. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):689-702.

Harwood, J., and Stokes, K. 2003. Coping with uncertainty in ecological advice: lessons from fisheries. TREE 18(12):617-622.

Haugaasen, T., Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2003. Effects of surface fires on understorey insectivorous birds and terrestrial arthropods in central Brazilian Amazonia. Anim. Conserv. 6:299-306.

Hedrén, M. 2004. Species delimitation and the partitioning of genetic diversity - an example from the Carex flava complex (Cyperaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):293-316.

Helms, K.R., and Vinson, S.B. 2003. Apparent facilitation of an invasive mealybug by an invasive ant. Insect. Soc. 50(4):403-404.

Hennache, A., Rasmussen, P., Lucchini, V., Rimondi, S., and Randi, E. 2003. Hybrid origin of the imperial pheasant Lophura imperialis (Delacour and Jabouille, 1924) demonstrated by morphology, hybrid experiments, and DNA analyses. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 80(4):573-600.

Hennessey, A.B., Herzog, S.A., Kessler, M., and Robison, D. 2003. Avifauna of the Pilon Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Communal Lands, Bolivia. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):319-349.

Herranz, J.M., Ferrandis, P., and Copete, M.A. 2003. Influence of light and temperature on seed germination and ability of the endangered plant species Sisymbrium cavanillesianum to form persistent soil seed banks. Ecoscience 10(4):532-541.

Hobbs, R.J., Cramer, V.A., and Kristjanson, L.J. 2003. What happens if we cannot fix it? Triage, palliative care and setting priorities in salinising landscapes. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):647-653.

Hódar, J.A., and Zamora, R. 2004. Herbivory and climatic warming: a Mediterranean outbreaking caterpillar attacks a relict, boreal pine species. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):493-500.

Horne, B.D., Brauman, R.J., Moore, M.J.C., and Seigel, R.A. 2003. Reproductive and nesting ecology of the yellow-blotched map turtle, Graptemys flavimaculata: implications for conservation and management. Copeia 2003(4):729-738.

Huang, M.T., Tsao, E.H.S., and Yu, A.H.T. 2003. Isolation and cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci in the freshwater minnow Zacco pachycephalus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) for diversity and conservation genetic analysis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):567-569.

Hurt, C.R., and Hedrick, P.W. 2003. Initial stages of reproductive isolation in two species of the endangered Sonoran topminnow. Evolution 57(12):2835-2841.

Hutton, S.A., and Giller, P.S. 2003. The effects of the intensification of agriculture on northern temperate dung beetle communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(6):994-1007.

Ikeda, M., Nunokawa, M., and Taniguchi, N. 2003. Lack of mitochondrial gene flow between populations of the endangered amphidromous fish Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis inhabiting Amami-oshima Island. Fish. Sci. 69(6):1162-1168.

Jaberg, C., and Blant, J.D. 2003. Spatio-temporal utilisation of roosts by the parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus L., 1758 in Switzerland. Mamm. Biol. 68(6):341-350.

Jacquemyn, H., Butaye, J., and Hermy, M. 2003. Influence of environmental and spatial variables on regional distribution of forest plant species in a fragmented and changing landscape. Ecography 26(6):768-776.

Jakobs, G., Weber, E., and Edwards, P.J. 2004. Introduced plants of the invasive Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae) are larger and grow denser than conspecifics in the native range. Divers. Distrib. 10(1):11-19.

James, K.R., Cant, B., and Ryan, T. 2003. Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):703-713.

Jamieson, I.G., and Wilson, G.C. 2003. Immediate and long-term effects of translocations on breeding success in takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):299-306.

Jerina, K., Debeljak, M., Dzeroski, S., Kobler, A., and Adamic, M. 2003. Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia - a tool in the conservation management of a threatened species. Ecol. Model. 170(2-3):453-469.

Johns, P.M., and Boag, B. 2003. The spread and distribution of terrestrial planarians (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Geoplanidae) within New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 27(2):201-206.

Julliard, R., Jiguet, F., and Couvet, D. 2004. Common birds facing global changes: what makes a species at risk? Global Change Biol. 10(1):148-154.

Kala, C.P., Farooquee, N.A., and Dhar, U. 2004. Prioritization of medicinal plants on the basis of available knowledge, existing practices and use value status in Uttaranchal, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):453-469.

Karubian, J., Castaneda, G., Freile, J.F., Salazar, R.T., Santander, T., and Smith, T.B. 2003. Nesting biology of a female long-wattled umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger in north-western Ecuador. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):351-360.

Kauffman, M.J., Frick, W.F., and Linthicum, J. 2003. Estimation of habitat-specific demography and population growth for Peregrine falcons in California. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1802-1816.

Keitt, B.S., and Tershy, B.R. 2003. Cat eradication significantly decreases shearwater mortality. Anim. Conserv. 6:307-308.

Klak, C., Reeves, G., and Hedderson, T. 2004. Unmatched tempo of evolution in southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature 427(6969):63-65.

Koch, M., Dobeš, C., Bernhardt, K.G., and Kochjarová, J. 2003. Cochlearia macrorrhiza (Brassicaceae): a bridging species between Cochlearia taxa from the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians? Plant Syst. Evol. 242(1-4):137-147.

Kuo, C.H., and Janzen, F.J. 2003. BOTTLESIM: a bottleneck simulation program for long-lived species with overlapping generations. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):669-673.

Lafuma, L., Balkwill, K., Imbert, E., Verlaque, R., and Maurice, S. 2003. Ploidy level and origin of the European invasive weed Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 243(1-2):59-72.

Lane, C.P., and Andow, D.A. 2003. Oak savanna subhabitat variation and the population biology of Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 96(6):799-809.

Lawler, J.J., White, D., and Master, L.L. 2003. Integrating representation and vulnerability: two approaches for prioritizing areas for conservation. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1762-1772.

Lei, R.H., Hu, Z., Jiang, Z.G., and Yang, W.L. 2003. Phylogeography and genetic diversity of the critically endangered Przewalski's gazelle. Anim. Conserv. 6:361-367.

Leimgruber, P., Gagnon, J.B., Wemmer, C., Kelly, D.S., Songer, M.A., and Selig, E.R. 2003. Fragmentation of Asia's remaining wildlands: implications for Asian elephant conservation. Anim. Conserv. 6:347-359.

Lim, H.C., and Sodhi, N.S. 2004. Responses of avian guilds to urbanisation in a tropical city. Landscape Urban Plan. 66(4):199-215.

Liven-Schulman, I., Leshem, Y., Alon, D., and Yom-Tov, Y. 2004. Causes of population declines of the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni in Israel. Ibis 146(1):145-152.

Lopez-Pujol, J., Orellana, M.R., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanche, C. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on allozyme diversity and conservation status of the coastal sand dune plant Stachys maritima (Lamiaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Biol. 5(5):504-512.

Luoto, M., Rekolainen, S., Aakkula, J., and Pykala, J. 2003. Loss of plant species richness and habitat connectivity in grasslands associated with agricultural change in Finland. Ambio 32(7):447-452.

Lymbery, A.J., Doupé, R.G., and Pettit, N.E. 2003. Effects of salinisation on riparian plant communities in experimental catchments on the Collie River, Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):667-672.

Ma, Z.J., Li, B., Zhao, B., Jing, K., Tang, S.M., and Chen, J.K. 2004. Are artificial wetlands good alternatives to natural wetlands for waterbirds? A case study on Chongming Island, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):333-350.

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Macdonald, D.W., and Harrington, L.A. 2003. The American mink: the triumph and tragedy of adaptation out of context. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):421-441.

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