Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany

No. 231
March 2004

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

Big Cats Thrive in STRI Open Laboratory

Ricardo Moreno is pictured with 'Bobby Comillos' the largest ocelot ever recorded in the wild in the Americas

Scientists on the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's (STRI's) Barro Colorado Island have been monitoring ocelots in the wild to pursue basic eco-physiological, applied management, and conservation questions that are currently beyond scientific reach. In August 2002, STRI's Automated Telemetry Project staff captured an ocelot in one of the island's several wooden traps. They put him to sleep for a few minutes to measure, weigh, and register him, and to install a collar radio transmitter that lets them know where he is, and when he interacts with other animals, kills and eats prey, drinks water, etc. The scientists named the ocelot Bobby Comillos for his canine teeth, and then released him back into the wild. After a year, Bobby was recaptured, and weighed in at 18.4 kg-a significant increase over his 15.8 kg record. Bobby is now the largest ocelot ever recorded in the wild in the Americas, and is one of 11 ocelots the project has successfully monitored using collared radios.

Tracking Wild Dogs in South Africa

Free-living populations of African wild dogs have declined markedly over the past several decades to fewer than 5,000 individuals. They are not alone. Today, many carnivore species are decreasing in number, the victims of habitat fragmentation, competition with other carnivores, contact with humans, and disease.

For African wild dogs specifically, their populations are diminishing mainly because of competition with other large carnivores. Now the conservation community is interested in re-establishing populations of this endangered predator through targeted reintroductions into the wild. Researchers from the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (NZP) and its Conservation and Research Center are working in collaboration with South African scientists and wildlife managers to monitor the movements, behavior, physiology, and health of African wild dogs and their two major competitors: lions and spotted hyenas. Located in South Africa, this initiative is called the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Predator Project.

Currently, 31 wild dogs are being monitored in three packs. The Hluhluwe pack is the largest, with 17 dogs. Two of the alpha females (each pack has one dominant female) each spent one month concealed in underground dens with new litters of pups, but are currently traveling and hunting again with the rest of the pack. The Hluhluwe pack's den is hidden deep within dense vegetation, but the more open habitat around the Umfolozi pack's den has allowed the viewing of a strong and healthy litter of 10 new pups.

Coordinated by NZP's postdoctoral researcher Micaela Szykman, the project is designed to collect information in a novel way-by integrating NZP scientists' expertise in ecology, animal behavior, physiology, and health. Research methods include tracking radio-collared lions, hyenas, and wild dogs; noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring; mapping and contrasting home ranges of each species; and evaluating the health and well-being of reintroduced wild dogs in a competitive environment.

With regard to the dogs, noninvasive endocrine monitoring techniques, in combination with intensive behavioral and ecological monitoring, is expected to yield insight into how the stress of reintroduction affects their reproductive fitness, health, and survival. The research will take several years before results are conclusive.


The Canon National Parks Science Scholars Program is pleased to announce its 2004 competitions. The program is a collaboration among Canon U.S.A., Inc., the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the US National Park Service. Thanks to a generous commitment by Canon U.S.A., Inc., the program will be awarding eight $78,000 scholarships to Ph.D. students throughout the Americas to conduct research critical to conserving the national parks of the region. Research projects in the biological, physical, social and cultural sciences are eligible, as well as projects in a new category-technological innovation in support of conservation science. Applications must be received by 3 May 2004. For further information and an Application Guide, please visit <>.

Current Literature

Alexander, R.R., and Shields, D.W. 2003. Using land as a control variable in density-dependent bioeconomic models. Ecol. Model. 170(2-3):193-201.

Allen, R.B., Bellingham, P.J., and Wiser, S.K. 2003. Developing a forest biodiversity monitoring approach for New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 27(2):207-220.

Angelstam, P.K., Butler, R., Lazdinis, M., Mikusinski, G., and Roberge, J.M. 2003. Habitat thresholds for focal species at multiple scales and forest biodiversity conservation - dead wood as an example. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 40(6):473-482.

Aragon, R., and Groom, M. 2003. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51(1):59-70.

Ask, P., and Nilsson, S.G. 2004. Stand characteristics in colour-infrared aerial photographs as indicators of epiphytic lichens. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):529-542.

Augustine, D.J., and Decalesta, D. 2003. Defining deer overabundance and threats to forest communities: from individual plants to landscape structure. Ecoscience 10(4):472-486.

Azian, J.M., and Sharma, D.S.K. 2003. Camera trapping the Indochinese tiger, Panthera tigris corbetti, in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 51(2):421-427.

Baar, R., Cordeiro, M.D., Denich, M., and Fölster, H. 2004. Floristic inventory of secondary vegetation in agricultural systems of East-Amazonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):501-528.

Barnes, D.K.A., and Fraser, K.P.P. 2003. Rafting by five phyla on man-made flotsam in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 262:289-291.

Basse, B., and McLennan, J.A. 2003. Protected areas for kiwi in mainland forests of New Zealand: how large should they be? New Zeal. J. Ecol. 27(2):95-105.

Beckstead, J., and Parker, I.M. 2003. Invasiveness of Ammophila arenaria: release from soil-borne pathogens? Ecology 84(11):2824-2831.

Benítez-Malvido, J., and Martínez-Ramos, M. 2003. Influence of edge exposure on tree seedling species recruitment in tropical rain forest fragments. Biotropica 35(4):530-541.

Berberoglu, S., Yilmaz, K.T., and Özkan, C. 2004. Mapping and monitoring of coastal wetlands of Çukurova Delta in the eastern Mediterranean region. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):615-633.

Bestelmeyer, B.T., Miller, J.R., and Wiens, J.A. 2003. Applying species diversity theory to land management. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1750-1761.

Bigazzi, M., Duman, H., and Selvi, F. 2003. Anchusa limbata Boiss. & Heldr. (Boraginaceae): contribution to the knowledge of an enigmatic species from SW Turkey. Candollea 58(2):339-349.

Blacklow, W.M. 2003. Prospects for biodiversity in salinising landscapes - preface. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):I-IV.

Blandon, I.R., De León, F.J., Ward, R., Van den Bussche, R.A., and Needleman, D.S. 2003. Studies in conservation genetics of tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) - V. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):632-634.

Blanvillain, C., and Thorsen, M. 2003. The biology of the critically endangered Marquesan imperial-pigeon (Ducula galeata), Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Archipelago (French Polynesia). Emu 103(4):381-386.

Bosch, J., Boyero, L., and Martínez-Solano, Í. 2004. Spatial scales for the management of amphibian populations. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):409-420.

Briggs, S.V., and Taws, N. 2003. Impacts of salinity on biodiversity - clear understanding or muddy confusion? Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):609-617.

Britt, A., Welch, C., Katz, A., Iambana, B., Porton, I., Junge, R., Crawford, G., Williams, C., and Haring, D. 2004. The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):635-657.

Browne, S.J., and Aebischer, N.J. 2004. Temporal changes in the breeding ecology of European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur in Britain, and implications for conservation. Ibis 146(1):125-137.

Bull, A.T. 2004. Conservation and mobile peoples. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):291-292.

Burns, C.E., Ciofi, C., Beheregaray, L.B., Fritts, T.H., Gibbs, J.P., Márquez, C., Milinkovitch, M.C., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2003. The origin of captive Galápagos tortoises based on DNA analysis: implications for the management of natural populations. Anim. Conserv. 6:329-337.

Callaway, J.C., Sullivan, G., and Zedler, J.B. 2003. Species-rich plantings increase biomass and nitrogen accumulation in a wetland restoration experiment. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1626-1639.

Carroll, C., Noss, R.E., Paquet, P.C., and Schumaker, N.H. 2003. Use of population viability analysis and reserve selection algorithms in regional conservation plans. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1773-1789.

Chen, X.W., and Li, B.L. 2004. Tree diversity change in remaining primary mixed-broadleaved Korean pine forest under climate change and human activities. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):563-577.

Clarke, R.H., Oliver, D.L., Boulton, R.L., Cassey, P., and Clarke, M.F. 2003. Assessing programs for monitoring threatened species – a tale of three honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Wildlife Res. 30(5):427-435.

Cocks, P.S. 2003. Land-use change is the key to protecting biodiversity in salinising landscapes. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):627-635.

Coltman, D.W., O'Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J.T., Hogg, J.T., Strobeck, C., and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2003. Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting. Nature 426(6967):655-658.

Coomes, O.T. 2004. Rain forest 'conservation-through-use'? Chambira palm fibre extraction and handicraft production in a land-constrained community, Peruvian Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):351-360.

Correia, A.M. 2003. Food choice by the introduced crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 40(6):517-528.

Cozzolino, S., Noce, M.E., Musacchio, A., and Widmer, A. 2003. Variation at a chloroplast minisatellite locus reveals the signature of habitat fragmentation and genetic bottlenecks in the rare orchid Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 90(12):1681-1687.

Cuarón, A.D., Martínez-Morales, M.A., Mcfadden, K.W., Valenzuela, D., and Gompper, M.E. 2004. The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):317-331.

Currie, D., Bristol, R., Millett, J., and Shah, N.J. 2003. The distribution and population of Seychelles black paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone corvina on La Digue: implications for conservation and translocation. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):307-318.

Currie, D., Fanchette, R., Millett, J., Hoareau, C., and Shah, N.J. 2004. The distribution and population of the Seychelles (bare-legged) scops owl Otus insularis on Mahé: consequences for conservation. Ibis 146(1):27-37.

Dahanukar, N., Raut, R., and Bhat, A. 2004. Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. J. Biogeogr. 31(1):123-136.

Dalton, R. 2004. Wildlife attacks hinder conservation efforts. Nature 427(6973):385.

Daniels, R.J.R. 2003. Impact of tea cultivation on anurans in the Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 85(10):1415-1422.

Darden, S.K., Dabelsteen, T., and Pedersen, S.B. 2003. A potential tool for swift fox (Vulpes velox) conservation: individuality of long-range barking sequences. J. Mammal. 84(4):1417-1427.

Davis, J.A., McGuire, M., Halse, S.A., Hamilton, D., Horwitz, P., McComb, A.J., Froend, R.H., Lyons, M., and Sim, L. 2003. What happens when you add salt: predicting impacts of secondary salinisation on shallow aquatic ecosystems by using an alternative-states model. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):715-724.

Davis, J.A., van Blerk, L.L., Kirby, R., and Hecht, I. 2003. Genetic variation in the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1775) (Crustacea: Portunidae) in South African estuaries. Afr. Zool. 38(2):343-350.

de Lucas, M., Janss, G.F.E., and Ferrer, M. 2004. The effects of a wind farm on birds in a migration point: the Strait of Gibraltar. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):395-407.

Dietsch, T.V., Philpott, S.M., Rice, R.A., Greenberg, R., and Bichier, P. 2004. Conservation policy in coffee landscapes. Science 303(5658):625.

Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., and Stern, P.C. 2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302(5652):1907-1912.

Dogan, M., and Akaydin, G. 2003. An undescribed species of Acantholimon Boiss. sect. Staticopsis (Plumbaginaceae) from Turkey, with some notes on its ecology, conservation status, and relationships. Israel J. Plant Sci. 51(3):231-236.

du Rau, P.D., Barbraud, C., and Mondain-Monval, J.Y. 2003. Estimating breeding population size of the red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) in the Camargue (southern France) taking into account detection probability: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 6:379-385.

Dulvy, N.K., Sadovy, Y., and Reynolds, J.D. 2003. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish Fish. 4(1):25-64.

Dupont, L., and Viard, F. 2003. Isolation and characterization of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from the marine invasive species Crepidula fornicata (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):498-500.

Eby, L.A., Fagan, W.F., and Minckley, W.L. 2003. Variability and dynamics of a desert stream community. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1566-1579.

Edman, M., Gustafsson, M., Stenlid, J., and Ericson, L. 2004. Abundance and viability of fungal spores along a forestry gradient - responses to habitat loss and isolation? Oikos 104(1):35-42.

Edwards, T., Goldberg, C.S., Kaplan, M.E., Schwalbe, C.R., and Swann, D.E. 2003. PCR primers for microsatellite loci in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, Testudinidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):589-591.

Eggleston, J.E., Rixecker, S.S., and Hickling, G.J. 2003. The role of ethics in the management of New Zealand's wild mammals. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):361-376.

Eisermann, K. 2003. Status and conservation of yellow-headed parrot Amazona oratrix "guatemalensis" on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):361-366.

Emmerson, W., Cannicci, S., and Porri, F. 2003. New records for Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae) from mangroves in Mozambique and South Africa. Afr. Zool. 38(2):351-355.

Engelskjon, T., Lund, L., and Alsos, I.G. 2003. Twenty of the most thermophilous vascular plant species in Svalbard and their conservation state. Polar Res. 22(2):317-339.

Evans, K.L. 2004. The potential for interactions between predation and habitat change to cause population declines of farmland birds. Ibis 146(1):1-13.

French, G.C., Hollingsworth, P.M., and Ennos, R.A. 2003. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers for British Euphrasia L. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):626-628.

Friedman, C.S., and Finley, C.A. 2003. Anthropogenic introduction of the etiological agent of withering syndrome into northern California abalone populations via conservation efforts. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60(11):1424-1431.

Gainsbury, A.M., and Colli, G.R. 2003. Lizard assemblages from natural cerrado enclaves in southwestern Amazonia: the role of stochastic extinctions and isolation. Biotropica 35(4):503-519.

Garcia, D., and Obeso, J.R. 2003. Facilitation by herbivore-mediated nurse plants in a threatened tree, Taxus baccata: local effects and landscape level consistency. Ecography 26(6):739-750.

Garcia-Rossi, D., Rank, N., and Strong, D.R. 2003. Potential for self-defeating biological control? Variation in herbivore vulnerability among invasive Spartina genotypes. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1640-1649.

Gebrehiwot, K., Muys, B., Haile, M., and Mitloehner, R. 2003. Introducing Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst and its non-timber forest product, frankincense. Int. For. Rev. 5(4):348-353.

Gerber, L.R., Seabloom, E.W., Burton, R.S., and Reichman, O.J. 2003. Translocation of an imperilled woodrat population: integrating spatial and habitat patterns. Anim. Conserv. 6:309-316.

Giese, A.R., and Hedrick, P.W. 2003. Genetic variation and resistance to a bacterial infection in the endangered Gila topminnow. Anim. Conserv. 6:369-377.

Godinez-Alvarez, H., Valverde, T., and Ortega-Baes, P. 2003. Demographic trends in the Cactaceae. Bot. Rev. 69(2):173-203.

Gonzales, E.K., Arcese, P., Schulz, R., and Bunnell, F.L. 2003. Strategic reserve design in the central coast of British Columbia: integrating ecological and industrial goals. Can. J. Forest Res. 33(11):2129-2140.

Goss, K.F. 2003. Environmental flows, river salinity and biodiversity conservation: managing trade-offs in the Murray-Darling basin. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):619-625.

Grau, H.R., Aide, T.M., Zimmerman, J.K., Thomlinson, J.R., Helmer, E., and Zou, X.M. 2003. The ecological consequences of socioeconomic and land-use changes in postagriculture Puerto Rico. BioScience 53(12):1159-1168.

Green, J.L., and Ostling, A. 2003. Endemics-area relationships: the influence of species dominance and spatial aggregation. Ecology 84(11):3090-3097.

Gross, C.L., Bartier, F.V., and Mulligan, D.R. 2003. Floral structure, breeding system and fruit-set in the threatened sub-shrub Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae). Ann. Botany 92(6):771-777.

Gurnell, J., Wauters, L.A., Lurz, P.W.W., and Tosi, G. 2004. Alien species and interspecific competition: effects of introduced eastern grey squirrels on red squirrel population dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol. 73(1):26-35.

Hagelin, J.C. 2004. Observations on the olfactory ability of the kakapo Strigops habroptilus, the critically endangered parrot of New Zealand. Ibis 146(1):161-164.

Hald, A.B., Nielsen, A.L., Debosz, K., and Badsberg, J.H. 2003. Restoration of degraded low-lying grasslands: indicators of the environmental potential of botanical nature quality. Ecol. Eng. 21(1):1-20.

Halse, S.A., Ruprecht, J.K., and Pinder, A.M. 2003. Salinisation and prospects for biodiversity in rivers and wetlands of south-west Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):673-688.

Halupka, K.C., Willson, M.F., Bryant, M.D., Everest, F.H., and Gharrett, A.J. 2003. Conservation of population diversity of Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 23(4):1057-1086.

Hart, B.T., Lake, P.S., Webb, J.A., and Grace, M.R. 2003. Ecological risk to aquatic systems from salinity increases. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):689-702.

Harwood, J., and Stokes, K. 2003. Coping with uncertainty in ecological advice: lessons from fisheries. TREE 18(12):617-622.

Haugaasen, T., Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2003. Effects of surface fires on understorey insectivorous birds and terrestrial arthropods in central Brazilian Amazonia. Anim. Conserv. 6:299-306.

Hedrén, M. 2004. Species delimitation and the partitioning of genetic diversity - an example from the Carex flava complex (Cyperaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):293-316.

Helms, K.R., and Vinson, S.B. 2003. Apparent facilitation of an invasive mealybug by an invasive ant. Insect. Soc. 50(4):403-404.

Hennache, A., Rasmussen, P., Lucchini, V., Rimondi, S., and Randi, E. 2003. Hybrid origin of the imperial pheasant Lophura imperialis (Delacour and Jabouille, 1924) demonstrated by morphology, hybrid experiments, and DNA analyses. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 80(4):573-600.

Hennessey, A.B., Herzog, S.A., Kessler, M., and Robison, D. 2003. Avifauna of the Pilon Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Communal Lands, Bolivia. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):319-349.

Herranz, J.M., Ferrandis, P., and Copete, M.A. 2003. Influence of light and temperature on seed germination and ability of the endangered plant species Sisymbrium cavanillesianum to form persistent soil seed banks. Ecoscience 10(4):532-541.

Hobbs, R.J., Cramer, V.A., and Kristjanson, L.J. 2003. What happens if we cannot fix it? Triage, palliative care and setting priorities in salinising landscapes. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):647-653.

Hódar, J.A., and Zamora, R. 2004. Herbivory and climatic warming: a Mediterranean outbreaking caterpillar attacks a relict, boreal pine species. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):493-500.

Horne, B.D., Brauman, R.J., Moore, M.J.C., and Seigel, R.A. 2003. Reproductive and nesting ecology of the yellow-blotched map turtle, Graptemys flavimaculata: implications for conservation and management. Copeia 2003(4):729-738.

Huang, M.T., Tsao, E.H.S., and Yu, A.H.T. 2003. Isolation and cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci in the freshwater minnow Zacco pachycephalus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) for diversity and conservation genetic analysis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):567-569.

Hurt, C.R., and Hedrick, P.W. 2003. Initial stages of reproductive isolation in two species of the endangered Sonoran topminnow. Evolution 57(12):2835-2841.

Hutton, S.A., and Giller, P.S. 2003. The effects of the intensification of agriculture on northern temperate dung beetle communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(6):994-1007.

Ikeda, M., Nunokawa, M., and Taniguchi, N. 2003. Lack of mitochondrial gene flow between populations of the endangered amphidromous fish Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis inhabiting Amami-oshima Island. Fish. Sci. 69(6):1162-1168.

Jaberg, C., and Blant, J.D. 2003. Spatio-temporal utilisation of roosts by the parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus L., 1758 in Switzerland. Mamm. Biol. 68(6):341-350.

Jacquemyn, H., Butaye, J., and Hermy, M. 2003. Influence of environmental and spatial variables on regional distribution of forest plant species in a fragmented and changing landscape. Ecography 26(6):768-776.

Jakobs, G., Weber, E., and Edwards, P.J. 2004. Introduced plants of the invasive Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae) are larger and grow denser than conspecifics in the native range. Divers. Distrib. 10(1):11-19.

James, K.R., Cant, B., and Ryan, T. 2003. Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):703-713.

Jamieson, I.G., and Wilson, G.C. 2003. Immediate and long-term effects of translocations on breeding success in takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):299-306.

Jerina, K., Debeljak, M., Dzeroski, S., Kobler, A., and Adamic, M. 2003. Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia - a tool in the conservation management of a threatened species. Ecol. Model. 170(2-3):453-469.

Johns, P.M., and Boag, B. 2003. The spread and distribution of terrestrial planarians (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Geoplanidae) within New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 27(2):201-206.

Julliard, R., Jiguet, F., and Couvet, D. 2004. Common birds facing global changes: what makes a species at risk? Global Change Biol. 10(1):148-154.

Kala, C.P., Farooquee, N.A., and Dhar, U. 2004. Prioritization of medicinal plants on the basis of available knowledge, existing practices and use value status in Uttaranchal, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):453-469.

Karubian, J., Castaneda, G., Freile, J.F., Salazar, R.T., Santander, T., and Smith, T.B. 2003. Nesting biology of a female long-wattled umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger in north-western Ecuador. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):351-360.

Kauffman, M.J., Frick, W.F., and Linthicum, J. 2003. Estimation of habitat-specific demography and population growth for Peregrine falcons in California. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1802-1816.

Keitt, B.S., and Tershy, B.R. 2003. Cat eradication significantly decreases shearwater mortality. Anim. Conserv. 6:307-308.

Klak, C., Reeves, G., and Hedderson, T. 2004. Unmatched tempo of evolution in southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature 427(6969):63-65.

Koch, M., Dobeš, C., Bernhardt, K.G., and Kochjarová, J. 2003. Cochlearia macrorrhiza (Brassicaceae): a bridging species between Cochlearia taxa from the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians? Plant Syst. Evol. 242(1-4):137-147.

Kuo, C.H., and Janzen, F.J. 2003. BOTTLESIM: a bottleneck simulation program for long-lived species with overlapping generations. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):669-673.

Lafuma, L., Balkwill, K., Imbert, E., Verlaque, R., and Maurice, S. 2003. Ploidy level and origin of the European invasive weed Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 243(1-2):59-72.

Lane, C.P., and Andow, D.A. 2003. Oak savanna subhabitat variation and the population biology of Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 96(6):799-809.

Lawler, J.J., White, D., and Master, L.L. 2003. Integrating representation and vulnerability: two approaches for prioritizing areas for conservation. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1762-1772.

Lei, R.H., Hu, Z., Jiang, Z.G., and Yang, W.L. 2003. Phylogeography and genetic diversity of the critically endangered Przewalski's gazelle. Anim. Conserv. 6:361-367.

Leimgruber, P., Gagnon, J.B., Wemmer, C., Kelly, D.S., Songer, M.A., and Selig, E.R. 2003. Fragmentation of Asia's remaining wildlands: implications for Asian elephant conservation. Anim. Conserv. 6:347-359.

Lim, H.C., and Sodhi, N.S. 2004. Responses of avian guilds to urbanisation in a tropical city. Landscape Urban Plan. 66(4):199-215.

Liven-Schulman, I., Leshem, Y., Alon, D., and Yom-Tov, Y. 2004. Causes of population declines of the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni in Israel. Ibis 146(1):145-152.

Lopez-Pujol, J., Orellana, M.R., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanche, C. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on allozyme diversity and conservation status of the coastal sand dune plant Stachys maritima (Lamiaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Biol. 5(5):504-512.

Luoto, M., Rekolainen, S., Aakkula, J., and Pykala, J. 2003. Loss of plant species richness and habitat connectivity in grasslands associated with agricultural change in Finland. Ambio 32(7):447-452.

Lymbery, A.J., Doupé, R.G., and Pettit, N.E. 2003. Effects of salinisation on riparian plant communities in experimental catchments on the Collie River, Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):667-672.

Ma, Z.J., Li, B., Zhao, B., Jing, K., Tang, S.M., and Chen, J.K. 2004. Are artificial wetlands good alternatives to natural wetlands for waterbirds? A case study on Chongming Island, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):333-350.

Mac Nally, R., and Walsh, C.J. 2004. Hierarchical partitioning public-domain software. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):659-660.

Macdonald, D.W., and Harrington, L.A. 2003. The American mink: the triumph and tragedy of adaptation out of context. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):421-441.

Maclean, I.M.D., Hassall, M., Boar, R., and Nasirwa, O. 2003. Effects of habitat degradation on avian guilds in East African papyrus Cyperus papyrus swamps. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(4):283-297.

Maes, D., van Dyck, H., Vanreusel, W., and Cortens, J. 2003. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Flemish (north Belgium) wet heathlands, a declining habitat in Europe. Eur. J. Entomol. 100(4):545-555.

Maestre, F.T. 2004. On the importance of patch attributes, environmental factors and past human impacts as determinants of perennial plant species richness and diversity in Mediterranean semiarid steppes. Divers. Distrib. 10(1):20-28.

Maeto, K., and Sato, S. 2004. Impacts of forestry on ant species richness and composition in warm-temperate forests of Japan. Forest Ecol. Manag. 187(2-3):213-223.

Manne, L.L., and Williams, P.H. 2003. Building indicator groups based on species characteristics can improve conservation planning. Anim. Conserv. 6:291-297.

Mark, A.F., and Dickinson, K.J.M. 2003. Temporal responses over 30 years to removal of grazing from a mid-altitude snow tussock grassland reserve, Lammerlaw Ecological Region, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 41(4):655-667.

Martini, P., Schlindwein, C., and Montenegro, A. 2003. Pollination, flower longevity, and reproductive biology of Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz and Pavon (Orchidaceae) in an Atlantic forest fragment of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plant Biol. 5(5):495-503.

Mason, B. 2003. Ecologists attack endangered-species logjam. Nature 426(6967):592.

McKenzie, N.L., Burbidge, A.H., and Rolfe, J.K. 2003. Effect of salinity on small, ground-dwelling animals in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):725-740.

Mesquita, N., Cunha, C., Hänfling, B., Carvalho, G.R., Zé-Zé, L., Tenreiro, R., and Coelho, M.M. 2003. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endangered Portuguese freshwater fish Squalius aradensis (Cyprinidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):572-574.

Middleton, B.A. 2003. Soil seed banks and the potential restoration of forested wetlands after farming. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(6):1025-1034.

Miller, F.L., and Gunn, A. 2003. Catastrophic die-off of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic. Arctic 56(4):381-390.

Miller, S.E., Kress, W.J., and Samper K., C. 2004. Crisis for biodiversity collections. Science 303(5656):310.

Milne, T., Bull, C.M., and Hutchinson, M.N. 2003. Fitness of the endangered pygmy blue tongue lizard Tiliqua adelaidensis in artificial burrows. J. Herpetol. 37(4):762-765.

Milne, T., Bull, C.M., and Hutchinson, M.N. 2003. Use of burrows by the endangered pygmy blue-tongue lizard, Tiliqua adelaidensis (Scincidae). Wildlife Res. 30(5):523-528.

Mishra, B.P., Tripathi, O.P., Tripathi, R.S., and Pandey, H.N. 2004. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on plant diversity and community structure of a sacred grove in Meghalaya, northeast India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):421-436.

Mitsch, W.J., and Jorgensen, S.E. 2003. Ecological engineering: a field whose time has come. Ecol. Eng. 20(5):363-377.

Moore, J.L., Folkmann, M., Balmford, A., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Rahbek, C., Williams, P.H., and Krarup, J. 2003. Heuristic and optimal solutions for set-covering problems in conservation biology. Ecography 26(5):595-601.

Moore, N.P., Roy, S.S., and Helyar, A. 2003. Mink (Mustela vison) eradication to protect ground-nesting birds in the Western Isles, Scotland, United Kingdom. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):443-452.

Moscarella, R.A., Aguilera, M., and Escalante, A.A. 2003. Phylogeography, population structure, and implications for conservation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Venezuela. J. Mammal. 84(4):1300-1315.

Moser, D.M., Gygax, A., Baumler, B., Wyler, N., and Palese, R. 2003. 66th Swiss floristic notes (2002, 2nd Part; 2003, 1st Part). Bot. Helvetica 113(2):195-214.

Muller, S. 2004. Habitat assessment and strategy for conservation of Senecio sarracenicus L. populations along the river Moselle in France, at the western limit of its distribution range. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):361-371.

Murray, T.J., Barratt, B.I.P., and Dickinson, K.J.M. 2003. Comparison of the weevil fauna (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) in two tussock grassland sites in Otago, New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 33(4):703-714.

Myklestad, A., and Saetersdal, M. 2003. Effects of reforestation and intensified land use on vascular plant species richness in traditionally managed hay meadows. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 40(6):423-441.

Neufeld, D.L., Guralnick, R.P., Glaubitz, R., and Allen, J.R. 2003. Museum collections data and online mapping applications - a new resource for land managers. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(4):334-337.

Nielsen, D.L., Brock, M.A., Rees, G.N., and Baldwin, D.S. 2003. Effects of increasing salinity on freshwater ecosystems in Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):655-665.

Noon, B.R., Murphy, D.D., Beissinger, S.R., Shaffer, M.L., and Dellasala, D. 2003. Conservation planning for US National Forests: conducting comprehensive biodiversity assessments. BioScience 53(12):1217-1220.

Novotny, V., Miller, S.E., Cizek, L., Leps, J., Janda, M., Basset, Y., Weiblen, G.D., and Darrow, K. 2003. Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of Papua New Guinea. Ecol. Entomol. 28(6):704-716.

O'Brien, T.G., and Kinnaird, M.F. 2004. Conservation policy in coffee landscapes - response. Science 303(5658):625-626.

O'Dea, N., Watson, J.E.M., and Whittaker, R.J. 2004. Rapid assessment in conservation research: a critique of avifaunal assessment techniques illustrated by Ecuadorian and Madagascan case study data. Divers. Distrib. 10(1):55-63.

Ortega-Huerta, M.A., and Peterson, A.T. 2004. Modelling spatial patterns of biodiversity for conservation prioritization in north-eastern Mexico. Divers. Distrib. 10(1):39-54.

Otero, J.T., and Sandin, J.C. 2003. Capture rates of male euglossine bees across a human intervention gradient, Choco Region, Colombia. Biotropica 35(4):520-529.

Pandit, M.K., and Babu, C.R. 2003. The effects of loss of sex in clonal populations of an endangered perennial Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 143(1):47-54.

Parkes, J., and Murphy, E. 2003. Management of introduced mammals in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):335-359.

Parsons, K.N., and Jones, G. 2003. Dispersion and habitat use by Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri during the swarming season: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 6:283-290.

Pearson, M.P., and Healey, M.C. 2003. Life-history characteristics of the endangered Salish Sucker (Catostomus sp.) and their implications for management. Copeia 2003(4):759-768.

Perez-Gelabert, D.E., and Otte, D. 2003. Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae), a pest grasshopper introduced to Dominican Republic, Hispaniola. T. Am. Entomol. Soc. 129(3-4):543-548.

Peterson, A.T. 2003. Predicting the geography of species' invasions via ecological niche modeling. Q. Rev. Biol. 78(4):419-433.

Pieterse, A.H., Kettunen, M., Diouf, S., Ndao, I., Sarr, K., Tarvainen, A., Kloff, S., and Hellsten, S. 2003. Effective biological control of Salvinia molesta in the Senegal River by means of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae. Ambio 32(7):458-462.

Poschlod, P., Kleyer, M., Jackel, A.K., Dannemann, A., and Tackenberg, O. 2003. BIOPOP - a database of plant traits and internet application for nature conservation. Folia Geobot. 38(3):263-271.

Poulin, R. 2004. Parasite species richness in New Zealand fishes: a grossly underestimated component of biodiversity? Divers. Distrib. 10(1):29-37.

Pratt, D.G., Macmillan, D.C., and Gordon, I.J. 2004. Local community attitudes to wildlife utilisation in the changing economic and social context of Mongolia. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):591-613.

Raxworthy, C.J., Martinez-Meyer, E., Horning, N., Nussbaum, R.A., Schneider, G.E., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., and Peterson, A.T. 2003. Predicting distributions of known and unknown reptile species in Madagascar. Nature 426(6968):837-841.

Rindi, F., and Guiry, M.D. 2004. A long-term comparison of the benthic algal flora of Clare Island, County Mayo, western Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):471-492.

Robertson, H.A., and McGee, T.K. 2003. Applying local knowledge: the contribution of oral history to wetland rehabilitation at Kanyapella Basin, Australia. J. Environ. Manage. 69(3):275-287.

Robinson, A.C., Canty, P.D., Wace, N.M., and Barker, R.M. 2003. The Encounter 2002 Expedition to the Isles of St Francis, South Australia: flora and vegetation. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 127:107-128.

Robinson, A.C., Murray-Jones, S., Shepherd, S.A., and Wace, N.M. 2003. The Encounter 2002 Expedition to the Isles of St Francis, South Australia: formation of the islands, introductory narrative & marine conservation recommendations. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 127:69-73.

Rouget, M., and Richardson, D.M. 2003. Inferring process from pattern in plant invasions: a semimechanistic model incorporating propagule pressure and environmental factors. Am. Nat. 162(6):713-724.

Russell, I.C., and Potter, E.C.E. 2003. Implications of the precautionary approach for the management of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 10(6):395-401.

Sadovy, Y., and Cheung, W.L. 2003. Near extinction of a highly fecund fish: the one that nearly got away. Fish Fish. 4(1):86-99.

Samper, C. 2003. The millennium ecosystem assessment: science and policy for sustainable development. BioScience 53(12):1148-1149.

Sarà, M., and Di Vittori, M. 2003. Factors influencing the distribution, abundance and nest-site selection of an endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in Sicily. Anim. Conserv. 6:317-328.

Schmitt, T., and Hewitt, G.M. 2004. The genetic pattern of population threat and loss: a case study of butterflies. Mol. Ecol. 13(1):21-31.

Schmitz, O.J., Post, E., Burns, C.E., and Johnston, K.M. 2003. Ecosystem responses to global climate change: moving beyond color mapping. BioScience 53(12):1199-1205.

Schneider, V., and Pearce, D. 2004. What saved the whales? An economic analysis of 20th century whaling. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):543-562.

Schone, B.R., Flessa, K.W., Dettman, D.L., and Goodwin, D.H. 2003. Upstream dams and downstream clams: growth rates of bivalve mollusks unveil impact of river management on estuarine ecosystems (Colorado River Delta, Mexico). Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 58(4):715-726.

Schonhuth, S., Luikart, G., and Doadrio, I. 2003. Effects of a founder event and supplementary introductions on genetic variation in a captive breeding population of the endangered Spanish killifish. J. Fish Biol. 63(6):1538-1551.

Schwindt, E., Iribarne, O.O., and Isla, F.I. 2004. Physical effects of an invading reef-building polychaete on an Argentinean estuarine environment. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 59(1):109-120.

Sekhar, N.U. 2003. Local people's attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. J. Environ. Manage. 69(4):339-347.

Selonen, V., and Hanski, I.K. 2003. Movements of the flying squirrel Pteromys volans in corridors and in matrix habitat. Ecography 26(5):641-651.

Seymour, J., Paton, D.C., and Rogers, D.J. 2003. The conservation status of the rufous bristlebird, Dasyornis broadbenti, in South Australia. Emu 103(4):315-321.

Shibayama, Y., and Kadono, Y. 2003. Floral morph composition and pollen limitation in the seed set of Nymphoides indica populations. Ecol. Res. 18(6):725-737.

Shields, F.D., Cooper, C.M., Knight, S.S., and Moore, M.T. 2003. Stream corridor restoration research: a long and winding road. Ecol. Eng. 20(5):441-454.

Shipp, R.L. 2003. A perspective on marine reserves as a fishery management tool. Fisheries 28(12):10-21.

Siebert, S.J., Van Wyk, A.E., Bredenkamp, G.J., and Siebert, F. 2003. Vegetation of the rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism, South Africa. Bothalia 33(2):207-228.

Siemann, E., and Rogers, W.E. 2003. Increased competitive ability of an invasive tree may be limited by an invasive beetle. Ecol. Appl. 13(6):1503-1507.

Smith, D.A., Ralls, K., Hurt, A., Adams, B., Parker, M., Davenport, B., Smith, M.C., and Maldonado, J.E. 2003. Detection and accuracy rates of dogs trained to find scats of San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). Anim. Conserv. 6:339-346.

Smith, P.J., Webber, W.R., McVeagh, S.M., Inglis, G.J., and Gust, N. 2003. DNA and morphological identification of an invasive swimming crab, Charybdis japonica, in New Zealand waters. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 37(4):753-762.

Smith-Ramírez, C. 2004. The Chilean coastal range: a vanishing center of biodiversity and endemism in South American temperate rainforests. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):373-393.

Somershoe, S.G., Hudman, S.P., and Chandler, C.R. 2003. Habitat use by Swainson's warblers in a managed bottomland forest. Wilson Bull. 115(2):148-154.

Song, Z.P., Lu, B.R., and Chen, J.K. 2004. Pollen flow of cultivated rice measured under experimental conditions. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(3):579-590.

Sørensen, L.L. 2004. Composition and diversity of the spider fauna in the canopy of a montane forest in Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(2):437-452.

Spencer, P.B.S., Fletcher, T.P., and Woolley, P.A. 2003. Microsatellite markers from the Julia Creek dunnart, Sminthopsis douglasi (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(4):570-571.

Stevanovic, V., Tan, K., and Iatrou, G. 2003. Distribution of the endemic Balkan flora on serpentine - I. Obligate serpentine endemics. Plant Syst. Evol. 242(1-4):149-170.

Stibig, H.J., and Malingreau, J.P. 2003. Forest cover of insular Southeast Asia mapped from recent satellite images of coarse spatial resolution. Ambio 32(7):469-475.

Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., de Siqueira, M.F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L., and Williams, S.E. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427(6970):145-148.

Todd, J., Brown, E.J.G., and Wells, E. 2003. Ecological design applied. Ecol. Eng. 20(5):421-440.

Towns, D.R., and Broome, K.G. 2003. From small Maria to massive Campbell: forty years of rat eradications from New Zealand islands. New Zeal. J. Zool. 30(4):377-398.

Van Rossum, F., and Triest, L. 2003. Spatial genetic structure and reproductive success in fragmented and continuous populations of Primula vulgaris. Folia Geobot. 38(3):239-254.

Van Rossum, F., Vekemans, X., Gratia, E., and Meerts, P. 2003. A comparative study of allozyme variation of peripheral and central populations of Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllaceae) from Western Europe: implications for conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 242(1-4):49-61.

Walther, G.R. 2003. Are there indigenous palms in Switzerland? Bot. Helvetica 113(2):159-180.

Waltz, A.E.M., Fule, P.Z., Covington, W.W., and Moore, M.M. 2003. Diversity in ponderosa pine forest structure following ecological restoration treatments. Forest Sci. 49(6):885-900.

Weaver, P.L., and Chinea, J.D. 2003. Secondary subtropical dry forest at the La Tinaja tract of the Cartagena Lagoon National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. Caribbean J. Sci. 39(3):273-285.

Weber, M., and Gonzalez, S. 2003. Latin American deer diversity and conservation: a review of status and distribution. Ecoscience 10(4):443-454.

Wells, R.W., Bunnell, F.L., Haag, D., and Sutherland, G. 2003. Evaluating ecological representation within differing planning objectives for the central coast of British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 33(11):2141-2150.

Weltzin, J.F., Muth, N.Z., Von Holle, B., and Cole, P.G. 2003. Genetic diversity and invasibility: a test using a model system with a novel experimental design. Oikos 103(3):505-518.

Wickramasinghe, L.P., Harris, S., Jones, G., and Vaughan, N. 2003. Bat activity and species richness on organic and conventional farms: impact of agricultural intensification. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(6):984-993.

Wilcox, K.L., Petrie, S.A., Maynard, L.A., and Meyer, S.W. 2003. Historical distribution and abundance of Phragmites australis at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 29(4):664-680.

Winton, B.R., and Leslie, D.M. 2003. Nest sites and conservation of endangered interior least terns Sterna antillarum athalassos on an alkaline flat in the south-central Great Plains (USA). Acta Ornithol. 38(2):135-141.

Woodall, G.S., and Robinson, C.J. 2003. Natural diversity of Santalum spicatum host species in south-coast river systems and their incorporation into profitable and biodiverse revegetation. Aust. J. Bot. 51(6):741-753.

Worm, B., and Duffy, J.E. 2003. Biodiversity, productivity and stability in real food webs. TREE 18(12):628-632.

**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]