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Department ofBotany

No. 232
April 2004

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In This Issue

Undisturbed Amazonian Forests Are Changing

Ricardo Moreno is pictured with 'Bobby Comillos' the largest ocelot ever recorded in the wild in the Americas

A research team of U.S. and Brazilian scientists has shown that rainforests in central Amazonia are experiencing striking changes in dynamics and species composition. Although the cause of these changes — in what are believed to be completely undisturbed, old-growth forests — is uncertain, a leading explanation is that they are being driven by rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide levels have risen by 30 percent in the last 200 years as a result of industrial emissions, automobiles, and rapid forest burning, especially in the tropics. Much of this increase has occurred since 1960. Plants use carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis.

"The changes in Amazonian forests really jump out at you," said Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute staff scientist William Laurance, lead author of an article in the 11 March 2004 issue of Nature. "It's a little scary to realize that seemingly pristine forests can change so quickly and dramatically." For the past two decades, the research team studied the fate of nearly 14,000 trees in the central Amazon, scattered across a landscape of 120 square miles in area. During the course of the study, most species of trees began growing faster. The forests also became more dynamic, with existing trees dying faster and being replaced by young new trees. Even more important is that the species composition of the forest is changing. "There clearly are winners and losers," said Alexandre Oliveira of the University of São Paulo, Brazil, another team member. "In general, large, fast-growing trees are winning at the expense of smaller trees that live in the forest understory."

Exploring the Edge of Africa

Exploring the Edge of Africa

At the edge of Africa in a little-known region of Gabon called the Gamba Complex, hippos play in pre-dawn ocean surf, lumbering forest elephants and forest buffaloes share the beach with leatherbacks, all three species of crocodiles found in Africa lurk in swampy habitats, shy gorillas forage deep in the rainforest, and leopards stalk their prey. Two of Gabon's recently established national parks are in the Complex, protecting a variety of habitats and thousands of plant and animal species. Near the parks, oil wells pump the economic lifeblood of this politically stable African nation, while local villagers meld traditional ways with new influences.

International and Gabonese scientists have formed a remarkable coalition in a first-ever attempt to document the biodiversity at the Gamba Complex. Under the direction of the National Zoological Park's Smithsonian Institution/Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program (SI/MAB), collaborating researchers from the Smithsonian and partner organizations have traversed the region for three years, revealing its biological and ecological secrets. Descriptions of species common and rare — and some new to science — contribute to the millions of pieces of data that are being sorted, verified, and published in a number of scientific publications and reports.

Ricardo Moreno is pictured with 'Bobby Comillos' the largest ocelot ever recorded in the wild in the Americas

The latest fruits of the project were recently unveiled, not in the form of an article in a scientific journal, but as a stunning, full-color photography book, The Edge of Africa, by Carlton Ward Jr. (Photographer), Michelle Lee, Francisco Dallmeier, Alfonso Alonso. The book brings to light many of the hidden treasures of the previously unexplored rain forest, and helps celebrate both the remarkable biodiversity of Gabon and the ongoing science investigation. The book's launching, and the opening of a supporting exhibition, marked the beginning of Gabon's national biodiversity week. Dallmeier, MAB's director, points to such success stories as the natural outcome of sharing the wonders of the world's biodiversity. For more information, visit <>.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The artful Tigers in Crisis <> was produced by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about tigers and the global factors threatening their survival as a species. The site provides information about the tiger crisis, their status in the wild, solutions, and more. Site visitors can also learn about three endangered tiger subspecies — Bengal, Siberian, and Sumatran — through information, photos, and videos. Additionally, this site provides visitors access to free endangered tiger photos and images for educational, non-profit, and personal use.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2004.

Current Literature

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Alekhnovich, A.V., and Kulesh, V.F. 2004. New approaches to exploitation and conservation of crayfish populations. Russian J. Ecol. 35(1):42-45.

Allison, H.E., and Hobbs, R.J. 2004. Resilience, adaptive capacity, and the “Lock-in Trap” of the Western Australian agricultural region. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(1):3. <>

Apps, C.D., McLellan, B.N., Woods, J.G., and Proctor, M.F. 2004. Estimating grizzly bear distribution and abundance relative to habitat and human influence. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(1):138-152.

Ashton, E.C., Hogarth, P.J., and MacIntosh, D.J. 2003. A comparison of brachyuran crab community structure at four mangrove locations under different management systems along the Melaka Straits-Andaman Sea Coast of Malaysia and Thailand. Estuaries 26(6):1461-1471.

Baker, J.D., and Johanos, T.C. 2004. Abundance of the Hawaiian monk seal in the main Hawaiian Islands. Biol. Conserv. 116(1):103-110.

Baldi, A. 2003. Using higher taxa as surrogates of species richness: a study based on 3700 Coleoptera, Diptera, and Acari species in Central-Hungarian reserves. Basic Appl. Ecol. 4(6):589-593.

Basset, Y., Mavoungou, J.F., Mikissa, J.B., Missa, O., Miller, S.E., Kitching, R.L., and Alonso, A. 2004. Discriminatory power of different arthropod data sets for the biological monitoring of anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):709-732.

Basset, Y., Novotny, V., Miller, S.E., Weiblen, G.D., Missa, O., and Stewart, A.J.A. 2004. Conservation and biological monitoring of tropical forests: the role of parataxonomists. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(1):163-174.

Battersby, J.E., and Greenwood, J.J.D. 2004. Monitoring terrestrial mammals in the UK: past, present and future, using lessons from the bird world. Mammal Rev. 34(1-2):3-29.

Bauer, C.R., Kellogg, C.H., Bridgham, S.D., and Lamberti, G.A. 2003. Mycorrhizal colonization across hydrologic gradients in restored and reference freshwater wetlands. Wetlands 23(4):961-968.

Baum, J.K., and Myers, R.A. 2004. Shifting baselines and the decline of pelagic sharks in the Gulf of Mexico. Ecol. Lett. 7(2):135-145.

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Blom, A., Cipolletta, C., Brunsting, A.M.H., and Prins, H.H.T. 2004. Behavioral responses of gorillas to habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. Int. J. Primatol. 25(1):179-196.

Bolton, M., Medeiros, R., Hothersall, B., and Campos, A. 2004. The use of artificial breeding chambers as a conservation measure for cavity-nesting procellariiform seabirds: a case study of the Madeiran storm petrel (Oceanodroma castro). Biol. Conserv. 116(1):73-80.

Bramley, G.L.C., Pennington, R.T., Zakaria, R., Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S., and Cronk, Q.C.B. 2004. Assembly of tropical plant diversity on a local scale: Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) on Mount Kerinci, Sumatra. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 81(1):49-62.

Brandon-Jones, D., Eudey, A.A., Geissmann, T., Groves, C.P., Melnick, D.J., Morales, J.C., Shekelle, M., and Stewart, C.B. 2004. Asian primate classification. Int. J. Primatol. 25(1):97-164.

Brede, E.G., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2004. Contrasting population structures in two sympatric anurans: implications for species conservation. Heredity 92(2):110-117.

Brock, R.E., and Kelt, D.A. 2004. Keystone effects of the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat (Dipodomys stephensi). Biol. Conserv. 116(1):131-139.

Brogdon, S.M., Tabit, C.R., and Kral, L.G. 2003. Population structure of the Tallapoosa darter (Etheostoma tallapoosae). Southeast. Nat. 2(4):487-498.

Bronte, C.R., Ebener, M.P., Schreiner, D.R., Devault, D.S., Petzold, M.M., Jensen, D.A., Richards, C., and Lozano, S.J. 2003. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60(12):1552-1574.

Burke, A. 2003. Practical measures in arid land restoration after mining - a review for the southern Namib. S. Afr. J. Sci. 99(9-10):413-417.

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Callaway, R.M., Thelen, G.C., Rodriguez, A., and Holben, W.E. 2004. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion. Nature 427(6976):731-733.

Canbolat, A.F. 2004. A review of sea turtle nesting activity along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Biol. Conserv. 116(1):81-91.

Carlton, J.T. 2003. Community assembly and historical biogeography in the North Atlantic Ocean: the potential role of human-mediated dispersal vectors. Hydrobiologia 503(1-3):1-8.

Carruthers, R.I. 2004. Biological control of invasive species, a personal perspective. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):54-57.

Carter, S., and Eggli, U. 2003. The CITES Checklist of Succulent Euphorbia Taxa (Euphorbiaceae) (2nd edition). Landwirtschaftsverlag. Münster, Germany. 112 pp.

Choi, Y.D. 2004. Theories for ecological restoration in changing environment: toward 'futuristic' restoration. Ecol. Res. 19(1):75-81.

Clark, J.S., and McLachlan, J.S. 2004. The stability of forest biodiversity - reply. Nature 427(6976):696-697.

Coleman, F.C., Baker, P.B., and Koenig, C.C. 2004. A review of Gulf of Mexico marine protected areas: successes, failures, and lessons learned. Fisheries 29(2):10-21.

Crooks, K.R., Garcelon, D.K., Scott, C.A., Depue, J.E., Wilcox, J.T., Kimsey, R.B., and Van Vuren, D.H. 2004. Ectoparasites of a threatened insular endemic mammalian carnivore: the island spotted skunk. Am. Midl. Nat. 151(1):35-41.

Cusack, D., and Montagnini, F. 2004. The role of native species plantations in recovery of understory woody diversity in degraded pasturelands of Costa Rica. Forest Ecol. Manag. 188(1-3):1-15.

Czech, B., Magee, P., Trauger, D., Allen, E., and Hands, H. 2004. David M. Johns's "Necessity of new alliances'': an immediate opportunity. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):9-10.

Dalrymple, G.H., Doren, R.F., O'Hare, N.K., Norland, M.R., and Armentano, T.V. 2003. Plant colonization after complete and partial removal of disturbed soils for wetland restoration of former agricultural fields in Everglades National Park. Wetlands 23(4):1015-1029.

Davies, K.F., Margules, C.R., and Lawrence, J.F. 2004. A synergistic effect puts rare, specialized species at greater risk of extinction. Ecology 85(1):265-271.

del Monte-Luna, P., and Lluch-Belda, D. 2003. Vulnerability and body size: tetrapods versus fish. Pop. Ecol. 45(3):257-262.

Dennis, R.L.H., Hodgson, J.G., Grenyer, R., Shreeve, T.G., and Roy, D.B. 2004. Host plants and butterfly biology. Do host-plant strategies drive butterfly status? Ecol. Entomol. 29(1):12-26.

Denny, C.M., and Babcock, R.C. 2004. Do partial marine reserves protect reef fish assemblages? Biol. Conserv. 116(1):119-129.

Dietz, J.M., Aviram, R., Bickford, S., Douthwaite, K., Goodstine, A., Izursa, J.L., Kavanaugh, S., MacCarthy, K., O'Herron, M., and Parker, K. 2004. Defining leadership in conservation: a view from the top. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):274-278.

Doerries, M.B., and Van Dover, C.L. 2003. Higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness in chemosynthetic communities. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I 50(6):749-755.

Donald, P.F. 2004. Biodiversity impacts of some agricultural commodity production systems. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):17-37.

Donlan, C.J., and Martin, P.S. 2004. Role of ecological history in invasive species management and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):267-269.

du Toit, J.T., Walker, B.H., and Campbell, B.M. 2004. Conserving tropical nature: current challenges for ecologists. TREE 19(1):12-17.

Dunstan, P.K., and Johnson, C.R. 2004. Invasion rates increase with species richness in a marine epibenthic community by two mechanisms. Oecologia 138(2):285-292.

Dutta, S.K., Vasudevan, K., Chaitra, M.S., Shanker, K., and Aggarwal, R.K. 2004. Jurassic frogs and the evolution of amphibian endemism in the Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 86(1):211-216.

Eastwood, A., Gibby, M., and Cronk, Q.C.B. 2004. Evolution of St Helena arborescent Astereae (Asteraceae): relationships of the genera Commidendrum and Melanodendron. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144(1):69-83.

Elias, J.E., and Meyer, M.W. 2003. Comparisons of undeveloped and developed shorelands, northern Wisconsin, and recommendations for restoration. Wetlands 23(4):800-816.

Engeman, R.M., Smith, H.T., Shwiff, S.A., Constantin, B., Woolard, J., Nelson, M., and Griffin, D. 2003. Prevalence and economic value of feral swine damage to native habitat in three Florida state parks. Environ. Conserv. 30(4):319-324.

Epps, C.W., McCullough, D.R., Wehausen, J.D., Bleich, V.C., and Rechel, J.L. 2004. Effects of climate change on population persistence of desert-dwelling mountain sheep in California. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):102-113.

Estrada, A., Luecke, L., Van Belle, S., Barrueta, E., and Meda, M.R. 2004. Survey of black howler (Alouatta pigra) and spider (Ateles geoffroyi) monkeys in the Mayan sites of Calakmul and Yaxchilan, Mexico and Tikal, Guatemala. Primates 45(1):33-39.

Faith, D.P., Reid, C.A.M., and Hunter, J. 2004. Integrating phylogenetic diversity, complementarity, and endemism for conservation assessment. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):255-261.

Farnsworth, E.J., and Meyerson, L.A. 2003. Comparative ecophysiology of four wetland plant species along a continuum of invasiveness. Wetlands 23(4):750-762.

Fashing, P.J., Forrestel, A., Scully, C., and Cords, M. 2004. Long-term tree population dynamics and their implications for the conservation of the Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):753-771.

Fernandez, E.N., de la Tijera, C.P., and Cabrera, E.E. 2003. Ecological affinity and current distribution of primates (Cebidae) in Campeche, Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51(2):591-600.

Figge, F. 2004. Bio-folio: applying portfolio theory to biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):827-849.

Filipe, A.F., Marques, T.A., Seabra, S., Tiago, P., Ribeiro, F., Da Costa, L.M., Cowx, I.G., and Collares-Pereira, M.J. 2004. Selection of priority areas for fish conservation in Guadiana River basin, Iberian Peninsula. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):189-200.

Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Cowling, A. 2004. The challenge of managing multiple species at multiple scales: reptiles in an Australian grazing landscape. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(1):32-44.

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Fuller, D.O., Jessup, T.C., and Salim, A. 2004. Loss of forest cover in Kalimantan, Indonesia, since the 1997-1998 El Niño. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):249-254.

Galindo-Gonzalez, J., and Sosa, V.J. 2003. Frugivorous bats in isolated trees and riparian vegetation associated with human-made pastures in a fragmented tropical landscape. Southwest. Nat. 48(4):579-589.

Gering, J.C. 2004. Ecoregion as a pragmatic tool. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):5-6.

Godoy, J.A., Negro, J.J., Hiraldo, F., and Donazar, J.A. 2004. Phylogeography, genetic structure and diversity in the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, L.) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Mol. Ecol. 13(2):371-390.

Golding, J.S. 2004. The use of specimen information influences the outcomes of Red List assessments: the case of southern African plant specimens. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):773-780.

Goldstein, P.Z. 2004. Systematic collection data in North American invertebrate conservation and monitoring programmes. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(1):175-180.

González-Megías, A., Gómez, J.M., and Sánchez-Piñero, F. 2004. Effects of ungulates on epigeal arthropods in Sierra Nevada National Park (southeast Spain). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):733-752.

Goulding, M.J., Roper, T.J., Smith, G.C., and Baker, S.J. 2003. Presence of free-living wild boar Sus scrofa in southern England. Wildlife Biol. 9(Supp. 1):15-20.

Grace, O.M., Prendergast, H.D.V., Jager, A.K., and van Staden, J. 2003. Bark medicines used in traditional healthcare in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an inventory. S. Afr. J. Bot. 69(3):301-363.

Gradstein, S.R., Reiner-Drehwald, M.E., and Jost, L. 2004. The systematic position and distribution of Myriocolea irrorata (Lejeuneaceae), an endangered liverwort of the Ecuadorian Andes. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 95:235-248.

Greenberg, C.H., and Forrest, T.G. 2003. Seasonal abundance of ground-occurring macroarthropods in forest and canopy gaps in the Southern Appalachians. Southeast. Nat. 2(4):591-608.

Gunnarsson, B., Hake, M., and Hultengren, S. 2004. A functional relationship between species richness of spiders and lichens in spruce. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):685-693.

Gurnell, J., Lurz, P.W.W., Shirley, M.D.F., Cartmel, S., Garson, P.J., Magris, L., and Steele, J. 2004. Monitoring red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris and grey squirrels Sciurus carolinensis in Britain. Mammal Rev. 34(1-2):51-74.

Hachfeld, B. 2003. Ecology and Utilisation of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devils Claw) in Southern Africa. Landwirtschaftsverlag. Münster, Germany. 272 pp.

Hawkins, J.P., and Roberts, C.M. 2004. Effects of artisanal fishing on Caribbean coral reefs. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):215-226.

Hedge, P., Kriwoken, L.K., and Patten, K. 2003. A review of Spartina management in Washington State, US. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 41:82-90.

Herborg, L.M., Rushton, S.P., Clare, A.S., and Bentley, M.G. 2003. Spread of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards) in Continental Europe: analysis of a historical data set. Hydrobiologia 503(1-3):21-28.

Higuchi, H., Pierre, J.P., Krever, V., Andronov, V., Fujita, G., Ozaki, K., Goroshko, O., Ueta, M., Smirensky, S., and Mita, N. 2004. Using a remote technology in conservation: satellite tracking white-naped cranes in Russia and Asia. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):136-147.

Hilty, J.A., and Merenlender, A.M. 2004. Use of riparian corridors and vineyards by mammalian predators in northern California. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):126-135.

Hitt, N.P., Frissell, C.A., Muhlfeld, C.C., and Allendorf, F.W. 2003. Spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and nonnative rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60(12):1440-1451.

Hoddle, M.S. 2004. Restoring balance: using exotic species to control invasive exotic species. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):38-49.

Hoddle, M.S. 2004. The strength of biological control in the battle against invasive pests: a reply. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):61-64.

Hoffman, E.A., and Blouin, M.S. 2004. Historical data refute recent range contraction as cause of low genetic diversity in isolated frog populations. Mol. Ecol. 13(2):271-276.

Holway, D.A., and Suarez, A.V. 2004. Colony-structure variation and interspecific competitive ability in the invasive Argentine ant. Oecologia 138(2):216-222.

Hong, S.K., Kim, S., Cho, K.H., Kim, J.E., Kang, S., and Lee, D. 2004. Ecotope mapping for landscape ecological assessment of habitat and ecosystem. Ecol. Res. 19(1):130-139.

Hooker, S.K., and Gerber, L.R. 2004. Marine reserves as a tool for ecosystem-based management: the potential importance of megafauna. BioScience 54(1):27-39.

Hoover, C. 2003. Response to 'sex, drugs and animal parts: will Viagra save threatened species?'. Environ. Conserv. 30(4):317-318.

Hoving, C.L., Joseph, R.A., and Krohn, W.B. 2003. Recent and historical distributions of Canada lynx in Maine and the Northeast. Northeastern Nat. 10(4):363-382.

Huhta, E., Aho, T., Jäntti, A., Suorsa, P., Kuitunen, M., Nikula, A., and Hakkarainen, H. 2004. Forest fragmentation increases nest predation in the Eurasian treecreeper. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):148-155.

Hurtado-Gonzales, J.L., and Bodmer, R.E. 2004. Assessing the sustainability of brocket deer hunting in the Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Communal Reserve, northeastern Peru. Biol. Conserv. 116(1):1-7.

Janssen., M.A., and Scheffer, M. 2004. Overexploitation of renewable resources by ancient societies and the role of sunk-cost effects. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(1):6. <>

Janzen, D.H. 2004. Setting up tropical biodiversity for conservation through non-damaging use: participation by parataxonomists. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(1):181-187.

Jensen, W.E., and Finck, E.J. 2004. Edge effects on nesting dickcissels (Spiza americana) in relation to edge type of remnant tallgrass prairie in Kansas. Am. Midl. Nat. 151(1):192-199.

Johnson, W.E., Godoy, J.A., Palomares, F., Delibes, M., Fernandes, M., Revilla, E., and O'Brien, S.J. 2004. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of Iberian lynx populations. J. Heredity 95(1):19-28.

Joly, K. 2004. Stop the train! Conserv. Biol. 18(1):4.

Jones, C.B. 2003. Chest circumference differs by habitat in Costa Rica mantled howler monkeys: implications for resource allocation and conservation. Neotrop. Primates 11(1):22-24.

Kathe, W., Honnef, S., and Heym, A. 2003. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania. BfN-Skripten 91. Bundesamt für Naturschutz. Bonn, Germany.

Kercher, S.M., and Zedler, J.B. 2004. Multiple disturbances accelerate invasion of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in a mesocosm study. Oecologia 138(3):455-464.

Krauss, J., Schmitt, T., Seitz, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2004. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of the monophagous butterfly Polyommatus coridon along its northern range margin. Mol. Ecol. 13(2):311-320.

Krell, F.T. 2004. Parataxonomy vs. taxonomy in biodiversity studies - pitfalls and applicability of 'morphospecies' sorting. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(4):795-812.

Kreyer, D., Oed, A., Walther-Hellwig, K., and Frankl, R. 2004. Are forests potential landscape barriers for foraging bumblebees? Landscape scale experiments with Bombus terrestris agg. and Bombus pascuorum (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Biol. Conserv. 116(1):111-118.

Kumar, P. 2004. Challenges of restoration. BioScience 54(1):4-5.

Laliberte, A.S., and Ripple, W.J. 2004. Range contractions of North American carnivores and ungulates. BioScience 54(2):123-138.

Lankau, R.A., Rogers, W.E., and Siemann, E. 2004. Constraints on the utilisation of the invasive Chinese tallow tree Sapium sebiferum by generalist native herbivores in coastal prairies. Ecol. Entomol. 29(1):66-75.

Larsson, J.K., Sun, Y.H., Fang, Y., Segelbacher, G., and Höglund, J. 2003. Microsatellite variation in a Chinese grouse Bonasa sewerzowi population: signs of genetic impoverishment? Wildlife Biol. 9(4):261-266.

Lavelle, P., and Lapied, E. 2003. Endangered earthworms of Amazonia: an homage to Gilberto Righi. Pedobiologia 47(5-6):419-427.

Lee, C.E., Remfert, J.L., and Gelembiuk, G.W. 2003. Evolution of physiological tolerance and performance during freshwater invasions. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43(3):439-449.

Lennon, J.J., Koleff, P., Greenwood, J.J.D., and Gaston, K.J. 2004. Contribution of rarity and commonness to patterns of species richness. Ecol. Lett. 7(2):81-87.

Leopold, A.C. 2004. Living with the land ethic. BioScience 54(2):149-154.

Lersela, T., Witkowski, E.T.F., and Balkwill, K. 2003. Plant resources used for subsistence in Tsehlanyane and Bokong in Lesotho. Econ. Bot. 57(4):619-639.

Levy, S. 2004. Native incursions: avian range expansions imperil threatened species. BioScience 54(2):94-98.

Li, J.Q., Jiang, M.X., Wang, H.C., and Tian, Y.Q. 2004. Rediscovery of Berchemiella wilsonii (Schneid.) Nakai (Rhamnaceae), an endangered species from Hubei, Chlina. Acta Phytotaxon. Sin. 42(1):86-88.

Li, Y.M. 2004. The effect of forest clear-cutting on habitat use in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Primates 45(1):69-72.

Lodge, D.M., and Shrader-Frechette, K. 2004. Deep-history perspective on biological invasions: response to Donlan and Martin. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):270-271.

Loucougaray, G., Bonis, A., and Bouzillé, J.B. 2004. Effects of grazing by horses and/or cattle on the diversity of coastal grasslands in western France. Biol. Conserv. 116(1):59-71.

Louda, S.M., and Stiling, P. 2004. The double-edged sword of biological control in conservation and restoration. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):50-53.

Lovette, I.J., Clegg, S.M., and Smith, T.B. 2004. Limited utility of mtDNA markers for determining connectivity among breeding and overwintering locations in three Neotropical migrant birds. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):156-166.

Lusseau, D. 2004. The hidden cost of tourism: detecting long-term effects of tourism using behavioral information. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(1):2. <>

Magnusson, W.E. 2004. Ecoregion as a pragmatic tool. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):4-5.

Main, M.B. 2004. Mobilizing grass-roots conservation education: the Florida Master Naturalist Program. Conserv. Biol. 18(1):11-16.

Maldonado-Coelho, M., and Marini, M.Â. 2004. Mixed-species bird flocks from Brazilian Atlantic forest: the effects of forest fragmentation and seasonality on their size, richness and stability. Biol. Conserv. 116(1):19-26.

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