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Department ofBotany

No. 233
May 2004

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In This Issue

Barcode of Life Initiative Comes to Life

A consortium of major natural history museums and herbaria is launching the Barcode of Life Initiative, an emerging collaborative effort to promote a process enabling the rapid and inexpensive identification of the estimated 10 million species of Earth's fauna and flora. The Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History will host the Secretariat for the Consortium. Preliminary groundwork for the Initiative was carried out at two Banbury conferences on the use of DNA characters in taxonomy (classification of life) at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island, New York. These consultations favored the formation of the Consortium and basing its Secretariat during its foundational period at one of the world's largest and strongest taxonomic institutions, the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

The Barcode of Life Initiative will create a valuable public resource in the form of a rapidly growing electronic database that contains DNA barcodes linked to voucher specimens, images, and collateral information maintained by museums and related research institutions worldwide, including taxonomy, geographic distributions, natural history, and relevant medical and economic concerns. The Initiative is made possible by a $669,000, 30-month award from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation of New York City. Scott Miller, Senior Biodiversity Advisor to the Director, is coordinating the project for NMNH.

DNA barcoding is a diagnostic technique in which the sequence of a portion of a single gene is used for species identification. It is intended to promote the rapid and inexpensive identification of the estimated 10 million species of eucaryotic life on Earth. Scientific benefits of DNA barcoding include 1) facilitating species recognition, including flagging specimens that may represent species new to a geographic area or new to science; 2) enabling rapid, inexpensive, on-site identifications where traditional methods are inappropriate or impractical; 3) promoting development of portable technology for DNA barcode analysis that can be applied in the field; and 4) providing insight into the natural and evolutionary history of life via quick and reliable species-level identifications. Single-gene sequence data obtained also will contribute to multi-gene efforts to determine both deep and shallow evolutionary relationships.

Potential practical applications lie in many areas, including environmental genomics, biomedicine (identification of pathogens and disease vectors), agriculture (recognition of pest species), environment (identification of species that are endangered or whose trade or exploitation is restricted), national security (remote monitoring for bio-warfare agents), and enhanced bio-literacy among the general public. Initial efforts to apply DNA barcoding to animals have focused on a 645 base-pair fragment of the ubiquitous mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). COI-based identification systems cannot be applied with plants due to low sequence variation and the peculiarities of sequence evolution in plant mitochondria (i.e. RNA editing). Efforts to apply DNA barcoding to plants is in the preliminary stages, and is being coordinated by the Department of Botany at NMNH.

DNA barcoding is not intended to supplant or otherwise invalidate existing taxonomic practice; it is not "DNA-based taxonomy" but is an extension of the existing taxonomic system. Moreover, DNA barcoding should adhere to established professional standards for specimen and data management, including the routine deposition of voucher specimens in institutional collections, and freely accessible electronic databases and specimen images (see <>). By providing a simple and convenient molecular diagnostic tool, DNA barcoding is intended to enhance both the identification of existing species and the discovery of new ones, as well as provide other applied benefits to science and society.

The Consortium's purpose is the speedy completion of DNA barcoding for millions of species. The Secretariat at NMNH will help organize and expand the emerging Consortium of biodiversity institutions (museums, herbaria, molecular systematics laboratories, and conservation sites) galvanized by the two meetings of the community at Cold Spring Harbor last year. DNA barcoding activities will be done in collaboration with major related initiatives such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, GenBank, and the Census of Marine Life. Some of the American organizations participating in the new Consortium include the Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia), Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis), Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, Massachusetts), and Scripps Marine Science Institute (San Diego). International organizations include the Canadian Museum of Nature, CSIRO Marine Research (Australia), Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio, Costa Rica), Natural History Museum (London), the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER), as well as institutions in France, Japan, and many other countries.

Current Literature

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Andersen, A.N., Woinarski, J.C.Z., and Hoffmann, B.D. 2004. Biogeography of the ant fauna of the Tiwi Islands, in northern Australia's monsoonal tropics. Aust. J. Zool. 52(1):97-110.

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Arrendal, J., Walker, C.W., Sundqvist, A.K., Hellborg, L., and Vilà, C. 2004. Genetic evaluation of an otter translocation program. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):79-88.

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Bacles, C.F.E., Lowe, A.J., and Ennos, R.A. 2004. Genetic effects of chronic habitat fragmentation on tree species: the case of Sorbus aucuparia in a deforested Scottish landscape. Mol. Ecol. 13(3):573-584.

Bartha, S., Meiners, S.J., Pickett, S.T.A., and Cadenasso, M.L. 2003. Plant colonization windows in a mesic old field succession. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):205-212.

Belote, R.T., Weltzin, J.F., and Norby, R.J. 2004. Response of an understory plant community to elevated [CO2] depends on differential responses of dominant invasive species and is mediated by soil water availability. New Phytol. 161(3):827-835.

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Bernardello, G., Aguilar, R., and Anderson, G.J. 2004. The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe. Am. J. Bot. 91(2):198-206.

Blomqvist, M.M., Bekker, R.M., and Vos, P. 2003. Restoration of ditch bank plant species richness: the potential of the soil seed bank. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):179-188.

Bohlen, J., Slechtova, V., Sanda, R., Kalous, L., Freyhof, J., Vukic, J., and Mrdak, D. 2003. Cobitis ohridana and Barbatula zetensis in the River Moraca basin, Montenegro: distribution, habitat, population structure and conservation needs. Folia Biol-Krakow 51:147-153.

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Braby, M.F., and Douglas, F. 2004. The taxonomy, ecology and conservation status of the golden-rayed blue: a threatened butterfly endemic to western Victoria, Australia. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 81(2):275-299.

Braks, M.A.H., Honorio, N.A., Lounibos, L.P., Lourenco-De-Oliveira, R., and Juliano, S.A. 2004. Interspecific competition between two invasive species of container mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Brazil. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 97(1):130-139.

Briani, D.C., Palma, A.R.T., Vieira, E.M., and Henriques, R.P.B. 2004. Post-fire succession of small mammals in the Cerrado of central Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):1023-1037.

Brock, R.E., and Kelt, D.A. 2004. Conservation and social structure of Stephens' kangaroo rat: implications from burrow-use behavior. J. Mammal. 85(1):51-57.

Brotons, L., Mañosa, S., and Estrada, J. 2004. Modelling the effects of irrigation schemes on the distribution of steppe birds in Mediterranean farmland. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):1039-1058.

Bubb, D.H., Thom, T.J., and Lucas, M.C. 2004. Movement and dispersal of the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in upland rivers. Freshwater Biol. 49(3):357-368.

Bull, J.S., Reed, D.C., and Holbrook, S.J. 2004. An experimental evaluation of different methods of restoring Phyllospadix torreyi (surfgrass). Restor. Ecol. 12(1):70-79.

Cassinello, J., Serrano, E., Calabuig, G., and Pérez, J.M. 2004. Range expansion of an exotic ungulate (Ammotragus lervia) in southern Spain: ecological and conservation concerns. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):851-866.

Causton, C.E., Lincango, M.P., and Poulsom, T.G.A. 2004. Feeding range studies of Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant), a candidate biological control agent of Icerya purchasi Maskell in the Galápagos Islands. Biol. Control 29(3):315-325.

Chapman, M.G. 2003. Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: effects of urbanization on biodiversity. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:21-29.

Chiarucci, A. 2003. Vegetation ecology and conservation on Tuscan ultramafic soils. Bot. Rev. 69(3):252-268.

Chouteau, P., Fenosoa, R., and Rakotoarimanana, V. 2004. Habitat selection and density of couas in Madagascar: implication for their conservation. C.R. Biologies 327(1):37-50.

Clemente, A.S., Werner, C., Máguas, C., Cabral, M.S., Martins-Loução, M.A., and Correia, O. 2004. Restoration of a limestone quarry: effect of soil amendments on the establishment of native Mediterranean sclerophyllous shrubs. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):20-28.

Colautti, R.I., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2004. A neutral terminology to define 'invasive' species. Divers. Distrib. 10(2):135-141.

Colling, G., and Matthies, D. 2004. The effects of plant population size on the interactions between the endangered plant Scorzonera humilis, a specialised herbivore, and a phytopathogenic fungus. Oikos 105(1):71-78.

Corbin, J.D., and D'antonio, C.M. 2004. Can carbon addition increase competitiveness of native grasses? A case study from California. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):36-43.

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Craine, S.I., and Orians, C.M. 2004. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) invasion of Cape Cod pond shores alters abiotic environment and inhibits indigenous herbaceous species. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):181-189.

Culling, M.A., Valero, I.L., and Cote, I.M. 2003. Substratum preferences and diel activity patterns of spined loach Cobitis taenia in England: implications for conservation management. Folia Biol-Krakow 51:129-133.

Cumming, M.S., and Wesolowska, W. 2004. Habitat separation in a species-rich assemblage of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in a suburban study site in Zimbabwe. J. Zool. 262:1-10.

Dalén, L., Götherström, A., and Angerbjörn, A. 2004. Identifying species from pieces of faeces. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):109-111.

Dauber, J., and Wolters, V. 2004. Edge effects on ant community structure and species richness in an agricultural landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):901-915.

Davis, M.A., and Slobodkin, L.B. 2004. The science and values of restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):1-3.

de Graaf, M., Machiels, M.A.M., Wudneh, T., and Sibbing, F.A. 2004. Declining stocks of Lake Tana's endemic Barbus species flock (Pisces, Cyprinidae): natural variation or human impact? Biol. Conserv. 116(2):277-287.

Delic, A., Bucar, M., Kucinic, M., and Mrakovcic, M. 2003. New data about distribution of Sabanejewia balcanica (Karaman, 1922) (Cobitidae) in Croatia. Folia Biol-Krakow 51:39-42.

Derner, J.D., Polley, H.W., Johnson, H.B., and Tischler, C.R. 2004. Structural attributes of Schizachyrium scoparium in restored Texas blackland prairies. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):80-84.

Desmond, M. 2004. Effects of grazing practices and fossorial rodents on a winter avian community in Chihuahua, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):235-242.

Dewalt, S.J., Denslow, J.S., and Ickes, K. 2004. Natural-enemy release facilitates habitat expansion of the invasive tropical shrub Clidemia hirta. Ecology 85(2):471-483.

Dodds, W.K., Gido, K., Whiles, M.R., Fritz, K.M., and Matthews, W.J. 2004. Life on the edge: the ecology of great plains prairie streams. BioScience 54(3):205-216.

Donlan, M., Sperduto, M., and Hebert, C. 2003. Compensatory mitigation for injury to a threatened or endangered species: scaling piping plover restoration. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:213-219.

Driscoll, D.A. 2004. Extinction and outbreaks accompany fragmentation of a reptile community. Ecol. Appl. 14(1):220-240.

Edwards, G.P., Pople, A.R., Saalfeld, K., and Caley, P. 2004. Introduced mammals in Australian rangelands: future threats and the role of monitoring programmes in management strategies. Austral Ecol. 29(1):40-50.

Elliott, C.P., and Byrne, M. 2004. Phylogenetics and the conservation of rare taxa in the Eucalyptus angustissima complex in Western Australia. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):39-47.

Erickson, B., and Navarrete-Tindall, N.E. 2004. Missouri native ecotype program: increasing local-source native seed. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):15-22.

Eros, T., Sallai, Z., and Kotusz, J. 2003. Distribution and conservation status of loaches in Hungary. Folia Biol-Krakow 51:17-19.

Etienne, R.S., Vos, C.C., and Jansen, M.J.W. 2003. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence. Environ. Manage. 32(6):760-777.

Fehmi, J.S., Rice, K.J., and Laca, E.A. 2004. Radial dispersion of neighbors and the small-scale competitive impact of two annual grasses on a native perennial grass. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):63-69.

Feinstein, J. 2004. DNA sequence from butterfly frass and exuviae. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):103-104.

Ferguson, S.H., and Elkie, P.C. 2004. Seasonal movement patterns of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). J. Zool. 262:125-134.

Florentine, S.K., and Westbrooke, M.E. 2004. Evaluation of alternative approaches to rainforest restoration on abandoned pasturelands in tropical north Queensland, Australia. Land Degrad. Dev. 15(1):1-13.

Forrest, A.D., Hollingsworth, M.L., Hollingsworth, P.M., Sydes, C., and Bateman, R.M. 2004. Population genetic structure in European populations of Spiranthes romanzoffiana set in the context of other genetic studies on orchids. Heredity 92(3):218-227.

Fowler, S.P., and Larson, K.C. 2004. Seed germination and seedling, recruitment of Japanese honeysuckle in a central Arkansas natural area. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):49-53.

Fowler, S.V. 2004. Biological control of an exotic scale, Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae), saves the endemic gumwood tree, Commidendrum robustum (Roxb.) DC. (Asteraceae) on the Island of St. Helena. Biol. Control 29(3):367-374.

Fukami, H., Budd, A.F., Paulay, G., Sole-Cava, A., Chen, C.L.A., Iwao, K., and Knowlton, N. 2004. Conventional taxonomy obscures deep divergence between Pacific and Atlantic corals. Nature 427(6977):832-835.

Garcia, D., and Zamora, R. 2003. Persistence, multiple demographic strategies and conservation in long-lived Mediterranean plants. J. Veg. Sci. 14(6):921-926.

Gard, M. 2004. Potential for restoration of a California stream native fish assemblage. Calif. Fish Game 90(1):29-35.

Gard, M., and Randall, P. 2004. Setting priorities for native fish conservation: an example from the South Yuba River watershed. Calif. Fish Game 90(1):1-12.

Gehring, T.M., and Swihart, R.K. 2004. Home range and movements of long-tailed weasels in a landscape fragmented by agriculture. J. Mammal. 85(1):79-86.

Ginsberg, J. 2004. Enhancement of survival or abandonment of the Endangered Species Act? BioScience 54(3):180-181.

Gómez-Pompa, A. 2004. The role of biodiversity scientists in a troubled world. BioScience 54(3):217-225.

Gondard, H., Sandrine, J., Aronson, J., and Lavorel, S. 2003. Plant functional types: a promising tool for management and restoration of degraded lands. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):223-234.

Grice, A.C. 2004. Weeds and the monitoring of biodiversity in Australian rangelands. Austral Ecol. 29(1):51-58.

Grubbs, H.J., and Case, M.A. 2004. Allozyme variation in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.): variation, breeding system, and implications for current conservation practice. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):13-23.

Gu, W.D., and Swihart, R.K. 2004. Absent or undetected? Effects of non-detection of species occurrence on wildlife-habitat models. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):195-203.

Guo, Z.W., Gan, Y.L., and Li, Y.M. 2003. Spatial pattern of ecosystem function and ecosystem conservation. Environ. Manage. 32(6):682-692.

Hager, H.A. 2004. Competitive effect versus competitive response of invasive and native wetland plant species. Oecologia 139(1):140-149.

Hammond, H.E.J., Langor, D.W., and Spence, J.R. 2004. Saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) using Populus in boreal aspen stands of western Canada: spatiotemporal variation and conservation of assemblages. Can. J. Forest Res. 34(1):1-19.

Hawkes, C.V. 2004. Effects of biological soil crusts on seed germination of four endangered herbs in a xeric Florida shrubland during drought. Plant Ecol. 170(1):121-134.

Hayes, G.F., and Holl, K.D. 2003. Site-specific responses of native and exotic species to disturbances in a mesic grassland community. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):235-244.

Helmer, E.H. 2004. Forest conservation and land development in Puerto Rico. Landscape Ecol. 19(1):29-40.

Hoffmann, W.A., Lucatelli, V.M.P.C., Silva, F.J., Azeuedo, I.N.C., Marinho, M.D., Albuquerque, A.M.S., Lopes, A.D., and Moreira, S.P. 2004. Impact of the invasive alien grass Melinis minutiflora at the savanna-forest ecotone in the Brazilian cerrado. Divers. Distrib. 10(2):99-103.

Hortal, J., Garcia-Pereira, P., and Garcia-Barros, E. 2004. Butterfly species richness in mainland Portugal: predictive models of geographic distribution patterns. Ecography 27(1):68-82.

Hölzel, N., and Otte, N. 2003. Restoration of a species-rich flood meadow by topsoil removal and diaspore transfer with plant material. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):131-140.

Hsu, K.C., Wang, J.P., Chen, X.L., and Chiang, T.Y. 2004. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Acrossocheilus paradoxus (Cyprinidae) using PCR-based isolation of microsatellite arrays (PIMA). Conserv. Genet. 5(1):113-115.

Hura, C.E., and Crow, T.R. 2004. Woody debris as a component of ecological diversity in thinned and unthinned northern hardwood forests. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):57-64.

Ims, R.A., Leinaas, H.P., and Coulson, S. 2004. Spatial and temporal variation in patch occupancy and population density in a model system of an arctic Collembola species assemblage. Oikos 105(1):89-100.

James, C.D. 2004. Trapping intensities for sampling ants in Australian rangelands. Austral Ecol. 29(1):78-86.

Jones, R.C., Vaillancourt, R.E., and Jordan, G.J. 2004. Microsatellites for use in Nothofagus cunninghamii (Nothofagaceae) and related species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):14-16.

Jusaitis, M., Polomka, L., and Sorensen, B. 2004. Habitat specificity, seed germination and experimental translocation of the endangered herb Brachycome muelleri (Asteraceae). Biol. Conserv. 116(2):251-266.

Kala, C.P. 2004. Pastoralism, plant conservation, and conflicts on proliferation of Himalayan knotweed in high altitude protected areas of the Western Himalaya, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):985-995.

Kalisz, P.J., and Powell, J.E. 2004. Exotic isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda) in disturbed and undisturbed forest soils on the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):54-56.

Karere, G.M., Oguge, N.O., Kirathe, J., Muoria, P.K., Moinde, N.N., and Suleman, M.A. 2004. Population sizes and distribution of primates in the lower Tana River forests, Kenya. Int. J. Primatol. 25(2):351-365.

Katti, M., and Warren, P.S. 2004. Tits, noise and urban bioacoustics. TREE 19(3):109-110.

Keeler-Foster, C.L., Spies, I.B., Bondu-Hawkins, V., and Bentzen, P. 2004. Development of microsatellite markers in bonytail (Gila elegans) with cross-species amplification in humpback chub (Gila cypha). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):23-25.

Kephart, S.R. 2004. Inbreeding and reintroduction: progeny success in rare Silene populations of varied density. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):49-61.

Kevan, P.G., and Viana, B.F. 2003. The global decline of pollination services. Biodiversity 4(4):3-8.

Khater, C., Martin, A., and Maillet, J. 2003. Spontaneous vegetation dynamics and restoration prospects for limestone quarries in Lebanon. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):199-204.

Kitahara, M. 2004. Butterfly community composition and conservation in and around a primary woodland of Mount Fuji, central Japan. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):917-942.

Kobza, R.M., Trexler, J.C., Loftus, W.F., and Perry, S.A. 2004. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):153-165.

Konishi, M., and Takata, K. 2004. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):64-66.

Korb, J.E., Johnson, N.C., and Covington, W.W. 2004. Slash pile burning effects on soil biotic and chemical properties and plant establishment: recommendations for amelioration. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):52-62.

Kupschus, S. 2003. Development and evaluation of statistical habitat suitability models: an example based on juvenile spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 265:197-212.

Lafferty, K.D., Behrens, M.D., Davis, G.E., Haaker, P.L., Kushner, D.J., Richards, D.V., Taniguchi, I.K., and Tegner, M.J. 2004. Habitat of endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):191-194.

Landsberg, J., and Crowley, G. 2004. Monitoring rangeland biodiversity: plants as indicators. Austral Ecol. 29(1):59-77.

Larkin, J.L., Cox, J.J., Wichrowski, M.W., Dzialak, M.R., and Maehr, D.S. 2004. Influences on release-site fidelity of translocated elk. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):97-105.

Lecis, R., and Norris, K. 2003. Geographical distribution of the endemic Sardinian brook salamander, Euproctus platycephalus, and implications for its conservation. Herp. J. 13(3):125-133.

Lee, C.S., Cho, H.J., and Yi, H. 2004. Stand dynamics of introduced black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) plantation under different disturbance regimes in Korea. Forest Ecol. Manag. 189(1-3):281-293.

Lewison, R.L., Freeman, S.A., and Crowder, L.B. 2004. Quantifying the effects of fisheries on threatened species: the impact of Pelagic longlines on loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles. Ecol. Lett. 7(3):221-231.

Li, W.P., and Zhang, Z.G. 2004. Aster shennongjiaensis (Asteraceae), a new species from central China. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 45(1):95-99.

Ludwig, J.A., Tongway, D.J., Bastin, G.N., and James, C.D. 2004. Monitoring ecological indicators of rangeland functional integrity and their relation to biodiversity at local to regional scales. Austral Ecol. 29(1):108-120.

Lyman, R.L. 2004. Biogeographic and conservation implications of late Quaternary pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) in eastern Washington. West. N. Am. Naturalist 64(1):1-6.

Lynch, A.M. 2004. Fate and characteristics of Picea damaged by Elatobium abietinum (Walker) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the White Mountains of Arizona. West. N. Am. Naturalist 64(1):7-17.

Lytle, D.A., and Poff, N.L. 2004. Adaptation to natural flow regimes. TREE 19(2):94-100.

Ma, K.M., Fu, B.J., Liu, S.L., Guan, W.B., Liu, G.H., Lu, Y.H., and Anand, M. 2004. Multiple-scale soil moisture distribution and its implications for ecosystem restoration in an arid river valley, China. Land Degrad. Dev. 15(1):75-85.

Mac Nally, R., Ellis, M., and Barrett, G. 2004. Avian biodiversity monitoring in Australian rangelands. Austral Ecol. 29(1):93-99.

Manley, P.N., Zielinski, W.J., Schlesinger, M.D., and Mori, S.R. 2004. Evaluation of a multiple-species approach to monitoring species at the ecoregional scale. Ecol. Appl. 14(1):296-310.

Matejková, I., van Diggelen, R., and Prach, K. 2003. An attempt to restore a central European species-rich mountain grassland through grazing. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):161-168.

Mattingly, H.T., and Galat, D.L. 2004. Predictive performance of a summer microhabitat model for the threatened Niangua darter, Etheostoma nianguae. J. Freshwater Ecol. 19(1):109-114.

Matus, G., Tóthmérész, B., and Papp, M. 2003. Restoration prospects of abandoned species-rich sandy grassland in Hungary. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):169-178.

Maudet, C., Beja-Pereira, A., Zeyl, E., Nagash, H., Kence, A., Özüt, D., Biju-Duval, M.P., Boolormaa, S., Coltman, D.W., Taberlet, P., and Luikart, G. 2004. A standard set of polymorphic microsatellites for threatened mountain ungulates (Caprini, Artiodactyla). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):49-55.

Mazerolle, M.J. 2004. Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in traffic intensity. Herpetologica 60(1):45-53.

McCay, D.P.F., Gibson, M., and Cobb, J.S. 2003. Scaling restoration of American lobsters: combined demographic and discounting model for an exploited species. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:177-196.

McCay, D.P.F., and Rowe, J.J. 2003. Habitat restoration as mitigation for lost production at multiple trophic levels. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:233-247.

Murray, S.W., and Kurta, A. 2004. Nocturnal activity of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). J. Zool. 262:197-206.

Myers, J.A., Vellend, M., Gardescu, S., and Marks, P.L. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139(1):35-44.

Neumann, K., and Jansman, H. 2004. Polymorphic microsatellites for the analysis of endangered common hamster populations (Cricetus cricetus L.). Conserv. Genet. 5(1):127-130.

Novák, J., and Prach, K. 2003. Vegetation succession in basalt quarries: pattern on a landscape scale. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):111-116.

O'Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., Nurcahyo, A., Iqbal, M., and Rusmanto, M. 2004. Abundance and distribution of sympatric gibbons in a threatened Sumatran rain forest. Int. J. Primatol. 25(2):267-284.

Ocak, A. 2003. A new species of Campanula L. (Campanulaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey. Israel J. Plant Sci. 51(4):321-325.

Ochoa-Gaona, S., González-Espinosa, M., Meave, J.A., and Bon, V.S.D. 2004. Effect of forest fragmentation on the woody flora of the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):867-884.

Okey, T.A., Banks, S., Born, A.R., Bustamante, R.H., Calvopiña, M., Edgar, G.J., Espinoza, E., Fariña, J.M., Garske, L.E., Reck, G.K., Salazar, S., Shepherd, S., Toral-Granda, V., and Wallem, P. 2004. A trophic model of a Galápagos subtidal rocky reef for evaluating fisheries and conservation strategies. Ecol. Model. 172(2-4):383-401.

Onorato, D.P., Hellgren, E.C., Van Den Bussche, R.A., and Doan-Crider, D.L. 2004. Phylogeographic patterns within a metapopulation of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the American Southwest. J. Mammal. 85(1):140-147.

Ostberg, C.O., and Rodriguez, R.J. 2004. Bi-parentally inherited species-specific markers identify hybridization between rainbow trout and cutthroat trout subspecies. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):26-29.

Parenti, L.R., and Soeroto, B. 2004. Adrianichthys roseni and Oryzias nebulosus, two new ricefishes (Atherinomorpha: Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae) from Lake Poso, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ichthyol. Res. 51(1):10-19.

Pastorini, J., Fernando, P., Melnick, D.J., and Forstner, M.R.J. 2004. Isolation of 10 microsatellite markers for mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):67-69.

Pearl, C.A., Adams, M.J., Bury, R.B., and McCreary, B. 2004. Asymmetrical effects of introduced bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) on native Ranid frogs in Oregon. Copeia 2004(1):11-20.

Perry, L.G., and Galatowitsch, S.M. 2004. The influence of light availability on competition between Phalaris arundinacea and a native wetland sedge. Plant Ecol. 170(1):73-81.

Peterson, C.H., Grabowski, J.H., and Powers, S.P. 2003. Estimated enhancement of fish production resulting from restoring oyster reef habitat: quantitative valuation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:249-264.

Peterson, C.H., Kneib, R.T., and Manen, C.A. 2003. Scaling restoration actions in the marine environment to meet quantitative targets of enhanced ecosystem services. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:173-175.

Peterson, C.H., and Lipcius, R.N. 2003. Conceptual progress towards predicting quantitative ecosystem benefits of ecological restorations. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:297-307.

Platt, S.G., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L., Stuart, B.L., and Walston, J. 2003. Crocodylus siamensis along the Sre Ambel River, southern Cambodia: habitat, nesting, and conservation. Herpetol. Nat. Hist. 9(2):165-169.

Platt, S.G., Stuart, B.L., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L., Kalyar, and Kimchay, H. 2003. Rediscovery of the critically endangered river terrapin, Batagur baska, in Cambodia, with notes on occurrence, reproduction, and conservation status. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(3):691-695.

Poole, K.E., and Downing, J.A. 2004. Relationship of declining mussel biodiversity to stream-reach and watershed characteristics in an agricultural landscape. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 23(1):114-125.

Poulsen, J.R., and Clark, C.J. 2004. Densities, distributions, and seasonal movements of gorillas and chimpanzees in swamp forest in northern Congo. Int. J. Primatol. 25(2):285-306.

Povz, M., and Sumer, S. 2003. Status, distribution and morphometric/meristic characteristics of Cobitis elongata Heckel et Kner 1858 from Slovenia. Folia Biol-Krakow 51:21-25.

Powers, S.P., Grabowski, J.H., Peterson, C.H., and Lindberg, W.J. 2003. Estimating enhancement of fish production by offshore artificial reefs: uncertainty exhibited by divergent scenarios. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:265-277.

Prach, K. 2003. Spontaneous succession in Central-European man-made habitats: what information can be used in restoration practice? Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):125-129.

Prather, L.A., Alvarez-Fuentes, O., Mayfield, M.H., and Ferguson, C.J. 2004. The decline of plant collecting in the United States: a threat to the infrastructure of biodiversity studies. Syst. Bot. 29(1):15-28.

Prendini, L. 2004. Systematics of the genus Pseudolychas Kraepelin (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 97(1):37-63.

Pringle, H.J.R., and Landsberg, J. 2004. Predicting the distribution of livestock grazing pressure in rangelands. Austral Ecol. 29(1):31-39.

Pugh, P.J.A. 2004. Biogeography of spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) on the islands of the Southern Ocean. J. Nat. Hist. 38(12):1461-1487.

Ricotta, C. 2004. A parametric diversity measure combining the relative abundances and taxonomic distinctiveness of species. Divers. Distrib. 10(2):143-146.

Robertson, A., Hollingsworth, P.M., Kettle, C.J., Ennos, R.A., and Gardner, M.F. 2004. Characterization of nuclear microsatellites in New Caledonian Araucaria species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(1):62-63.

Rock, J.H., Beckage, B., and Gross, L.J. 2004. Population recovery following differential harvesting of Allium tricoccum Ait. in the southern Appalachians. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):227-234.

Rozé, F., and Lemauviel, S. 2004. Sand dune restoration in North Brittany, France: a 10-year monitoring study. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):29-35.

Rubin, C.S., Warner, R.E., Ludwig, D.R., and Thiel, R. 2004. Survival and population structure of Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) in two suburban Chicago forest preserves. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):44-48.

Rutberg, A.T., Naugle, R.E., Thiele, L.A., and Liu, I.K.M. 2004. Effects of immunocontraception on a suburban population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):243-250.

Salducci, M.D., Martin, J.F., Pech, N., Chappaz, R., Costedoat, C., and Gilles, A. 2004. Deciphering the evolutionary biology of freshwater fish using multiple approaches - insights for the biological conservation of the Vairone (Leuciscus souffia souffia). Conserv. Genet. 5(1):63-78.

Sarkar, S., Pappas, C., Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Cameron, S. 2004. Place prioritization for biodiversity conservation using probabilistic surrogate distribution data. Divers. Distrib. 10(2):125-133.

Sarno, R.J., Villalba, L., Bonacic, C., Gonzalez, B., Zapata, B., Mac Donald, D.W., O'Brien, S.J., and Johnson, W.E. 2004. Phylogeography and subspecies assessment of vicuñas in Chile and Bolivia utilizing mtDNA and microsatellite markers: implications for vicuña conservation and management. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):89-102.

Scoppettone, G.G., Harvey, J.E., and Heinrich, J. 2004. Conservation, status, and life history of the endangered White River spinedace, Lepidomeda albivallis (Cyprinidae). West. N. Am. Naturalist 64(1):38-44.

Scott, B., and Gross, C.L. 2004. Recovery directions for monoecious and endangered Bertya ingramii using autecology and comparisons with common B. rosmarinifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):885-899.

Secrist, D.E., Maehr, D.S., Larkin, J.L., and Lacki, M.J. 2004. Potential impacts of reintroduced elk on amphibian distribution and abundance in eastern Kentucky, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):65-68.

Serrato, A., Ibarra-Manriquez, G., and Oyama, K. 2004. Biogeography and conservation of the genus Ficus (Moraceae) in Mexico. J. Biogeogr. 31(3):475-485.

Shimizu, T. 2003. Geographic variation of the Japanese spinous loach, Cobitis takatsuensis, inferred from allozyme analysis. Folia Biol-Krakow 51:85-92.

Shochat, E., Stefanov, W.L., Whitehouse, M.E.A., and Faeth, S.H. 2004. Urbanization and spider diversity: influences of human modification of habitat structure and productivity. Ecol. Appl. 14(1):268-280.

Sloan, N.A. 2004. Northern abalone: using an invertebrate to focus marine conservation ideas and values. Coast. Manage. 32(2):129-143.

Smith, R.S., Charman, D., Rushton, S.P., Sanderson, R.A., Simkin, J.M., and Shiel, R.S. 2003. Vegetation change in an ombrotrophic mire in northern England after excluding sheep. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):261-270.

Smyth, A.K., Foulkes, J., and Watt, A. 2004. Biodiversity monitoring in Australia's rangelands: introduction. Austral Ecol. 29(1):1-2.

Smyth, A.K., and James, C.D. 2004. Characteristics of Australia's rangelands and key design issues for monitoring biodiversity. Austral Ecol. 29(1):3-15.

Sperduto, M.B., Powers, S.P., and Donlan, M. 2003. Scaling restoration to achieve quantitative enhancement of loon, seaduck, and other seabird populations. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 264:221-232.

Stauber, K. 2004. Cost-effective use of visitor-use exclosures for the rejuvenation of Ammophila breviligulata on Minnesota Point, Minnesota. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):32-35.

Stuart, B.L., and Parham, J.F. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the critically endangered Indochinese box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31:164-177.

Stuart, B.L., and Thorbjarnarson, J. 2003. Biological prioritization of Asian countries for turtle conservation. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(3):642-647.

Summerville, K.S., and Crist, T.O. 2004. Contrasting effects of habitat quantity and quality on moth communities in fragmented landscapes. Ecography 27(1):3-12.

Taylor, E.B. 2004. An analysis of homogenization and differentiation of Canadian freshwater fish faunas with an emphasis on British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61(1):68-79.

Terradas, J., Salvador, R., Vayreda, J., and Lloret, R. 2004. Maximal species richness: an empirical approach for evaluating woody plant forest biodiversity. Forest Ecol. Manag. 189(1-3):241-249.

Thacker, P.D. 2004. California butterflies: at home with aliens. BioScience 54(3):182-187.

Theodorou, K., and Couvet, D. 2004. Introduction of captive breeders to the wild: harmful or beneficial? Conserv. Genet. 5(1):1-12.

Thomas, J.A., Telfer, M.G., Roy, D.B., Preston, C.D., Greenwood, J.J.D., Asher, J., Fox, R., Clarke, R.T., and Lawton, J.H. 2004. Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds, and plants and the global extinction crisis. Science 303(5665):1879-1881.

Todd, C.R., Nicol, S.J., and Koehn, J.D. 2004. Density-dependence uncertainty in population models for the conservation management of trout cod, Maccullochella macquariensis. Ecol. Model. 171(4):359-380.

Tomassen, H.B.M., Smolders, A.J.P., Van Herk, J.M., Lamers, L.P.M., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2003. Restoration of cut-over bogs by floating raft formation: an experimental feasibility study. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):141-152.

van den Berg, L.J.L., Vergeer, P., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2003. Heathland restoration in the Netherlands: effects of turf cutting depth on germination of Arnica montana. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):117-124.

van Diggelen, R., and Marrs, R.H. 2003. Restoring plant communities - introduction. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):106-110.

Van Vuuren, B.J., Kinet, S., Chopelet, J., and Catzeflis, F. 2004. Geographic patterns of genetic variation in four Neotropical rodents: conservation implications for small game mammals in French Guiana. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 81(2):203-218.

Vécrin, M.P., and Muller, S. 2003. Top-soil translocation as a technique in the re-creation of species-rich meadows. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6(2):271-278.

Vischi, N., Natale, E., and Villamil, C. 2004. Six endemic plant species from central Argentina: an evaluation of their conservation status. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):997-1008.

Walker, K.J., Pywell, R.F., Warman, E.A., Fowbert, J.A., Bhogal, A., and Chambers, B.J. 2004. The importance of former land use in determining successful re-creation of lowland heath in southern England. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):289-303.

Walker, R.F., McLaughlin, S.B., and West, D.C. 2004. Establishment of sweet birch on surface mine spoil as influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation and fertility. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):8-19.

Wallace, J.F., Caccetta, P.A., and Kiiveri, H.T. 2004. Recent developments in analysis of spatial and temporal data for landscape qualities and monitoring. Austral Ecol. 29(1):100-107.

Walters, G.M. 2004. Perennial plants and ephemeral seed banks in Papago Park, Phoenix, Arizona. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):36-43.

Waltz, A.E.M., and Covington, W.W. 2004. Ecological restoration treatments increase butterfly richness and abundance: mechanisms of response. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):85-96.

Watson, A., and Moss, R. 2004. Impacts of ski-development on ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) at Cairn Gorm, Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):267-275.

Watson, I., and Novelly, P. 2004. Making the biodiversity monitoring system sustainable: design issues for large-scale monitoring systems. Austral Ecol. 29(1):16-30.

Watts, P.C., Wu, J.H., Westgarth, C., Thompson, D.J., and Kemp, S.J. 2004. A panel of microsatellite loci for the southern damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Conserv. Genet. 5(1):117-119.

Whiting, S.N., Reeves, R.D., Richards, D., Johnson, M.S., Cooke, J.A., Malaisse, F., Paton, A., Smith, J.A.C., Angle, J.S., Chaney, R.L., Ginocchio, R., Jaffre, T., Johns, R., McIntyre, T., Purvis, O.W., Salt, D.E., Schat, H., Zhao, F.J., and Baker, A.J.M. 2004. Research priorities for conservation of metallophyte biodiversity and their potential for restoration and site remediation. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):106-116.

Wiese, F.K., Robertson, G.J., and Gaston, A.J. 2004. Impacts of chronic marine oil pollution and the murre hunt in Newfoundland on thick-billed murre Uria lomvia populations in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Biol. Conserv. 116(2):205-216.

Wilson, A.J., Hutchings, J.A., and Ferguson, M.M. 2004. Dispersal in a stream dwelling salmonid: inferences from tagging and microsatellite studies. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):25-37.

Wilson, M.V., Ingersoll, C.A., Wilson, M.G., and Clark, D.L. 2004. Why pest plant control and native plant establishment failed: a restoration autopsy. Nat. Areas J. 24(1):23-31.

Winterhalder, K., Clewell, A.F., and Aronson, J. 2004. Values and science in ecological restoration - a response to Davis and Slobodkin. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):4-7.

Wisely, S.M., Maldonado, J.E., and Fleischer, R.C. 2004. A technique for sampling ancient DNA that minimizes damage to museum specimens. Conserv. Genet. 5(1):105-107.

Wolf, J.J., Beatty, S.W., and Seastedt, T.R. 2004. Soil characteristics of Rocky Mountain National Park grasslands invaded by Melilotus officinalis and M. alba. J. Biogeogr. 31(3):415-424.

Wu, C.I., Shi, S.H., and Zhang, Y.P. 2004. A case for conservation. Nature 428(6979):213-214.

Xu, H.G., Li, Y.M., and Ding, H. 2004. The establishment of China's core biodiversity metadata standard. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):1009-1022.

Xu, J.C., and Wilkes, A. 2004. Biodiversity impact analysis in northwest Yunnan, southwest China. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):959-983.

Yelenik, S.G., Stock, W.D., and Richardson, D.M. 2004. Ecosystem level impacts of invasive Acacia saligna in the South African Fynbos. Restor. Ecol. 12(1):44-51.

Yen, P.P.W., Huettmann, F., and Cooke, F. 2004. A large-scale model for the at-sea distribution and abundance of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) during the breeding season in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Ecol. Model. 171(4):395-413.

Yip, J.Y., Corlett, R.T., and Dudgeon, D. 2004. A fine-scale gap analysis of the existing protected area system in Hong Kong, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(5):943-957.

Zavala-Hurtado, J.A., and Valverde, P.L. 2003. Habitat restriction in Mammillaria pectinifera, a threatened endemic Mexican cactus. J. Veg. Sci. 14(6):891-898.

Zayed, A., Roubik, D.W., and Packer, L. 2004. Use of diploid male frequency data as an indicator of pollinator decline. Proc. R. Soc. London 271(Suppl.):S9-S12.

Zuberogoitia, I., Torres, J.J., and Martinez, J.A. 2003. Population reinforcement of eagle owl Bubo bubo in Biscay (Spain). Ardeola 50(2):237-244.

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