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Department ofBotany

No. 234
June 2004

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In This Issue

New Evidence of Impact of Global Changes on Remote Tropical Rain Forests

Studies by scientists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) and colleagues published three articles in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B - Biological Sciences, in a themed issue entitled "Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change." The issue shows that the rates of growth and death of trees in pristine forests across the Amazon have almost doubled in recent decades, and appear to have led to an increase in biomass. It also reports that the tropical forests globally have warmed by half of a degree in the last 20 years, and warn that forest temperatures are expected to rise by a further three to eight degrees by the end of the century, with dangerous implications for the forests, climate change, and human welfare. The scientists note that the most likely causes of these changes are increases in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and surface air temperatures, and possible continent-wide changes in sunshine.

Trees and lianas at a tropical forest in Barro Colorado Island, Panama

Although the increase in biomass may have helped to slow the rate of global climate change so far by absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2), a number of computer model simulations presented in the issue suggest that the combined effects of deforestation and global warming could reverse the process, making rain forests sources of CO2 by as early as the next two decades. Also, while some rain forests are increasing in biomass, others appear to be already breaking up under a combination of climatic and human pressures. The scientists demonstrate that the combination of climate change and the fragmentation of rain forest settlement is opening up the remaining forest and making it increasingly vulnerable to fires, which are causing significant declines in large fruit-eating monkeys and insect-eating birds.

All contributing scientists agree that there is an urgent need for conservation action to prevent further fragmentation and to create forest corridors to give some species a chance of moving as the climate changes. Ultimately, saving the world's remaining rain forests will also require a committed effort to move away from burning fossil fuels. Yadvinder Malhi, a co-editor, concludes: "This research shows that conservation of the remaining rain forests will need to take into account the new pressures that global atmospheric change is placing on these forests. In the 21st century, we are moving into a human-made atmospheric and climatic situation that has not been experienced on Earth for at least 20 million years. We are deeply concerned with how the Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems will respond to these changes."

Status Report of Canadian Rain Forests is Released

The David Suzuki Foundation has just released Canadian Rainforests Status Report 2004. The full report can be found on an interactive Web site at <>. Using simple online maps one can view every cut-block that has been approved since a landmark agreement was reached in April 2001 to develop options for implementing more environmentally responsible logging (ecosystem based management) and land-use practices on British Columbia's Coast. Logged sites are accompanied by aerial photographs and site-level information on cut-block size, roading, retention patches and the degree to which small fish-bearing streams have been protected.

    This report includes:
  • An analysis of the status and impact of recent logging on British Columbia's north coast, central coast and Haida Gwaii;
  • An analysis of proposed protected areas and the outstanding conservation needs in the Central Coast Region, including the Great Bear Rainforest;
  • An assessment of the degree to which ecologically responsible management objectives have been integrated into current planning processes; and,
  • Recommendations on what needs to be done to realize a reduced level of risk to biodiversity.

Key findings of the report show that clear-cutting remains the dominant form of logging; small salmon streams flowing through logging sites are not protected; and, key wildlife habitat is at risk including critical areas for grizzly bears, salmon, and the nesting habitat of threatened and endangered birds such as the Northern Goshawk and the Marbled Murrelet.

Current Literature

Acosta-Jamett, G., and Simonetti, J.A. 2004. Habitat use by Oncifelis guigna and Pseudalopex culpaeus in a fragmented forest landscape in central Chile. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1135-1151.

Agnello, G., Manneville, O., and Asta, J. 2004. Mosses and lichens as bioindicators (s. l.) of wetlands state: example of four protected areas in the Isere Department (France). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):147.

Akçakaya, H.R., Radeloff, V.C., Mlandenoff, D.J., and He, H.S. 2004. Integrating landscape and metapopulation modeling approaches: viability of the sharp-tailed grouse in a dynamic landscape. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):526-537.

Altizer, S., Nunn, C.L., Thrall, P.H., Gittleman, J.L., Antonovics, J., Cunningham, A.A., Dobson, A.P., Ezenwa, V., Jones, K.E., Pedersen, A.B., Poss, M., and Pulliam, J.R.C. 2003. Social organization and parasite risk in mammals: integrating theory and empirical studies. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 34:517-547.

Amar, A., Arroyo, B., Redpath, S., and Thirgood, S. 2004. Habitat predicts losses of red grouse to individual hen harriers. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):305-314.

Anders, A.D., and Dearborn, D.C. 2004. Population trends of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler at Fort Hood, Texas, from 1992-2001. Southwest. Nat. 49(1):39-47.

Atlegrim, O., and Sjöberg, K. 2004. Selective felling as a potential tool for maintaining biodiversity in managed forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1123-1133.

Babin, D. 2004. Between research and diplomacy: foundations and recommendations of a French cooperative strategy for protected areas. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):57-65.

Baker, J.P., Hulse, D.W., Gregory, S.V., White, D., Van Sickle, J., Berger, P.A., Dole, D., and Schumaker, N.H. 2004. Alternative futures for the Willamette River Basin, Oregon. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):313-324.

Balram, S., Suzana, D.E., and Dragicevic, S. 2004. A collaborative GIS method for integrating local and technical knowledge in establishing biodiversity conservation priorities. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1195-1208.

Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2004. Ecological responses to El Niño-induced surface fires in central Brazilian Amazonia: management implications for flammable tropical forests. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):367-380.

Batáry, P., and Báldi, A. 2004. Evidence of an edge effect on avian nest success. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):389-400.

Battisti, C., and Gippoliti, S. 2004. Conservation in the urban-countryside interface: a cautionary note from Italy. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):581-583.

Bauer, D.M., Cyr, N.E., and Swallow, S.K. 2004. Public preferences for compensatory mitigation of salt marsh losses: a contingent choice of alternatives. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):401-411.

Bauer, H., and Van Der Merwe, S. 2004. Inventory of free-ranging lions Panthera leo in Africa. Oryx 38(1):26-31.

Beale, C.M., and Monaghan, P. 2004. Human disturbance: people as predation-free predators? J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):335-343.

Benstead, J.P., and Pringle, C.M. 2004. Deforestation alters the resource base and biomass of endemic stream insects in eastern Madagascar. Freshwater Biol. 49(4):490-501.

Berger, J. 2004. The last mile: how to sustain long-distance migration in mammals. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):320-331.

Bertorelle, G., Bruford, M., Chemini, C., Vernesi, C., and Hauffe, H.C. 2004. New, flexible Bayesian approaches to revolutionize conservation genetics. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):584.

Biron, P.M., Robson, C., Lapointe, M.F., and Gaskin, S.J. 2004. Deflector designs for fish habitat restoration. Environ. Manage. 33(1):25-35.

Blundell, A.G. 2004. A review of the CITES listing of big-leaf mahogany. Oryx 38(1):84-90.

Bogaert, J., Ceulemans, R., and Salvador-Van Eysenrode, D. 2004. Decision tree algorithm for detection of spatial processes in landscape transformation. Environ. Manage. 33(1):62-73.

Bosire, J.O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Kairo, J.G., Cannicci, S., and Koedam, N. 2004. Spatial variations in macrobenthic fauna recolonisation in a tropical mangrove bay. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1059-1074.

Bouchon, C., Bouchon-Navaro, Y., and Louis, M. 2004. Evaluation criteria of coral communities degradation in the Caribbean. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):113-121.

Brahmi, P., Dua, R.P., and Dhillon, B.S. 2004. The Biological Diversity Act of India and agro-biodiversity management. Curr. Sci. 86(5):659-664.

Buenau, K.E., and Gerber, L.R. 2004. Developing recovery and monitoring strategies for the endemic Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) in Arizona. Anim. Conserv. 7:17-22.

Burgess, N., Ricketts, T., Balmford, A., and Wild, R. 2004. The 5th World Parks Congress, Durban. Oryx 38(1):1-2.

Burke, D.M., Eliliott, K., Moore, L., Dunford, W., Nol, E., Phillips, J., Holmes, S., and Freemark, K. 2004. Patterns of nest predation on artificial and natural nests in forests. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):381-388.

Cabeza, M., Araújo, M.B., Wilson, R.J., Thomas, C.D., Cowley, M.J.R., and Moilanen, A. 2004. Combining probabilities of occurrence with spatial reserve design. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):252-262.

Caro, T., Engilis, A., Fitzherbert, E., and Gardner, T. 2004. Preliminary assessment of the flagship species concept at a small scale. Anim. Conserv. 7:63-70.

Chacoff, N.P., Morales, J.M., and Vaquera, M.D. 2004. Effects of fragmentation on amount of aborted and predated seed in the Chaco Serrano Argentina. Biotropica 36(1):109-117.

Chapman, R.N., Engle, D.M., Masters, R.E., and Leslie, D.M. 2004. Tree invasion constrains the influence of herbaceous structure in grassland bird habitats. Ecoscience 11(1):55-63.

Cole, C.T. 2003. Genetic variation in rare and common plants. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 34:213-237.

Craig, P., Parker, D., Brainard, R., Rice, M., and Balazs, G. 2004. Migrations of green turtles in the central South Pacific. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):433-438.

Culver, D.C., Christman, M.C., Sket, B., and Trontelj, P. 2004. Sampling adequacy in an extreme environment: species richness patterns in Slovenian caves. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1209-1229.

Daehler, C.C. 2003. Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants: implications for conservation and restoration. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 34:183-211.

Daehler, C.C., Denslow, J.S., Ansari, S., and Kuo, H.C. 2004. A risk-assessment system for screening out invasive pest plants from Hawaii and other Pacific Islands. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):360-368.

Danielsen, F., and Treadaway, C.G. 2004. Priority conservation areas for butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the Philippine islands. Anim. Conserv. 7:79-92.

Dannewitz, J., Petersson, E., Dahl, J., Prestegaard, T., Löf, A.C., and Järvi, T. 2004. Reproductive success of hatchery-produced and wild-born brown trout in an experimental stream. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):355-364.

Dauvin, J.C., Bellan, G., Bellan-Santini, D., Ghezali, M., and Mesnard, A.H. 2004. Preservation of coastal natural patrimony in the process of integrated management of coastal zones: thoughts on the elaboration of a project and perspectives. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):49-56.

Davies, H.T., and du Toit, J.T. 2004. Anthropogenic factors affecting wild dog Lycaon pictus reintroductions: a case study in Zimbabwe. Oryx 38(1):32-39.

Dávila-Aranda, P., Lira-Saade, R., and Valdés-Reyna, J. 2004. Endemic species of grasses in Mexico: a phytogeographic approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1101-1121.

Davis, H.G., Taylor, C.M., Civille, J.C., and Strong, D.R. 2004. An Allee effect at the front of a plant invasion: Spartina in a Pacific estuary. J. Ecology 92(2):321-327.

Defeo, O., and Lercari, D. 2004. Testing taxonomic resolution levels for ecological monitoring in sandy beach macrobenthic communities. Aquat. Conserv. 14(1):65-74.

Devantier, L., Alcala, A., and Wilkinson, C. 2004. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options. Ambio 33(1-2):88-97.

Dewalt, S.J., Denslow, J.S., and Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Biomass allocation, growth, and photosynthesis of genotypes from native and introduced ranges of the tropical shrub Clidemia hirta. Oecologia 138(4):521-531.

Dinsdale, E.A., and Harriott, V.J. 2004. Assessing anchor damage on coral reefs: a case study in selection of environmental indicators. Environ. Manage. 33(1):126-139.

Dirzo, R., and Raven, P.H. 2003. Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu. Rev. Env. Resour. 28:137-167.

Dole, D., and Niemi, E. 2004. Future water allocation and in-stream values in the Willamette River Basin: a basin-wide analysis. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):355-367.

Duncan, R.P., Blackburn, T.M., and Sol, D. 2003. The ecology of bird introductions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 34:71-98.

Dunn, R.R. 2004. Recovery of faunal communities during tropical forest regeneration. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):302-309.

Dyck, M.G., and Baydack, R.K. 2004. Vigilance behaviour of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the context of wildlife-viewing activities at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):343-350.

Earnhardt, J.M., Thompson, S.D., and Schad, K. 2004. Strategic planning for captive populations: projecting changes in genetic diversity. Anim. Conserv. 7:9-16.

Eastwood, A., Cronk, Q.C.B., Vogel, J.C., Hemp, A., and Gibby, M. 2004. Comparison of molecular and morphological data on St Helena: Elaphoglossum. Plant Syst. Evol. 245(1-2):93-106.

Eastwood, A., Vogel, J., Gibby, M., and Cronk, Q.C.B. 2004. Relationships and genetic diversity of endemic Elaphoglossum from St Helena. Plant Syst. Evol. 245(1-2):107-118.

Eckstein, R.L., Danihelka, J., Hölzel, N., and Otte, A. 2004. The effects of management and environmental variation on population stage structure in three river-corridor violets. Acta Oecol. 25(1-2):83-91.

Edwards, T.C., Cutler, D.R., Geiser, L., Alegria, J., and McKenzie, D. 2004. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: lichens in Pacific Northwest forests. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):414-424.

Ellsworth, J.W., Harrington, R.A., and Fownes, J.H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of Oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecol. Manag. 190(2-3):255-264.

Engler, R., Guisan, A., and Rechsteiner, L. 2004. An improved approach for predicting the distribution of rare and endangered species from occurrence and pseudo-absence data. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):263-274.

Fa, J.E., Burn, R.W., Price, M.R.S., and Underwood, F.M. 2004. Identifying important endemic areas using ecoregions: birds and mammals in the Indo-Pacific. Oryx 38(1):91-101.

Faaborg, J. 2004. Truly artificial nest studies. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):369-370.

Fahrig, L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 34:487-515.

Fairbanks, D.H.K., Hughes, C.J., and Turpie, J.K. 2004. Potential impact of viticulture expansion on habitat types in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1075-1100.

Farnsworth, E.J. 2004. Forging research partnerships across the academic-agency divide. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):291-293.

Ferrer, M., and Negro, J.J. 2004. The near extinction of two large European predators: super specialists pay a price. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):344-349.

Fiorello, C.V., Deem, S.L., Gompper, M.E., and Dubovi, E.J. 2004. Seroprevalence of pathogens in domestic carnivores on the border of Madidi National Park, Bolivia. Anim. Conserv. 7:45-54.

Fjeldså, J., Burgess, N.D., Blyth, S., and de Klerk, H.M. 2004. Where are the major gaps in the reserve network for Africa's mammals? Oryx 38(1):17-25.

Floros, C.D., Samways, M.J., and Armstrong, B. 2004. Taxonomic patterns of bleaching within a South African coral assemblage. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1175-1194.

Flower, J.M. 2004. Experimental seedling at two decaying mangrove sites: advantage for the protected areas of Guadeloupe. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):171.

Forsyth, D.M., Duncan, R.P., Bomford, M., and Moore, G. 2004. Climatic suitability, life-history traits, introduction effort, and the establishment and spread of introduced mammals in Australia. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):557-569.

Galzin, R., Crec'hriou, R., Lenfant, P., and Planes, S. 2004. Marine protected areas: a laboratory for scientific research. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):37-48.

Gehrt, S.D., and Chelsvig, J.E. 2004. Species-specific patterns of bat activity in an urban landscape. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):625-635.

Gereta, E.J. 2004. Transboundary water issues threaten the Serengeti ecosystem. Oryx 38(1):14-15.

Gibson, L.A., Wilson, B.A., Cahill, D.M., and Hill, J. 2004. Spatial prediction of rufous bristlebird habitat in a coastal heathland: a GIS-based approach. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):213-223.

Gucu, A.C., Gucu, G., and Orek, H. 2004. Habitat use and preliminary demographic evaluation of the critically endangered Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) in the Cilician Basin (Eastern Mediterranean). Biol. Conserv. 116(3):417-431.

Guerra-García, J.M., Corzo, J., Espinosa, F., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2004. Assessing habitat use of the endangered marine mollusc Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda, Patellidae) in northern Africa: preliminary results and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):319-326.

Guevara, S., Laborde, J., and Sanchez-Rios, G. 2004. Rain forest regeneration beneath the canopy of fig trees isolated in pastures of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biotropica 36(1):99-108.

Gustafson, D.J., Gibson, D.J., and Nickrent, D.L. 2004. Conservation genetics of two co-dominant grass species in an endangered grassland ecosystem. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):389-397.

Hardwick, K., Healey, J.R., Elliott, S., and Blakesley, D. 2004. Research needs for restoring seasonal tropical forests in Thailand: accelerated natural regeneration. New Forests 27(3):285-302.

Hatcher, P.E., Wilkinson, M.J., Albani, M.C., and Hebbern, C.A. 2004. Conserving marginal populations of the food plant (Impatiens noli-tangere) of an endangered moth (Eustroma reticulatum) in a changing climate. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):305-317.

Hauxwell, J., Osenberg, C.W., and Frazer, T.K. 2004. Conflicting management goals: manatees and invasive competitors inhibit restoration of a native macrophyte. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):571-586.

He, L., García-Perea, R., Li, M., and Wei, F.W. 2004. Distribution and conservation status of the endemic Chinese mountain cat Felis bieti. Oryx 38(1):55-61.

Henderson, I.G., Fuller, R.J., Conway, G.J., and Gough, S.J. 2004. Evidence for declines in populations of grassland-associated birds in marginal upland areas of Britain. Bird Study 51:12-19.

Hilbert, D.W., Bradford, M., Parker, T., and Westcott, D.A. 2004. Golden bowerbird (Prionodura newtonia) habitat in past, present and future climates: predicted extinction of a vertebrate in tropical highlands due to global warming. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):367-377.

Hoyle, M., and Gilbert, F. 2004. Species richness of moss landscapes unaffected by short-term fragmentation. Oikos 105(2):359-367.

Hu, G., Dong, X., Wei, Y., Zhu, Y., and Duan, X.H. 2004. Evidence for a decline of François' langur Trachypithecus francoisi in Fusui Nature Reserve, south-west Guangxi, China. Oryx 38(1):48-54.

Hulse, D.W., Branscomb, A., and Payne, S.G. 2004. Envisioning alternatives: using citizen guidance to map future land and water use. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):325-341.

Hurt, C.R., Stears-Ellis, S., Hughes, K.A., and Hedrick, P.W. 2004. Mating behaviour in the endangered Sonoran topminnow: speciation in action. Anim. Behav. 67:343-351.

Imbert, D., Saur, E., Bonheme, I., and Roseau, V. 2004. Traditional taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultivation in the swamp forest of Guadeloupe (FWI): impact on forest structure and plant biodiversity. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):181-189.

Jeganathan, P., Green, R.E., Norris, K., Vogiatzakis, I.N., Bartsch, A., Wotton, S.R., Bowden, C.G.R., Griffiths, G.H., Pain, D., and Rahmani, A.R. 2004. Modelling habitat selection and distribution of the critically endangered Jerdon's courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus in scrub jungle: an application of a new tracking method. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):224-237.

Jethva, B.D., and Jhala, Y.V. 2004. Foraging ecology, economics and conservation of Indian wolves in the Bhal region of Gujarat, Western India. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):351-357.

Jim, C.Y. 2004. Evaluation of heritage trees for conservation and management in Guangzhou City (China). Environ. Manage. 33(1):74-86.

Johnson, C.J., Seip, D.R., and Boyce, M.S. 2004. A quantitative approach to conservation planning: using resource selection functions to map the distribution of mountain caribou at multiple spatial scales. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):238-251.

Joseph, P. 2004. Terrestrial protected areas of Martinique: natural laboratories for the study of plant dynamics. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):27-36.

Jouvenel, J.Y., Bachet, F., Harmelin, J.G., and Bellan-Santini, D. 2004. Biological monitoring of a marine reserve ('Cote Bleue' marine park, Marseilles Bay, Mediterranean Sea, France). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):243-251.

Kadmon, R., Farber, O., and Danin, A. 2004. Effect of roadside bias on the accuracy of predictive maps produced by bioclimatic models. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):401-413.

Kerbiriou, C., Pascal, M., Le Viol, I., and Garoche, J. 2004. Consequences of the Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) eradication on the terrestrial avifauna of Trielen Island (Iroise Natural Reserve, Brittany). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):319-329.

Kéry, M. 2004. Extinction rate estimates for plant populations in revisitation studies: importance of detectability. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):570-574.

Kéry, M., and Schmid, H. 2004. Monitoring programs need to take into account imperfect species detectability. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(1):65-73.

Khan, M.L., Bhuyan, P., and Tripathi, R.S. 2004. Conservation status of rudraksh in tropical wet evergreen forests of Arunachal Pradesh. Curr. Sci. 86(5):646-650.

Körner, C. 2004. Through enhanced tree dynamics carbon dioxide enrichment may cause tropical forests to lose carbon. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):493-498.

Kwit, C., Horvitz, C.C., and Platt, W.J. 2004. Conserving slow-growing, long-lived tree species: input from the demography of a rare understory conifer, Taxus floridana. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):432-443.

Ladio, A.H., and Lozada, M. 2004. Patterns of use and knowledge of wild edible plants in distinct ecological environments: a case study of a Mapuche community from northwestern Patagonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1153-1173.

Laiolo, P., Dondero, F., Ciliento, E., and Rolando, A. 2004. Consequences of pastoral abandonment for the structure and diversity of the alpine avifauna. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):294-304.

Laiolo, P., Rolando, A., and Valsania, V. 2004. Responses of birds to the natural re-establishment of wilderness in Montane beechwoods of north-western Italy. Acta Oecol. 25(1-2):129-136.

Larkin, J.L., Maehr, D.S., Hoctor, T.S., Orlando, M.A., and Whitney, K. 2004. Landscape linkages and conservation planning for the black bear in west-central Florida. Anim. Conserv. 7:23-34.

Laroche, J., and Durand, J.D. 2004. Genetic structure of fragmented populations of a threatened endemic percid of the Rhone River: Zingel asper. Heredity 92(4):329-334.

Laurance, W.F. 2004. Forest-climate interactions in fragmented tropical landscapes. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):345-352.

Lawson, C.S., Ford, M.A., Mitchley, J., and Warren, J.M. 2004. The establishment of heathland vegetation on ex-arable land: the response of Calluna vulgaris to soil acidification. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):409-416.

Lecomte, J. 2004. Knowledge necessary to the conservation of protected areas. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):67-70.

Legge, S., Murphy, S., Igag, P., and Mack, A.L. 2004. Territoriality and density of an Australian migrant, the buff-breasted paradise kingfisher, in the New Guinean non-breeding grounds. Emu 104(1):15-20.

Lesica, P., and Hanna, D. 2004. Indirect effects of biological control on plant diversity vary across sites in Montana grasslands. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):444-454.

Lever, C. 2004. The impact of traditional Chinese medicine on threatened species. Oryx 38(1):13-14.

Lewis, S.L., Malhi, Y., and Phillips, O.L. 2004. Fingerprinting the impacts of global change on tropical forests. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):437-462.

Lewis, S.L., Phillips, O.L., Baker, T.R., Lloyd, J., Malhi, Y., Almeida, S., Higuchi, N., Laurance, W.F., Neill, D.A., Silva, J.N.M., Terborgh, J., Lezama, A.T., Martinez, R.V., Brown, S., Chave, J., Kuebler, C., Vargas, P.N., and Vinceti, B. 2004. Concerted changes in tropical forest structure and dynamics: evidence from 50 South American long-term plots. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):421-436.

Li, D.J., and Daler, D. 2004. Ocean pollution from land-based sources: East China Sea, China. Ambio 33(1-2):107-113.

Lienert, J., and Fischer, M. 2004. Experimental inbreeding reduces seed production and germination independent of fragmentation of populations of Swertia perennis. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(1):43-52.

Lihova, J., Tribsch, A., and Stuessy, T.F. 2004. Cardamine apennina: a new endemic diploid species of the C. pratensis group (Brassicaceae) from Italy. Plant Syst. Evol. 245(1-2):69-92.

Lipow, S.R., Vance-Borland, K., St Clair, J.B., Henderson, J., and McCain, C. 2004. Gap analysis of conserved genetic resources for forest trees. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):412-423.

Lopez-Pujol, J., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanche, C. 2004. Allozyme diversity in the tetraploid endemic Thymus loscosii (Lamiaceae). Ann. Botany 93(3):323-332.

Lorvelec, O., Levesque, A., Barre, N., Feldmann, P., Leblond, G., Jaffard, M.E., Pascal, M., and Pavis, C. 2004. Evolution of the population density of the Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) in the Petite Terre Islands natural reserve (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) between 1995 and 2002. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):331-344.

MacDougall, A.S., Beckwith, B.R., and Maslovat, C.Y. 2004. Defining conservation strategies with historical perspectives: a case study from a degraded oak grassland ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):455-465.

Malakoff, D. 2004. US asked to act immediately to protect deep-sea corals. Science 304(5667):31.

Malhi, Y., and Phillips, O.L. 2004. Tropical forests and global atmospheric change: a synthesis. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):549-555.

Malhi, Y., and Phillips, O.L. 2004. Tropical forests and global atmospheric change - Introduction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):309-310.

Marchetti, M.P., Moyle, P.B., and Levine, R. 2004. Alien fishes in California watersheds: characteristics of successful and failed invaders. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):587-596.

Marrs, R.H., Phillips, J.D.P., Todd, P.A., Ghorbani, J., and Le Duc, M.G. 2004. Control of Molinia caerulea on upland moors. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):398-411.

Matson, T.K., Goldizen, A.W., and Jarman, P.J. 2004. Factors affecting the success of translocations of the black-faced impala in Namibia. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):359-365.

Mayle, F.E., Beerling, D.J., Gosling, W.D., and Bush, M.B. 2004. Responses of Amazonian ecosystems to climatic and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes since the last glacial maximum. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):499-514.

Meier, R., and Dikow, T. 2004. Significance of specimen databases from taxonomic revisions for estimating and mapping the global species diversity of invertebrates and repatriating reliable specimen data. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):478-488.

Melletti, M., and Penteriani, V. 2003. Nesting and feeding tree selection in the endangered white-backed woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos Lilfordi. Wilson Bull. 115(3):299-306.

Merrill, S.B. 2004. The role of open space in urban planning. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):294.

Miller, K.J., Mundy, C.N., and Chadderton, W.L. 2004. Ecological and genetic evidence of the vulnerability of shallow-water populations of the stylasterid hydrocoral Errina novaezelandiae in New Zealand's fiords. Aquat. Conserv. 14(1):75-94.

Mishra, C., and Fitzherbert, A. 2004. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor. Oryx 38(1):102-105.

Moore, R.D., Griffiths, R.A., and Román, A. 2004. Distribution of the Mallorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis) in relation to landscape topography and introduced predators. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):327-332.

Moretti, M., Obrist, M.K., and Duelli, P. 2004. Arthropod biodiversity after forest fires: winners and losers in the winter fire regime of the southern Alps. Ecography 27(2):173-186.

Mugetti, A.C., Calcagno, A.T., Brieva, C.A., Giangiobbe, M.S., Pagani, A., and Gonzalez, S. 2004. Aquatic habitat modifications in La Plata River Basin, Patagonia and associated marine areas. Ambio 33(1-2):78-87.

Myers, R.A., Levin, S.A., Lande, R., James, F.C., Murdoch, W.W., and Paine, R.T. 2004. Hatcheries and endangered salmon. Science 303(5666):1980.

Naidoo, R. 2004. Species richness and community composition of songbirds in a tropical forest-agricultural landscape. Anim. Conserv. 7:93-105.

Neke, K.S., and Du Plessis, M.A. 2004. The threat of transformation: quantifying the vulnerability of grasslands in South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):466-477.

Nepstad, D., Azevedo-Ramos, C., Lima, E., McGrath, D., Pereira, C., and Merry, F. 2004. Managing the Amazon timber industry. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):575-577.

Nogales, M., Martín, A., Tershy, B.R., Donlan, C.J., Witch, D., Puerta, N., Wood, B., and Alonso, J. 2004. A review of feral cat eradication on islands. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):310-319.

Nyhus, P.J., and Tilson, R. 2004. Characterizing human-tiger conflict in Sumatra, Indonesia: implications for conservation. Oryx 38(1):68-74.

Oliver, I., Holmes, A., Dangerfield, J.M., Gillings, M., Pik, A.J., Britton, D.R., Holley, M., Montgomery, M.E., Raison, M., Logan, V., Pressey, R.L., and Beattie, A.J. 2004. Land systems as surrogates for biodiversity in conservation planning. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):485-503.

Orr, D.W. 2004. Hope in hard times. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):295-298.

Orr, D.W. 2004. Other responses to "Hope." Conserv. Biol. 18(2):301.

Page, T.J., Sharma, S., and Hughes, J.M. 2004. Deep phylogenetic structure has conservation implications for ornate rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae: Rhadinocentrus ornatus) in Queensland, eastern Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 55(2):165-172.

Parris, K.M., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2004. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs. Acta Oecol. 25(1-2):93-101.

Payet, R., and Obura, D. 2004. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective. Ambio 33(1-2):24-33.

Peach, W.J., Denny, M., Cotton, P.A., Hill, I.F., Gruar, D., Barritt, D., Impey, A., and Mallord, J. 2004. Habitat selection by song thrushes in stable and declining farmland populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):275-293.

Peacock, M.M., and Kirchoff, V. 2004. Assessing the conservation value of hybridized cutthroat trout populations in the Quinn River drainage, Nevada. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(2):309-325.

Pechacek, P., and d'Oleire-Oltmanns, W. 2004. Habitat use of the three-toed woodpecker in central Europe during the breeding period. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):333-341.

Pennisi, E. 2004. Respect for things that flutter, creep, and crawl. Science 304(5667):27.

Pfisterer, A.B., Joshi, J., Schmid, B., and Fischer, M. 2004. Rapid decay of diversity-productivity relationships after invasion of experimental plant communities. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(1):5-14.

Phillips, O.L., Baker, T.R., Arroyo, L., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J., Malhi, Y., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Vargas, P.N., Silva, J.N.M., Terborgh, J., Martínez, R.V., Alexiades, M., Almeida, S., Brown, S., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.A., Czimczik, C.I., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Kuebler, C., Laurance, S.G., Nascimento, H.E.M., Olivier, J., Palacios, W., Patiño, S., Pitman, N.C.A., Quesada, C.A., Salidas, M., Lezama, A.T., and Vinceti, B. 2004. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1443):381-407.

Powell, G.V.N., and Bjork, R.D. 2004. Habitat linkages and the conservation of tropical biodiversity as indicated by seasonal migrations of three-wattled bellbirds. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):500-509.

Prévosto, B., Robert, A., and Coquillard, P. 2004. Development of Cytisus scoparius L. at stand and individual level in a mid-elevation mountain of the French Massif Central. Acta Oecol. 25(1-2):73-81.

Pyare, S., Cain, S., Moody, D., Schwartz, C., and Berger, J. 2004. Carnivore re-colonisation: reality, possibility and a non-equilibrium century for grizzly bears in the southern Yellowstone ecosystem. Anim. Conserv. 7:71-77.

Raboy, B.E., Christman, M.C., and Dietz, J.M. 2004. The use of degraded and shade cocoa forests by Endangered golden-headed lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysomelas. Oryx 38(1):75-83.

Ramade, F. 2004. Protected areas: an essential tool in fundamental ecology and conservation research. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):19-26.

Redpath, S.A., Arroyo, B.E., Leckie, E.M., Bacon, P., Bayfield, N., Gutiérrez, R.J., and Thirgood, S.J. 2004. Using decision modeling with stakeholders to reduce human-wildlife conflict: a raptor-grouse case study. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):350-359.

Reed, D.H., and Hobbs, G.R. 2004. The relationship between population size and temporal variability in population size. Anim. Conserv. 7:1-8.

Roberts, S.C., and Gosling, L.M. 2004. Manipulation of olfactory signaling and mate choice for conservation breeding: a case study of harvest mice. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):548-556.

Robinson, W.D., Angehr, G.R., Robinson, T.R., Petit, L.J., Petit, D.R., and Brawn, J.D. 2004. Distribution of bird diversity in a vulnerable neotropical landscape. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):510-518.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T.M., Cowling, R.M., Fishpool, L.D.C., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gaston, K.J., Hoffmann, M., Long, J.S., Marquet, P.A., Pilgrim, J.D., Pressey, R.L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S.N., Underhill, L.G., Waller, R.W., Watts, M.E.J., and Yan, X. 2004. Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature 428(6983):640-643.

Rodrigues, R.R., Martins, S.V., and de Barros, L.C. 2004. Tropical rain forest regeneration in an area degraded by mining in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Forest Ecol. Manag. 190(2-3):323-333.

Romero, C., and Andrade, G.I. 2004. International conservation organizations and the fate of local tropical forest conservation initiatives. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):578-580.

Rose, K.A., and Cowan, J.H. 2003. Data, models, and decisions in US marine fisheries management: lessons for ecologists. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 34:127-151.

Rousteau, A. 2004. Forest regeneration in coastal protected areas: variety of natural processes or anomalies threatening ecosystems everlastingness? Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):203-211.

Rundell, R.J., Holland, B.S., and Cowie, R.H. 2004. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the endemic Hawaiian Succineidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31(1):246-255.

Rushton, S.P., Ormerod, S.J., and Kerby, G. 2004. New paradigms for modelling species distributions? J. Appl. Ecol. 41(2):193-200.

Russ, G.R., and Alcala, A.C. 2004. Marine reserves: long-term protection is required for full recovery of predatory fish populations. Oecologia 138(4):622-627.

Salomon, M. 2004. Speciation centres and sustainable development. J. Biogeogr. 31(4):675-678.

Santoul, F., Figuerola, J., and Green, A.J. 2004. Importance of gravel pits for the conservation of waterbirds in the Garonne river floodplain (southwest France). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(6):1231-1243.

Schumaker, N.H., Ernst, T., White, D., Baker, J., and Haggerty, P. 2004. Projecting wildlife responses to alternative future landscapes in Oregon's Willamette Basin. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):381-400.

Semmens, B.X., Buhle, E.R., Salomon, A.K., and Pattengill-Semmens, C.V. 2004. A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 266:239-244.

Serra, G., Abdallah, M., Assaed, A., Abdallah, A., Al Qaim, G., Fayad, T., and Williamson, D. 2004. Discovery of a relict breeding colony of northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita in Syria. Oryx 38(1):106-108.

Siebert, S.E. 2004. Demographic effects of collecting rattan cane and their implications for sustainable harvesting. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):424-431.

Sites, J.W., Morando, M., Highton, R., Huber, F., and Jung, R.E. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah) and other salamanders of the Plethodon cinereus group (Caudata: Plethodontidae). J. Herpetol. 38(1):96-105.

Smith, G.A., and Lomolino, M.V. 2004. Black-tailed prairie dogs and the structure of avian communities on the shortgrass plains. Oecologia 138(4):592-602.

Souter, N.J., Bull, C.M., and Hutchinson, M.N. 2004. Adding burrows to enhance a population of the endangered pygmy blue tongue lizard, Tiliqua adelaidensis. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):403-408.

Stone, M., and Wall, G. 2004. Ecotourism and community development: case studies from Hainan, China. Environ. Manage. 33(1):12-24.

Stuart, B.L., and Parham, J.F. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the critically endangered Indochinese box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31(1):164-177.

Sullivana, B.J., Baxter, G.S., Lisle, A.T., Pahl, L., and Norris, W.M. 2004. Low-density koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the mulgalands of south-west Queensland. IV. Abundance and conservation status. Wildlife Res. 31(1):19-29.

Symes, C.T., and Perrin, M.R. 2004. Breeding biology of the greyheaded parrot (Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus) in the wild. Emu 104(1):45-57.

Tempel, D.J., and Gutiérrez, R.J. 2004. Factors related to fecal corticosterone levels in California spotted owls: implications for assessing chronic stress. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):538-547.

Thiebaut, G., Garbey, C., and Muller, S. 2004. Biological monitoring of water courses quality by aquatic macrophytes in the Northern Vosges - Pfalzerwald Biosphere Reserve. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):123-133.

Thompson, F.R., and Burhans, D.E. 2004. Differences in predators of artificial and real songbird nests: evidence of bias in artificial nest studies. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):373-380.

Thomson, J.R., Taylor, M.P., and Brierley, G.J. 2004. Are River Styles ecologically meaningful? A test of the ecological significance of a geomorphic river characterization scheme. Aquat. Conserv. 14(1):25-48.

Tilson, R., Defu, H., Muntifering, J., and Nyhus, P.J. 2004. Dramatic decline of wild South China tigers Panthera tigris amoyensis: field survey of priority tiger reserves. Oryx 38(1):40-47.

Timm, R.K., Wissmar, R.C., Small, J.W., Leschine, T.M., and Lucchetti, G. 2004. A screening procedure for prioritizing riparian management. Environ. Manage. 33(1):151-161.

Tosh, C.A., Reyers, B., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2004. Estimating the abundances of large herbivores in the Kruger National Park using presence-absence data. Anim. Conserv. 7:55-61.

Tourenq, C., Combreau, O., Pole, S.B., Lawrence, M., Ageyev, V.S., Karpov, A.A., and Launay, F. 2004. Monitoring of Asian houbara bustard Chlamydotis macqueenii populations in Kazakhstan reveals dramatic decline. Oryx 38(1):62-67.

Tucker, M.E. 2004. Scanning the horizon for hope. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):299-300.

Van Sickle, J., Baker, J., Herlihy, A., Bayley, P., Gregory, S., Haggerty, P., Ashkenas, L., and Li, J. 2004. Projecting the biological condition of streams under alternative scenarios of human land use. Ecol. Appl. 14(2):368-380.

Vanderwerf, E.A. 2003. Distribution, abundance, and breeding biology of white terns on Oahu, Hawaii. Wilson Bull. 115(3):258-262.

Vecrin, M.P., and Muller, S. 2004. Restoration of alluvial meadows in protected areas: a review of techniques and experimental studies. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(1-2):191-202.

Veron, G., Rosenthal, S.H., Long, B., and Roberton, S. 2004. The molecular systematics and conservation of an endangered carnivore, the Owston's palm civet Chrotogale owstoni (Thomas, 1912) (Carnivora, Viverridae, Hemigalinae). Anim. Conserv. 7:107-112.

Vila, M., and Weiner, J. 2004. Are invasive plant species better competitors than native plant species? Evidence from pair-wise experiments. Oikos 105(2):229-238.

Villard, M.A., and Pärt, T. 2004. Don't put all your eggs in real nests: a sequel to Faaborg. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):371-372.

Visser, N., Botha, J.C., and Hardy, M.B. 2004. Re-establishing vegetation on bare patches in the Nama Karoo, South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 57(2):155-177.

WallisDeVries, M.F. 2004. A quantitative conservation approach for the endangered butterfly Maculinea alcon. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):489-499.

Wang, J.L. 2004. Application of the one-migrant-per-generation rule to conservation and management. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):332-343.

Ward, M.P., and Schlossberg, S. 2004. Conspecific attraction and the conservation of territorial songbirds. Conserv. Biol. 18(2):519-525.

Wilson, D., and Paton, D.C. 2004. Habitat use by the southern emu-wren, Stipiturus malachurus (Aves: Maluridae), in South Australia, and evaluation of vegetation at a potential translocation site for S. m. intermedius. Emu 104(1):37-43.

Wilson, S.D., Bakker, J.D., Christian, J.M., Li, X.D., Ambrose, L.G., and Waddington, J. 2004. Semiarid old-field restoration: is neighbor control needed? Ecol. Appl. 14(2):476-484.

Winfield, I.J., Fletcher, J.M., and James, J.B. 2004. Conservation ecology of the vendace (Coregonus albula) in Bassenthwaite Lake and Derwent Water, UK. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 41(1):155-164.

Woinarski, J.C.Z., and Catterall, C.P. 2004. Historical changes in the bird fauna at Coomooboolaroo, northeastern Australia, from the early years of pastoral settlement (1873) to 1999. Biol. Conserv. 116(3):379-401.

Won, C., and Yoo, B.H. 2004. Abundance, seasonal haul-out patterns and conservation of spotted seals Phoca largha along the coast of Bak-ryoung Island, South Korea. Oryx 38(1):109-112.

Yates, E.D., Levia, D.F., and Williams, C.L. 2004. Recruitment of three non-native invasive plants into a fragmented forest in southern Illinois. Forest Ecol. Manag. 190(2-3):119-130.

Zalba, S.M., and Cozzani, N.C. 2004. The impact of feral horses on grassland bird communities in Argentina. Anim. Conserv. 7:35-44.

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