Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 235
July 2004

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In This Issue

Warbling an SOS for Songbirds

The Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is a Nearctic-Neotropical migrant songbird that breeds in the canopy of mature deciduous forests in eastern North America and winters along the eastern slope of South America's Andes mountain range. This striking warbler has been a focus of conservation efforts over the past decade because of severe population declines (over 3 percent a year since 1966) and habitat loss on both its breeding and its wintering grounds. Indeed, concern over its status prompted a petition in 2000 to list it as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act.

To better understand the causes of this population decline, researchers at Queen's University in Canada and at the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center joined in analyzing demographic rates of Cerulean Warblers breeding at the Queen's University Biological Station (QUBS) in eastern Ontario. This population is thought to be one of the largest and healthiest known, and warbler numbers here have remained stable since at least the early 1990s.

Trees and lianas at a tropical forest in Barro Colorado Island, Panama

Using a computer simulation model, the researchers found that the QUBS warbler population is actually a "sink" population, meaning it is not self-sustaining and must be receiving immigrants from other areas to persist over time. Annual survival rates are lower than expected, with only 49 percent of birds surviving from one breeding season to the next. Detailed analyses of seasonal variation in survival rates suggest that events during migration or on wintering grounds are responsible for most adult mortality. Reproductive success is too low to compensate for the Cerulean Warbler's high mortality, with each warbler pair producing, on average, less than two young per year. Given these grim survival and reproductive rates, the QUBS breeding population would become extinct in less than 50 years without immigration.

Because survival and reproductive rates of the elusive Cerulean Warbler are notoriously difficult to measure, the researchers emphasize that the study's results must be used with caution. Nevertheless, this research demonstrates that Cerulean Warblers are threatened, even in relatively pristine breeding habitats. Further information on the ecology of this species, particularly on its winter grounds in South America, will enhance future conservation efforts.

Tracking Marine Invaders

Ships transport people and materials, but they may also carry quite a few passengers who don't appear on the cargo list. Plants, animals, and microorganisms hitch rides on the outside of seagoing vessels or in their ballast water tanks, arriving unannounced at ports of call around the world.

To monitor the spread of small invasive marine organisms along the East Coast of the Americas, a group of researchers will use standard settling plates and wooden blocks to find out which organisms are already present at four different Smithsonian marine research stations, and later will determine which new organisms arrive and how they respond to new environments. The four stations are the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in Edgewater, Maryland - a national center of excellence for the study of non-native species in coastal ecosystems; the Smithsonian Marine Station in Fort Pierce, Florida; Carrie Bow Cay in Belize; and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama.

By comparing the number and kinds of organisms at each site and with other sites along the Atlantic Coast, the researchers hope to understand whether the high shipping traffic near the entrance to the Panama Canal and near Belize City increases the number of invaders in these environments. The Government of Panama has issued a collection permit to the researchers, who will take examples of each organism they find to specialists in the United States for identification. If, as expected, they find 20 species on each plate and 3 species in each block, they will face the huge task of identifying 4,060 species at each site they sample.

The researchers and their affiliations are: Esther Collinetti, Anson (Tuck) Hines, and Gregory Ruiz, SERC; Klaus Ruetzler, National Museum of Natural History; Bjorn Tunberg, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce; Neal Smith, STRI; Mathew Dick, Middlebury College and STRI; Dale Calder, Royal Ontario Museum; Gretchen Lambert, Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington; and Robert van Syoc, California Academy of Science.

Current Literature

Acar, C., Acar, H., Kurdoglu, O., and Altun, L. 2004. An assessment of Turkish Deltaic landscapes regarding environmental conservation and sustainable management - a case study of the Kizilirmak Delta. J. Environ. Biol. 25(2):125-134.

Aldridge, C.L., Boyce, M.S., and Baydack, R.K. 2004. Adaptive management of prairie grouse: how do we get there? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):92-103.

Applegate, R.D., Williams, C.K., and Manes, R.R. 2004. Assuring the future of prairie grouse: dogmas, demagogues, and getting outside the box. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):104-111.

Arendt, R. 2004. Linked landscapes - creating greenway corridors through conservation subdivision design strategies in the northeastern and central United States. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(2-3):241-269.

Assefa, A., and Labuschagne, M.T. 2004. Phenotypic variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from north Shewa in Ethiopia. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1441-1451.

Ayres, D.R., Smith, D.L., Zaremba, K., Klohr, S., and Strong, D.R. 2004. Spread of exotic cordgrasses and hybrids (Spartina sp.) in the tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Biol. Invasions 6(2):221-231.

Baldi, A. 2003. Extinction disorders the species composition of metacommunities. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 49(3):159-165.

Barton, A.M., Brewster, L.B., Cox, A.N., and Prentiss, N.K. 2004. Non-indigenous woody invasive plants in a rural New England town. Biol. Invasions 6(2):205-211.

Bedick, J.C., Ratcliffe, B.C., and Higley, L.G. 2004. A new sampling protocol for the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Coleopts. Bull. 58(1):57-70.

Blom, A., van Zalinge, R., Mbea, E., Heitkönig, I.M.A., and Prins, H.H.T. 2004. Human impact on wildlife populations within a protected Central African forest. Afr. J. Ecol. 42(1):23-31.

Boertmann, D. 2003. Distribution and conservation of the harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus, in Greenland. Can. Field-Natural. 117(2):249-256.

Bojórquez-Tapia, L.A., de la Cueva, H., Díaz, S., Melgarejo, D., Alcantar, G., Solares, M.J., Grobet, G., and Cruz-Bello, G. 2004. Environmental conflicts and nature reserves: redesigning Sierra San Pedro Mártir National Park, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):111-126.

Burke, A. 2004. From plains to inselbergs: species in special habitats as indicators for climate change? J. Biogeogr. 31(5):831-841.

Bustamante-Sanchez, M.A., Grez, A.A., and Simonetti, J.A. 2004. Dung decomposition and associated beetles in a fragmented temperate forest. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(1):107-120.

Cantu, S., Wright, R.G., Scott, J.M., and Strand, E. 2004. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: are nature reserves the answer? Nat. Areas J. 24(2):150-153.

Cardoso, P., Silva, I., de Oliveira, N.G., and Serrano, A.R.M. 2004. Higher taxa surrogates of Spider (Araneae) diversity and their efficiency in conservation. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):453-459.

Cardoso, P.G., Pardal, M.A., Lillebo, A.I., Ferreira, S.M., Raffaelli, D., and Marques, J.C. 2004. Dynamic changes in seagrass assemblages under eutrophication and implications for recovery. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 302(2):233-248.

Carreras, C., Cardona, L., and Aguilar, A. 2004. Incidental catch of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Biol. Conserv. 117(3):321-329.

Carvalho, J.C., and Gomes, P. 2004. Influence of herbaceous cover, shelter and land cover structure on wild rabbit abundance in NW Portugal. Acta Theriol. 49(1):63-74.

Cassidy, T.M., Fownes, J.H., and Harrington, R.A. 2004. Nitrogen limits an invasive perennial shrub in forest understory. Biol. Invasions 6(1):113-121.

Castillo, M.L., and Lobo, J.M. 2004. A comparison of Passalidae (Coleoptera, Lamellicornia) diversity and community structure between primary and secondary tropical forest in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1257-1269.

Cerabolini, B., De Andreis, R., Ceriani, R.M., Pierce, S., and Raimondi, B. 2004. Seed germination and conservation of endangered species from the Italian Alps: Physoplexis comosa and Primula glaucescens. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):351-356.

Chaitra, M.S., Vasudevan, K., and Shanker, K. 2004. The biodiversity bandwagon: the splitters have it. Curr. Sci. 86(7):897-899.

Chapuis, J.L., Frenot, Y., and Lebouvier, M. 2004. Recovery of native plant communities after eradication of rabbits from the subantarctic Kerguelen Islands, and influence of climate change. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):167-179.

Cinq-Mars, J. 2004. Wildlife habitats, biodiversity and globalization. Forest Chron. 80(1):2.

Clarke, A.R., and Zalucki, M.P. 2004. Monarchs in Australia: on the winds of a storm? Biol. Invasions 6(1):123-127.

Cleary, D.F.R. 2004. Assessing the use of butterflies as indicators of logging in Borneo at three taxonomic levels. J. Econ. Entomol. 97(2):429-435.

Collier, K.J., Smith, B.J., and Halliday, N.J. 2004. Colonization and use of pine wood versus native wood in New Zealand plantation forest streams: implications for riparian management. Aquat. Conserv. 14(2):179-199.

Comiskey, E.J., Eller, A.C., and Perkins, D.W. 2004. Evaluating impacts to Florida panther habitat: how porous is the umbrella? Southeast. Nat. 3(1):51-74.

Conine, A., Xiang, W.N., Young, J., and Whitley, D. 2004. Planning for multi-purpose greenways in Concord, North Carolina. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(2-3):271-287.

Constantine, R., Brunton, D.H., and Dennis, T. 2004. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):299-307.

Corkum, L.D., Sapota, M.R., and Skora, K.E. 2004. The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, a fish invader on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Biol. Invasions 6(2):173-181.

Corser, J.D., and Dodd, C.K. 2004. Fluctuations in a metapopulation of nesting four-toed salamanders, Hemidactylium scutatum, in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, 1999-2003. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):135-140.

Croxton, P.J., Franssen, W., Myhill, D.G., and Sparks, T.H. 2004. The restoration of neglected hedges: a comparison of management treatments. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):19-23.

Cruse-Sanders, J.M., and Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Genetic diversity in harvested and protected populations of wild American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L. (Araliaceae). Am. J. Bot. 91(4):540-548.

de Lange, P.J., and Norton, D.A. 2004. The ecology and conservation of Kunzea sinclairii (Myrtaceae), a naturally rare plant of rhyolitic rock outcrops. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):49-59.

De Marco, P., and Coelho, F.M. 2004. Services performed by the ecosystem: forest remnants influence agricultural cultures' pollination and production. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1245-1255.

de Souza, F.M., and Batista, J.L.F. 2004. Restoration of seasonal semideciduous forests in Brazil: influence of age and restoration design on forest structure. Forest Ecol. Manag. 191(1-3):185-200.

Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Perrings, C., and Williamson, M. 2004. Controlling Rhododendron ponticum in the British Isles: an economic analysis. J. Environ. Manage. 70(4):323-332.

Delap, J.H., and Knight, R.L. 2004. Wildlife response to anthropogenic food. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):112-118.

Delibes, M., Clavero, M., Prenda, J., Blázquez, M.D., and Ferreras, P. 2004. Potential impact of an exotic mammal on rocky intertidal communities of northwestern Spain. Biol. Invasions 6(2):213-219.

Deng, W.B., and Zheng, G.L. 2004. Landscape and habitat factors affecting Cabot's tragopan Tragopan caboti occurrence in habitat fragments. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):25-32.

Dias, E., Elias, R.B., and Nunes, V. 2004. Vegetation mapping and nature conservation: a case study in Terceira Island (Azores). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1519-1539.

Diggins, T.P., Weimer, M., Stewart, K.M., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Forsberg, R.F., and Goehle, M.A. 2004. Epiphytic refugium: are two species of invading freshwater bivalves partitioning spatial resources? Biol. Invasions 6(1):83-88.

Dogan, M., and Akaydin, G. 2004. Three new species with two flowered spikelets in Acantholimon (Plumbaginaceae) from East Anatolia, Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144(4):497-505.

Dolan, R.W., Yahr, R., and Menges, E.S. 2004. Population genetic structure in Nolina brittoniana (Agavaceae), a plant endemic to the central ridges of Florida. Southeast. Nat. 3(1):25-36.

Dold, A.P. 2003. The rediscovery of Ornithogalum britteniae (Hyacinthaceae) and an amendment to the description. S. Afr. J. Bot. 69(4):500-504.

Dunham, K.M., Robertson, E.F., and Grant, C.C. 2004. Rainfall and the decline of a rare antelope, the tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus lunatus), in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):83-94.

Ellis, R. 2004. Don't experiment on endangered ferrets! Science 304(5672):824.

Ellison, C.A., and Barret, R.W. 2004. Prospects for the management of invasive alien weeds using co-evolved fungal pathogens: a Latin American perspective. Biol. Invasions 6(1):23-45.

Elphick, C.S. 2004. Assessing conservation trade-offs: identifying the effects of flooding rice fields for waterbirds on non-target bird species. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):105-110.

Fabre, J.P., Auger-Rozenberg, M.A., Chalon, A., Boivin, S., and Roques, A. 2004. Competition between exotic and native insects for seed resources in trees of a Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 6(1):11-22.

Fernández-Juricic, E., Vaca, R., and Schroeder, N. 2004. Spatial and temporal responses of forest birds to human approaches in a protected area and implications for two management strategies. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):407-416.

Flowerdew, J.R. 2004. Advances in the conservation of British mammals, 1954-2004: 50 years of progress with the mammal society. Mammal Rev. 34(3):169-210.

Fondell, T.F., and Ball, I.J. 2004. Density and success of bird nests relative to grazing on western Montana grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):203-213.

Fredericksen, N.J., and Fredericksen, T.S. 2004. Impacts of selective logging on amphibians in a Bolivian tropical humid forest. Forest Ecol. Manag. 191(1-3):275-282.

Frei, M., and Becker, K. 2004. Agro-biodiversity in subsistence-oriented farming systems in a Philippine upland region: nutritional considerations. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1591-1610.

Frey, L., Paszko, B., and Kwiatkowski, P. 2004. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae) in Poland. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 73(1):31-37.

Gao, L.H. 2004. Population structure and conservation genetics of wild rice Oryza rufipogon (Poaceae): a region-wide perspective from microsatellite variation. Mol. Ecol. 13(5):1009-1024.

Gay, L., Du Rau, P.D., Mondain-Monval, J.Y., and Crochet, P.A. 2004. Phylogeography of a game species: the red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) and consequences for its management. Mol. Ecol. 13(5):1035-1045.

Gaydos, J.K., Balcomb, K.C., Osborne, R.W., and Dierauf, L. 2004. Evaluating potential infectious disease threats for southern resident killer whales, Orcinus orca: a model for endangered species. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):253-262.

Gibson, L.A., Wilson, B.A., Cahill, D.M., and Hill, J. 2004. Modelling habitat suitability of the swamp antechinus (Antechinus minimus maritimus) in the coastal heathlands of southern Victoria, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):143-150.

Gildar, C.N., Fule, P.Z., and Covington, W.W. 2004. Plant community variability in Ponderosa pine forest has implications for reference conditions. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):101-111.

Gilk, S.E., Wang, I.A., Hoover, C.L., Smoker, W.W., Taylor, S.G., Gray, A.K., and Gharrett, A.J. 2004. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between spatially separated pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, populations: marine survival, homing ability, and variability in family size. Environ. Biol. Fish. 69(1-4):287-297.

Gold, J.R., Saillant, E., Burridge, C.P., Blanchard, A., and Patton, J.C. 2004. Population structure and effective size in critically endangered Cape Fear shiners Notropis mekistocholas. Southeast. Nat. 3(1):89-102.

Gordon, J.E., Hawthorne, W.D., Reyes-García, A., Sandoval, G., and Barrance, A.J. 2004. Assessing landscapes: a case study of tree and shrub diversity in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Oaxaca, Mexico and southern Honduras. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):429-442.

Gosper, C.R. 2004. Fruit characteristics of invasive bitou bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Asteraceae), and a comparison with co-occurring Native Plant Species. Aust. J. Bot. 52(2):223-230.

Granatha, K.L., Smoker, W.W., Gharrett, A.J., and Hard, J.J. 2004. Effects on embryo development time and survival of intercrossing three geographically separate populations of southeast Alaska coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Environ. Biol. Fish. 69(1-4):299-306.

Green, P.T., Lake, P.S., and O'Dowd, D.J. 2004. Resistance of island rainforest to invasion by alien plants: influence of microhabitat and herbivory on seedling performance. Biol. Invasions 6(1):1-9.

Groombridge, J.J., Massey, J.G., Bruch, J.C., Malcolm, T.R., Brosius, C.N., Okada, M.M., and Sparklin, B. 2004. Evaluating stress in a Hawaiian honeycreeper, Paroreomyza montana, following translocation. J. Field Ornithol. 75(2):183-187.

Guclu, K., and Karahan, F. 2004. A review: the history of conservation programs and development of the national parks concept in Turkey. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1373-1390.

Hagen, C.A., Jamison, B.E., Giesen, K.M., and Riley, T.Z. 2004. Guidelines for managing lesser prairie-chicken populations and their habitats. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):69-82.

Haight, R.G., Cypher, B., Kelly, P.A., Phillips, S., Ralls, K., and Possingham, H.P. 2004. Optimizing reserve expansion for disjunct populations of San Joaquin kit fox. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):61-72.

Hamilton, A.C. 2004. Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1477-1517.

Hannon, S.J., Cotterill, S.E., and Schmiegelow, F.K.A. 2004. Identifying rare species of songbirds in managed forests: application of an ecoregional template to a boreal mixedwood system. Forest Ecol. Manag. 191(1-3):157-170.

Hart, R.A., and Grier, J.W. 2004. Simulation models of harvested and zebra mussel colonized threeridge mussel populations in the upper Mississippi River. Am. Midl. Nat. 151(2):301-317.

Hartling, L., and Silva, M. 2004. Abundance and species richness of shrews within forested habitats on Prince Edward Island. Am. Midl. Nat. 151(2):399-407.

Hautala, H., Jalonen, J., Laaka-Lindberg, S., and Vanha-Majamaa, I. 2004. Impacts of retention felling on coarse woody debris (CWD) in mature boreal spruce forests in Finland. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1541-1554.

Helms, J.A. 2004. Old-growth: what is it? J. Forestry 102(3):8-12.

Hessen, D.O., Skurdal, J., and Braathen, J.E. 2004. Plant exclusion of a herbivore: crayfish population decline caused by an invading waterweed. Biol. Invasions 6(2):133-140.

Hewitt, N., and Kellman, M. 2004. Factors influencing tree colonization in fragmented forests: an experimental study of introduced seeds and seedlings. Forest Ecol. Manag. 191(1-3):39-59.

Hooper-Bui, L.M., Rust, M.K., and Reierson, D.A. 2004. Predation of the endangered California least tern, Sterna antillarum browni by the southern fire ant, Solenopsis xyloni (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Sociobiology 43(3):401-418.

Hurt, C.R. 2004. Genetic divergence, population structure and historical demography of rare springsnails (Pyrgulopsis) in the lower Colorado River basin. Mol. Ecol. 13(5):1173-1187.

Hutchings, J.A., and Reynolds, J.D. 2004. Marine fish population collapses: consequences for recovery and extinction risk. BioScience 54(4):297-309.

Huynh, T.T., Mclean, C.B., Coates, F., and Lawrie, A.C. 2004. Effect of developmental stage and peloton morphology on success in isolation of mycorrhizal fungi in Caladenia formosa (Orchidaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 52(2):231-241.

Ives, A.R., and Cardinale, B.J. 2004. Food-web interactions govern the resistance of communities after non-random extinctions. Nature 429(6988):174-177.

Jackson, D.B., Fuller, R.J., and Campbell, S.T. 2004. Long-term population changes among breeding shorebirds in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, in relation to introduced hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). Biol. Conserv. 117(2):151-166.

Jenkins, D.H., Devlin, D., Johnson, N.C., and Orndorff, S.P. 2004. System design and management for restoring Penn's woods. J. Forestry 102(3):30-36.

Jenny, J.P., Heinrich, W., Montoya, A.B., Mutch, B., Sandfort, C., and Hunt, W.G. 2004. From the field: progress in restoring the aplomado falcon to southern Texas. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):276-285.

Jongman, R.H.G., Kulvik, M., and Kristiansen, I. 2004. European ecological networks and greenways. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(2-3):305-319.

Kagoro-Rugunda, G. 2004. Crop raiding around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 42(1):32-41.

Kantvilas, G., and Jarman, S.J. 2004. Lichens and bryophytes on Eucalyptus obliqua in Tasmania: management implications in production forests. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):359-373.

Keith, D.A., and Burgman, M.A. 2004. The Lazarus effect: can the dynamics of extinct species lists tell us anything about the status of biodiversity? Biol. Conserv. 117(1):41-48.

Kendall, M.S., Christensen, J.D., Caldow, C., Coyne, M., Jeffrey, C., Monaco, M.E., Morrison, W., and Hillis-Starr, Z. 2004. The influence of bottom type and shelf position on biodiversity of tropical fish inside a recently enlarged marine reserve. Aquat. Conserv. 14(2):113-132.

King, J.M., and Heinen, J.T. 2004. An assessment of the behaviors of overwintering manatees as influenced by interactions with tourists at two sites in central Florida. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):227-234.

Kingsford, R.T., Brandis, K., Thomas, R.F., Crighton, P., Knowles, E., and Gale, E. 2004. Classifying landform at broad spatial scales: the distribution and conservation of wetlands in New South Wales, Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 55(1):17-31.

Kingston, N., Waldren, S., and Smyth, N. 2004. Conservation genetics and ecology of Angiopteris chauliodonta Copel. (Marattiaceae), a critically endangered fern from Pitcairn Island, South Central Pacific Ocean. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):309-319.

Kleijn, D., and van Zuijlen, G.J.C. 2004. The conservation effects of meadow bird agreements on farmland in Zeeland, The Netherlands, in the period 1989-1995. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):443-451.

Kotanen, P.M. 2004. Revegetation following soil disturbance and invasion in a Californian meadow: a 10-year history of recovery. Biol. Invasions 6(2):245-254.

Krauss, J., Klein, A.M., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2004. Effects of habitat area, isolation, and landscape diversity on plant species richness of calcareous grasslands. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1427-1439.

Krushelnycky, P.D., Loope, L.L., and Joe, S.M. 2004. Limiting spread of a unicolonial invasive insect and characterization of seasonal patterns of range expansion. Biol. Invasions 6(1):47-57.

Kuniyal, J.C., Vishvakarma, S.C.R., and Singh, G.S. 2004. Changing crop biodiversity and resource use efficiency of traditional versus introduced crops in the cold desert of the northwestern Indian Himalaya: a case of the Lahaul valley. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1271-1304.

Lake, J.C., and Leishman, M.R. 2004. Invasion success of exotic in natural ecosystems: the role of disturbance, plant attributes and freedom from herbivores. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):215-226.

Larsen, D.P., Kaufmann, P.R., Kincaid, T.M., and Urquhart, N.S. 2004. Detecting persistent change in the habitat of salmon-bearing streams in the Pacific Northwest. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61(2):283-291.

Linklater, W.L. 2004. Wanted for conservation research: behavioral ecologists with a broader perspective. BioScience 54(4):352-360.

Liu, B.W., and Jiang, Z.G. 2004. Dietary overlap between Przewalski's gazelle and domestic sheep in the Qinghai Lake region and implications for rangeland management. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(2):241-246.

Lydeard, C., Cowie, R.H., Ponder, W.F., Bogan, A.E., Bouchet, P., Clark, S.A., Cummings, K.S., Frest, T.J., Gargominy, O., Herbert, D.G., Hershler, R., Perez, K.E., Roth, B., Seddon, M., Strong, E.E., and Thompson, F.G. 2004. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. BioScience 54(4):321-330.

MacNaughton, R.L. 2004. Invasive species - Letter to the Prime Minister. Forest Chron. 80(1):7-8.

Marchand, M.N., and Litvaitis, J.A. 2004. Effects of landscape composition, habitat features, and nest distribution on predation rates of simulated turtle nests. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):243-251.

Martin, L.A., and Pullin, A.S. 2004. Host-plant specialisation and habitat restriction in an endangered insect, Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) I. Larval feeding and oviposition preferences. Eur. J. Entomol. 101(1):51-56.

Martin, L.A., and Pullin, A.S. 2004. Host-plant specialisation and habitat restriction in an endangered insect, Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) II. Larval survival on alternative host plants in the field. Eur. J. Entomol. 101(1):57-62.

Mbabazi, D., Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., Wandera, S.B., and Kiziito, Y. 2004. Fish species and trophic diversity of haplochromine cichlids in the Kyoga satellite lakes (Uganda). Afr. J. Ecol. 42(1):59-68.

McGlone, C.M., and Huenneke, L.F. 2004. The impact of a prescribed burn on introduced Lehmann lovegrass versus native vegetation in the northern Chihuahuan desert. J. Arid Environ. 57(3):297-310.

Menke, C.A., and Muir, P.S. 2004. Patterns and influences of exotic species invasion into the grassland habitat of the threatened plant Silene spaldingil. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):119-128.

Menzel, J.M., Ford, W.M., Edwards, J.W., and Menzel, M.A. 2004. Nest tree use by the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel in the central Appalachian Mountains. Am. Midl. Nat. 151(2):355-368.

Milazzo, M., Badalamenti, F., Riggio, S., and Chemello, R. 2004. Patterns of algal recovery and small-scale effects of canopy removal as a result of human trampling on a Mediterranean rocky shallow community. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):191-202.

Mock, K.E., Brim-Box, J.C., Miller, M.P., Downing, M.E., and Hoeh, W.R. 2004. Genetic diversity and divergence among freshwater mussel (Anodonta) populations in the Bonneville Basin of Utah. Mol. Ecol. 13(5):1085-1098.

Moore, J., Balmford, A., Allnutt, T., and Burgess, N. 2004. Integrating costs into conservation planning across Africa. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):343-350.

Morin, P.A., Luikart, G., Wayne, R.K., and the SNP workshop group. 2004. SNPs in ecology, evolution and conservation. TREE 19(4):208-216.

Morris, P.A. 2003. A review of research on British dormice (Gliridae) and the effect of increasing public and scientific awareness of these animals. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 49:125-130.

Morrison, L.W., Porter, S.D., Daniels, E., and Korzukhin, M.D. 2004. Potential global range expansion of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Biol. Invasions 6(2):183-191.

Morrow, M.E., Rossignol, T.A., and Silvy, N.J. 2004. Federal listing of prairie grouse: lessons from the Attwater's prairie-chicken. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):112-118.

Nagel, J.M., and Griffin, K.L. 2004. Can gas-exchange characteristics help explain the invasive success of Lythrum salicaria? Biol. Invasions 6(1):101-111.

Nijboer, R.C., and Schmidt-Kloiber, A. 2004. The effect of excluding taxa with low abundances or taxa with small distribution ranges on ecological assessment. Hydrobiologia 516(1):347-363.

Nikolakaki, P. 2004. A GIS site-selection process for habitat creation: estimating connectivity of habitat patches. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(1):77-94.

Norden, A.H., and Kirkman, L.K. 2004. Factors controlling the fire-induced flowering response of the federally endangered Schwalbea americana L. (Scrophulariaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131(1):16-22.

Norden, A.H., and Kirkman, L.K. 2004. Persistence and prolonged winter dormancy of the federally endangered Schwalbea americana L. (Scrophulariaceae) following experimental management techniques. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):129-134.

Nordén, B., Ryberg, M., Götmark, F., and Olausson, B. 2004. Relative importance of coarse and fine woody debris for the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in temperate broadleaf forests. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):1-10.

Nordstrom, M., and Korpimaki, E. 2004. Effects of island isolation and feral mink removal on bird communities on small islands in the Baltic Sea. J. Anim. Ecol. 73(3):424-433.

Norris, S. 2004. Only 30: a portrait of the Endangered Species Act as a young law. BioScience 54(4):288-294.

Novak, A.B., and Wang, Y.Q. 2004. Effects of suburban sprawl on Rhode Island's forests: a Landsat view from 1972 to 1999. Northeastern Nat. 11(1):67-74.

Okochi, I., Sato, H., and Ohbayashi, T. 2004. The cause of mollusk decline on the Ogasawara Islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1465-1475.

Opdam, P., and Wascher, D. 2004. Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):285-297.

Pauchard, A., Cavieres, L., Bustamante, R., Becerra, P., and Rapoport, E. 2004. Increasing the understanding of plant invasions in southern South America: first symposium on Alien Plant Invasions in Chile. Biol. Invasions 6(2):255-257.

Pearce, J.L., Venier, L.A., Eccles, G., Pedlar, J., and McKenney, D. 2004. Influence of habitat and microhabitat on epigeal spider (Araneae) assemblages in four stand types. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1305-1334.

Pedersen, B.S., and Wallis, A.M. 2004. Effects of white-tailed deer herbivory on forest gap dynamics in a wildlife preserve, Pennsylvania, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):82-94.

Penttilä, R., Siitonen, J., and Kuusinen, M. 2004. Polypore diversity in managed and old-growth boreal Picea abies forests in southern Finland. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):271-283.

Perez, J.E., Munoz, C., Huaquin, L., and Nirchio, M. 2004. Risks of the introduction of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in aquatic ecosystems of Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(1):195-199.

Pethiyagoda, R. 2004. Biodiversity law has had some unintended effects - moves to prevent unfair exploitation of resources could restrict conservation research. Nature 429(6988):129.

Price, O.F. 2004. Indirect evidence that frugivorous birds track fluctuating fruit resources among rainforest patches in the Northern Territory, Australia. Austral Ecol. 29(2):137-144.

Radford, J.Q., and Bennett, A.F. 2004. Thresholds in landscape parameters: occurrence of the white-browed treecreeper Climacteris affinis in Victoria, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):375-391.

Ratti, J.T., Weinstein, M., Scott, J.M., Wiseman, P.A., Gillesberg, A.M., Miller, C.A., Szepanski, M.M., and Svancara, L.K. 2004. Feasibility of wolf reintroduction to Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Northwest Sci. 78:1-76.

Ravaoarimanana, I.B., Tiedemann, B., Montagnon, D., and Rumpler, Y. 2004. Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for cryptic speciation within a rare endemic Malagasy lemur, the northern sportive lemur (Lepilemur septentrionalis). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31(2):440-448.

Ray, G.C. 2004. Reconsidering 'dangerous targets' for marine protected areas. Aquat. Conserv. 14(2):211-215.

Renai, B., and Gherardi, F. 2004. Predatory efficiency of crayfish: comparison between indigenous and non-indigenous species. Biol. Invasions 6(1):89-99.

Richardson, D.H.S., and Cameron, R.P. 2004. Cyanolichens: their response to pollution and possible management strategies for their conservation in northeastern North America. Northeastern Nat. 11(1):1-22.

Riley, T.Z. 2004. Private-land habitat opportunities for prairie grouse through federal conservation programs. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):83-91.

Romain-Bondi, K.A., Wielgus, R.B., Waits, L., Kasworm, W.F., Austin, M., and Wakkinen, W. 2004. Density and population size estimates for North Cascade grizzly bears using DNA hair-sampling techniques. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):417-428.

Romero, M.I., Ramil, P., and Rubinos, M. 2004. Conservation status of Eryngium viviparum Gay. Acta Bot. Gallica 151(1):55-64.

Romo, J.T. 2004. Establishing winterfat in prairie restorations in Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84(1):173-179.

Rossetto, M., Gross, C.L., Jones, R., and Hunter, J. 2004. The impact of clonality on an endangered tree (Elaeocarpus williamsianus) in a fragmented rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):33-39.

Russo, D., Cistrone, L., Jones, G., and Mazzoleni, S. 2004. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (Barbastella barbastellus, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in beech woodlands of central Italy: consequences for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):73-81.

Ryan, R.L., and Walker, J.T.H. 2004. Protecting and managing private farmland and public greenways in the urban fringe. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(2-3):183-198.

Samson, F.B., Knopf, F.L., and Ostlie, W.R. 2004. Great plains ecosystems: past, present, and future. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):6-15.

Sanchez-Camara, J., and Booth, D.J. 2004. Movement, home range and site fidelity of the weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(1):31-41.

Santoul, F., and Mastrorillo, S. 2004. Winter microhabitat distribution of coots (Fulica atra L.1758) on gravel-pit wetlands in the Garonne River floodplain, southwest France. Belgian J. Zool. 134(1):5-8.

Sauberer, N., Zulka, K.P., Abensperg-Traun, M., Berg, H.M., Bieringer, G., Milasowszky, N., Moser, D., Plutzar, C., Pollheimer, M., Storch, C., Trostl, R., Zechmeister, H., and Grabherr, G. 2004. Surrogate taxa for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes of eastern Austria. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):181-190.

Schabetsberger, R., Jehle, R., Maletzky, A., Pesta, J., and Sztatecsny, M. 2004. Delineation of terrestrial reserves for amphibians: post-breeding migrations of Italian crested newts (Triturus c. carnifex) at high altitude. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):95-104.

Sgorbati, S., Labra, M., Grugni, E., Barcaccia, G., Galasso, G., Boni, U., Mucciarelli, M., Citterio, S., Iramátegui, A.B., Gonzales, L.V., and Scannerini, S. 2004. A survey of genetic diversity and reproductive biology of Puya raimondii (Bromeliaceae), the endangered queen of the Andes. Plant Biol. 6(2):222-230.

Shochat, E., and Tsurim, I. 2004. Winter bird communities in the northern Negev: species dispersal patterns, habitat use and implications for habitat conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1571-1590.

Shrader-Frechette, K. 2004. Measurement problems and Florida panther models. Southeast. Nat. 3(1):37-50.

Silva, L., and Smith, C.W. 2004. A characterization of the non-indigenous flora of the Azores archipelago. Biol. Invasions 6(2):193-204.

Silvy, N.J., Peterson, M.J., and Lopez, R.R. 2004. The cause of the decline of pinnated grouse: the Texas example. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(1):16-21.

Simberloff, D., and Gibbons, L. 2004. Now you see them, now you don't - population crashes of established introduced species. Biol. Invasions 6(2):161-172.

Sinden, J.A. 2004. Estimating the opportunity costs of biodiversity protection in the Brigalow Belt, New South Wales. J. Environ. Manage. 70(4):351-362.

Sinsin, B., Matig, O.E., Assogbadjo, A.E., Gaoué, O.G., and Sinadouwirou, T. 2004. Dendrometric characteristics as indicators of pressure of Afzelia africana Sm. dynamic changes in trees found in different climatic zones of Benin. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1555-1570.

Spies, T.A. 2004. Ecological concepts and diversity of old-growth forests. J. Forestry 102(3):14-20.

Spooner, P.G., Lunt, I.D., Briggs, S.V., and Freudenberger, D. 2004. Effects of soil disturbance from roadworks on roadside shrubs in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 117(4):393-406.

Standish, R.J., Williams, P.A., Robertson, A.W., Scott, N.A., and Hedderley, D.I. 2004. Invasion by a perennial herb increases decomposition rate and alters nutrient availability in warm temperate lowland forest remnants. Biol. Invasions 6(1):71-81.

Stark, K.E., Lundholm, J.T., and Larson, D.W. 2004. Arrested development of soil on alvars of Ontario, Canada: implications for conservation and restoration. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):95-100.

Steury, T.D., and Murray, D.L. 2004. Modeling the reintroduction of lynx to the southern portion of its range. Biol. Conserv. 117(2):127-141.

Stiling, P. 2004. Biological control not on target. Biol. Invasions 6(2):151-159.

Stokes, V.L., Pech, R.P., Banks, P.B., and Arthur, A.D. 2004. Foraging behaviour and habitat use by Antechinus flavipes and Sminthopsis murina (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in response to predation risk in eucalypt woodland. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):331-342.

Stoms, D.M., Chomitz, K.M., and Davis, F.W. 2004. TAMARIN: a landscape framework for evaluating economic incentives for rainforest restoration. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(1):95-108.

Struhsaker, T.T., Marshall, A.R., Detwiler, K., Siex, K., Ehardt, C., Lisbjerg, D.D., and Butynski, T.M. 2004. Demographic variation among Udzungwa red colobus in relation to gross ecological and sociological parameters. Int. J. Primatol. 25(3):615-658.

Sullivan, B.K., Kwiatkowski, M.A., and Schuett, G.W. 2004. Translocation of urban gila monsters: a problematic conservation tool. Biol. Conserv. 117(3):235-242.

Summerville, K.S. 2004. Do smaller forest fragments contain a greater abundance of Lepidopteran crop and forage consumers? Environ. Entomol. 33(2):234-241.

Tabarelli, M., da Silva, M.J.C., and Gascon, C. 2004. Forest fragmentation, synergisms and the impoverishment of neotropical forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1419-1425.

Thomson, V.P., and Leishman, M.R. 2004. Survival of native plants of Hawkesbury Sandstone communities with additional nutrients: effect of plant age and habitat. Aust. J. Bot. 52(2):141-147.

Thornber, C.S., Kinlan, B.P., Graham, M.H., and Stachowicz, J.J. 2004. Population ecology of the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida in California: environmental and biological controls on demography. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 268:69-80.

Trousdale, W., and Gregory, R. 2004. Property evaluation and biodiversity conservation - decision support for making hard choices. Ecol. Econ. 48(3):279-291.

Tserenbataa, T., Ramey, R.R., Ryder, O.A., Quinn, T.W., and Reading, R.P. 2004. A population genetic comparison of argali sheep (Ovis ammon) in Mongolia using the ND5 gene of mitochondrial DNA; implications for conservation. Mol. Ecol. 13(5):1333-1339.

Tufford, D.L., Nelson, J.B., Brunswig, N.L., and Cowen, D.J. 2004. Ecological mapping and characterization of the Wannamaker Nature Preserve, South Carolina, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):154-160.

Ulbrich, K., and Kayser, A. 2004. A risk analysis for the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus). Biol. Conserv. 117(3):263-270.

Unmack, P.J., and Fagan, W.E. 2004. Convergence of differentially invaded systems toward invader-dominance: time-lagged invasions as a predictor in desert fish communities. Biol. Invasions 6(2):233-243.

Van Looy, K., Honnay, O., Bossuyt, B., and Hermy, M. 2004. The effects of river embankment and forest fragmentation on the plant species richness and composition of floodplain forests in the Meuse valley, Belgium. Belgian J. Bot. 136(2):97-108.

Vanderpoorten, A., Delescaille, L.M., and Jacquemart, A.L. 2004. The bryophyte layer in a calcareous grassland after a decade of contrasting mowing regimes. Biol. Conserv. 117(1):11-18.

Varner, J.M., and Kush, J.S. 2004. Remnant old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas and forests of the southeastern USA: status and threats. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):141-149.

Velázquez-Velázquez, E., and Schmitter-Soto, J.J. 2004. Conservation status of the San Cristobal pupfish Profundulus hildebrandi Miller (Teleostei: Profundulidae) in the face of urban growth in Chiapas, Mexico. Aquat. Conserv. 14(2):201-209.

Vilà, M., Williamson, M., and Lonsdale, M. 2004. Competition experiments on alien weeds with crops: lessons for measuring plant invasion impact? Biol. Invasions 6(1):59-69.

Vilhelmsen, H. 2003. Status of dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius) in Denmark. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 49:139-145.

Walther, G.R. 2004. Plants in a warmer world. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 6(3):169-185.

Warman, L.D., Forsyth, D.M., Sinclair, A.R.E., Freemark, K., Moore, H.D., Barrett, T.W., Pressey, R.L., and White, D. 2004. Species distributions, surrogacy, and important conservation regions in Canada. Ecol. Lett. 7(5):374-379.

Webster, I.T., and Harris, G.P. 2004. Anthropogenic impacts on the ecosystems of coastal lagoons: modelling fundamental biogeochemical processes and management implications. Mar. Freshwater Res. 55(1):67-78.

Wetherbee, B.M., Holland, K.N., Meyer, C.G., and Lowe, C.G. 2004. Use of a marine reserve in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii by the giant trevally, Caranx ignobilis. Fish. Res. 67(3):253-263.

Wikström, S.A., and Kautsky, L. 2004. Invasion of a habitat-forming seaweed: effects on associated biota. Biol. Invasions 6(2):141-150.

Wright, G. 2004. An untested hypothesis. Nat. Areas J. 24(2):81.

Xie, Y., MacKinnon, J., and Li, D. 2004. Study on biogeographical divisions of China. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1391-1417.

Yates, C.J., and Ladd, P.G. 2004. Breeding system, pollination and demography in the rare granite endemic shrub Verticordia staminosa ssp. staminosa in south-west Western Australia. Austral Ecol. 29(2):189-200.

Zheng, Y.R., Xie, Z.X., Gao, Y., Shimizu, H., Jiang, L.H., and Yu, Y. 2004. Ecological restoration in northern China: germination characteristics of nine key species in relation to air seeding. Belgian J. Bot. 136(2):129-138.

Zhu, H., Xu, Z.F., Wang, H., and Li, B.G. 2004. Tropical rain forest fragmentation and its ecological and species diversity changes in southern Yunnan. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1355-1372.

Zhu, H.G., Qin, P., and Wang, H. 2004. Functional group classification and target species selection for Yancheng Nature Reserve, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(7):1335-1353.

Zilihona, I.J.E., Niemelä, J., and Nummelin, M. 2004. Effects of a hydropower plant on Coleopteran diversity and abundance in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(8):1453-1464.

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