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Department ofBotany

No. 236
August 2004

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In This Issue

Saving the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins

It is easy to spot cocoa trees in a small region of Brazil's Atlantic Forest along the coast of Southern Bahia. Many are nestled under a canopy of relatively intact rain forest, locally known as cabruca forests. In the past, cacao--the principal ingredient in chocolate--contributed considerably to Brazil's export economy. More recently, however, cocoa production has faced severe problems, including the rapid spread of a fungal disease and increased competition in the international market. As the price of cocoa has fallen, farmers are seeking alternative sources of income by converting cabruca forests into cattle ranches.

Today, Southern Bahia's cocoa-growing region is a mosaic of cabruca forests, mono-crop agriculture, pasture for cattle ranching, and a few remaining fragments of lowland Atlantic Forest. The remaining forests are home to the endangered golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). The large shade trees, which are critical sources of food and sleeping sites for these beautiful gold-and-black monkeys, are declining because of continued habitat loss and severe habitat fragmentation.

Trees and lianas at a tropical forest in Barro Colorado Island, Panama

Until recently, little was known about their ecology and behavior. In the early 1990s, Becky Raboy, now a Research Fellow at the Smithsonian National Zoo, began a long-term study of the tamarins in East Una Biological Reserve, in collaboration with James Dietz of the University of Maryland. Administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, Una Biological Reserve is the largest protected area in the range of tamarins. Raboy and Dietz use radio-tracking equipment to habituate and follow groups of tamarins. After the collared groups are comfortable with the presence of human observers, a team of field assistants can systematically collect behavioral observations on many aspects of their biology.

Since launching this long-term research, Raboy and her colleagues have learned many interesting facts about tamarins. For example:

  • They aggressively defend home ranges of 120 hectares--much larger than originally thought. This finding alone is significant, as it lowers previous estimates of the species' population size considerably.
  • They use tree holes for sleeping at night, which are most abundant in tall forests. Despite their large home ranges, in any given month, tamarin groups limit themselves to just a handful of select tree holes.
  • Epiphytic bromeliads, which provide the most common insect-foraging substrate for tamarins, are uncommon in secondary forests, suggesting the importance of tall forests for tamarin survival.

With growing information on tamarin ecology and behavior, researchers have turned toward determining the chances of and developing strategies for ensuring the species' long-term survival. In collaboration with the National Zoo's Jon Ballou and Peter Leimgruber, in January 2004 Raboy initiated a project evaluating the population viability and genetic diversity of tamarins in Southern Bahia's fragmented landscape using Geographic Information Systems as a tool. Demographic information is used in combination with ecological data (such as home-range sizes and habitat preferences) and environmental factors (such as the amount of available forest cover) to model the viability of the fragmented populations and to track the likelihood that genes will be exchanged throughout the species range. Raboy, Leimgruber, and Ballou will use these techniques to assess the impacts on tamarins of habitat destruction and the creation of corridors via forest regeneration, and to prioritize specific regions within the species range for heightened conservation action.

Preliminary investigations into effective management strategies point toward the high value of conserving cabruca forests, whose complete elimination would reduce the amount of available habitat for the tamarins by over 50 percent. To promote the conservation of this rapidly dwindling environment, researchers at the Smithsonian have begun to collaborate with the Institute for the Social and Environmental Studies of Southern Bahia, a nongovernmental organization helping to create sustainable communities, providing environmental education, and assisting landowners with creating and managing private reserves.

Current Literature

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de Warnaffe, G.d.B., and Lebrun, P. 2004. Effects of forest management on carabid beetles in Belgium: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):219-234.

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Diffendorfer, J.E., and Doherty, P.F. 2004. Lifting Cassandra's curse. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):600.

Dimitrakopoulos, P.G., Memtsas, D., and Troumbis, A.Y. 2004. Questioning the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 Special Areas of Conservation strategy: the case of Crete. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 13(3):199-207.

Diniz, J.A.F. 2004. Phylogenetic diversity and conservation priorities under distinct models of phenotypic evolution. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):698-704.

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Dye, P., and Jarmain, C. 2004. Water use by black wattle (Acacia mearnsii): implications for the link between removal of invading trees and catchment streamflow response. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):40-44.

Edwards, C.M., and La Salle, J. 2004. A new species of Closterocerus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of serpentine leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Australia. Aust. J. Entomol. 43:129-132.

Eggleton, M.A., Miranda, L.E., and Kirk, J.P. 2004. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): insight from bioenergetics models. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 13(2):85-95.

Endress, B.A., Gorchov, D.L., Peterson, M.B., and Serrano, E.P. 2004. Harvest of the palm Chamaedorea radicalis, its effects on leaf production, and implications for sustainable management. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):822-830.

Faust, B., Anderson, E.N., and Frazier, J. (eds.). 2004. Rights, Resources, Culture, and Conservation in the Land of the Maya. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport, CN. 328 pp.

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Foster, J.T., Tweed, E.J., Camp, R.J., Woodworth, B.L., Adler, C.D., and Telfer, T. 2004. Long-term population changes of native and introduced birds in the Alaka'i Swamp, Kaua'i. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):716-725.

Foster, S.E., and Soluk, D.A. 2004. Evaluating exuvia collection as a management tool for the federally endangered Hine's emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana Williamson (Odonata: Cordulidae). Biol. Conserv. 118(1):15-20.

Frazier, J. 2002. Marine turtles and international instruments: the agony and the ecstasy. J. Int. Wildlife Law & Pol. 5(1-2):1-10.

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Godfree, R., Lepschi, B., and Mallinson, D. 2004. Ecological filtering of exotic plants in an Australian sub-alpine environment. J. Veg. Sci. 15(2):227-236.

Gomes, V., Collevatti, R.G., Silveira, F.A.O., and Fernandes, G.W. 2004. The distribution of genetic variability in Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae), an endemic, dioecious and threatened shrub of rupestrian fields of Brazil. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):157-165.

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Gorgens, A.H.M., and van Wilgen, B.W. 2004. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):27-33.

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Nichols, H. 2004. Tortoise conservation - one of a kind. Nature 429(6991):498-500.

Oguz, D. 2004. Remaining tree species from the indigenous vegetation of Ankara, Turkey. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(4):371-388.

Olckers, T. 2004. Targeting emerging weeds for biological control in South Africa: the benefits of halting the spread of alien plants at an early stage of their invasion. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):64-68.

Oppel, S., Schaefer, H.M., Schmidt, V., and Schröder, B. 2004. Habitat selection by the pale-headed brush-finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) in southern Ecuador: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 118(1):33-40.

Oppel, S., Schaefer, H.M., Schmidt, V., and Schröder, B. 2004. How much suitable habitat is left for the last known population of the pale-headed brush-finch? Condor 106(2):429-434.

Oppel, S., and Stock, M. 2004. Reconsidering species extinctions in national parks: reply to Berger. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):845-846.

Oren, A. 2004. Prokaryote diversity and taxonomy: current status and future challenges. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):623-638.

Pasche, F., Armand, M., Gouaux, P., Lamaze, T., and Pornon, A. 2004. Are meadows with high ecological and patrimonial value endangered by heathland invasion in the French central Pyrenees? Biol. Conserv. 118(1):101-108.

Pedersen, Å.Ø., Nyhuus, S., Blindheim, T., and Krog, O.M.W. 2004. Implementation of a GIS-based management tool for conservation of biodiversity within the municipality of Oslo, Norway. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(4):429-438.

Pérez, I., Giménez, A., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Anadón, J.D., Martínez, M., and Esteve, M.A. 2004. Non-commercial collection of spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca graeca): a cultural problem in southeast Spain. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):175-181.

Petit, R.J. 2004. Biological invasions at the gene level. Divers. Distrib. 10(3):159-165.

Pineda, E., and Halffter, G. 2004. Species diversity and habitat fragmentation: frogs in a tropical montane landscape in Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 117(5):499-508.

Pitra, C., D'Aloia, M.A., Lieckfeldt, D., and Combreau, O. 2004. Genetic variation across the current range of the Asian houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). Conserv. Genet. 5(2):205-215.

Pluess, A.R., and Stöcklin, J. 2004. Genetic diversity and fitness in Scabiosa columbaria in the Swiss Jura in relation to population size. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):145-156.

Poirazidis, K., Goutner, V., Skartsi, T., and Stamou, G. 2004. Modelling nesting habitat as a conservation tool for the Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monaehus) in Dadia Nature Reserve, northeastern Greece. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):235-248.

Porcher, E., Gouyon, P.H., and Lavigne, C. 2004. Dynamic management of genetic resources: maintenance of outcrossing in experimental metapopulations of a predominantly inbreeding species. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):259-269.

Posillico, M., Alberto, M.I.B., Pagnin, E., Lovari, S., and Russo, L. 2004. A habitat model for brown bear conservation and land use planning in the central Apennines. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):141-150.

Preen, A. 2004. Distribution, abundance and conservation status of dugongs and dolphins in the southern and western Arabian Gulf. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):205-218.

Pretty, J., and Smith, D. 2004. Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):631-638.

Pykälä, J. 2004. Effects of new forestry practices on rare epiphytic macrolichens. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):831-838.

Pyšek, P., Richardson, D.M., and Williamson, M. 2004. Predicting and explaining plant invasions through analysis of source area floras: some critical considerations. Divers. Distrib. 10(3):179-187.

Randell, R.A., Howarth, D.G., and Morden, C.W. 2004. Genetic analysis of natural hybrids between endemic and alien Rubus (Rosaceae) species in Hawai'i. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):217-230.

Raven, P.H. 2004. Taxonomy: where are we now? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):729-730.

Rejmánková, E., Komárek, J., and Komárková, J. 2004. Cyanobacteria - a neglected component of biodiversity: patterns of species diversity in inland marshes of northern Belize (Central America). Divers. Distrib. 10(3):189-199.

Richardson, D.M., and van Wilgen, B.W. 2004. Invasive alien plants in South Africa: how well do we understand the ecological impacts? S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):45-52.

Robinson, J.G., and Ginsberg, J.R. 2004. Parks, people, and pipelines. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):607-608.

Rodríguez, A., and Delibes, M. 2004. Patterns and causes of non-natural mortality in the Iberian lynx during a 40-year period of range contraction. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):151-161.

Roe, J.H., Kingsbury, B.A., and Herbert, N.R. 2004. Comparative water snake ecology: conservation of mobile animals that use temporally dynamic resources. Biol. Conserv. 118(1):79-89.

Rolstad, J., Sætersdal, M., Gjerde, I., and Storaunet, K.O. 2004. Wood-decaying fungi in boreal forest: are species richness and abundances influenced by small-scale spatiotemporal distribution of dead wood? Biol. Conserv. 117(5):539-555.

Rooney, T.P., Wiegmann, S.M., Rogers, D.A., and Waller, D.M. 2004. Biotic impoverishment and homogenization in unfragmented forest understory communities. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):787-798.

Russell, F.L., and Louda, S.M. 2004. Phenological synchrony affects interaction strength of an exotic weevil with platte thistle, a native host plant. Oecologia 139(4):525-534.

Sadler, J.P., Bell, D., and Fowles, A. 2004. The hydroecological controls and conservation value of beetles on exposed riverine sediments in England and Wales. Biol. Conserv. 118(1):41-56.

Salgueiro, F., Felix, D., Caldas, J.F., Margis-Pinheiro, M., and Margis, R. 2004. Even population differentiation for maternal and biparental gene markers in Eugenia uniflora, a widely distributed species from the Brazilian coastal Atlantic rain forest. Divers. Distrib. 10(3):201-210.

Samper, C. 2004. Taxonomy and environmental policy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):721-728.

Samways, M.J., and Taylor, S. 2004. Impacts of invasive alien plants on Red-Listed South African dragonflies (Odonata). S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):78-80.

Santangelo, G., Maggi, E., Bramanti, L., and Bongiorni, L. 2004. Demography of the over-exploited Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum L. 1758). Sci. Mar. 68:199-204.

Santiapillai, C., and Jayewardene, R. 2004. Conservation of the leopard and other carnivores in Sri Lanka. Curr. Sci. 86(8):1063-1064.

Saterson, K.A., Christensen, N.L., Jackson, R.B., Kramer, R.A., Pimm, S.L., Smith, M.D., and Wiener, J.B. 2004. Disconnects in evaluating the relative effectiveness of conservation strategies. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):597-599.

Schleen, L.P., Christie, G.C., Heinrich, J.W., Bergstedt, R.A., Young, R.J., Morse, T.J., Lavis, D.S., Bills, T.D., Johnson, J.E., and Ebener, M.P. 2003. Development and implementation of an integrated program for control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River. J. Great Lakes Res. 29:677-693.

Schnabel, A., and Krutovskii, K.V. 2004. Conservation genetics and evolutionary history of Gleditsia caspica: inferences from allozyme diversity in populations from Azerbaijan. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):195-204.

Schroeder, M.A., Aldridge, C.L., Apa, A.D., Bohne, J.R., Braun, C.E., Bunnell, S.D., Connelly, J.W., Deibert, P.A., Gardner, S.C., Hilliard, M.A., Kobriger, G.D., McAdam, S.M., McCarthy, C.W., McCarthy, J.J., Mitchell, D.L., Rickerson, E.V., and Stiver, S.J. 2004. Distribution of sage-grouse in North America. Condor 106(2):363-376.

Scoble, M.J. 2004. Unitary or unified taxonomy? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):699-710.

Seymour, M. 2004. Partnerships to support sustainable development and conservation: the West-East Pipeline Project, China. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):613-615.

Silva, J.P., Pinto, M., and Palmeirim, J.M. 2004. Managing landscapes for the little bustard Tetrax tetrax: lessons from the study of winter habitat selection. Biol. Conserv. 117(5):521-528.

Simmons, J.W., and Layzer, J.B. 2004. Spawning behavior and habitat of the endangered bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration) sp. Copeia 2004(2):412-417.

Skov, F., and Svenning, J.C. 2004. Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe. Ecography 27(3):366-380.

Soberón, J., and Peterson, A.T. 2004. Biodiversity informatics: managing and applying primary biodiversity data. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):689-698.

Squirrell, J., Woodhead, M., Hollingsworth, P.M., Russell, J., Gibby, M., and Powell, W. 2004. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the alpine lady fern, Athyrium distentifolium Tausch ex. Opiz, from an enriched genomic library. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):283-286.

Stapanian, M.A., Waite, T.A., Krzys, G., Mack, J.J., and Micacchion, M. 2004. Rapid assessment indicator of wetland integrity as an unintended predictor of avian diversity. Hydrobiologia 520(1-3):119-126.

Stefanescu, C., Herrando, S., and Paramo, F. 2004. Butterfly species richness in the north-west Mediterranean basin: the role of natural and human-induced factors. J. Biogeogr. 31(6):905-915.

Steffen, O., Schaefer, H.M., and Schmidt, V. 2003. Description of the nest, eggs, and breeding behavior of the endangered pale-headed brush-finch (Atiapetes pallidiceps) in Ecuador. Wilson Bull. 115(4):360-366.

Stenhouse, R.N. 2004. Fragmentation and internal disturbance of native vegetation reserves in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(4):389-401.

Stewart, T.J., Bence, J.R., Bergstedt, R.A., Ehener, M.P., Lupi, F., and Rutter, M.A. 2003. Recommendations for assessing sea lamprey damages: toward optimizing the control program in the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res. 29:783-793.

Storme, V., Vanden Broeck, A., Ivens, B., Halfmaerten, D., Van Slycken, J., Castiglione, S., Grassi, F., Fossati, T., Cottrell, J.E., Tabbener, H.E., Lefèvre, F., Saintagne, C., Fluch, S., Krystufek, V., Burg, K., Bordács, S., Borovics, A., Gebhardt, K., Vornam, B., Pohl, A., Alba, N., Agúndez, D., Maestro, C., Notivol, E., Bovenschen, J., van Dam, B.C., van der Schoot, J., Vosman, B., Boerjan, W., and Smulders, M.J.M. 2004. Ex-situ conservation of black poplar in Europe: genetic diversity in nine gene bank collections and their value for nature development. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108(6):969-981.

Strayer, D.L., Downing, J.A., Haag, W.R., King, T.L., Layzer, J.B., Newton, T.J., and Nichols, S.J. 2004. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals. BioScience 54(5):429-439.

Sukopp, H. 2004. Human-caused impact on preserved vegetation. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(4):347-355.

Sullivan, W.P., Christie, G.C., Cornelius, F.C., Fodale, M.F., Johnson, D.A., Koonces, J.F., Larson, G.L., McDonald, R.B., Mullett, K.M., Murray, C.K., and Ryan, P.A. 2003. The sea lamprey in Lake Erie: a case history. J. Great Lakes Res. 29:615-636.

Swetnam, R.D., Mountford, J.O., Manchester, S.J., and Broughton, R.K. 2004. Agri-environmental schemes: their role in reversing floral decline in the Brue floodplain, Somerset, UK. J. Environ. Manage. 71(1):79-93.

Tankersley, R.D. 2004. Migration of birds as an indicator of broad-scale environmental condition. Environ. Monit. Assess. 94(1-3):55-67.

Taylor, S.L., Roberts, S.C., Walsh, C.J., and Hatt, B.E. 2004. Catchment urbanisation and increased benthic algal biomass in streams: linking mechanisms to management. Freshwater Biol. 49(6):835-851.

Terborgh, J. 2004. Reflections of a scientist on the World Parks Congress. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):619-620.

Theron, J.M., van Laar, A., Kunneke, A., and Bredenkamp, B.V. 2004. A preliminary assessment of utilizable biomass in invading Acacia stands on the Cape coastal plains. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):123-125.

Tomialojc, L., and Wesolowski, T. 2004. Diversity of the Bialowieza Forest avifauna in space and time. J. Ornithol. 145(2):81-92.

Tomimatsu, H., and Ohara, M. 2004. Edge effects on recruitment of Trillium camschatcense in small forest fragments. Biol. Conserv. 117(5):509-519.

Trajano, E., Reis, R.E., and Bichuette, M.E. 2004. Pimelodella spelaea: a new cave catfish from central Brazil, with data on ecology and evolutionary considerations (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Copeia 2004(2):315-325.

Turner, T.F., Dowling, T.E., Broughton, R.E., and Gold, J.R. 2004. Variable microsatellite markers amplify across divergent lineages of cyprinid fishes (subfamily Leusicinae). Conserv. Genet. 5(2):279-281.

Turpie, J. 2004. The role of resource economics in the control of invasive alien plants in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):87-93.

Twedt, D.J. 2004. Stand development on reforested bottomlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Plant Ecol. 172(2):251-263.

Vähä-Piikkiö, I., Kurtto, A., and Hahkala, V. 2004. Species number, historical elements and protection of threatened species in the flora of Helsinki, Finland. Landscape Urban Plan. 68(4):357-370.

Van Rossum, F., De Sousa, S.C., and Triest, L. 2004. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in an agricultural landscape on the common Primula veris, and comparison with its rare congener, P. vulgaris. Conserv. Genet. 5(2):231-245.

van Wilgen, B.W. 2004. Scientific challenges in the field of invasive alien plant management. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):19-20.

van Wilgen, B.W., de Wit, M.P., Anderson, H.J., Le Maitre, D.C., Kotze, I.M., Ndala, S., Brown, B., and Rapholo, M.B. 2004. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants: case studies from South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):113-122.

Vargas, J.H., Consiglio, T., Jørgensen, P.M., and Croat, T.B. 2004. Modelling distribution patterns in a species-rich plant genus, Anthurium (Araceae), in Ecuador. Divers. Distrib. 10(3):211-216.

Vergeer, P., Sonderen, E., and Ouborg, N.J. 2004. Introduction strategies put to the test: local adaptation versus heterosis. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):812-821.

Virkkala, R., Luoto, M., and Rainio, K. 2004. Effects of landscape composition on farmland and red-listed birds in boreal agricultural-forest mosaics. Ecography 27(3):273-284.

Warman, L.D., Sinclair, A.R.E., Scudder, G.G.E., Klinkenberg, B., and Pressey, R.L. 2004. Sensitivity of systematic reserve selection to decisions about scale, biological data, and targets: case study from southern British Columbia. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):655-666.

Weber, T. 2004. Landscape ecological assessment of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Environ. Monit. Assess. 94(1-3):39-53.

Weimerskirch, H. 2004. Diseases threaten Southern Ocean albatrosses. Polar Biol. 27(6):374-379.

Wheeler, Q.D. 2004. Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):571-583.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., McLeod, D.R.A., and Haworth, P.F. 2004. The effects of persecution on age of breeding and territory occupation in golden eagles in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 118(2):249-259.

Wikramanayake, E., McKnight, M., Dinerstein, E., Joshi, A., Gurung, B., and Smith, D. 2004. Designing a conservation landscape for tigers in human-dominated environments. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):839-844.

Wilcove, D.S., and Lee, J. 2004. Using economic and regulatory incentives to restore endangered species: lessons learned from three new programs. Conserv. Biol. 18(3):639-645.

Wilson, E.O. 2004. Taxonomy as a fundamental discipline. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 359(1444):739.

Winker, K. 2004. Natural history museums in a postbiodiversity era. BioScience 54(5):455-459.

Witkowski, Z.J., Michalik, S., and Adamski, P. 2004. Conservation of marginal areas in protected territories: the Ojcow National Park - case study. Ekol. Bratislava 23(1):40-56.

Xu, K.Y., Ye, W.H., Cao, H.L., Deng, X., Yang, Q.H., and Zhang, Y. 2004. The role of diversity and functional traits of species in community invasibility. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 45(2):149-157.

Yoshikawa, T., and Asoh, K. 2004. Entanglement of monofilament fishing lines and coral death. Biol. Conserv. 117(5):557-560.

Zimmermann, H.G., Moran, V.C., and Hoffmann, J.H. 2004. Biological control in the management of invasive alien plants in South Africa, and the role of the Working for Water Programme. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(1):34-40.

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