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Department ofBotany

No. 237
September 2004

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In This Issue

Making Bioprospecting a Sustainable Endeavor

"What's in it for us?" seems to be the question asked by all parties involved in drug discovery in developing countries, and too often the answer is "not enough." The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro resulted in the Convention on Biological Diversity, which intended to make conservation a win-win proposition for governments, commercial companies, and scientists. Governments of biologically diverse developing nations, however, remain suspicious of private interests, and companies seemingly do not reap sufficient compensation for the significant wading through local regulations that establishing cooperative programs involves.

Panama's bioprospecting project-the Panama International Cooperative Biodiversity Group, or ICBG-is featured in the June 10 issue of Nature as one of the few programs "getting it right." The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) houses and administers ICBG. In its sixth year, ICBG employs ten senior scientists in six laboratories representing a consortium of international and local research organizations to discover novel compounds to control cancer, AIDS, and other diseases. To date, the team has developed a new, non-radioactive assay for antimalarial agents and is seeking a patent for a compound active against the parasite causing leishmaniasis.

The project yields immediate rewards for developing countries: training local microbiologists, creating jobs, and promoting conservation. Unlike many projects, in which a share in the royalties for products that make it to the market is the only reward for local researchers and governments, Panama's ICBG was designed to make bioprospecting a sustainable endeavor.

Job Opportunity

A postdoctoral position in tropical forest ecology is available within the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) - Arnold Arboretum Asia Program of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The CTFS-AA Asia Program coordinates a network of long-term research programs in the tropical forests of eight collaborating Asian countries. Candidates are sought in the areas of forest ecology and the evolution and biogeography of forest communities. A strong analytical background is preferred. Candidates should have an established record of research and scholarly publication in tropical forest ecology and/or evolution. Experience in the field and in Asian forests is not essential. Positions are to be based at Harvard University. Send CV and names of three references to: Stuart Davies, CTFS-AA Asia Program, The Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA; E-mail: The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute are equal opportunity/affirmative action employers.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Taking online field guides to a whole new level, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History has brought North American Mammals <> to the Internet for students, teachers, and naturalists of all ages. The website provides information for over 400 mammal species and includes high-quality range maps, photographs, scientific illustrations, family tree diagrams, weights and measures, and more. Integrating new technologies, the site offers interactive Geographic Information System (GIS) maps that pinpoint the location of different mammal species. Site visitors can also choose from a variety of map overlays to assist mammal searches including rivers, cities, topography, state boundaries, and US interstate highways. The site provides the conservation status for different species; create-your-own field guide options; skull, teeth, and bone images; resource links; and a helpful glossary as well. The website is based on the Mammals of North America by Roland W. Kays and Don E. Wilson, and The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals by Don E. Wilson and Sue Ruff.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2004.

Current Literature

Ahn, C., White, D.C., and Sparks, R.E. 2004. Moist-soil plants as ecohydrologic indicators for recovering the flood pulse in the Illinois River. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):207-213.

Almodóvar, A., and Nicola, G.G. 2004. Angling impact on conservation of Spanish stream-dwelling brown trout Salmo trutta. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):173-182.

Alonso, J.C., Martin, C.A., Alonso, J.A., Palacin, C., Magaña, M., and Lane, S.J. 2004. Distribution dynamics of a great bustard metapopulation throughout a decade: influence of conspecific attraction and recruitment. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1659-1674.

Andersson, R., and Östlund, L. 2004. Spatial patterns, density changes and implications on biodiversity for old trees in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):443-453.

Araújo, M.B. 2004. Matching species with reserves - uncertainties from using data at different resolutions. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):533-538.

Araújo, M.B., Densham, P.J., and Williams, P.H. 2004. Representing species in reserves from patterns of assemblage diversity. J. Biogeogr. 31(7):1037-1050.

Aswani, S., and Hamilton, R.J. 2004. Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure with marine and social science for conservation of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):69-83.

Aude, E., Tybirk, K., Michelsen, A., Ejrnæs, R., Hald, A.B., and Mark, S. 2004. Conservation value of the herbaceous vegetation in hedgerows - does organic farming make a difference? Biol. Conserv. 118(4):467-478.

Baer, S.G., and Groninger, J.W. 2004. Herbicide and tillage effects on volunteer vegetation composition and diversity during reforestation. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):258-267.

Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., and Bhatnagar, Y.V. 2004. Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Anim. Conserv. 7:121-128.

Baldissera, R., Ganade, G., and Fontoura, S.B. 2004. Web spider community response along an edge between pasture and Araucaria forest. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):403-409.

Bambaradeniya, C.N.B., Edirisinghe, J.P., De Silva, D.N., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Ranawana, K.B., and Wijekoon, S. 2004. Biodiversity associated with an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in Sri Lanka. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1715-1753.

Banack, S.A., Rondón, X.J., and Diaz-Huamanchumo, W. 2004. Indigenous cultivation and conservation of totora (Schoenoplectus californicus, Cyperaceae) in Peru. Econ. Bot. 58(1):11-20.

Barnett, L.K., Emms, C., Jallow, A., Cham, A.M., and Mortimer, J.A. 2004. The distribution and conservation status of marine turtles in The Gambia, West Africa: a first assessment. Oryx 38(2):203-208.

Bartolome, J.W., Fehmi, J.S., Jackson, R.D., and Allen-Diaz, B. 2004. Response of a native perennial grass stand to disturbance in California's Coast Range Grassland. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):279-289.

Baskaya, S., and Bilgili, E. 2004. Does the leopard Panthera pardus still exist in the Eastern Karadeniz Mountains of Turkey? Oryx 38(2):228-232.

Beacham, T.D., Lapointe, M., Candy, J.R., Miller, K.M., and Withler, R.E. 2004. DNA in action: rapid application of DNA variation to sockeye salmon fisheries management. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):411-416.

Bellwood, D.R., Hughes, T.P., Folke, C., and Nyström, M. 2004. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429(6994):827-833.

Benayas, J.M.R., and Camacho-Cruz, A. 2004. Performance of Quercus ilex saplings planted in abandoned Mediterranean cropland after long-term interruption of their management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 194(1-3):223-233.

Blom, A., Yamindou, J., and Prins, H.H.T. 2004. Status of the protected areas of the Central African Republic. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):479-487.

Bochet, E., and García-Fayos, P. 2004. Factors controlling vegetation establishment and water erosion on motorway slopes in Valencia, Spain. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):166-174.

Borghesio, L., Giannetti, F., Ndang'ang'a, K., and Shimelis, A. 2004. The present conservation status of Juniperus forests in the south Ethiopian Endemic Bird Area. Afr. J. Ecol. 42(2):137-143.

Borghesio, L., and Laiolo, P. 2004. Habitat use and feeding ecology of Kulal white-eye Zosterops kulalensis. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(1):11-24.

Botha, J., Witkowski, E.T.F., and Shackleton, C.M. 2004. Market profiles and trade in medicinal plants in the Lowveld, South Africa. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):38-46.

Botha, J., Witkowski, T.F., and Shackleton, C.M. 2004. The impact of commercial harvesting on Warburgia salutaris ('pepper-bark tree') in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1675-1698.

Bouget, C., and Duelli, P. 2004. The effects of windthrow on forest insect communities: a literature review. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):281-299.

Branch, G.M., and Steffani, C.N. 2004. Can we predict the effects of alien species? A case-history of the invasion of South Africa by Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck). J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 300(1-2):189-215.

Brockington, D., and Schmidt-Soltau, K. 2004. The social and environmental impacts of wilderness and development. Oryx 38(2):140-142.

Burns, E., and Ferrari, G. 2004. Microsatellite loci for the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). Conserv. Genet. 5(3):421-423.

Carvell, C., Meek, W.R., Pywell, R.F., and Nowakowski, M. 2004. The response of foraging bumblebees to successional change in newly created arable field margins. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):327-339.

Castro, I., Mason, K.M., Armstrong, D.P., and Lambert, D.M. 2004. Effect of extra-pair paternity on effective population size in a reintroduced population of the endangered hihi, and potential for behavioural management. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):381-393.

Chen, D.J., Cheng, G.D., Xu, Z.M., and Zhang, Z.Q. 2004. Ecological footprint of the Chinese population, environment and development. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):63-68.

Chiarello, A.G., Chivers, D.J., Bassi, C., Amélia, M., Maciel, F., Moreira, L.S., and Bazzalo, M. 2004. A translocation experiment for the conservation of maned sloths, Bradypus torquatus (Xenarthra, Bradypodidae). Biol. Conserv. 118(4):421-430.

Cierjacks, A., and Hensen, I. 2004. Variation of stand structure and regeneration of Mediterranean holm oak along a grazing intensity gradient. Plant Ecol. 173(2):215-223.

Colchester, M. 2004. Conservation policy and indigenous peoples. Environ. Sci. & Policy 7(3):145-153.

Collares-Pereira, M.J., and Cowx, I.G. 2004. The role of catchment scale environmental management in freshwater fish conservation. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):303-312.

Costedoat, C., Pech, N., Chappaz, R., Salducci, M.D., Lim, P., and Gilles, A. 2004. Study of introgressive hybridization between Chondrostoma t. toxostoma and Chondrostoma n. nasus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) using multiple approaches. Cybium 28(1):51-61.

Cowx, I.G., and Gerdeaux, D. 2004. The effects of fisheries management practises on freshwater ecosystems. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):145-151.

Dalle, S.P., and Potvin, C. 2004. Conservation of useful plants: an evaluation of local priorities from two indigenous communities in eastern Panama. Econ. Bot. 58(1):38-57.

Dalton, R. 2004. Bioprospects less than golden. Nature 429(6992):598-600.

Davis, M.A., and Slobodkin, L.B. 2004. Restoration ecology: the challenge of social values and expectations. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):44-45.

de Iongh, H. 2004. The harmonization of national Red Lists in Europe. Oryx 38(2):134-135.

de Lange, P.J., Norton, D.A., Heenan, P.B., Courtney, S.P., Molloy, B.P.J., Ogle, C.C., Johnson, P.N., and Hitchmough, R. 2004. Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(1):45-76.

De Nooij, R.J.W., Lenders, H.J.R., Leuven, R.S.E.W., De Blust, G., Geilen, N., Goldschmidt, B., Muller, S., Poudevigne, I., and Nienhuis, P.H. 2004. Bio-safe: assessing the impact of physical reconstruction on protected and endangered species. River Res. Appl. 20(3):299-313.

Decocq, G., Bordier, D., Wattez, J.R., and Racinet, P. 2004. A practical approach to assess the native status of a rare plant species: the controverse of Buxus sempervirens L. in northern France revisited. Plant Ecol. 173(1):139-151.

Dhillion, S.S., Aguilar-Støen, M., and Camargo-Ricalde, S.L. 2004. Integrative ecological restoration and the involvement of local communities in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):1-3.

Diniz, J.A.F., Bini, L.M., Vieira, C.M., de Souza, M.C., Bastos, R.P., Brandao, D., and Oliveira, L.G. 2004. Spatial patterns in species richness and priority areas for conservation of anurans in the Cerrado region, Central Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 25(1):63-75.

Dique, D.S., Preece, H.J., Thompson, J., and de Villiers, D.L. 2004. Determining the distribution and abundance of a regional koala population in south-east Queensland for conservation management. Wildlife Res. 31(2):109-117.

Dupain, J., Guislain, P., Nguenang, G.M., De Vleeschouwer, K., and Van Elsacker, L. 2004. High chimpanzee and gorilla densities in a non-protected area on the northern periphery of the Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon. Oryx 38(2):209-216.

Dupont, Y.L., Hansen, D.M., Valido, A., and Olesen, J.M. 2004. Impact of introduced honey bees on native pollination interactions of the endemic Echium wildpretii (Boraginaceae) on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):301-311.

Durand, L., and Lazos, E. 2004. Colonization and tropical deforestation in the Sierra Santa Marta, Southern Mexico. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):11-21.

Dutson, G., and Masibalavu, V. 2004. Fiji's long-legged warbler seen again after 109 years. Oryx 38(2):131.

Dvorak, M., Vargas, H., Fessl, B., and Tebbich, S. 2004. On the verge of extinction: a survey of the mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates and its habitat on the Galápagos Islands. Oryx 38(2):171-179.

Eilu, G., Hafashimana, D.L.N., and Kasenene, J.M. 2004. Tree species distribution in forests of the Albertine Rift, western Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 42(2):100-110.

Eldridge, M.D.B., Kinnear, J.E., Zenger, K.R., McKenzie, L.M., and Spencer, P.B.S. 2004. Genetic diversity in remnant mainland and "pristine" island populations of three endemic Australian macropodids (Marsupialia): Macropus eugenii, Lagorchestes hirsutus and Petrogale lateralis. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):325-338.

Ezenwa, V.O. 2004. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):397-401.

Fearnside, P.M., and Barbosa, K.I. 2004. Accelerating deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: towards answering open questions. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):7-10.

Fisher, M. 2004. Links between poverty alleviation and conservation: the debate continues. Oryx 38(2):119-120.

Fishman, J.R., Orth, R.J., Marion, S., and Bieri, J. 2004. A comparative test of mechanized and manual transplanting of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in Chesapeake Bay. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):214-219.

Fraser, G.S., and Stutchbury, B.J.M. 2004. Area-sensitive forest birds move extensively among forest patches. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):377-387.

Fulé, P.Z., Cocke, A.E., Heinlein, T.A., and Covington, W.W. 2004. Effects of an intense prescribed forest fire: is it ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):220-230.

Gabelli, F.M., Fernández, G.J., Ferretti, V., Posse, G., Coconier, E., Gavieiro, H.J., Llambías, P.E., Peláez, P.I., Vallés, M.L., and Tubaro, P.L. 2004. Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark Sturnella defilippii in the southern pampas grasslands of Argentina. Oryx 38(2):164-170.

Gage, G.S., Brooke, M.d., Symonds, M.R.E., and Wege, D. 2004. Ecological correlates of the threat of extinction in Neotropical bird species. Anim. Conserv. 7:161-168.

Gamboa, G.J., Noble, M.A., Thom, M.C., Togal, J.L., Srinivasan, R., and Murphy, B.D. 2004. The comparative biology of two sympatric paper wasps in Michigan, the native Polistes fuscatus and the invasive Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insect. Soc. 51(2):153-157.

Gaudeul, M., and Till-Bottraud, I. 2004. Reproductive ecology of the endangered alpine species Eryngium alpinum L. (Apiaceae): phenology, gene dispersal and reproductive success. Ann. Botany 93(6):711-721.

Giangrande, A., and Licciano, M. 2004. Factors influencing latitudinal pattern of biodiversity: an example using Sabellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1633-1646.

Godt, M.J.W., Walker, J., and Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint. J. Heredity 95(3):244-249.

Goodchild, G.A. 2004. Fish habitat is everyone's business, Canada's fish habitat management programme. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):277-281.

Greene, C.H., and Pershing, A.J. 2004. Climate and the conservation biology of North Atlantic right whales: the right whale at the wrong time? Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):29-34.

Gretarsdottir, J., Aradottir, A.L., Vandvik, V., Heegaard, E., and Birks, H.J.B. 2004. Long-term effects of reclamation treatments on plant succession in Iceland. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):268-278.

Groombridge, J.J., Massey, J.G., Bruch, J.C., Malcolm, T., Brosius, C.N., Okada, M.M., Sparklin, B., Fretz, J.S., and VanderWerf, E.A. 2004. An attempt to recover the Po'ouli by translocation and an appraisal of recovery strategy for bird species of extreme rarity. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):365-375.

Gustafsson, L., Hylander, K., and Jacobson, C. 2004. Uncommon bryophytes in swedish forests - key habitats and production forests compared. Forest Ecol. Manag. 194(1-3):11-22.

Halvorson, W. 2004. Restoration ecology: the challenge of social values and expectations. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):46-47.

Hansson, B. 2004. Marker-based relatedness predicts egg-hatching failure in great reed warblers. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):339-348.

Hartman, K.M., and McCarthy, B.C. 2004. Restoration of a forest understory after the removal of an invasive shrub, Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii). Restor. Ecol. 12(2):154-165.

Hedmark, E., Flagstad, Ø., Segerström, P., Persson, J., Landa, A., and Ellegren, H. 2004. DNA-based individual and sex identification from wolverine (Gulo gulo) faeces and urine. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):405-410.

Heenan, P.B., and Molloy, B.P.J. 2004. Taxonomy, ecology, and conservation of Olearia adenocarpa (Asteraceae), a new species from braided riverbeds in Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(1):21-36.

Hilfiker, K., Gugerli, F., Schütz, J.P., Rotach, P., and Holderegger, R. 2004. Low RAPD variation and female-biased sex ratio indicate genetic drift in small populations of the dioecious conifer Taxus baccata in Switzerland. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):357-365.

Hobbs, R.J. 2004. Restoration ecology: the challenge of social values and expectations. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):43-44.

Hofmeyr, M., Hofmeyr, D., Nel, L., and Bingham, J. 2004. A second outbreak of rabies in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Madikwe Game Reserve, South Africa, demonstrating the efficacy of vaccination against natural rabies challenge. Anim. Conserv. 7:193-198.

Holder, C.D. 2004. Changes in structure and cover of a common property pine forest in Guatemala, 1954-1996. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):22-29.

Houghton, D.C., and Holzenthal, R.W. 2003. Updated conservation status of protected Minnesota caddisflies. Great Lakes Entomol. 36(1-2):35-40.

Hughes, R.G., and Paramor, O.A.L. 2004. On the loss of saltmarshes in south-east England and methods for their restoration. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(3):440-448.

Hyatt, T.L., Waldo, T.Z., and Beechie, T.J. 2004. A watershed scale assessment of riparian forests, with implications for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):175-183.

Imhoff, M.L., Bounoua, L., Ricketts, T., Loucks, C., Harriss, R., and Lawrence, W.T. 2004. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production. Nature 429(6994):870-873.

Ishibashi, Y., and Saitoh, T. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among fragmented Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) populations in western Japan. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):311-323.

Iyengar, A., Stockwell, A., Layfield, D., and Morin, P.A. 2004. Characterization of microsatellite markers in a threatened species, the white sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(2):191-193.

Jellinek, S., Driscoll, D.A., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2004. Environmental and vegetation variables have a greater influence than habitat fragmentation in structuring lizard communities in remnant urban bushland. Austral Ecol. 29(3):294-304.

Jenkins, A.M., Gordon, D.R., and Renda, M.T. 2004. Native alternatives for non-native turfgrasses in central Florida: germination and responses to cultural treatments. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):190-199.

Ji, Y.J., Smith, H., Zhang, D.X., and Hewitt, G.M. 2004. Ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci for paternity and population genetics analysis in the fen raft spider (Dolomedes plantarius). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(2):274-276.

Johnson, A., Bino, R., and Igag, P. 2004. A preliminary evaluation of the sustainability of cassowary (Aves: Casuariidae) capture and trade in Papua New Guinea. Anim. Conserv. 7:129-137.

Jones, M.E., Smith, G.C., and Jones, S.M. 2004. Is anti-predator behaviour in Tasmanian eastern quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus) effective against introduced predators? Anim. Conserv. 7:155-160.

Karamanlidis, A.A., Dendrinos, P., Tounta, E., and Kotomatas, S. 2004. Monitoring human activity in an area dedicated to the protection of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal. Coast. Manage. 32(3):293-306.

Karamanlidis, A.A., Pires, R., Silva, N.C., and Neves, H.C. 2004. The availability of resting and pupping habitat for the Critically Endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus in the archipelago of Madeira. Oryx 38(2):180-185.

Kattan, G., Hernández, O.L., Goldstein, I., Rojas, V., Murillo, O., Gómez, C., Restrepo, H., and Cuesta, F. 2004. Range fragmentation in the spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus in the northern Andes. Oryx 38(2):155-163.

Kepe, T., Saruchera, M., and Whande, W. 2004. Poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation: a South African perspective. Oryx 38(2):143-145.

Kim, C.H. 2004. Conservation status of the endemic fern Mankyua chejuense (Ophioglossaceae) on Cheju Island, Republic of Korea. Oryx 38(2):217-219.

Kleintjes, P.K., Jacobs, B.F., and Fettig, S.M. 2004. Initial response of butterflies to an overstory reduction and slash mulching treatment of a degraded pinon-juniper woodland. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):231-238.

Kleiven, J., Bjerke, T., and Kaltenborn, B.P. 2004. Factors influencing the social acceptability of large carnivore behaviours. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1647-1658.

Koch, J.M., Richardson, J., and Lamont, B.B. 2004. Grazing by kangaroos limits the establishment of the grass trees Xanthorrhoea gracilis and X. preissii in restored bauxite mines in eucalypt forest of southwestern Australia. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):297-305.

Lackey, R.T. 2004. Restoration ecology: the challenge of social values and expectations. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):45-46.

Lee, S.L., Tani, N., Ng, K.K.S., and Tsumura, Y. 2004. Characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in an endangered tropical tree Hopea bilitonensis (Dipterocarpaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(2):147-149.

Leimbeck, R.M., Valencia, R., and Balslev, H. 2004. Landscape diversity patterns and endemism of Araceae in Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1755-1779.

Leone, V., and Lovreglio, R. 2004. Conservation of Mediterranean pine woodlands: scenarios and legislative tools. Plant Ecol. 171(1-2):221-235.

Lesbarrères, D., Lodé, T., and Merilä, J. 2004. What type of amphibian tunnel could reduce road kills? Oryx 38(2):220-223.

Lidén, M., Pettersson, M., Bergsten, U., and Lundmark, T. 2004. Artificial dispersal of endangered epiphytic lichens: a tool for conservation in boreal forest landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):431-442.

Llorens, T.M., Ayre, D.J., and Whelan, R.J. 2004. Evidence for ancient genetic subdivision among recently fragmented populations of the endangered shrub Grevillea caleyi (Proteaceae). Heredity 92(6):519-526.

Lorenzini, R., Posillico, M., Lovari, S., and Petrella, A. 2004. Non-invasive genotyping of the endangered Apennine brown bear: a case study not to let one's hair down. Anim. Conserv. 7:199-209.

Luoto, M., Heikkinen, R.K., and Carter, T.R. 2004. Loss of palsa mires in Europe and biological consequences. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):30-37.

Maki, K., and Galatowitsch, S. 2004. Movement of invasive aquatic plants into Minnesota (USA) through horticultural trade. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):389-396.

Maltchik, L., and Callisto, M. 2004. The use of rapid assessment approach to discuss ecological theories in wetland systems, southern Brazil. Interciencia 29(4):219-223.

Mank, J.E., Carlson, J.E., and Brittingham, M.C. 2004. A century of hybridization: decreasing genetic distance between American black ducks and mallards. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):395-403.

Marsh, P.C. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Gila elegans Baird & Girard 1853 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(2):144.

Martin, N.A. 2004. History of an invader, Scaptomyza flava (Fallen, 1823) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). New Zeal. J. Zool. 31(1):27-32.

Martin, R.A., and Harvey-Clark, C. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus 1765) (Cetorhinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(2):122.

Maschinski, J., Baggs, J.E., and Sacchi, C.F. 2004. Seedling recruitment and survival of an endangered limestone endemic in its natural habitat and experimental reintroduction sites. Am. J. Bot. 91(5):689-698.

Matthiopoulos, J., McConnell, B., Duck, C., and Fedak, M. 2004. Using satellite telemetry and aerial counts to estimate space use by grey seals around the British Isles. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(3):476-491.

Medri, C., Ruas, P.M., Higa, A.R., Murakami, M., and Ruas, C.D. 2003. Effects of forest management on the genetic diversity in a population of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze. Silvae Genet. 52(5-6):202-205.

Meggs, J.M., Munks, S.A., Corkrey, R., and Richards, K. 2004. Development and evaluation of predictive habitat models to assist the conservation planning of a threatened lucanid beetle, Hoplogonus simsoni, in north-east Tasmania. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):501-511.

Meijaard, E., and Groves, C.P. 2004. Recent study identifies the possible existence of a forgotten species. Oryx 38(2):133.

Moreno-Peñaranda, R., Lloret, F., and Alcañiz, J.M. 2004. Effects of sewage sludge on plant community composition in restored limestone quarries. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):290-296.

Moreno-Valdez, A., Honeycutt, R.L., and Grant, W.E. 2004. Colony dynamics of Leptonycteris nivalis (Mexican long-nosed bat) related to flowering Agave in northern Mexico. J. Mammal. 85(3):453-459.

Müllner, A., Linsenmair, K.E., and Wikelski, M. 2004. Exposure to ecotourism reduces survival and affects stress response in hoatzin chicks (Opisthocomus hoazin). Biol. Conserv. 118(4):549-558.

Myers, M.C., and Vaughan, C. 2004. Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post-fledging dependence period: implications for in situ versus ex situ management. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):411-420.

Nangula, S., and Oba, G. 2004. Effects of artificial water points on the Oshana ecosystem in Namibia. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):47-54.

Natarajan, D., Britto, S.J., Balaguru, B., Nagamurugan, N., Soosairaj, S., and Arockiasamy, D.I. 2004. Identification of conservation priority sites using remote sensing and GIS - a case study from Chitteri hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Curr. Sci. 86(9):1316-1323.

Nee, S. 2004. More than meets the eye - Earth's real biodiversity is invisible, whether we like it or not. Nature 429(6994):804-805.

Nicoll, M.A.C., Jones, C.G., and Norris, K. 2004. Comparison of survival rates of captive-reared and wild-bred Mauritius kestrels (Falco punctatus) in a re-introduced population. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):539-548.

Noble, R.A.A., Harvey, J.P., and Cowx, I.G. 2004. Can management of freshwater fish populations be used to protect and enhance the conservation status of a rare, fish-eating bird, the bittern, Botaurus stellaris, in the UK? Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):291-302.

Norris, K. 2004. Managing threatened species: the ecological toolbox, evolutionary theory and declining-population paradigm. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(3):413-426.

Norton, J.E., and Ashley, M.V. 2004. Genetic variability and population structure among wild Baird's tapirs. Anim. Conserv. 7:211-220.

O'Grady, J.J., Reed, D.H., Brook, B.W., and Frankham, R. 2004. What are the best correlates of predicted extinction risk? Biol. Conserv. 118(4):513-520.

Pausas, J.G., Blade, C., Valdecantos, A., Seva, J.P., Fuentes, D., Alloza, J.A., Vilagrosa, A., Bautista, S., Cortina, J., and Vallejo, R. 2004. Pines and oaks in the restoration of Mediterranean landscapes of spain: new perspectives for an old practice - a review. Plant Ecol. 171(1-2):209-220.

Pejchar, L., and Jeffrey, J. 2004. Sap-feeding behavior and tree selection in the endangered akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi) in Hawaii. Auk 121(2):548-556.

Pensa, M., Sellin, A., Luud, A., and Valgma, I. 2004. An analysis of vegetation restoration on opencast oil shale mines in Estonia. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):200-206.

Petersen, S.L., Roundy, B.A., and Bryant, R.M. 2004. Revegetation methods for high-elevation roadsides at Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):248-257.

Piggott, M.P., Bellemain, E., Taberlet, P., and Taylor, A.C. 2004. A multiplex pre-amplification method that significantly improves microsatellite amplification and error rates for faecal DNA in limiting conditions. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):417-420.

Polet, G., and Ling, S. 2004. Protecting mammal diversity: opportunities and constraints for pragmatic conservation management in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Oryx 38(2):186-196.

Proudlove, G.S. 2004. Conservation assessments, threats, and the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. J. Biogeogr. 31(7):1201-1202.

Pywell, R.F., Warman, E.A., Sparks, T.H., Greatorex-Davies, J.N., Walker, K.J., Meek, W.R., Carvell, C., Petit, S., and Firbank, L.G. 2004. Assessing habitat quality for butterflies on intensively managed arable farmland. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):313-325.

Qiu, Y.X., Hong, D.Y., Fu, C.X., and Cameron, K.M. 2004. Genetic variation in the endangered and endemic species Changium smyrnioides (Apiaceae). Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 32(6):583-596.

Quinlan, K., Moro, D., and Lund, M. 2004. Improving trapping success for rare species by targeting habitat types using remotely sensed data: a case study of the heath mouse (Pseudomys shortridgei) in Western Australia. Wildlife Res. 31(2):219-227.

Rando, J.C., Betoret, A., Martín, A., and Barone, R. 2004. Discovery of a new population of the spotted lizard of the Canary Islands. Oryx 38(2):134.

Reed, D.H. 2004. Extinction risk in fragmented habitats. Anim. Conserv. 7:181-191.

Reeder, T.G., and Hacker, S.D. 2004. Factors contributing to the removal of a marine grass invader (Spartina anglica) and subsequent potential for habitat restoration. Estuaries 27(2):244-252.

Reid, S., Diaz, I.A., Armesto, J.J., and Willson, M.F. 2004. Importance of native bamboo for understory birds in Chilean temperate forests. Auk 121(2):515-525.

Reinhart, K.O., and Menges, E.S. 2004. Effects of re-introducing fire to a central Florida sandhill community. Appl. Veg. Sci. 7(1):141-150.

Reshetnikov, A.N. 2004. The fish Perccottus glenii: history of introduction to western regions of Eurasia. Hydrobiologia 522(1-3):349-350.

Reyers, B. 2004. Incorporating anthropogenic threats into evaluations of regional biodiversity and prioritisation of conservation areas in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):521-531.

Roca, A.L., Bar-Gal, G.K., Eizirik, E., Helgen, K.M., Maria, R., Springer, M.S., O'Brien, S.J., and Murphy, W.J. 2004. Mesozoic origin for West Indian insectivores. Nature 429(6992):649-651.

Roe, D., and Elliott, J. 2004. Poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation: rebuilding the bridges. Oryx 38(2):137-139.

Rogers, W.E., and Siemann, E. 2004. Invasive ecotypes tolerate herbivory more effectively than native ecotypes of the Chinese tallow tree Sapium sebiferum. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(3):561-570.

Rose, A.B., Suisted, P.A., and Frampton, C.M. 2004. Recovery, invasion, and decline over 37 years in a Marlborough short-tussock grassland, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(1):77-87.

Rowe, G., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2004. Reconciling genetic and demographic estimators of effective population size in the anuran amphibian Bufo calamita. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):287-298.

Rubinoff, D., and Sperling, F.A.H. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequence, morphology and ecology yield contrasting conservation implications for two threatened buckmoths (Hemileuca: Saturniidae). Biol. Conserv. 118(3):341-351.

Sabovljevic, M., Cvetic, T., and Stevanovic, V. 2004. Bryophyte Red List of Serbia and Montenegro. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1781-1789.

Sadovy, Y., Kulbicki, M., Labrosse, P., Letourneur, Y., Lokani, P., and Donaldson, T.J. 2003. The humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus: synopsis of a threatened and poorly known giant coral reef. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 13(3):327-364.

Saenz-Romero, C., Snively, A.E., and Lindig-Cisneros, R. 2003. Conservation and restoration of pine forest genetic resources in Mexico. Silvae Genet. 52(5-6):233-237.

Saenz-Romero, C., and Tapia-Olivares, B.L. 2003. Pinus oocarpa isoenzymatic variation along an altitudinal gradient in Michoacan, Mexico. Silvae Genet. 52(5-6):237-240.

Sagar, R., and Singh, J.S. 2004. Local plant species depletion in a tropical dry deciduous forest of northern India. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):55-62.

Sanderson, S., and Redford, K. 2004. The defence of conservation is not an attack on the poor. Oryx 38(2):146-147.

Saucedo, C., and Gill, R. 2004. The Endangered huemul or south Andean deer Hippocamelus bisulcus. Oryx 38(2):132-133.

Schad, J., Sommer, S., and Ganzhorn, J.U. 2004. MHC variability of a small lemur in the littoral forest fragments of southeastern Madagascar. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):299-309.

Schwartz, M.K., Pilgrim, K.L., McKelvey, K.S., Lindquist, E.L., Claar, J.J., Loch, S., and Ruggiero, L.F. 2004. Hybridization between Canada lynx and bobcats: genetic results and management implications. Conserv. Genet. 5(3):349-355.

Scott, C., Foose, T., Morales, C., Fernando, P., Melnick, D.J., Boag, P.T., Davila, J.A., and De Groot, P.J.V. 2004. Optimization of novel polymorphic microsatellites in the endangered Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(2):194-196.

Seoane, J., Bustamante, J., and Diaz-Delgado, R. 2004. Are existing vegetation maps adequate to predict bird distributions? Ecol. Model. 175(2):137-149.

Silver, S.C., Ostro, L.E.T., Marsh, L.K., Maffei, L., Noss, A.J., Kelly, M.J., Wallace, R.B., Gómez, H., and Ayala, G. 2004. The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar Panthera onca abundance and density using capture/recapture analysis. Oryx 38(2):148-154.

Sinclair, A., and Catling, P.M. 2004. Restoration of Hydrastis canadensis: experimental test of a disturbance hypothesis after two growing seasons. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):184-189.

Singh, M., and Rao, N.R. 2004. Population dynamics and conservation of commensal bonnet macaques. Int. J. Primatol. 25(4):847-859.

Sleeman, J.M. 2004. The role of Ebola virus in the decline of great ape populations. Oryx 38(2):136.

Small, M.P., Pichahchy, A.E., Von Bargen, J.F., and Young, S.F. 2004. Have native coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) persisted in the Nooksack and Samish rivers despite continuous hatchery production throughout the past century? Conserv. Genet. 5(3):367-379.

Soulie-Marsche, I., and Vautier, J. 2004. Ecology and life cycle of Chara braunii (Charales) in a Mediterranean habitat. Vie Milieu 54(1):37-45.

Souza, A.F., and Martins, F.R. 2004. Population structure and dynamics of a neotropical palm in fire-impacted fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1611-1632.

Suutari, E., Rantala, M.J., Salmela, J., and Suhonen, J. 2004. Intraguild predation and interference competition on the endangered dragonfly Aeshna viridis. Oecologia 140(1):135-139.

Switalski, T.A., Bissonette, J.A., Deluca, T.H., Luce, C.H., and Madej, M.A. 2004. Benefits and impacts of road removal. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):21-28.

Tejeda-Cruz, C., and Sutherland, W.J. 2004. Bird responses to shade coffee production. Anim. Conserv. 7:169-179.

Tella, J.L., Carrete, M., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Serrano, D., Gavrilov, A., Sklyarenko, S., Ceballos, O., Donázar, J.A., and Hiraldo, F. 2004. Effects of land use, nesting-site availability, and the presence of larger raptors on the abundance of Vulnerable lesser kestrels Falco naumanni in Kazakhstan. Oryx 38(2):224-227.

Thirgood, S., Mosser, A., Tham, S., Hopcraft, G., Mwangomo, E., Mlengeya, T., Kilewo, M., Fryxell, J., Sinclair, A.R.E., and Borner, M. 2004. Can parks protect migratory ungulates? The case of the Serengeti wildebeest. Anim. Conserv. 7:113-120.

Throop, W. 2004. Restoration ecology: the challenge of social values and expectations. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(1):47-48.

Tolimieri, N., and Levin, P. 2004. Differences in responses of chinook salmon to climate shifts: implications for conservation. Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(2):155-167.

Tonder, M., and Salmi, P. 2004. Institutional changes in fisheries governance: the case of the Saimaa ringed seal, Phoca hispida saimensis, conservation. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):283-290.

Tøttrup, A.P., Larsen, J.L., and Burgess, N.D. 2004. A first estimate of the population size of Loveridge's sunbird Nectarinia loveridgei, endemic to the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(1):25-32.

Truscott, A.M., Mitchell, R.J., Palmer, S.C.F., and Welch, D. 2004. The expansion of native oakwoods into conifer cleared areas through planting. Forest Ecol. Manag. 193(3):335-343.

Tubelis, D.P., Cowling, A., and Donnelly, C. 2004. Landscape supplementation in adjacent savannas and its implications for the design of corridors for forest birds in the central Cerrado, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):353-364.

Utteridge, T.M.A., and Saunders, R.M.K. 2004. The genus Maesa (Maesaceae) in the Philippines. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145(1):17-43.

Uys, R.G., Bond, W.J., and Everson, T.M. 2004. The effect of different fire regimes on plant diversity in southern African grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):489-499.

Valsecchi, E., Amos, W., Raga, J.A., Podestà, M., and Sherwin, W. 2004. The effects of inbreeding on mortality during a morbillivirus outbreak in the Mediterranean striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Anim. Conserv. 7:139-146.

van der Werff, H., and Consiglio, T. 2004. Distribution and conservation significance of endemic species of flowering plants in Peru. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(9):1699-1713.

Vellinga, E.C. 2004. Ecology and distribution of lepiotaceous fungi (Agaricaceae) - a review. Nova Hedwigia 78(3-4):273-299.

Vilà, C., Leonard, J.A., Iriarte, A., O'Brien, S.J., Johnson, W.E., and Wayne, R.K. 2004. Detecting the vanishing populations of the highly endangered Darwin's fox, Pseudalopex fulvipes. Anim. Conserv. 7:147-153.

von Hippel, W., and von Hippel, F.A. 2004. Is viagra a viable conservation tool? Response to Hoover, 2003. Environ. Conserv. 31(1):4-6.

Wallin, K.F., Kolb, T.E., Skov, K.R., and Wagner, M.R. 2004. Seven-year results of thinning and burning restoration treatments on old ponderosa pines at the Gus Pearson Natural Area. Restor. Ecol. 12(2):239-247.

Walsh, C.J. 2004. Protection of in-stream biota from urban impacts: minimise catchment imperviousness or improve drainage design? Mar. Freshwater Res. 55(3):317-326.

Wang, X.M.M., Zhang, K.J., Wang, Z.H., Ding, Y.Z., Wu, W., and Huang, S. 2004. The decline of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and implications for its conservation. Oryx 38(2):197-202.

Wang, Z.F., Hamrick, J.L., and Godt, M.J.W. 2004. High genetic diversity in Sarracenia leucophylla (Sarraceniaceae), a carnivorous wetland herb. J. Heredity 95(3):234-243.

Watson, A.M., and Ormerod, S.J. 2004. The distribution of three uncommon freshwater gastropods in the drainage ditches of British grazing marshes. Biol. Conserv. 118(4):455-466.

Western, D., and Maitumo, D. 2004. Woodland loss and restoration in a savanna park: a 20-year experiment. Afr. J. Ecol. 42(2):111-121.

Willott, E. 2004. Restoring nature, without mosquitoes? Restor. Ecol. 12(2):147-153.

Winfield, I.J., and Durie, N.C. 2004. Fish introductions and their management in the English Lake District. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 11(3-4):195-201.

Witt, A.B.R., and Samways, M.J. 2004. Influence of agricultural land transformation and pest management practices on the arthropod diversity of a biodiversity hotspot, the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 12(1):89-95.

Woods, K., and Elliott, S. 2004. Direct seeding for forest restoration on abandoned agricultural land in northern Thailand. J. Trop. For. Sci. 16(2):248-259.

Wotavová, K., Balounová, Z., and Kindlmann, P. 2004. Factors affecting persistence of terrestrial orchids in wet meadows and implications for their conservation in a changing agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 118(3):271-279.

Wu, C.J., Cheng, Z.Q., Huang, X.Q., Yin, S.H., Cao, K.M., and Sun, C.R. 2004. Genetic diversity among and within populations of Oryza granulata from Yunnan of China revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers: implications for conservation of the endangered species. Plant Sci. 167(1):35-42.

Zagas, T., Ganatsas, P., Tsitsoni, T., and Tsakaldimi, M. 2004. Post-fire regeneration of Pinus halepensis Mill. stands in the Sithonia peninsula, northern Greece. Plant Ecol. 171(1-2):91-99.

Zavala, M.A., and Zea, E. 2004. Mechanisms maintaining biodiversity in Mediterranean pine-oak forests: insights from a spatial simulation model. Plant Ecol. 171(1-2):197-207.

Zettler, J.A., Taylor, M.D., Allen, C.R., and Spira, T.P. 2004. Consequences of forest clear-cuts for native and nonindigenous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 97(3):513-518.

Zhou, H., and Morton, B. 2004. The diets of juvenile horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Xiphosura), from nursery beaches proposed for conservation in Hong Kong. J. Nat. Hist. 38(15):1915-1925.

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