Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany

No. 238
October 2004

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

Gurney's Pitta Rediscovered in Burma Lowland Forests

Widespread loss of lowland Sundaic forests in Thailand, as the land is converted to oil palm and rubber plantations and other crops, has been the principal reason for the decline of Gurney's Pitta (Pitta gurneyi). Found only in Peninsular Thailand and in Burma's Tanintharyi Division, this endemic bird species was thought to be at the brink of extinction, with only 11 pairs known to occur in Thailand's dwindling lowland Sundaic forests. In Burma, only historical records of the species existed, and it was thought the species probably had already vanished.

In 2003, a team of Burmese and British ornithologists working with Birdlife International rediscovered Gurney's Pitta during a preliminary survey of Burma's Sundaic forests in the Tanintharyi Division. The onset of the rainy season and the lack of accurate maps of the distribution of remaining lowland forests, however, made a full-scale assessment of the remaining population impossible.

Following up on this work, Birdlife International joined forces with the Conservation GIS Lab at Smithsonian Institution's National Zoo to map remaining Gurney's Pitta habitat and repeat a survey. National Zoo researcher Peter Leimgruber and his graduate students had recently completed a three-year assessment of Burma's forest cover, based on comparisons of Landsat satellite imagery from the 1990s and 2000s. Their analyses revealed that Burma, a recognized biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia, has more remaining forest cover than all other countries in mainland Southeast Asia combined. These forests may not only harbor large populations of Gurney's Pitta, but may also be the last strongholds for many of the larger endangered mammal species of Asia, including tiger and elephant species. However, detailed maps of remaining Gurney's Pitta habitat were still missing.

Using the data from Birdlife's first preliminary survey in the Tanintharyi Division, Leimgruber and student Dan Kelly developed a GIS model to identify Burma's remaining lowland Sundaic forests and the associated Gurney's Pitta habitat. They combined their Landsat satellite data with a global elevation data set, developed during NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission.

They found large areas of lowland Sundaic forests remaining at the southern tip of Burma's Tanintharyi Division, covering 4,705 km2. Of this area, 3,496 km2 were suitable for supporting 5,152 to 8,586 pairs of Gurney's Pitta. Much of the remaining habitat, however, was threatened by plantation development, with losses in some areas being as high as 30 percent in 10 years. Many of the remaining habitat areas were restricted to small and fragmented patches of less than 1 km2.

In early 2004, Birdlife's team returned to the region with the Smithsonian maps, and found over 100 pairs of the endangered birds. While much of the habitat mapped by Leimgruber and his team is already being converted into oil palm plantations, two of the largest patches remain virtually untouched, one of which is adjacent to a proposed Burmese National Park. Birdlife has petitioned the Burmese government to establish the park quickly and to include within its bounds the newly recognized Gurney's Pitta populations and their habitat.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Indonesian Nature Conservation Database project <> was created by Indonesian conservation enthusiast Ed Colijn with contributions from members of organizations like the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Wildlife Conservation Society, Indo-Pacific Conservation Alliance, and many more. The site provides descriptions of various National Parks, Wildlife Reserves, Nature Reserves and Recreation Parks in Indonesia. It also contains checklists for mammal and bird species that occur in Indonesia offering information on scientific and common name, Indonesian distribution, status, and more. Checklists for reptiles, amphibians, and freshwater fish will be provided in the future as well. Additionally, the site provides links to related organizations and resources, and a list of site references.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2004.

Current Literature

Adlard, R.D., Peirce, M.A., and Lederer, R. 2004. Blood parasites of birds from south-east Queensland. Emu 104(2):191-196.

Agapow, P.M., Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Crandall, K.A., Gittleman, J.L., Mace, G.M., Marshall, J.C., and Purvis, A. 2004. The impact of species concept on biodiversity studies. Q. Rev. Biol. 79(2):161-179.

Alexandre, J., and Diniz, F. 2004. Phylogenetic autocorrelation analysis of extinction risks and the loss of evolutionary history in Felidae (Carnivora: Mammalia). Evol. Ecol. 18(3):273-282.

Allen, S., Marsh, H., and Hodgson, A. 2004. Occurrence and conservation of the dugong (Sirenia: Dugongidae) in New South Wales. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 125:211-216.

Alpers, D.L., van Vuuren, B.J., Arctander, P., and Robinson, T.J. 2004. Population genetics of the roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) with suggestions for conservation. Mol. Ecol. 13(7):1771-1784.

Anderson, C.D., Roby, D.D., and Collis, K. 2004. Conservation implications of the large colony of double-crested cormorants on East Sand Island, Columbia River estuary, Oregon, Usa. Waterbirds 27(2):155-160.

Arzamendia, V., and Giraudo, A.R. 2004. Using biodiversity patterns for assessment and design protected areas: snakes of Santa Fe province (Argentina) as example. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(2):335-348.

Ayyappan, N., and Parthasarathy, N. 2004. Short-term changes in tree populations in a tropical evergreen forest at Varagalaiar, Western Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1843-1851.

Baker, C.S., and Clapham, P.J. 2004. Modelling the past and future of whales and whaling. TREE 19(7):365-371.

Bartl, E., and Keckeis, H. 2004. Growth and mortality of introduced fish larvae in a newly restored urban river. J. Fish Biol. 64(6):1577-1592.

Béchet, A., Giroux, J.F., and Gauthier, G. 2004. The effects of disturbance on behaviour, habitat use and energy of spring staging snow geese. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):689-700.

Beehler, B.M., Stevenson, T.C., and Brown, M. 2004. Virgin rainforests and conservation. Science 305(5686):943-944.

Bell, B.D., Pledger, S., and Dewhurst, P.L. 2004. The fate of a population of the endemic frog Leiopelma pakeka (Anura: Leiopelmatidae) translocated to restored habitat on Maud Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 31(2):123-131.

Bellingham, P.J., Duncan, R.P., Lee, W.G., and Buxton, R.P. 2004. Seedling growth rate and survival do not predict invasiveness in naturalized woody plants in New Zealand. Oikos 106(2):308-316.

Bennett, L.T., and Adams, M.A. 2004. Assessment of ecological effects due to forest harvesting: approaches and statistical issues. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):585-598.

Bimova, K., Mandak, B., and Kasparova, I. 2004. How does Reynoutria invasion fit the various theories of invasibility? J. Veg. Sci. 15(4):495-504.

Bissels, S., Hölzel, N., Donath, T.W., and Otte, A. 2004. Evaluation of restoration success in alluvial grasslands under contrasting flooding regimes. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):641-650.

Boertmann, D., Lyngs, P., Merkel, F.R., and Mosbech, A. 2004. The significance of southwest Greenland as winter quarters for seabirds. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(2):87-112.

Bradford, D.F., Jaeger, J.R., and Jennings, R.D. 2004. Population status and distribution of a decimated amphibian, the relict leopard frog (Rana onca). Southwest. Nat. 49(2):218-228.

Bregnballe, T., Madsen, J., and Rasmussen, P.A.F. 2004. Effects of temporal and spatial hunting control in waterbird reserves. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):93-104.

Bridle, J.R., Pedro, P.M., and Butlin, R.K. 2004. Habitat fragmentation and biodiversity: testing for the evolutionary effects of refugia. Evolution 58(6):1394-1396.

Brock, R.E., and Kelt, D.A. 2004. Influence of roads on the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat (Dipodomys stephensi): are dirt and gravel roads different? Biol. Conserv. 118(5):633-640.

Buckley, L.B., and Roughgarden, J. 2004. Biodiversity conservation - effects of changes in climate and land use. Nature 430(6995):xiii.

Burns, E.L., Eldridge, M.D.B., and Houlden, B.A. 2004. Microsatellite variation and population structure in a declining Australian Hylid Litoria aurea. Mol. Ecol. 13(7):1745-1757.

Cadi, A., Delmas, V., Prevot-Julliard, A.C., Joly, P., Pieau, C., and Girondot, M. 2004. Successful reproduction of the introduced slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the south of France. Aquat. Conserv. 14(3):237-246.

Calabrese, J.M., and Fagan, W.F. 2004. Lost in time, lonely, and single: reproductive asynchrony and the Allee effect. Am. Nat. 164(1):25-37.

Cardini, A., and O'Higgins, P. 2004. Patterns of morphological evolution in Marmota (Rodentia, Sciuridae): geometric morphometrics of the cranium in the context of marmot phylogeny, ecology and conservation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 82(3):385-407.

Carlsson, N.O.L., Brönmark, C., and Hansson, L.A. 2004. Invading herbivory: the golden apple snail alters ecosystem functioning in Asian wetlands. Ecology 85(6):1575-1580.

Chapman, D.D., Prodöhl, P.A., Gelsleichter, J., Manire, C.A., and Shivji, M.S. 2004. Predominance of genetic monogamy by females in a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna tiburo: implications for shark conservation. Mol. Ecol. 13(7):1965-1974.

Chávez-León, G., Velázquez, A., Fregoso, A., and Bocco, G. 2004. Habitat associations of the long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a managed coniferous forest in Michoacán, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1943-1960.

Chen, C.P., Yeh, H.Y., and Lin, P.F. 2004. Conservation of the horseshoe crab at Kinmen, Taiwan: strategies and practices. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1889-1904.

Ciofi, C., and De Boer, M.E. 2004. Distribution and conservation of the Komodo monitor (Varanus komodoensis). Herp. J. 14(2):99-107.

Cirtain, M.C., Franklin, S.B., and Pezeshki, S.R. 2004. Effects of nitrogen and moisture regimes on Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl. seedling growth. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):251-257.

Cooke, S.J., and Philipp, D.P. 2004. Behavior and mortality of caught-and-released bonefish (Albula spp.) in Bahamian waters with implications for a sustainable recreational fishery. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):599-607.

Cordes, J.F., Israel, J.A., and May, B. 2004. Conservation of Paiute cutthroat trout: the genetic legacy of population transplants in an endemic California salmonid. Calif. Fish Game 90(3):101-118.

Cruse-Sanders, J.M., and Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Spatial and genetic structure within populations of wild American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., Araliaceae). J. Heredity 95(4):309-321.

Currie, D., Fanchette, R., Millett, J., Hoareau, C., and Shah, N.J. 2004. The breeding biology of the critically endangered Seychelles scops-owl Otus insularis: consequences for conservation and management. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(2):123-137.

Dale, S. 2004. Effects of a golf course on population dynamics of the endangered ortolan bunting. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(3):719-724.

Davalos, A., and Blossey, B. 2004. Influence of the invasive herb garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages. Environ. Entomol. 33(3):564-576.

de Carvalho, S., Ferrari, S.F., and Strier, K.B. 2004. Diet of a muriqui group (Brachyteles arachnoides) in continuous primary forest. Primates 45(3):201-204.

de Castro, E.B.V., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2004. Determinants of differential extinction vulnerabilities of small mammals in Atlantic forest fragments in Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):73-80.

De Juana, E. 2004. Changes in the conservation status of birds in Spain, years 1954 to 2004. Ardeola 51(1):19-50.

de Lange, P.J., Scofield, R.P., and Greene, T. 2004. Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) a new indigenous addition to the flora of the Kermadec Islands group. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(2):167-173.

de Merode, E., Homewood, K., and Cowlishaw, G. 2004. The value of bushmeat and other wild foods to rural households living in extreme poverty in Democratic Republic of Congo. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):573-581.

de Oliveira, R.P., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., and Hollowell, V.C. 2004. A new species of Pariana (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Olyreae) endemic to the Atlantic moist forest in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Novon 14(2):206-209.

Dennis, C., and Aldhous, P. 2004. A tragedy with many players. Nature 430(6998):396-398.

Desponts, M., Brunet, G., Belanger, L., and Bouchard, M. 2004. The eastern boreal old-growth balsam fir forest: a distinct ecosystem. Can. J. Bot. 82(6):830-849.

Dieterman, D.J., and Galat, D.L. 2004. Large-scale factors associated with sicklefin chub distribution in the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):577-587.

Dodd, C.K., Barichivich, W.J., and Smith, L.L. 2004. Effectiveness of a barrier wall and culverts in reducing wildlife mortality on a heavily traveled highway in Florida. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):619-631.

Dorren, L.K.A., Berger, F., Imeson, A.C., Maier, B., and Rey, F. 2004. Integrity, stability and management of protection forests in the European Alps. Forest Ecol. Manag. 195(1-2):165-176.

Downs, C.T., and Symes, C.T. 2004. Snag dynamics and forest structure in Afromontane forests in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for the conservation of cavity-nesting avifauna. S. Afr. J. Bot. 70(2):265-276.

Duncan, B.W., Larson, V.L., and Schmalzer, P.A. 2004. Historic landcover and recent landscape change in the north Indian River Lagoon Watershed, Florida, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):198-215.

Edwards, J.L. 2004. Research and societal benefits of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. BioScience 54(6):485-486.

Evans, M.E.K., Menges, E.S., and Gordon, D.R. 2004. Mating systems and limits to seed production in two Dicerandra mints endemic to Florida scrub. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1819-1832.

Faith, D.P., Ferrier, S., and Walker, P.A. 2004. The ED strategy: how species-level surrogates indicate general biodiversity patterns through an 'environmental diversity' perspective. J. Biogeogr. 31(8):1207-1217.

Fensham, R.J., and Price, R.J. 2004. Ranking spring wetlands in the Great Artesian Basin of Australia using endemicity and isolation of plant species. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):41-50.

Fisher, D.O., and Owens, I.P.F. 2004. The comparative method in conservation biology. TREE 19(7):391-398.

Fitzgerald, M., Shine, R., and Lemckert, F. 2004. Life history attributes of the threatened Australian snake (Stephen's banded snake Hoplocephalus stephensii, Elapidae). Biol. Conserv. 119(1):121-128.

Frankham, R., and Brook, B.W. 2004. The importance of time scale in conservation biology and ecology. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 41(3):459-463.

Freckleton, R.P. 2004. The problems of prediction and scale in applied ecology: the example of fire as a management tool. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):599-603.

Frere, E., Gandini, P., Ruiz, J., and Vilina, Y.A. 2004. Current status and breeding distribution of red-legged cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi along the Chilean coast. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(2):113-121.

Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Engle, D.M. 2004. Application of the fire-grazing interaction to restore a shifting mosaic on tallgrass prairie. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):604-614.

Garthe, S., and Hüppop, O. 2004. Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):724-734.

Ghazoul, J. 2004. Alien abduction: disruption of native plant-pollinator interactions by invasive species. Biotropica 36(2):156-164.

Ghazoul, J., and Shaanker, R.U. 2004. Sex in space: a synthesis. Biotropica 36(2):180-183.

Ghazoul, J., and Shaanker, R.U. 2004. Sex in space: pollination among spatially isolated plants. Biotropica 36(2):128-130.

Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Moleón, M., Otero, M., and Bautista, J. 2004. A nine-year study of successful breeding in a Bonelli's eagle population in southeast Spain: a basis for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):685-694.

Gillespie, I.G., and Allen, E.B. 2004. Fire and competition in a southern California grassland: impacts on the rare forb Erodium macrophyllum. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):643-652.

Gregg, K.B. 2004. Recovery of showy lady's slippers (Cypripedium reginae Walter) from moderate and severe herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman). Nat. Areas J. 24(3):232-241.

Hambler, C. 2004. Virgin rainforests and conservation. Science 305(5686):943.

Hamilton, L.S. 2004. Review of transboundary protected area: the viability of regional conservation strategies. Mtn. Res. Dev. 24(2):187.

Hampton, J.O., Spencer, P.B.S., Alpers, D.L., Twigg, L.E., Woolnough, A.P., Doust, J., Higgs, T., and Pluske, J. 2004. Molecular techniques, wildlife management and the importance of genetic population structure and dispersal: a case study with feral pigs. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):735-743.

Harris, R.B., and Loggers, C.O. 2004. Status of Tibetan plateau mammals in Yeniugou, China. Wildlife Biol. 10(2):91-99.

Harte, J., Ostling, A., Green, J.L., and Kinzig, A. 2004. Biodiversity conservation - climate change and extinction risk. Nature 430(6995):xiii.

Hays, G.C. 2004. Good news for sea turtles. TREE 19(7):349-351.

Hazell, D., Hero, J.M., Lindenmayer, D., and Cunningham, R. 2004. A comparison of constructed and natural habitat for frog conservation in an Australian agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):61-71.

Heenan, P.B. 2004. Gingidia grisea (Apiaceae), a new species from north-east Otago, South Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(2):175-180.

Heenan, P.B., Mitchell, A.D., and de Lange, P.J. 2004. Arthropodium bifurcatum (Asparagaceae), a new species from northern New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(2):233-246.

Heitzman, E., Shelton, M.G., and Grell, A. 2004. Species composition, size structure, and disturbance history of an old growth bottomland hardwood-loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) - forest in Arkansas, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):177-187.

Hill, J.K., and Hamer, K.C. 2004. Determining impacts of habitat modification on diversity of tropical forest fauna: the importance of spatial scale. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):744-754.

Hingston, A.B., Potts, B.M., and McQuillan, P.B. 2004. The swift parrot, Lathamus discolor (Psittacidae), social bees (Apidae) and native insects as pollinators of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 52(3):371-379.

Hogan, Z.S. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Pangasianodon gigas Chevey, 1931 (Pangasiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(3):210.

Holland, B.S., and Hadfield, M.G. 2004. Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32(2):588-600.

Hooson, S., and Jamieson, I.G. 2004. Variation in breeding success among reintroduced island populations of South Island saddlebacks Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus. Ibis 146(3):417-426.

Hoskin, C.J. 2004. Australian microhylid frogs (Cophixalus and Austrochaperina): phylogeny, taxonomy, calls, distributions and breeding biology. Aust. J. Zool. 52(3):237-269.

Huffman, J.M., Platt, W.J., Grissino-Mayer, H., and Boyce, C.J. 2004. Fire history of a barrier island slash pine (Pinus elliottii) savanna. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):258-268.

Humphrey, L.D., and Schupp, E.W. 2004. Competition as a barrier to establishment of a native perennial grass (Elymus elymoides) in alien annual grass (Bromus teetorum) communities. J. Arid Environ. 58(4):405-422.

Huspeni, T.C., and Lafferty, K.D. 2004. Using larval trematodes that parasitize snails to evaluate a saltmarsh restoration project. Ecol. Appl. 14(3):795-804.

Iguchi, K., and Yodo, T. 2004. Impact of indigenous egg eaters on the early survival of exotic smallmouth bass. Ecol. Res. 19(5):469-474.

Iguchi, K., Yodo, T., and Matsubara, N. 2004. Spawning and brood defense of smallmouth bass under the process of invasion into a novel habitat. Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(3):219-225.

Jax, K., and Rozzi, R. 2004. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(2):349-366.

Johnson, R.N., and Starks, P.T. 2004. A surprising level of genetic diversity in an invasive wasp: Polistes dominulus in the northeastern United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 97(4):732-737.

Johnson, S.D., Collin, C.L., Wissman, H.J., Halvarsson, E., and Ågren, J. 2004. Factors contributing to variation in seed production among remnant populations of the endangered daisy Gerbera aurantiaca. Biotropica 36(2):148-155.

Joshi, V.C., and Janarthanam, M.K. 2004. The diversity of life-form type, habitat preference and phenology of the endemics in the Goa region of the Western Ghats, India. J. Biogeogr. 31(8):1227-1237.

Kaczensky, P., Blazic, M., and Gossow, H. 2004. Public attitudes towards brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Slovenia. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):661-674.

Kappes, H., and Topp, W. 2004. Emergence of Coleoptera from deadwood in a managed broadleaved forest in central Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1905-1924.

Kelmo, F., Attrill, M.J., Gomes, R.C.T., and Jones, M.B. 2004. El Niño induced local extinction of coral reef bryozoan species from Northern Bahia, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):609-617.

Kennett, R., Munungurritj, N., and Yunupingu, D. 2004. Migration patterns of marine turtles in the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia: implications for Aboriginal management. Wildlife Res. 31(3):241-248.

Kerr, J.T., and Cihlar, J. 2004. Patterns and causes of species endangerment in Canada. Ecol. Appl. 14(3):743-753.

Koehn, J.D. 2004. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways. Freshwater Biol. 49(7):882-894.

Koh, L.P., Sodhi, N.S., and Brook, B.W. 2004. Co-extinctions of tropical butterflies and their hostplants. Biotropica 36(2):272-274.

Kossowska, M., and Fabiszewski, J. 2004. Threatened lichens of Lower Silesia, Poland. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 73(2):139-150.

Krabbe, N. 2004. Pale-headed brush-finch Atlapetes pallidiceps: notes on population size, habitat, vocalizations, feeding, interference competition and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(2):77-86.

Kramer-Schadt, S., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T., and Breitenmoser, U. 2004. Fragmented landscapes, road mortality and patch connectivity: modelling influences on the dispersal of Eurasian lynx. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):711-723.

Krausman, P.R., Harris, L.K., Blasch, C.L., Koenen, K.K.G., and Francine, J. 2004. Effects of military operations on behavior and hearing of endangered Sonoran pronghorn. Wildlife Monogr. 157:1-41.

Krebs, J., Lofroth, E., Copeland, J., Banci, V., Cooley, D., Golden, H., Magoun, A., Mulders, R., and Shults, B. 2004. Synthesis of survival rates and causes of mortality in North American wolverines. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(3):493-502.

Krishnayya, N.S.R., Sreehari, M., Pandya, B., and Kadam, S. 2004. Population viability analysis for herbaceous vegetation: a stochastic model and projections by simulation. Curr. Sci. 86(11):1534-1538.

Kuhn, I., Brandl, R., and Klotz, S. 2004. The flora of German cities is naturally species rich. Evol. Ecol. Res. 6(5):749-764.

Kulkarni, A.R., and Mulani, R.M. 2004. Indigenous palms of India. Curr. Sci. 86(12):1598-1603.

Laiolo, P., Caprio, E., and Rolando, A. 2004. Can forest management have season-dependent effects on bird diversity? Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1925-1941.

Leung, B., Drake, J.M., and Lodge, D.M. 2004. Predicting invasions: propagule pressure and the gravity of Allee effects. Ecology 85(6):1651-1660.

Linkie, M., Smith, R.J., and Leader-Williams, N. 2004. Mapping and predicting deforestation patterns in the lowlands of Sumatra. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1809-1818.

Lopez, R.R., Silvy, N.J., Pierce, B.L., Frank, P.A., Wilson, M.T., and Burke, K.M. 2004. Population density of the endangered Florida key deer. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(3):570-575.

Luiselli, L., Akani, G.C., Politano, E., Odegbune, E., and Bello, O. 2004. Dietary shifts of sympatric freshwater turtles in pristine and oil-polluted habitats of the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria. Herp. J. 14(2):57-64.

Lykke, A.M., Kristensen, M.K., and Ganaba, S. 2004. Valuation of local use and dynamics of 56 woody species in the Sahel. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1961-1990.

Maehr, D.S., and Larkin, J.L. 2004. Do prescribed fires in south Florida reduce habitat quality for native carnivores? Nat. Areas J. 24(3):188-197.

Maron, M., and Lill, A. 2004. Discrimination among potential buloke (Allocasuarina luehmannii) feeding trees by the endangered south-eastern red-tailed black-cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii graptogyne). Wildlife Res. 31(3):311-317.

Martel, C., Viard, F., Bourguet, D., and Garcia-Meunier, P. 2004. Invasion by the marine gastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus in France I. Scenario for the source of introduction. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 305(2):155-170.

Martin, K., Brown, G.A., and Young, J.R. 2004. The historic and current distribution of the Vancouver Island white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus saxatllis). J. Field Ornithol. 75(3):239-256.

Martinez-Jeronimo, F., Elias-Gutierrez, M., and Suarez-Morales, E. 2004. A redescription of Moina hutchinsoni, a rare cladoceran (Branchiopoda: Anomopoda) found in remnants of a Mexican saline lake, with notes on its life history. J. Crustracean Biol. 24(2):232-245.

Mas, A.H., and Dietsch, T.V. 2004. Linking shade coffee certification to biodiversity conservation: butterflies and birds in Chiapas, Mexico. Ecol. Appl. 14(3):642-654.

Masters, P., Duka, T., Berris, S., and Moss, G. 2004. Koalas on Kangaroo Island: from introduction to pest status in less than a century. Wildlife Res. 31(3):267-272.

May, P.H., and Barata, L.E.S. 2004. Rosewood exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon: options for sustainable production. Econ. Bot. 58(2):257-265.

McCallum, D.A., and Balkwill, K. 2004. A new species of Ocimum (Lamiaceae) from Swaziland. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145(3):379-383.

McCreary, D. 2004. Managing and restoring California's oak woodlands. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):269-275.

McHugh, P., Budy, P., and Schaller, H. 2004. A model-based assessment of the potential response of Snake River spring-summer chinook salmon to habitat improvements. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):622-638.

McLoughlin, P.D., Paetkau, D., Duda, M., and Boutin, S. 2004. Genetic diversity and relatedness of boreal caribou populations in western Canada. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):593-598.

Meir, E., Andelman, S., and Possingham, H.P. 2004. Does conservation planning matter in a dynamic and uncertain world? Ecol. Lett. 7(8):615-622.

Minuto, L., Casazza, G., and Profumo, P. 2004. Population decrease of Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. in Liguria: conservation problems for the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Plant Biosystems 138(1):11-19.

Molina-Freaner, F., Gámez, R.C., Tinoco-Ojanguren, C., and Castellanos, A.E. 2004. Vine species diversity across environmental gradients in northwestern México. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1853-1874.

Morris, R.K.A., Reach, I.S., Duffy, M.J., Collins, T.S., and Leafe, R.N. 2004. On the loss of saltmarshes in south-east England and the relationship with Nereis diversicolor. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):787-791.

Mota, J.F., Sola, A.J., Jiménez-Sánchez, M.L., Pérez-García, F.J., and Merlo, M.E. 2004. Gypsicolous flora, conservation and restoration of quarries in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1797-1808.

Muller, S., Rusterholz, H.P., and Baur, B. 2004. Rock climbing alters the vegetation of limestone cliffs in the northern Swiss Jura Mountains. Can. J. Bot. 82(6):862-870.

Nash, S. 2004. Desperately seeking charisma: improving the status of invertebrates. BioScience 54(6):487-494.

Naugle, D.E., Aldridge, C.L., Walker, B.L., Cornish, T.E., Moynahan, B.J., Holloran, M.J., Brown, K., Johnson, G.D., Schmidtmann, E.T., Mayer, R.T., Kato, C.Y., Matchett, M.R., Christiansen, T.J., Cook, W.E., Creekmore, T., Falise, R.D., Rinkes, E.T., and Boyce, M.S. 2004. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse. Ecol. Lett. 7(8):704-713.

Neumann, P., and Elzen, P.J. 2004. The biology of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): gaps in our knowledge of an invasive species. Apidologie 35(3):229-247.

Noss, R.F. 2004. Conservation targets and information needs for regional conservation planning. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):223-231.

O'Connor, T.G. 2004. Influence of land use on populations of the medicinal plant Alepidea amatymbica in the southern Drakensberg. S. Afr. J. Bot. 70(2):319-322.

Opande, G.O., Onyango, J.C., and Wagai, S.O. 2004. Lake Victoria: the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms), its socio-economic effects, control measures and resurgence in the Winam gulf. Limnologica 34(1-2):105-109.

Oppel, S., Schaefer, H.M., Schmidt, V., and Schrøder, B. 2004. Cowbird parasitism of pale-headed brush-finch Atlapetes pallidiceps: implications for conservation and management. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(2):63-75.

Pacheco, C., and McGregor, P.K. 2004. Conservation of the purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio L.) in Portugal: causes of decline, recovery and expansion. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):115-120.

Padmawathe, R., Qureshi, Q., and Rawat, G.S. 2004. Effects of selective logging on vascular epiphyte diversity in a moist lowland forest of Eastern Himalaya, India. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):81-92.

Palkovacs, E.P., Oppenheimer, A.J., Gladyshev, E., Toepfer, J.E., Amato, G., Chase, T., and Caccone, A. 2004. Genetic evaluation of a proposed introduction: the case of the greater prairie chicken and the extinct heath hen. Mol. Ecol. 13(7):1759-1769.

Palma, L., Ferreira, J., Cangarato, R., and Pinto, P.V. 2004. Current status of the osprey in the Cape Verde Islands. J. Raptor Res. 38(2):141-147.

Parr, C.L., Robertson, H.G., Biggs, H.C., and Chown, S.L. 2004. Response of African savanna ants to long-term fire regimes. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(4):630-642.

Pastor, T., Garza, J.C., Allen, P., Amos, W., and Aguilar, A. 2004. Low genetic variability in the highly endangered Mediterranean monk seal. J. Heredity 95(4):291-300.

Peltzer, P.M., and Lajmanovich, R.C. 2004. Anuran tadpole assemblages in riparian areas of the Middle Paraná River, Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1833-1842.

Pereira, H.M., Daily, G.C., and Roughgarden, J. 2004. A framework for assessing the relative vulnerability of species to land-use change. Ecol. Appl. 14(3):730-742.

Peterson, D.P., Fausch, K.D., and White, G.C. 2004. Population ecology of an invasion: effects of brook trout on native cutthroat trout. Ecol. Appl. 14(3):754-772.

Petram, W., Knauer, F., and Kaczensky, P. 2004. Human influence on the choice of winter dens by European brown bears in Slovenia. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):129-136.

Pfab, M.F., and Scholes, M.A. 2004. Is the collection of Aloe peglerae from the wild sustainable? An evaluation using stochastic population modelling. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):695-701.

Prenter, J., MacNeil, C., Dick, J.T.A., and Dunn, A.M. 2004. Roles of parasites in animal invasions. TREE 19(7):385-390.

Quesada, M., Stoner, K.E., Lobo, J.A., Herrerías-Diego, Y., Palacios-Guevara, C., Munguía-Rosas, M.A., Salazar, K.A.O., and Rosas-Guerrero, V. 2004. Effects of forest fragmentation on pollinator activity and consequences for plant reproductive success and mating patterns in bat-pollinated bombacaceous trees. Biotropica 36(2):131-138.

Quilichini, A., Debussche, M., and Thompson, J.D. 2004. Geographic differentiation of morphological traits and isozymes in the Mediterranean island endemic Anchusa crispa: implications for the conservation of a protected species. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):651-660.

Quist, M.C., Hubert, W.A., and Rahel, F.J. 2004. Relations among habitat characteristics, exotic species, and turbid-river cyprinids in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):727-742.

Rand, T.A., and Louda, S.M. 2004. Exotic weed invasion increases the susceptibility of native plants attack by a biocontrol herbivore. Ecology 85(6):1548-1554.

Ranius, T., and Kindvall, O. 2004. Modelling the amount of coarse woody debris produced by the new biodiversity-oriented silvicultural practices in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):51-59.

Ratz, H., Darby, J.T., Edge, K.A., and Thompson, C. 2004. Survival and breeding of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes), at two locations on Otago Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand, 1991-96. New Zeal. J. Zool. 31(2):133-147.

Reiter, N., Weste, G., and Guest, D. 2004. The risk of extinction resulting from disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi to endangered, vulnerable or rare plant species endemic to the Grampians, western Victoria. Aust. J. Bot. 52(3):425-433.

Rhazi, M., Grillas, P., Charpentier, A., and Médail, F. 2004. Experimental management of Mediterranean temporary pools for conservation of the rare quillwort Isoetes setacea. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):675-684.

Rhoades, C.C., Miller, S.P., and Shea, M.M. 2004. Soil properties and soil nitrogen dynamics of prairie-like forest openings and surrounding forests in Kentucky's Knobs Region. Am. Midl. Nat. 152(1):1-11.

Robinson, R.A., Green, R.E., Baillie, S.R., Peach, W.J., and Thomson, D.L. 2004. Demographic mechanisms of the population decline of the song thrush Turdus philomelos in Britain. J. Anim. Ecol. 73(4):670-682.

Rocha, C.D., Del Lama, S.N., and Regitano, L.C.D. 2004. Lack of genetic structuring among tropical Brazilian wood stork populations and low genetic differentiation from North American populations. Biotropica 36(2):248-258.

Roques, S., Godoy, J.A., Negro, J.J., and Hiraldo, F. 2004. Organization and variation of the mitochondrial control region in two vulture species, Gypaetus barbatus and Neophron percnopterus. J. Heredity 95(4):332-337.

Russell-Smith, J., Stanton, P.J., Edwards, A.C., and Whitehead, P.J. 2004. Rain forest invasion of eucalypt-dominated woodland savanna, Iron Range, north-eastern Australia: II. Rates of landscape change. J. Biogeogr. 31(8):1305-1316.

Saeki, M., and Macdonald, D.W. 2004. The effects of traffic on the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) and other mammals in Japan. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):559-571.

Saint-Germain, M., Drapeau, P., and Hébert, C. 2004. Comparison of Coleoptera assemblages from a recently burned and unburned black spruce forests of northeastern North America. Biol. Conserv. 118(5):583-592.

Sarr, D., Puettmann, K., Pabst, R., Cornett, M., and Arguello, L. 2004. Restoration ecology. J. Forestry 102(5):20-24.

Schaub, M., Pradel, R., and Lebreton, J.D. 2004. Is the reintroduced white stork (Ciconia ciconia) population in Switzerland self-sustainable? Biol. Conserv. 119(1):105-114.

Schmieder, K. 2004. European lake shores in danger - concepts for a sustainable development. Limnologica 34(1-2):3-14.

Shanker, K., Ramadevi, J., Choudhury, B.C., Singh, L., and Aggarwal, R.K. 2004. Phylogeography of olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) on the east coast of India: implications for conservation theory. Mol. Ecol. 13(7):1899-1909.

Shanley, P., and Rosa, N.A. 2004. Eroding knowledge: an ethnobotanical inventory in eastern Amazonia's logging frontier. Econ. Bot. 58(2):135-160.

Sharma, B.D., Clevers, J., De Graaf, R., and Chapagaln, N.R. 2004. Mapping Equus kiang (Tibetan wild ass) habitat in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal. Mtn. Res. Dev. 24(2):149-156.

Sharma, S. 2004. Trade of Cordyceps sinensis from high altitudes of the Indian Himalaya: conservation and biotechnological priorities. Curr. Sci. 86(12):1614-1619.

Sheppard, S.K., Henneman, M.L., Memmott, J., and Symondson, W.O.C. 2004. Infiltration by alien predators into invertebrate food webs in Hawaii: a molecular approach. Mol. Ecol. 13(7):2077-2088.

Silvertown, J. 2004. Sustainability in a nutshell. TREE 19(6):276-278.

Smith, G.F., and Wolfson, M.M. 2004. Mainstreaming biodiversity: the role of taxonomy in bioregional planning activities in South Africa. Taxon 53(2):467-468.

Stallins, J.A., and Griggs, J. 2004. Influence of historic upland silviculture on the composition of ravine forests along the Apalachicola River, Florida, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):242-250.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M., and Knight, T.M. 2004. The need for evidence-based conservation. TREE 19(6):305-308.

Symstad, A.J. 2004. Secondary invasion following the reduction of Coronilla varia (Crownvetch) in sand prairie. Am. Midl. Nat. 152(1):183-189.

Takano, L.L., and Haig, S.M. 2004. Distribution and abundance of the Mariana subspecies of the common moorhen. Waterbirds 27(2):245-250.

Tallmon, D.A., Luikart, G., and Beaumont, M.A. 2004. Comparative evaluation of a new effective population size estimator based on approximate Bayesian computation. Genetics 167(2):977-988.

Tavares, M., and De Melo, G.A.S. 2004. Discovery of the first known benthic invasive species in the Southern Ocean: the North Atlantic spider crab Hyas araneus found in the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarct. Sci. 16(2):129-131.

Thomas, C.D., Williams, S.E., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., de Siqueira, M.F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., and Phillips, O.L. 2004. Biodiversity conservation - uncertainty in predictions of extinction risk - effects of changes in climate and land use - climate change and extinction risk - reply. Nature 430(6995):xiii.

Thuiller, W., Araújo, M.B., Pearson, R.G., Whittaker, R.J., Brotons, L., and Lavorel, S. 2004. Biodiversity conservation - uncertainty in predictions of extinction risk. Nature 430(6995):xiii.

Tooker, J.F., and Hanks, L.M. 2004. Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae: Silphium spp.). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(10):1875-1888.

Tozo, K., Kossi, A.M., Odah, K., Bouchet, P., and Akpagana, K. 2004. Factors controlling seed germination and propagation of Dodonaea viscosa (L) Jacq. (Sapindaceae), a rare and threatened medicinal species in Togo. Acta Bot. Gallica 151(2):197-204.

Turner, W.R., Nakamura, T., and Dinetti, M. 2004. Global urbanization and the separation of humans from nature. BioScience 54(6):585-590.

Ungricht, S. 2004. How many plant species are there? And how many are threatened with extinction? Endemic species in global biodiversity and conservation assessments. Taxon 53(2):481-484.

Van Balen, S., and Nijman, V. 2004. Biology and conservation of pink-headed fruit-dove Ptilinopus porphyreus. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(2):139-152.

Vandermast, D.B., Moorman, C.E., Russell, K.R., and Van Lear, D.H. 2004. Initial vegetation response to prescribed fire in some oak-hickory forests of the South Carolina piedmont. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):216-222.

Vickery, J.A., Bradbury, R.B., Henderson, I.G., Eaton, M.A., and Grice, P.V. 2004. The role of agri-environment schemes and farm management practices in reversing the decline of farmland birds in England. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):19-39.

Victor, J.E., and Keith, M. 2004. The Orange List: a safety net for biodiversity in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(3-4):139-141.

Vigilante, T., and Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2004. Effects of fire history on the structure and floristic composition of woody vegetation around Kalumburu, North Kimberley, Australia: a landscape-scale natural experiment. Aust. J. Bot. 52(3):381-404.

Vigilante, T., and Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2004. Effects of individual fire events on the flower production of fruit-bearing tree species, with reference to Aboriginal people's management and use, at Kalumburu, North Kimberley, Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 52(3):405-415.

Walker, K.J., Stevens, P.A., Stevens, D.P., Mountford, J.O., Manchester, S.J., and Pywell, R.F. 2004. The restoration and re-creation of species-rich lowland grassland on land formerly managed for intensive agriculture in the UK. Biol. Conserv. 119(1):1-18.

Wall, S.S., and Berry, C.R. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Notropis topeka Gilbert, 1884 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(3):246.

Warren, K.M., Eyears-Chaddock, M., Brian, R.W., and Lemon, J. 2004. The value of habitat reconstruction to birds at Gunnedah, New South Wales. Emu 104(2):177-189.

Watson, A.M., and Ormerod, S.J. 2004. The microdistribution of three uncommon freshwater gastropods in the drainage ditches of British grazing marshes. Aquat. Conserv. 14(3):221-236.

Weishampel, J.F., Bagley, D.A., and Ehrhart, L.M. 2004. Earlier nesting by loggerhead sea turtles following sea surface warming. Global Change Biol. 10(8):1424-1427.

Whaylen, L., Pattengill-Semmens, C.V., Semmens, B.X., Bush, P.G., and Boardman, M.R. 2004. Observations of a Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus, spawning aggregation site in Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, including multi-species spawning information. Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(3):305-313.

Whiles, M.R., Jensen, J.B., Palis, J.G., and Dyer, W.G. 2004. Diets of larval flatwoods salamanders, Ambystoma cingulatum, from Florida and South Carolina. J. Herpetol. 38(2):208-214.

Whittingham, M.J., Butler, S.J., Quinn, J.L., and Cresswell, W. 2004. The effect of limited visibility on vigilance behaviour and speed of predator detection: implications for the conservation of granivorous passerines. Oikos 106(2):377-385.

Wich, S., Buij, R., and van Schaik, C. 2004. Determinants of orangutan density in the dryland forests of the Leuser Ecosystem. Primates 45(3):177-182.

Wijesinghe, M.R., and Brooke, M.D. 2004. What causes the vulnerability of endemic animals? A case study from Sri Lanka. J. Zool. 263:135-140.

Williams, D.W., Lee, H.P., and Kim, I.K. 2004. Distribution and abundance of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in natural Acer stands in South Korea. Environ. Entomol. 33(3):540-545.

Willis, K.J., Gillson, L., and Brncic, T.M. 2004. Virgin rainforests and conservation - response. Science 305(5686):944.

Winfield, I.J. 2004. Fish in the littoral zone: ecology, threats and management. Limnologica 34(1-2):124-131.

Woithon, A., and Schmieder, K. 2004. Modelling the breeding habitat of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus L.) as part of an integrative lake shore management system. Limnologica 34(1-2):132-139.

Wright, G. 2004. Livin on the wildland fire-developed area interface. Nat. Areas J. 24(3):173.

Xiao, L.Q., Ge, X.J., Gong, X., Hao, G., and Zheng, S.X. 2004. ISSR variation in the endemic and endangered plant Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae). Ann. Botany 94(1):133-138.

**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]