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Department ofBotany



No. 239
November 2004


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In This Issue


Frog Decline: What about the Tadpoles?


Frogs lay eggs, eggs develop into tadpoles, and tadpoles develop into frogs. Many endangered species, like Panama's strikingly beautiful golden frogs (Atelopus zeteki), have more than one life stage. To find out how the disappearance of the tadpole stage would effect the environment, Anthony Ranvestel, with Karen Lips (University of Southern Illinois-Carbondale and Research Associate at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute), traveled to a cloud forest in Cocle, Panama, where golden frogs are still plentiful.

Panamanian Golden Frog. (Photo by Eric Lindquist)

Using tiny electric fences, Ranvestel and Lips completely excluded tadpoles from some sections of a stream. They compared stream sections with and without tadpoles. There was 40 percent more organic and inorganic sediment on the stream bed in sections without tadpoles. A look at the stomach contents of a few tadpoles from the sections where they had not been excluded, confirmed that they had been eating sediments and tiny algae, called diatoms. When tadpoles were excluded, researchers found fewer mayflies, perhaps because mayflies need the tadpoles to scrape off sediments from the rocks to expose the food they need.

The extinction of the golden frog may cause sediments to accumulate in tropical highland streams, and may have a domino effect, eliminating other species that require clean streams for their own survival.


Information Highway Hi-Lites


The DST Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB) <http://www.sun.ac.za/cib>, based at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, provides information about this nationally funded research center, with a focus on the dynamics of invasion biology. Under the direction of Steven Chown, the research at CIB spans all biomes in South Africa, including Marion Island, and is also geared to understanding invasions elsewhere in Africa. The center investigates how biological diversity is altered by invasive plants and animals, and the effects these have on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they deliver. Through its research, CIB makes scientific information available to assist policy makers and managers with rational decision-making options regarding invasive alien species. The CIB is an inter-institutional "Centre of Excellence" established within South Africa's Department of Science and Technology (DST) Centres of Excellence Programme, and is co-funded by DST and the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa. Although the CIB is housed at the University of Stellenbosch, it does research and student training with the help of a network of researchers at several South African universities and institutions, including the University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Cape Town, University of Transkei, and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).

The Center for Invasive Plant Management (CIPM) <http://www.weedcenter.org>, housed in the Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences at Montana State University, has a variety of information on invasive plants. The Center's mission is to serve as an information clearinghouse for land managers in the western United States. The site, completely redesigned and revised this past spring, includes up-to-date noxious weed lists, databases and image galleries, educational resources, case studies of restoration projects, information on ecological management, and much more. CIPM offers several annual grants that can be applied for on-line, and the site also maintains a current list of other funding opportunities. Invasive plant information can be found for each state and province in the west. A current calendar of weed events, as well as a "what's new" section, appears on the home page.


Current Literature


Aguilar-Rosas, R., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Ávila-Serrano, G., and Marcos-Ramírez, R. 2004. First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Bot. Mar. 47(3):255-258.

Aldridge, D.C., Elliott, P., and Moggridge, G.D. 2004. The recent and rapid spread of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Great Britain. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):253-261.

Backer, D.M., Jensen, S.E., and McPherson, G.R. 2004. Impacts of fire-suppression activities on natural communities. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):937-946.

Bagno, M.A., Rodrigues, F.H.G., Villalobos, M.P., Dalponte, J.C., Brandao, R.A., Britto, B., de Paula, R.C., and Bezerra, A.M.R. 2004. Notes on the natural history and conservation status of pampas cat, Oncifelis colocolo, in the Brazilian cerrado. Mammalia 68(1):75-79.

Baker, G.B., Cunningham, R.B., and Murray, W. 2004. Are red-footed boobies Sula sula at risk from harvesting by humans on Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean? Biol. Conserv. 119(2):271-278.

Barker, C.G., Power, S.A., Bell, J.N.B., and Orme, C.D.L. 2004. Effects of habitat management on heathland response to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):41-52.

Barlow, N.D., and Kean, J.M. 2004. Resource abundance and invasiveness: a simple model. Biol. Invasions 6(3):261-268.

Batista, F., Bouza, N., González-Pérez, M.A., Caujapé-Castells, J., and Sosa, P.A. 2004. Genetic variation within and between populations of two endangered endemic species of the laurel forest from the Canary Islands, Myrica rivas-martinezii (Myricaceae) and Sideritis discolor (Lamiaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 52(4):471-480.

Bawa, K.S., Seidler, R., and Raven, P.H. 2004. Reconciling conservation paradigms. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):859-860.

Beazley, K., and Cardinal, N. 2004. A systematic approach for selecting focal species for conservation in the forests of Nova Scotia and Maine. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):91-101.

Beidleman, R. 2004. More than specimens in natural history museums. BioScience 54(7):612.

Bennett, A.F., Hinsley, S.A., Bellamy, P.E., Swetnam, R.D., and Mac Nally, R. 2004. Do regional gradients in land-use influence richness, composition and turnover of bird assemblages in small woods? Biol. Conserv. 119(2):191-206.

Bergman, K.O., Askling, J., Ekberg, O., Ignell, H., Wahlman, H., and Milberg, P. 2004. Landscape effects on butterfly assemblages in an agricultural region. Ecography 27(5):619-628.

Beschta, R.L., Rhodes, J.J., Kauffman, J.B., Griesswell, R.E., Minshall, G.W., Karr, J.R., Perry, D.A., Hauer, E.R., and Frissell, C.A. 2004. Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):957-967.

Beyers, J.L. 2004. Postfire seeding for erosion control: effectiveness and impacts on native plant communities. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):947-956.

Boland, C.R.J. 2004. Introduced cane toads Bufo marinus are active nest predators and competitors of rainbow bee-eaters Merops ornatus: observational and experimental evidence. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):53-62.

Bretagnolle, V., Inchausti, P., Seguin, J.F., and Thibault, J.C. 2004. Evaluation of the extinction risk and of conservation alternatives for a very small insular population: the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Corsica. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):19-30.

Brooks, M.L., d'Antonio, C.M., Richardson, D.M., Grace, J.B., Keeley, J.E., Di Tomaso, J.M., Hobbs, R.J., Pellant, M., and Pyke, D. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. BioScience 54(7):677-688.

Brown, R.T., Agee, J.K., and Franklin, J.F. 2004. Forest restoration and fire: principles in the context of place. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):903-912.

Buczkowski, G., Vargo, E.L., and Silverman, J. 2004. The diminutive supercolony: the Argentine ants of the southeastern United States. Mol. Ecol. 13(8):2235-2242.

Bury, R.B. 2004. Wildfire, fuel reduction, and herpetofaunas across diverse landscape mosaics in northwestern forests. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):968-975.

Bütler, R., Angelstam, P., Ekelund, P., and Schlaeffer, R. 2004. Dead wood threshold values for the three-toed woodpecker presence in boreal and sub-Alpine forest. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):305-318.

Carpenter, F.L., Nichols, J.D., and Sandi, E. 2004. Early growth of native and exotic trees planted on degraded tropical pasture. Forest Ecol. Manag. 196(2-3):367-378.

Carroll, C., Noss, R.E., Paquet, P.C., and Schumaker, N.H. 2004. Extinction debt of protected areas in developing landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1110-1120.

Carter, M.G., Copp, G.H., and Szomlai, V. 2004. Seasonal abundance and microhabitat use of bullhead Cottus gobio and accompanying fish species in the River Avon (Hampshire), and implications for conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 14(4):395-412.

Casale, P., Laurent, L., and De Metrio, G. 2004. Incidental capture of marine turtles by the Italian trawl fishery in the north Adriatic Sea. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):287-295.

Cavers, S., Navarro, C., and Lowe, A.J. 2004. Targeting genetic resource conservation in widespread species: a case study of Cedrela odorata L. Forest Ecol. Manag. 197(1-3):285-294.

Chang, C.R., Lee, P.F., Bai, M.L., and Lin, T.T. 2004. Predicting the geographical distribution of plant communities in complex terrain - a case study in Fushian Experimental Forest, northeastern Taiwan. Ecography 27(5):577-588.

Chang, C.S., Kim, H., Park, T.Y., and Maunder, M. 2004. Low levels of genetic variation among southern peripheral populations of the threatened herb, Leontice microrhyncha (Berberidaceae) in Korea. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):387-396.

Chen, H.C., Geissmann, T., and Chen, P.C. 2004. A survey of the taxonomic status of captive gibbons in Taiwan. Raffles Bull. Zool. 52(1):265-269.

Collen, B., Purvis, A., and Gittleman, J.L. 2004. Biological correlates of description date in carnivores and primates. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 13(5):459-467.

Collyer, M.L., and Stockwell, C.A. 2004. Experimental evidence for costs of parasitism for a threatened species, white sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa). J. Anim. Ecol. 73(5):821-830.

Constable, A.J. 2004. Managing fisheries effects on marine food webs in Antarctica: trade-offs among harvest strategies, monitoring, and assessment in achieving conservation objectives. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74(3):583-605.

Cordeiro, N.J., Patrick, D.A.G., Munisi, B., and Gupta, V. 2004. Role of dispersal in the invasion of an exotic tree in an East African submontane forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 20:449-457.

Cordes, C. 2004. Shifting the agenda of science and technology. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):867-868.

Corkum, L.D. 2004. Pheromone signalling in conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 14(4):327-331.

Critchley, C.N.R., Allen, D.S., Fowbert, J.A., Mole, A.C., and Gundrey, A.L. 2004. Habitat establishment on arable land: assessment of an agri-environment scheme in England, UK. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):429-442.

Crochet, P.A., Chaline, O., Cheylan, M., and Guillaume, C.P. 2004. No evidence of general decline in an amphibian community of Southern France. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):297-304.

Cuddington, K., and Hastings, A. 2004. Invasive engineers. Ecol. Model. 178(3-4):335-347.

De Leo, G.A., Focardi, S., Gatto, M., and Cattadori, I.M. 2004. The decline of the grey partridge in Europe: comparing demographies in traditional and modern agricultural landscapes. Ecol. Model. 177(3-4):313-335.

DeCandido, R. 2004. Recent changes in plant species diversity in urban Pelham Bay Park, 1947-1998. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):129-136.

DellaSala, D.A., Williams, J.E., Williams, C.D., and Franklin, J.E. 2004. Beyond smoke and mirrors: a synthesis of fire policy and science. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):976-986.

Dombeck, M.P., Williams, J.E., and Wood, C.A. 2004. Wildfire policy and public lands: integrating scientific understanding with social concerns across landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):883-889.

Donaldson, T.J., and Dulvy, N.K. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840) (Scaridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(4):373.

Drake, J.M., and Keller, R.P. 2004. Environmental justice alert: do developing nations bear the burden of risk for invasive species? BioScience 54(8):718-719.

Dybas, C.L. 2004. Invasive species: the search for solutions. BioScience 54(7):615-621.

Eggert, L.S., Mundy, N.I., and Woodruff, D.S. 2004. Population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the California Channel Islands. Mol. Ecol. 13(8):2121-2133.

Endress, B.A., Gorchov, D.L., and Noble, R.B. 2004. Non-timber forest product extraction: effects of harvest and browsing on an understory palm. Ecol. Appl. 14(4):1139-1153.

Facon, B., Machline, E., Pointier, J.P., and David, P. 2004. Variation in desiccation tolerance in freshwater snails and its consequences for invasion ability. Biol. Invasions 6(3):283-293.

Ficetola, G.F., and De Bernardi, F. 2004. Amphibians in a human-dominated landscape: the community structure is related to habitat features and isolation. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):219-230.

Fitzhugh, T.W., and Richter, B.D. 2004. Quenching urban thirst: growing cities and their impacts on freshwater ecosystems. BioScience 54(8):741-754.

Foster, S.J., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. J. Fish Biol. 65(1):1-61.

Franco, A.M.A., and Sutherland, W.J. 2004. Modelling the foraging habitat selection of lesser kestrels: conservation implications of European agricultural policies. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):63-74.

Freyfogle, E.T. 2004. Conservation and the lure of the garden. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):995-1003.

Gault, K.E., Walters, J.R., Tomcho, J., Phillips, L.F., and Butler, A. 2004. Nest success of southeastern American kestrels associated with red-cockaded woodpeckers in old-growth longleaf pine habitat in northwest Florida. Southeast. Nat. 3(2):191-204.

Gerber, L.R., and Heppell, S.S. 2004. The use of demographic sensitivity analysis in marine species conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):121-128.

Gibson, L.A., Wilson, B.A., and Aberton, J.G. 2004. Landscape characteristics associated with species richness and occurrence of small native mammals inhabiting a coastal heathland: a spatial modelling approach. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):75-89.

Gjerde, I., Sætersdal, M., Rolstad, J., Blom, H.H., and Storaunet, K.O. 2004. Fine-scale diversity and rarity hotspots in northern forests. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1032-1042.

Godefroid, S., and Koedam, N. 2004. The impact of forest paths upon adjacent vegetation: effects of the path surfacing material on the species composition and soil compaction. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):405-419.

Godefroid, S., and Koedam, N. 2004. Interspecific variation in soil compaction sensitivity among forest floor species. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):207-217.

Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R., Gómez, J.M., Hódar, J.A., Castro, J., and Baraza, E. 2004. Applying plant facilitation to forest restoration: a meta-analysis of the use of shrubs as nurse plants. Ecol. Appl. 14(4):1128-1138.

Gottelli, D., Marino, J., Sillero-Zubiri, C., and Funk, S.M. 2004. The effect of the last glacial age on speciation and population genetic structure of the endangered Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis). Mol. Ecol. 13(8):2275-2286.

Grand, J., Buonaccorsi, J., Cushman, S.A., Griffin, C.R., and Neel, M.C. 2004. A multiscale landscape approach to predicting bird and moth rarity hotspots, in a threatened pitch pine-scrub oak community. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1063-1077.

Grand, J., and Mello, M.J. 2004. A multi-scale analysis of species-environment relationships: rare moths in a pitch pine-scrub oak (Pinus rigida-Quercus ilicifolia) community. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):495-506.

Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C., and Lasker, H.R. 2004. Microsatellite variation reveals high levels of genetic variability and population structure in the gorgonian coral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae across the Bahamas. Mol. Ecol. 13(8):2211-2221.

Guzman, H.M., Guevara, C.A., and Breedy, O. 2004. Distribution, diversity, and conservation of coral reefs and coral communities in the largest marine protected area of Pacific Panama (Coiba Island). Environ. Conserv. 31(2):111-121.

Haas, H.L., Rose, K.A., Fry, B., Minello, T.J., and Rozas, L.P. 2004. Brown shrimp on the edge: linking habitat to survival using an individual-based simulation model. Ecol. Appl. 14(4):1232-1247.

Hanselmann, R., Rodríguez, A., Lampo, M., Fajardo-Ramos, L., Aguirre, A.A., Kilpatrick, A.M., Rodríguez, J.P., and Daszak, P. 2004. Presence of an emerging pathogen of amphibians in introduced bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana in Venezuela. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):115-119.

Hedrick, P.W. 2004. Recent developments in conservation genetics. Forest Ecol. Manag. 197(1-3):3-19.

Hendrich, L., Balke, M., and Yang, C.M. 2004. Aquatic Coleoptera of Singapore: species richness, ecology and conservation. Raffles Bull. Zool. 52(1):97-145.

Herrera, L.P., Comparatore, V.M., and Laterra, P. 2004. Habitat relations of Rhea americana in an agroecosystem of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):363-369.

Holmes, E.E. 2004. Beyond theory to application and evaluation: diffusion approximations for population viability analysis. Ecol. Appl. 14(4):1272-1293.

Hooftman, D.A.P., Billeter, R.C., Schmid, B., and Diemer, M. 2004. Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation on common species of Swiss fen meadows. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1043-1051.

Houlahan, J.E., and Findlay, C.S. 2004. Effect of invasive plant species on temperate wetland plant diversity. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1132-1138.

Hurley, K.L., Sheehan, R.J., Heidinger, R.C., Wills, P.S., and Clevenstine, B. 2004. Habitat use by middle Mississippi River pallid sturgeon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(4):1033-1041.

Hylander, K., Nilsson, C., and Göthner, T. 2004. Effects of buffer-strip retention and clearcutting on land snails in boreal riparian forests. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1052-1062.

Jackson, S.F., Kershaw, M., and Gaston, K.J. 2004. The buffer effect and the selection of protected areas for waterbirds in Britain. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):137-143.

Johnson, J.A., Bellinger, M.R., Toepfer, J.E., and Dunn, P. 2004. Temporal changes in allele frequencies and low effective population size in greater prairie-chickens. Mol. Ecol. 13(9):2617-2630.

Johnson, S.D., Neal, P.R., Peter, C.I., and Edwards, T.J. 2004. Fruiting failure and limited recruitment in remnant populations of the hawkmoth-pollinated tree Oxyanthus pyriformis subsp. pyriformis (Rubiaceae). Biol. Conserv. 120(1):31-39.

Jones, J.C., and Dorr, B. 2004. Habitat associations of gopher tortoise burrows on industrial timberlands. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(2):456-464.

Juan, A., Crespo, M.B., Cowan, R.S., Lexer, C., and Fay, M.F. 2004. Patterns of variability and gene flow in Medicago citrina, an endangered endemic of islands in the western Mediterranean, as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Mol. Ecol. 13(9):2679-2690.

Kauffman, J.B. 2004. Death rides the forest: perceptions of fire, land use, and ecological restoration of western forests. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):878-882.

Kellogg, C.H., and Bridgham, S.D. 2004. Disturbance, herbivory, and propagule dispersal control dominance of an invasive grass. Biol. Invasions 6(3):319-329.

Kimberling, D.N. 2004. Lessons from history: predicting successes and risks of intentional introductions for arthropod biological control. Biol. Invasions 6(3):301-318.

Kitchell, J.F., Kaplan, I.C., Cox, S.P., Martell, S.J.D., Essington, T.E., Boggs, C.H., and Walters, C.J. 2004. Ecological and economic components of alternative fishing methods to reduce by-catch of marlin in a tropical pelagic ecosystem. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74(3):607-619.

Klaar, M., Copp, G.H., and Horsfield, R. 2004. Autumnal habitat use of non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus and associations with native fish species in small English streams. Folia Zoolog. 53(2):189-202.

Klocker, C.A., and Strayer, D.L. 2004. Interactions among an invasive crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), a native crayfish (Orconectes limosus), and native bivalves (Sphaeriidae and Unionidae). Northeastern Nat. 11(2):167-178.

Kolbe, J.J., Glor, R.E., Schettino, L.R.G., Lara, A.C., Larson, A., and Losos, J.B. 2004. Genetic variation increases during biological invasion by a Cuban lizard. Nature 431(7005):177-181.

Koneff, M.D., and Royle, J.A. 2004. Modeling wetland change along the United States Atlantic Coast. Ecol. Model. 177(1-2):41-59.

Kremer, A., and Reviron, M.P. 2004. Dynamics and conservation of genetic diversity in forest ecosystems. Forest Ecol. Manag. 197(1-3):1-2.

Krishnamani, R., Kumar, A., and Harte, J. 2004. Estimating species richness at large spatial scales using data from small discrete plots. Ecography 27(5):637-642.

Kritzer, J.P. 2004. Effects of noncompliance on the success of alternative designs of marine protected-area networks for conservation and fisheries management. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1021-1031.

Laguna, E., Deltoro, V.I., Pèrez-Botella, J., Pèrez-Rovira, P., Serra, L., Olivares, A., and Fabregat, C. 2004. The role of small reserves in plant conservation in a region of high diversity in eastern Spain. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):421-426.

Laurance, S.G.W., Stouffer, P.C., and Laurance, W.E. 2004. Effects of road clearings on movement patterns of understory rainforest birds in central Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1099-1109.

Laurance, W.F. 2004. The perils of payoff: corruption as a threat to global biodiversity. TREE 19(8):399-401.

Lawson, J., Davenport, J., and Whitaker, A. 2004. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 60(4):729-735.

Lecis, R., and Norris, K. 2004. Population genetic diversity of the endemic Sardinian newt Euproctus platycephalus: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):263-270.

Lefèvre, F. 2004. Human impacts on forest genetic resources in the temperate zone: an updated review. Forest Ecol. Manag. 197(1-3):257-271.

Leonard, S.W.J., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2004. Effects of grazing management and environmental factors on native grassland and grassy woodland, Northern Midlands, Tasmania. Aust. J. Bot. 52(4):529-542.

Lesica, P., and Miles, S. 2004. Ecological strategies for managing tamarisk on the CM Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):535-543.

Levin, P., and Kochin, B.E. 2004. Publication of marine conservation papers: is conservation biology too dry? Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1160-1162.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Hobbs, R.J. 2004. Fauna conservation in Australian plantation forests - a review. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):151-168.

Lindhe, A., Åsenblad, N., and Toresson, H.G. 2004. Cut logs and high stumps of spruce, birch, aspen and oak - nine years of saproxylic fungi succession. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):443-454.

Lindsey, P.A., du Toit, J.T., and Mills, M.G.L. 2004. Area and prey requirements of African wild dogs under varying habitat conditions: implications for reintroductions. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 34(1):77-86.

Lips, K.R., Mendelson, J.R., Muñoz-Alonso, A., Canseco-Márquez, L., and Mulcahy, D.G. 2004. Amphibian population declines in montane southern Mexico: resurveys of historical localities. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):555-564.

Lourenço, S.I., and Palmeirim, J.M. 2004. Influence of temperature in roost selection by Pipistrellus pygmaeus (Chiroptera): relevance for the design of bat boxes. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):237-243.

Lourie, S.A., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2004. Using biogeography to help set priorities in marine conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1004-1020.

Lusk, S., Hanel, L., and Luskova, W. 2004. Red List of the ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic: development and present status. Folia Zoolog. 53(2):215-226.

MacMillan, D., Hanley, N., and Daw, M. 2004. Costs and benefits of wild goose conservation in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):475-485.

Madsen, T., Ujvari, B., and Olsson, M. 2004. Novel genes continue to enhance population growth in adders (Vipera berus). Biol. Conserv. 120(1):145-147.

Manor, R., and Saltz, D. 2004. The impact of free-roaming dogs on gazelle kid/female ratio in a fragmented area. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):231-236.

Martin, J.T. 2004. Taxonomists and conservation. Science 305(5687):1104.

Martínez-Cruz, B., Godoy, J.A., and Negro, J.J. 2004. Population genetics after fragmentation: the case of the endangered Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Mol. Ecol. 13(8):2243-2255.

Mbora, D.N.M., and Meikle, D.B. 2004. The value of unprotected habitat in conserving the critically endangered tana river red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus). Biol. Conserv. 120(1):91-99.

McClung, M.R., Seddon, P.J., Massaro, M., and Setiawan, A.N. 2004. Nature-based tourism impacts on yellow-eyed penguins Megadyptes antipodes: does unregulated visitor access affect fledging weight and juvenile survival? Biol. Conserv. 119(2):279-285.

McDaniel, C.N. 2004. The human cost of ideology as science. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):869-871.

McKenzie, D., Gedalof, Z., Peterson, D.L., and Mote, P. 2004. Climatic change, wildfire, and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):890-902.

McPherson, G., and Lowry, P.P. 2004. Hooglandia, a newly discovered genus of Cunoniaceae from New Caledonia. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 91(2):260-265.

McWilliam, A.N., and Cheke, R.A. 2004. A review of the impacts of control operations against the red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea) on non-target organisms. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):130-137.

Means, D.B., Dodd, C.K., Johnson, S.A., and Palis, J.G. 2004. Amphibians and fire in longleaf pine ecosystems: response to Schurbon and Fauth. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1149-1153.

Milligan, A.L., Putwain, P.D., Cox, E.S., Ghorbani, J., Le Duc, M.G., and Marrs, R.H. 2004. Developing an integrated land management strategy for the restoration of moorland vegetation on Molinia caerulea-dominated vegetation for conservation purposes in upland Britain. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):371-385.

Mistri, M., Rossi, R., and Fano, E.A. 2004. The spread of an alien bivalve (Musculista senhousia) in the Sacca di Goro Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy). J. Molluscan Stud. 70:257-261.

Mitsch, W.J., and Day, J.W. 2004. Thinking big with whole-ecosystem studies and ecosystem restoration - a legacy of H.T. Odum. Ecol. Model. 178(1-2):133-155.

Nakata, K., Tanaka, A., and Goshima, S. 2004. Reproduction of the alien crayfish species Pacifastacus leniusculus in Lake Shikaribetsu, Hokkaido, Japan. J. Crustracean Biol. 24(3):496-501.

Nardi, K., Jones, G.P., Moran, M.J., and Cheng, Y.W. 2004. Contrasting effects of marine protected areas on the abundance of two exploited reef fishes at the sub-tropical Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):160-168.

New, T.R., and Sands, D.P.A. 2004. Management of threatened insect species in Australia, with particular reference to butterflies. Aust. J. Entomol. 43:258-270.

Nielsen, S.E., Herrero, S., Boyce, M.S., Mace, R.D., Benn, B., Gibeau, M.L., and Jevons, S. 2004. Modelling the spatial distribution of human-caused grizzly bear mortalities in the Central Rockies ecosystem of Canada. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):101-113.

Nijman, V. 2004. Conservation of the Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch: population estimates, local extinctions, and conservation priorities. Raffles Bull. Zool. 52(1):271-280.

Nowacek, S.M., Wells, R.S., Owen, E.C.G., Speakman, T.R., Flamm, R.O., and Nowacek, D.P. 2004. Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, respond to approaching vessels. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):517-523.

Odion, D.C., Frost, E.J., Strittholt, J.R., Jiang, H., DellaSala, D.A., and Moritz, M.A. 2004. Patterns of fire severity and forest conditions in the western Klamath Mountains, California. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):927-936.

Ogle, S.M., Ojima, D., and Reiners, W.A. 2004. Modeling the impact of exotic annual brome grasses on soil organic carbon storage in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Biol. Invasions 6(3):365-377.

Orr, D.W. 2004. The corruption (and redemption) of science. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):862-865.

Otway, N.M., Bradshaw, C.J.A., and Harcourt, R.G. 2004. Estimating the rate of quasi-extinction of the Australian grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) population using deterministic age- and stage-classified models. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):341-350.

Paini, D.R. 2004. Impact of the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on native bees: a review. Austral Ecol. 29(4):399-407.

Park, S., Epifanio, C.E., and Grey, E.K. 2004. Behavior of larval Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan) in response to gravity and pressure. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 307(2):197-206.

Patterson, B.D., Kasiki, S.M., Selempo, E., and Kays, R.W. 2004. Livestock predation by lions (Panthera leo) and other carnivores on ranches neighboring Tsavo National Parks, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):507-516.

Pedrono, M., Smith, L.L., Clobert, J., Massot, M., and Sarrazin, F. 2004. Wild-captive metapopulation viability analysis. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):463-473.

Peery, M.Z., Beissinger, S.R., Newman, S.H., Burkett, E.B., and Williams, T.D. 2004. Applying the declining population paradigm: diagnosing causes of poor reproduction in the marbled murrelet. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1088-1098.

Perry, D.A., Jing, H., Youngblood, A., and Oetter, D.R. 2004. Forest structure and fire susceptibility in volcanic landscapes of the eastern High Cascades, Oregon. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):913-926.

Peterson, M.N., Lopez, R.R., Frank, P.A., Porter, B.A., and Silvy, N.J. 2004. Key deer fawn response to urbanization: is sustainable development possible? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(2):493-499.

Petit, R.J., Bialozyt, R., Garnier-Géré, P., and Hampe, A. 2004. Ecology and genetics of tree invasions: from recent introductions to quaternary migrations. Forest Ecol. Manag. 197(1-3):117-137.

Pienimäki, M., and Leppäkoski, E. 2004. Invasion pressure on the Finnish Lake District: invasion corridors and barriers. Biol. Invasions 6(3):331-346.

Piller, K.R., Bart, H.L., and Tipton, J.A. 2004. Decline of the frecklehelly madtom in the Pearl River based on contemporary and historical surveys. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(4):1004-1013.

Pinedo, M.C., and Polacheck, T. 2004. Sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline sets off southern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):335-339.

Propst, D.L., and Gido, K.B. 2004. Responses of native and nonnative fishes to natural flow regime mimicry in the San Juan River. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(4):922-931.

Pullin, A.S., Knight, T.M., Stone, D.A., and Charman, K. 2004. Do conservation managers use scientific evidence to support their decision-making? Biol. Conserv. 119(2):245-252.

Pyne, S.J. 2004. Pyromancy: reading stories in the flames. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):874-877.

Quist, M.C., and Hubert, W.A. 2004. Bioinvasive species and the preservation of cutthroat trout in the western United States: ecological, social, and economic issues. Environ. Sci. Policy 7(4):303-313.

Rehage, J.S., and Sih, A. 2004. Dispersal behavior, boldness, and the link to invasiveness: a comparison of four Gambusia species. Biol. Invasions 6(3):379-391.

Renne, I.J., Rios, B.G., Fehmi, J.S., and Tracy, B.F. 2004. Low allelopathic potential of an invasive forage grass on native grassland plants: a cause for encouragement? Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(3):261-269.

Riley, S.J., Nesslage, G.M., and Maurer, B.A. 2004. Dynamics of early wolf and cougar eradication efforts in Montana: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):575-579.

Rilov, G., Benayahu, Y., and Gasith, A. 2004. Prolonged lag in population outbreak of an invasive mussel: a shifting-habitat model. Biol. Invasions 6(3):347-364.

Robert, A., Sarrazin, F., Couvet, D., and Legendre, S. 2004. Releasing adults versus young in reintroductions: interactions between demography and genetics. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1078-1087.

Robertson, K.M., and Ostertag, T.E. 2004. Problems with Schurbon and Fauth's test of effects of prescribed burning on amphibian diversity. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1154-1155.

Rogers, D.L. 2004. In situ genetic conservation of a naturally restricted and commercially widespread species, Pinus radiata. Forest Ecol. Manag. 197(1-3):311-322.

Rook, A.J., Dumont, B., Isselstein, J., Osoro, K., WallisDeVries, M.F., Parente, G., and Mills, J. 2004. Matching type of livestock to desired biodiversity outcomes in pastures - a review. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):137-150.

Rothley, K.D., Berger, C.N., Gonzalez, C., Webster, E.M., and Rubenstein, D.I. 2004. Combining strategies to select reserves in fragmented landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1121-1131.

Sadlier, L., and Montgomery, I. 2004. The impact of sett disturbance on badger Meles meles numbers; when does protective legislation work? Biol. Conserv. 119(4):455-462.

Schoereder, J.H., Sobrinho, T.G., Ribas, C.R., and Campos, R.B.F. 2004. Colonization and extinction of ant communities in a fragmented landscape. Austral Ecol. 29(4):391-398.

Schurbon, J.M., and Fauth, J.E. 2004. Fire as friend and foe of amphibians: a reply. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1156-1159.

Setsuko, S., Ishida, K., and Tomaru, N. 2004. Size distribution and genetic structure in relation to clonal growth within a population of Magnolia tomentosa Thunb. (Magnoliaceae). Mol. Ecol. 13(9):2645-2653.

Shaffer, H.B., Fellers, G.M., Voss, S.R., Oliver, J.C., and Pauly, G.B. 2004. Species boundaries, phylogeography and conservation genetics of the red-legged frog (Rana aurora/draytonii) complex. Mol. Ecol. 13(9):2667-2677.

Shearer, B.L., Crane, C.E., and Cochrane, A. 2004. Quantification of the susceptibility of the native flora of the South-West Botanical Province, Western Australia, to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Aust. J. Bot. 52(4):435-443.

Shefer, S., Abelson, A., Mokady, O., and Geffen, E. 2004. Red to Mediterranean Sea bioinvasion: natural drift through the Suez Canal, or anthropogenic transport? Mol. Ecol. 13(8):2333-2343.

Shepherd, S.A., Martinez, P., Toral-Granda, M.V., and Edgar, G.J. 2004. The Galápagos sea cucumber fishery: management improves as stocks decline. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):102-110.

Shriver, W.G., Hodgman, T.P., Gibbs, J.P., and Vickery, P.D. 2004. Landscape context influences salt marsh bird diversity and area requirements in New England. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):545-553.

Silver, W.L., Kueppers, L.M., Lugo, A.E., Ostertag, R., and Matzek, V. 2004. Carbon sequestration and plant community dynamics following reforestation of tropical pasture. Ecol. Appl. 14(4):1115-1127.

Simpson, A. 2004. The Global Invasive Species Information Network: what's in it for you? BioScience 54(7):613-614.

Singh, H.B., Puni, L., Jain, A., Singh, R.S., and Rao, P.G. 2004. Status, utility, threats and conservation options for rattan resources in Manipur. Curr. Sci. 87(1):90-94.

Snyder, S., ReVelle, C., and Haight, R. 2004. One- and two-objective approaches to an area-constrained habitat reserve site selection problem. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):565-574.

Snyder, W.E., Clevenger, G.M., and Eigenbrode, S.D. 2004. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles. Oecologia 140(4):559-565.

Solorzano, S., Baker, A.J., and Oyama, K. 2004. Conservation priorities for resplendent quetzals based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences. Condor 106(3):449-456.

Spear, J.R. 2004. Minimum-impact research. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):861.

Spooner, P.G., and Lunt, I.D. 2004. The influence of land-use history on roadside conservation values in an Australian agricultural landscape. Aust. J. Bot. 52(4):445-458.

Steen, D.A., and Gibbs, J.P. 2004. Effects of roads on the structure of freshwater turtle populations. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1143-1148.

Stevens, T., and Connolly, R.M. 2004. Testing the utility of abiotic surrogates for marine habitat mapping at scales relevant to management. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):351-362.

Thines, N.J.S., Shipley, L.A., and Sayler, R.D. 2004. Effects of cattle grazing on ecology and habitat of Columbia Basin pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis). Biol. Conserv. 119(4):525-534.

Thresher, R.E., and Kuris, A.M. 2004. Options for managing invasive marine species. Biol. Invasions 6(3):295-300.

Tonder, M., and Jurvelius, J. 2004. Attitudes towards fishery and conservation of the Saimaa ringed seal in Lake Pihlajavesi, Finland. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):122-129.

Tsuji, N., and Tsubaki, Y. 2004. Three new algorithms to calculate the irreplaceability index for presence/absence data. Biol. Conserv. 119(4):487-494.

Tudor, O., Dennis, R.L.H., Greatorex-Davies, J.N., and Sparks, T.H. 2004. Flower preferences of woodland butterflies in the UK: nectaring specialists are species of conservation concern. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):397-403.

Turner, J.C., Douglas, C.L., Hallam, C.R., Krausman, P.R., and Ramey, R.R. 2004. Determination of critical habitat for the endangered Nelson's bighorn sheep in southern California. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(2):427-448.

Uesugi, R., Goka, K., Nishihiro, J., and Washitani, I. 2004. Allozyme polymorphism and conservation of the Lake Kasumigaura population of Nymphoides peltata. Aquat. Bot. 79(3):203-210.

Vali, C., and Lohmus, A. 2004. Nestling characteristics and identification of the lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina, greater spotted eagle A. clanga, and their hybrids. J. Ornithol. 145(3):256-263.

Van Buskirk, J., and Willi, Y. 2004. Enhancement of farmland biodiversity within set-aside land. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):987-994.

Vanderpoorten, A., Engels, P., and Sotiaux, A. 2004. Trends in diversity and abundance of obligate epiphytic bryophytes in a highly managed landscape. Ecography 27(5):567-576.

Verlaque, M., Afonso-Carrillo, J., Gil-Rodríguez, M.C., Durand, C., Boudouresque, C.F., and Le Parco, Y. 2004. Blitzkrieg in a marine invasion: Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) reaches the Canary Islands (north-east Atlantic). Biol. Invasions 6(3):269-281.

Wager, R.N.E., and Unmack, P.J. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis (Ivantsoff, Unmack, Saeed & Crowley 1991) (Pseudomugilidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 70(4):330.

Waldman, J.R., Grunwald, C., Roy, N.K., and Wirgin, I.I. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates sea lampreys are indigenous to Lake Ontario. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(4):950-960.

Wall, S.S., Berry, C.R., Blausey, C.M., Jenks, J.A., and Kopplin, C.J. 2004. Fish-habitat modeling for gap analysis to conserve the endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61(6):954-973.

Wang, J.X., Liu, H.M., Hu, H.B., and Gao, L. 2004. Participatory approach for rapid assessment of plant diversity through a folk classification system in a tropical rainforest: case study in Xishuangbanna, China. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):1139-1142.

Webb, E.L., Maliao, R.J., and Siar, S.V. 2004. Using local user perceptions to evaluate outcomes of protected area management in the Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):138-148.

Weclaw, P., and Hudson, R.J. 2004. Simulation of conservation and management of woodland Caribou. Ecol. Model. 177(1-2):75-94.

Welsh, A.B. 2004. Factors influencing the effectiveness of local versus national protection of migratory species: a case study of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes, North America. Environ. Sci. Policy 7(4):315-328.

Weyembergh, G., Godefroid, S., and Koedam, N. 2004. Restoration of a small-scale forest wetland in a Belgian nature reserve: a discussion of factors determining wetland vegetation establishment. Aquat. Conserv. 14(4):381-394.

Wheeler, Q.D., Raven, P.H., and Wilson, E.O. 2004. Taxonomists and conservation - response. Science 305(5687):1104-1105.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., Mcleod, D.R.A., and Haworth, P.F. 2004. Modelling the effects of persecution on the population dynamics of golden eagles in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 119(3):319-333.

Wieczkowski, J. 2004. Ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus). Am. J. Primatol. 63(3):125-138.

Williams, J.E., and DellaSala, D.A. 2004. Special section: wildfire and conservation in the western United States - introduction. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):872-873.

Williamson, D.H., Russ, G.R., and Ayling, A.M. 2004. No-take marine reserves increase abundance and biomass of reef fish on inshore fringing reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Environ. Conserv. 31(2):149-159.

Wimp, G.M., Young, W.P., Woolbright, S.A., Martinsen, G.D., Keim, P., and Whitham, T.G. 2004. Conserving plant genetic diversity for dependent animal communities. Ecol. Lett. 7(9):776-780.

Winner, L. 2004. Science policy for true believers. Conserv. Biol. 18(4):866.

Winney, B.J., Hammond, R.L., Macasero, W., Flores, B., Boug, A., Biquand, V., Biquand, S., and Bruford, M.W. 2004. Crossing the Red Sea: phylogeography of the hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas hamadryas. Mol. Ecol. 13(9):2819-2827.

Wong, S.T., Servheen, C.W., and Ambu, L. 2004. Home range, movement and activity patterns, and bedding sites of Malayan sun bears Helarctos malayanus in the rainforest of Borneo. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):169-181.

Wu, H., Wan, Q.H., and Fang, S.G. 2004. Two genetically distinct units of the Chinese sika deer (Cervus nippon): analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation. Biol. Conserv. 119(2):183-190.

Yurkonis, K.A., and Meiners, S.J. 2004. Invasion impacts local species turnover in a successional system. Ecol. Lett. 7(9):764-769.

Zaccara, S., Stefani, F., Galli, P., Nardi, P.A., and Crosa, G. 2004. Taxonomic implications in conservation management of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) (Decapoda, Astacidae) in Northern Italy. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):1-10.

Zahreddine, H., Clubbe, C., Baalbaki, R., Ghalayini, A., and Talhouk, S.N. 2004. Status of native species in threatened Mediterranean habitats: the case of Pancratium maritimum L. (sea daffodil) in Lebanon. Biol. Conserv. 120(1):11-18.

Zhou, Y.J., Meng, X.X., Feng, J.C., Yang, Q.S., Feng, Z.J., Xia, L., and Bartos, L. 2004. Review of the distribution, status and conservation of musk deer in China. Folia Zoolog. 53(2):129-140.


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