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Department ofBotany

No. 240
December 2004

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In This Issue

Rare Kingfisher Hatches at CRC

A rare Guam Micronesian kingfisher hatched at the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center (CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia, four months ago. The chick, the first offspring from a genetically valuable pair, weighed only 5.5 grams at hatching. "We would have preferred to have the parents raise their chick," says CRC Bird Curator Scott Derrickson, "but when the parents refused to incubate the egg, it was removed from the nest cavity for artificial incubation and hand rearing. Few chicks have been hatched successfully from eggs receiving full-term artificial incubation, so we are extremely pleased."

Like most of Guam's native birds, kingfishers were decimated by an invasive predator, the brown tree snake, which was introduced to Guam from Melanesia following World War II. The last wild Micronesian kingfisher was observed on Guam in 1986, and the species exists now only in captivity. The captive population, which numbers about 65 birds distributed among 12 zoos, is being managed under the auspices of the American Zoo Association's Species Survival Program (SSP). CRC staff has been involved in all aspects of the conservation program for this species, since its inception. Derrickson, who serves on both the SSP's Management Committee and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Recovery Coordinating Committee, notes that the ultimate goal of the breeding program is to reintroduce kingfisher's back to their native habitat on Guam. Although breeding this species in captivity has proven difficult, he remains optimistic about the kingfisher's survival and repatriation to Guam.

Over the past two decades, researchers have developed a variety of techniques for controlling brown tree snakes, including barriers, trapping, and toxicants. As soon as these techniques can be implemented effectively over large areas of native habitat, kingfishers can be reintroduced to Guam. To support this reintroduction effort, the SSP is increasing the captive kingfisher population as quickly as possible, and working with Guam's Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources (DAWR) to establish a captive breeding facility on Guam. The DAWR facility received 2 male kingfishers from CRC in September 2003 and a breeding pair from the San Diego Zoo in April 2004, and additional transfers are planned.

Field studies of wild kingfishers on are underway on the island of Pohnpei, to secure essential biological information on wild populations and to test various reintroduction techniques for use on Guam. The Pohnpei field studies are being directed by Susan Haig and her students at Oregon State University. Now a biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, Haig worked at CRC on Micronesian kingfisher genetics with Derrickson and John Ballou as a Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow in the 1980s. Derrickson notes, "Sue recognized early on that the effort to reestablish the Micronesian kingfisher on Guam would span many years, and require the sustained commitment of many individuals, institutions, and agencies."

Job Opportunity

The Center for Tropical Plant Conservation at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden seeks a full-time Caribbean Plant Conservation Scientist. The Scientist will support and implement plant conservation in the Caribbean Basin through collaborative projects, including conservation assessments of important habitats or areas; biogeographic, phylogenetic, monographic and other analyses; the restoration of species and habitats; coordination of regional conservation initiatives including the Caribbean Botanic Gardens for Conservation (CBGC) and the Caribbean Vegetation Monitoring Network (CaribMoNet). For specific duties and skills required, see <>. Applicants are to send an electronic application, consisting of c.v., statement of research experience, names, email addresses and telephone numbers of three referees, to with the subject line "Caribbean Plant Cons Scientist Application." Hard copy applications will not be accepted. Salary commensurate with experience; FTBG is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Position will be open until a suitable candidate is found.

Current Literature

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Alvarez-Aquino, C., Williams-Linera, G., and Newton, A.C. 2004. Experimental native tree seedling establishment for the restoration of a Mexican cloud forest. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):412-418.

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Beamont, D. 2004. Possible existence of previously unrecorded subpopulations of Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla and chimpanzee. Oryx 38(3):252.

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Carpenter, A.I., Rowciffe, J.M., and Watkinson, A.R. 2004. The dynamics of the global trade in chameleons. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):291-301.

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Chapin, M.H., Wood, K.R., Perlman, S.P., and Maunder, M. 2004. A review of the conservation status of the endemic Pritchardia palms of Hawaii. Oryx 38(3):273-281.

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Chapman, H.M., Olson, S.M., and Trumm, D. 2004. An assessment of changes in the montane forests of Taraba State, Nigeria, over the past 30 years. Oryx 38(3):282-290.

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Chen, K.C., and Tso, I.M. 2004. Spider diversity on Orchid Island, Taiwan: a comparison between habitats receiving different degrees of human disturbance. Zool. Stud. 43(3):598-611.

Clubbe, C., Gillman, M., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., and Walker, R. 2004. Abundance, distribution and conservation significance of regionally endemic plant species on Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Oryx 38(3):342-346.

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D'Amico, F., Darblade, S., Avignon, S., Blanc-Manel, S., and Ormerod, S.J. 2004. Odonates as indicators of shallow lake restoration by liming: comparing adult and larval responses. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):439-446.

David, M., and Perkovic, M. 2004. Ballast water sampling as a critical component of biological invasions risk management. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49(4):313-318.

Davis, T.J., Klinkenberg, B., and Keller, C.P. 2004. Evaluating restoration success on Lyell Island, British Columbia using oblique videogrammetry. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):447-455.

de la Herrán, R., Robles, F., Martínez-Espín, E., Lorente, J.A., Rejón, C.R., Garrido-Ramos, M.A., and Rejón, M.R. 2004. Genetic identification of Western Mediterranean sturgeons and its implication for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):545-551.

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Dewalt, S.J., and Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Genetic variation of introduced Hawaiian and native Costa Rican populations of an invasive tropical shrub, Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae). Am. J. Bot. 91(8):1155-1163.

Diesmos, A.C., Diesmos, M.L., and Gee, G.V.A. 2004. 'Lost' frogs and reptiles rediscovered on Palawan Island, Philippines. Oryx 38(3):255.

Dugo, M.A., Kreiser, B.R., Ross, S.T., Slack, W.T., Heise, R.J., and Bowen, B.R. 2004. Conservation and management implications of fine-scale genetic structure of Gulf sturgeon in the Pascagoula River, Mississippi. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 20(4):243-251.

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Espinosa-García, F.J., Villaseñor, J.L., and Vibrans, H. 2004. The rich generally get richer, but there are exceptions: correlations between species richness of native plant species and alien weeds in Mexico. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):399-407.

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Farjon, A., Thomas, P., and Luu, N.D.T. 2004. Conifer conservation in Vietnam: three potential flagship species. Oryx 38(3):257-265.

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Feldman, R.E., and Krannitz, P.G. 2004. Bird composition of oak ecosystem fragments in an urbanized setting: the influence of adjacent coniferous forest fragments. Ecoscience 11(3):338-346.

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Foxcroft, L.C., Rouget, M., Richardson, D.M., and Mac Fadyen, S. 2004. Reconstructing 50 years of Opuntia stricta invasion in the Kruger National Park, South Africa: environmental determinants and propagule pressure. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):427-437.

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Fredriksson, G.M., and Nijman, V. 2004. Habitat use and conservation status of two elusive ground birds (Carpococcyx radiatus and Polyplectron schleiermacheri) in the Sungai Wain Protection Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Oryx 38(3):297-303.

Furey, N. 2004. New populations of the Critically Endangered Delacour's langur confirmed in Pu Luong Nature Reserve, Vietnam. Oryx 38(3):251.

Furman, A., and Özgül, A. 2004. The distribution of cave-dwelling bats and conservation status of underground habitats in Northwestern Turkey. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):243-248.

Gavashelishvili, A. 2004. Habitat selection by East Caucasian tur (Capra cylindricornis). Biol. Conserv. 120(3):391-398.

Geist, H.J., and Lambin, E.F. 2004. Dynamic causal patterns of desertification. BioScience 54(9):817-829.

González-Pérez, M.A., Caujapé-Castells, J., and Sosa, P.A. 2004. Allozyme variation and structure of the Canarian endemic palm tree Phoenix canariensis (Arecaceae): implications for conservation. Heredity 93(3):307-315.

González-Pérez, M.A., Caujapé-Castells, J., and Sosa, P.A. 2004. Molecular evidence of hybridisation between the endemic Phoenix canariensis and the widespread P. dactylifera with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Plant Syst. Evol. 247(3-4):165-175.

Gorresen, P.M., and Willig, M.R. 2004. Landscape responses of bats to habitat fragmentation in Atlantic forest of Paraguay. J. Mammal. 85(4):688-697.

Greenwood, H., O'Dowd, D.J., and Lake, P.S. 2004. Willow (Salix x rubens) invasion of the riparian zone in south-eastern Australia: reduced abundance and altered composition of terrestrial arthropods. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):485-492.

Harris, R.J., Toft, R.J., Dugdale, J.S., Williams, P.A., and Rees, J.S. 2004. Insect assemblages in a native (kanuka - Kunzea ericoides) and an invasive (gorse - Ulex europaeus) shrubland. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(1):35-47.

Hegde, B., and Gubbi, S. 2004. Conservation status of Anshi National Park and Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary. Oryx 38(3):253-254.

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Hobbs, R.J. 2004. The Working for Water programme in South Africa: the science behind the success. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):501-503.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2004. Coral reefs in a century of rapid environmental change. Symbiosis 37(1-3):1-31.

Honjo, M., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., Washitani, I., and Ohsawa, R. 2004. Phylogeographic study based on intraspecific sequence variation of chloroplast DNA for the conservation of genetic diversity in the Japanese endangered species Primula sieboldii. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):211-220.

Howes, B.J., and Lougheed, S.C. 2004. The importance of cover rock in northern populations of the five-lined skink (Eumeces fasciatus). Herpetologica 60(3):287-294.

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Huerta-Martínez, F.M., and García-Moya, E. 2004. Perennial species diversity and its relation with the environment in a semiarid area of central Mexico: implications for conservation. Interciencia 29(8):435-441.

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Jefferson, L.V. 2004. Implications of plant density on the resulting community structure of mine site land. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):429-438.

Jiguet, F., and Villarubias, S. 2004. Satellite tracking of breeding black storks Ciconia nigra: new incomes for spatial conservation issues. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):153-160.

Johnston, P.A., and Santillo, D. 2004. Conservation of seamount ecosystems: application of a marine protected areas. Arch. Fish. Mar. Res. 51(1-3):305-319.

Jones, F.E., and Esler, K.J. 2004. Relationship between soil-stored seed banks and degradation in eastern Nama Karoo rangelands (South Africa). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(11):2027-2053.

Julião, G.R., Amaral, M.E.C., Fernandes, G.W., and Oliveira, E.G. 2004. Edge effect and species-area relationships in the gall-forming insect fauna of natural forest patches in the Brazilian Pantanal. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(11):2055-2066.

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Karanth, K.U., Chundawat, R.S., Nichol, J.D., and Kumar, N.S. 2004. Estimation of tiger densities in the tropical dry forests of Panna, Central India, using photographic capture-recapture sampling. Anim. Conserv. 7:285-290.

Kawanishi, K., and Sunquist, M.E. 2004. Conservation status of tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):329-344.

Kays, R.W., and DeWan, A.A. 2004. Ecological impact of inside/outside house cats around a suburban nature preserve. Anim. Conserv. 7:273-283.

Keuroghlian, A., Eaton, D.P., and Longland, W.S. 2004. Area use by white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Tayassu tajacu) in a tropical forest fragment. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):411-425.

Khumbongmayum, M.D., Khan, M.L., and Tripath, R.S. 2004. Sacred groves of Manipur - ideal centres for biodiversity conservation. Curr. Sci. 87(4):430-433.

Kindscher, K., Aschenbach, T., and Ashworth, S.M. 2004. Wetland vegetation response to the restoration of sheet flow at Cheyenne Bottoms, Kansas. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):368-375.

King, T. 2004. Reintroduced western gorillas reproduce for the first time. Oryx 38(3):251-252.

Knop, E., Ward, P.I., and Wich, S.A. 2004. A comparison of orang-utan density in a logged and unlogged forest on Sumatra. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):183-188.

Koh, L.P., Dunn, R.R., Sodhi, N.S., Colwell, R.K., Proctor, H.C., and Smith, V.S. 2004. Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis. Science 305(5690):1632-1634.

Kollmann, J., and Bañuelos, M.J. 2004. Latitudinal trends in growth and phenology of the invasive alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae). Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):377-385.

Konishi, M., and Takata, K. 2004. Impact of asymmetrical hybridization followed by sterile F1 hybrids on species replacement in Pseudorasbora. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):463-474.

Krauss, J., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2004. Landscape occupancy and local population size depends on host plant distribution in the butterfly Cupido minimus. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):355-361.

Kühn, I., Brandenburg, M., and Klotz, S. 2004. Why do alien plant species that reproduce in natural habitats occur more frequently? Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):417-425.

Kühn, I., Durka, W., and Klotz, S. 2004. BiolFlor — a new plant-trait database as a tool for plant invasion ecology. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):363-365.

Kumara, H.N., and Singh, M. 2004. The influence of differing hunting practices on the relative abundance of mammals in two rainforest areas of the Western Ghats, India. Oryx 38(3):321-327.

Kuo, C.H., and Janzen, F.J. 2004. Genetic effects of a persistent bottleneck on a natural population of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata). Conserv. Genet. 5(4):425-437.

Kyle, C.J., Weir, R.D., Newhouse, N.J., Davis, H., and Strobeck, C. 2004. Genetic structure of sensitive and endangered northwestern badger populations (Taxidea taxus taxus and T. t. jeffersonii). J. Mammal. 85(4):633-639.

Laiolo, P., Rolando, A., and Valsania, V. 2004. Avian community structure in sweet chestnut coppiced woods facing natural restoration. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 59(3):453-463.

Le Pape, O., Guérault, D., and Désaunay, Y. 2004. Effect of an invasive mollusc, American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata, on habitat suitability for juvenile common sole Solea solea in the Bay of Biscay. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 277:107-115.

Ledgard, N., and Davis, M. 2004. Restoration of mountain beech (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides) forest after fire. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(1):125-135.

León-Cortés, J., Pérez-Espinoza, F., Marín, L., and Molina-Martínez, A. 2004. Complex habitat requirements and conservation needs of the only extant Baroniinae swallowtail butterfly. Anim. Conserv. 7:241-250.

Li, X.R., Xiao, H.L., Zhang, J.G., and Wang, X.P. 2004. Long-term ecosystem effects of sand-binding vegetation in the Tengger Desert, northern China. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):376-390.

Likens, G.E., Buso, D.C., Dresser, B.K., Bernhardt, E.S., Hall, R.O., Macneale, K.H., and Bailey, S.W. 2004. Buffering an acidic stream in New Hampshire with a silicate mineral. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):419-428.

Lindborg, R., and Eriksson, O. 2004. Effects of restoration on plant species richness and composition in Scandinavian semi-natural grasslands. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):318-326.

Litz, R.E., Moon, P.A., Benson, E.M., Stewart, J., and Chavez, V.M. 2004. A biotechnology strategy for medium- and long-term conservation of cycads. Bot. Rev. 70(1):39-46.

Liu, G.H., Zhou, J., Huang, D.S., and Li, W. 2004. Spatial and temporal dynamics of a restored population of Oryza rufipogon in Huli Marsh, South China. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):456-463.

Liu, H.Y., Zhang, S.K., Li, Z.F., Lu, X.G., and Yang, Q. 2004. Impacts on wetlands of large-scale land-use changes by agricultural development: the Small Sanjiang Plain, China. Ambio 33(6):306-310.

Lugo, A.E. 2004. The outcome of alien tree invasions in Puerto Rico. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(5):265-273.

Lundgren, M.R., Small, C.J., and Dreyer, G.D. 2004. Influence of land use and site characteristics on invasive plant abundance in the Quinebaug Highlands of southern New England. Northeastern Nat. 11(3):313-332.

Löe, J., and Röskaft, E. 2004. Large carnivores and human safety: a review. Ambio 33(6):283-288.

Maes, D., Vanreusel, W., Talloen, W., and Van Dyck, H. 2004. Functional conservation units for the endangered Alcon Blue butterfly Maculinea alcon in Belgium (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Biol. Conserv. 120(2):229-241.

Manning, A.D., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Barry, S.C. 2004. The conservation implications of bird reproduction in the agricultural "matrix": a case study of the vulnerable superb parrot of south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):363-374.

Martikainen, P., and Kaila, L. 2004. Sampling saproxylic beetles: lessons from a 10-year monitoring study. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):171-181.

Martin, E., and Cantino, P.D. 2004. A floristic survey of the forested parts of the United Plant Savers' ethnobotanical sanctuary, Meigs County, Ohio. Rhodora 106(926):148-166.

Martin, P.H., Sherman, R.E., and Fahey, T.J. 2004. Forty years of tropical forest recovery from agriculture: structure and floristics of secondary and old-growth riparian forests in the Dominican Republic. Biotropica 36(3):297-317.

Mehlman, D.W., Rosenberg, K.V., Wells, J.V., and Robertson, B. 2004. A comparison of North American avian conservation priority ranking systems. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):383-390.

Meijaard, E., Borissenko, A.V., and Kuznetsov, G.V. 2004. Rediscovery of Tragulus versicolor, the silver-backed chevrotain. Oryx 38(3):254-255.

Merilä, J., Söderman, F., O'Hara, R., Räsänen, K., and Laurila, A. 2004. Local adaptation and genetics of acid-stress tolerance in the moor frog, Rana arvalis. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):513-527.

Meyer, J.Y., and Lavergne, C. 2004. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific Islands. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):333-347.

Miller, A.L., and Duncan, R.P. 2004. The impact of exotic weed competition on a rare New Zealand outcrop herb, Pachycladon cheesemanii (Brassicaceae). New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(1):113-124.

Mills, S.C., and Reynolds, J.D. 2004. The importance of species interactions in conservation: the endangered European bitterling Rhodeus sericeus and its freshwater mussel hosts. Anim. Conserv. 7:257-263.

Moerke, A.H., and Lamberti, G.A. 2004. Restoring stream ecosystems: lessons from a midwestern state. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):327-334.

Moffatt, S.F., McLachlan, S.M., and Kenkel, N.C. 2004. Impacts of land use on riparian forest along an urban-rural gradient in southern Manitoba. Plant Ecol. 174(1):119-135.

Moore, R.D., Griffiths, R.A., O'Brien, C.M., Murphy, A., and Jay, D. 2004. Induced defences in an endangered amphibian in response to an introduced snake predator. Oecologia 141(1):139-147.

Moser, D.M., Gygax, A., Baumler, B., Wyler, N., and Palese, R. 2004. 67th Swiss floristic notes (2003, 2nd part). Bot. Helvetica 114(1):79-99.

Mukherjee, A., and Borad, C.K. 2004. Integrated approach towards conservation of Gir National Park: the last refuge of Asiatic lions, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(11):2165-2182.

Munday, P.L. 2004. Habitat loss, resource specialization, and extinction on coral reefs. Global Change Biol. 10(10):1642-1647.

Murata, K., Satou, M., Matsushima, K., Satake, S., and Yamamoto, Y. 2004. Retrospective estimation of genetic diversity of an extinct Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) population in Japan using mounted specimens and implications for reintroduction programs. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):553-560.

Newmark, W.D. 2004. Gold mining threatens biodiversity in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Oryx 38(3):254.

Nichols, R., Woolaver, L., and Jones, C. 2004. Continued decline and conservation needs of the endangered Mauritius olive white-eye Zosterops chloronothos. Oryx 38(3):291-296.

Nicolet, P., Biggs, J., Fox, G., Hodson, M.J., Reynolds, C., Whitfield, M., and Williams, P. 2004. The wetland plant and macroinvertebrate assemblages of temporary ponds in England and Wales. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):261-278.

Oldfield, T.E.E., Smith, R.J., Harrop, S.R., and Leader-Williams, N. 2004. A gap analysis of terrestrial protected areas in England and its implications for conservation policy. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):303-309.

Padilla, D.K., and Williams, S.L. 2004. Beyond ballast water: aquarium and ornamental trades as sources of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(3):131-138.

Pauchard, A., Cavieres, L.A., and Bustamante, R.O. 2004. Comparing alien plant invasions among regions with similar climates: where to from here? Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):371-375.

Perzanowski, K., Olech, W., and Kozak, H. 2004. Constraints for re-establishing a meta-population of the European bison in Ukraine. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):345-353.

Pilgrim, E.S., Crawley, M.J., and Dolphin, K. 2004. Patterns of rarity in the native British flora. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):161-170.

Porej, D., Micacchion, M., and Hetherington, T.E. 2004. Core terrestrial habitat for conservation of local populations of salamanders and wood frogs in agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):399-409.

Powers, S.L., Mayden, R.L., and Etnier, D.A. 2004. Conservation genetics of the ashy darter, Etheostoma cinereum (Percidae: subgenus Allohistium), in the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers of the southeastern United States. Copeia 2004(3):632-637.

Rakotonasolo, F., and Davis, A.P. 2004. A new and endangered species of Hyperacanthus (Rubiaceae) from Madagascar: H. mandenensis. Novon 14(3):327-331.

Rambuda, T.D., and Johnson, S.D. 2004. Breeding systems of invasive alien plants in South Africa: does Baker's rule apply? Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):409-416.

Rauch, E.M., and Bar-Yam, Y. 2004. Theory predicts the uneven distribution of genetic diversity within species. Nature 431(7007):449-452.

Ray, D.A., Dever, J.A., Platt, S.G., Rainwater, T.R., Finger, A.G., McMurry, S.T., Batzer, M.A., Barr, B., Stafford, P.J., McKnight, J., and Densmore, L.D. 2004. Low levels of nucleotide diversity in Crocodylus moreletii and evidence of hybridization with C. acutus. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):449-462.

Rejmánek, M., and Randall, J.M. 2004. The total number of naturalized species can be a reliable predictor of the number of alien pest species. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):367-369.

Rice, S.K., Westerman, B., and Federici, R. 2004. Impacts of the exotic, nitrogen-fixing black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on nitrogen-cycling in a pine-oak ecosystem. Plant Ecol. 174(1):97-107.

Richardson, D.M. 2004. Plant invasion ecology - dispatches from the front line. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):315-319.

Richardson, D.M., and Rejmánek, M. 2004. Conifers as invasive aliens: a global survey and predictive framework. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):321-331.

Richardson-Kageler, S.J. 2004. Effects of large herbivore browsing on the functional groups of woody plants in a southern African savanna. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(11):2145-2163.

Riley, J.D., Craft, I.W., Rimmer, D.L., and Smith, R.S. 2004. Restoration of magnesian limestone grassland: optimizing the time for seed collection by vacuum harvesting. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):311-317.

Rivera-Monroy, V.H., Twilley, R.R., Bone, D., Childers, D.L., Coronado-Molina, C., Feller, I.C., Herrera-Silveira, J., Jaffe, R., Mancera, E., Rejmankova, E., Salisbury, J.E., and Weil, E. 2004. A conceptual framework to develop long-term ecological research and management objectives in the wider Caribbean region. BioScience 54(9):843-856.

Robertson, M.P., Villet, M.H., and Palmer, A.R. 2004. A fuzzy classification technique for predicting species' distributions: applications using invasive alien plants and indigenous insects. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):461-474.

Rodgers, H.L., Day, F.P., and Atkinson, R. 2004. Root dynamics in restored and naturally regenerated Atlantic white cedar wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):401-411.

Rouget, M., Richardson, D.M., Nel, J.L., Le Maitre, D.C., Egoh, B., and Mgidi, T. 2004. Mapping the potential ranges of major plant invaders in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland using climatic suitability. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):475-484.

Rovito, S.M., Arroyo, M.T.K., and Pliscoff, P. 2004. Distributional modelling and parsimony analysis of endemicity of Senecio in the Mediterranean-type climate area of Central Chile. J. Biogeogr. 31(10):1623-1636.

Rowden, A., Robertson, A., Allnutt, T., Heredia, S., Williams-Linera, G., and Newton, A.C. 2004. Conservation genetics of Mexican beech, Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):475-484.

Ruokonen, M., Kvist, L., Aarvak, T., Markkola, J., Morozov, V.V., Øien, I.J., Syroechkovsky, E.E., Tolvanen, P., and Lumme, J. 2004. Population genetic structure and conservation of the lesser white-fronted goose Anser erythropus. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):501-512.

Saier, B., and Chapman, A.S. 2004. Crusts of the alien bryozoan Membranipora membranacea can negatively impact spore output from native kelps (Laminaria longicruris). Bot. Mar. 47(4):265-271.

Sarah, E.A., dit Durell, L.V., and Clarke, R.T. 2004. The buffer effect of non-breeding birds and the timing of farmland bird declines. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):375-382.

Schonberg, L.A., Longino, J.T., Nadkarni, N.M., Yanoviak, S.P., and Gering, J.C. 2004. Arboreal ant species richness in primary forest, secondary forest, and pasture habitats of a tropical montane landscape. Biotropica 36(3):402-409.

Seaward, M.R.D. 2004. The use of lichens for environmental impact assessment. Symbiosis 37(1-3):293-305.

Sedgeley, J.A., and O'Donnell, C.F.J. 2004. Roost use by long-tailed bats in South Canterbury: examining predictions of roost-site selection in a highly fragmented landscape. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(1):1-18.

Segurado, P., and Araújo, M.B. 2004. An evaluation of methods for modelling species distributions. J. Biogeogr. 31(10):1555-1568.

Shepard, B.B. 2004. Factors that may be influencing nonnative brook trout invasion and their displacement of native westslope cutthroat trout in three adjacent southwestern Montana streams. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 24(3):1088-1100.

Shine, R., and Mason, R.T. 2004. Patterns of mortality in a cold-climate population of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Biol. Conserv. 120(2):201-210.

Small, A., Martin, T.G., Kitching, R.L., and Wong, K.M. 2004. Contribution of tree species to the biodiversity of a 1 ha Old World rainforest in Brunei, Borneo. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(11):2067-2088.

Smith, S., Aitken, N., Schwarz, C., and Morin, P.A. 2004. Characterization of 15 single nucleotide polymorphism markers for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(3):348-351.

Spielman, D., Brook, B.W., Briscoe, D.A., and Frankham, R. 2004. Does inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity decrease disease resistance? Conserv. Genet. 5(4):439-448.

Stapp, P., Antolin, M.F., and Ball, M. 2004. Patterns of extinction in prairie dog metapopulations: plague outbreaks follow El Nino events. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(5):235-240.

Stelzenmuller, V., Maynou, F., Ehrich, S., and Zauke, G.P. 2004. Spatial analysis of twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepede, 1803), in the southern North Sea: application of non-linear geostatistics as a tool to search for special areas of conservation. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89(4):337-351.

Stokstad, E. 2004. Can California ranchers save the tiger salamander? Science 305(5690):1554.

Styring, A.R., and bin Hussin, M.Z. 2004. Effects of logging on woodpeckers in a Malaysian rain forest: the relationship between resource availability and woodpecker abundance. J. Trop. Ecol. 20:495-504.

Sukumasavin, N., Nakajima, M., and Taniguchi, N. 2004. Identification and characterization of microsatellite DNA markers developed in an endangered cyprinid of the Mekong River, the seven-line barb (Probarbus jullieni Sauvage, 1880). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(3):465-467.

Sun, S., Gao, X.M., and Chen, L.Z. 2004. High acorn predation prevents the regeneration of Quercus liaotungensis in the Dongling mountain region of North China. Restor. Ecol. 12(3):335-342.

Sušnik, S., Berrebi, P., Dovc, P., Hansen, M.M., and Snoj, A. 2004. Genetic introgression between wild and stocked salmonids and the prospects for using molecular markers in population rehabilitation: the case of the Adriatic grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. 1785). Heredity 93(3):273-282.

Sweetapple, P.J., Fraser, K.W., and Knightbridge, P.I. 2004. Diet and impacts of brushtail possum populations across an invasion front in South Westland, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(1):19-33.

Torchin, M.E., and Mitchell, C.E. 2004. Parasites, pathogens, and invasions by plants and animals. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(4):183-190.

Travis, J.M.J., and Park, K.J. 2004. Spatial structure and the control of invasive alien species. Anim. Conserv. 7:321-330.

Underwood, E.C., Klinger, R., and Moore, P.E. 2004. Predicting patterns of non-native plant invasions in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):447-459.

van Gila, H., Delfino, J., Rugege, D., and Janssen, L. 2004. Efficacy of Chromolaena odorata control in a South African conservation forest. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(5-6):251-253.

van Rensburg, B.J., Erasmus, B.F.N., van Jaarsveld, A.S., Gaston, K.J., and Chown, S.L. 2004. Conservation during times of change: correlations between birds, climate and people in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(5-6):266-272.

Vázquez-Domínguez, E., Ceballos, G., and Cruzado, J. 2004. Extirpation of an insular subspecies by a single introduced cat: the case of the endemic deer mouse Peromyscus guardia on Estanque Island, Mexico. Oryx 38(3):347-350.

Vigne, L., and Martin, E. 2004. Nepal's new strategies to protect its rhinos. Oryx 38(3):252-253.

Volin, J.C., Lott, M.S., Muss, J.D., and Owen, D. 2004. Predicting rapid invasion of the Florida Everglades by Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum). Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):439-446.

Vornam, B., Decarli, N., and Gailing, O. 2004. Spatial distribution of genetic variation in a natural beech stand (Fagus sylvatica L.) based on microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):561-570.

Ward, D.F., and Larivière, M.C. 2004. Terrestrial invertebrate surveys and rapid biodiversity assessment in New Zealand: lessons from Australia. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(1):151-159.

Watson, J.E.M., Whittaker, R.J., and Dawson, T.P. 2004. Habitat structure and proximity to forest edge affect the abundance and distribution of forest-dependent birds in tropical coastal forests of southeastern Madagascar. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):311-327.

Wayne, R.K., and Morin, P.A. 2004. Conservation genetics age in the new molecular. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(2):89-97.

Wegge, P., Pokheral, C.P., and Jnawali, S.R. 2004. Effects of trapping effort and trap shyness on estimates of tiger abundance from camera trap studies. Anim. Conserv. 7:251-256.

Whitehead, H., Rendell, L., Osborne, R.W., and Würsig, B. 2004. Culture and conservation of non-humans with reference to whales and dolphins: review and new directions. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):427-437.

Wilcove, D.S., Bean, M.J., Long, B., Snape, W.J., Beehler, B.M., and Eisenberg, J. 2004. The private side of conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(6):326-331.

Williams, J.C., Revelle, C.S., and Levin, S.A. 2004. Using mathematical optimization models to design nature reserves. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(2):98-105.

Wilson, S., Blake, C., Berges, J.A., and Maggs, C.A. 2004. Environmental tolerances of free-living coralline algae (maerl): implications for European marine conservation. Biol. Conserv. 120(2):279-289.

Wright, J.P., and Flecker, A.S. 2004. Deforesting the riverscape: the effects of wood on fish diversity in a Venezuelan piedmont stream. Biol. Conserv. 120(3):439-447.

Wu, J.G., Huang, J.H., Han, X.G., Gao, X.M., He, F.L., Jiang, M.X., Jiang, Z.G., Primack, R.B., and Shen, Z.H. 2004. The Three Gorges Dam: an ecological perspective. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(5):241-248.

Wu, S.H., Hsieh, C.F., Chaw, S.M., and Rejmánek, M. 2004. Plant invasions in Taiwan: insights from the flora of casual and naturalized alien species. Divers. Distrib. 10(5-6):349-362.

Yamamoto, S., Morita, K., Koizumi, I., and Maekawa, K. 2004. Genetic differentiation of white-spotted charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) populations after habitat fragmentation: spatial-temporal changes in gene frequencies. Conserv. Genet. 5(4):529-538.

Zhao, S.Q., and Fang, J.Y. 2004. Impact of impoldering and lake restoration on land-cover changes in Dongting Lake area, Central Yangtze. Ambio 33(6):311-315.

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