Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 242
February 2005

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In This Issue

Seeking Solutions to Species' Declines

Interspersed among the sprawling urban development of southern California are remnants of a once-widespread habitat type, coastal sage scrub. This semi-arid habitat is home to nearly 100 species that are endangered, threatened, or of conservation concern, including the secretive and declining southern California rufous-crowned sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps canescens).

When housing developments, roads, and shopping centers are built in or near coastal sage scrub, they create "islands" of habitat dispersed in an urban sea. For many birds, such habitat fragmentation creates serious problems. Small patches of suitable habitat have less food and more predators, such as raccoons and house cats, which infiltrate from adjacent developed areas. Consequently, bird-nesting success is often reduced, and bird populations in fragments may disappear entirely over time.

Coastal sage scrub habitat, home of the California rufous-crowned sparrow. (Photo by Scott Morrison)

To find out why rufous-crowned sparrows are much less common in small, fragmented patches of habitat than in large, intact areas, Scott Morrison of The Nature Conservancy and Douglas Bolger of Dartmouth College investigated a likely culprit: reduced nesting success in fragmented habitat. But surprisingly, nesting success did not differ between large expanses of coastal sage scrub and habitat fragments adjacent to urban areas.

Morrison and Bolger next teamed up with Scott Sillett of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park's Migratory Bird Center to examine whether survival of adult sparrows differed between intact and fragmented habitat. They hypothesized that adult sparrows living in the interior of large habitat patches would have a better chance of survival from year to year, compared with sparrows living along the developed edges of habitat reserves.

Despite marking hundreds of birds and monitoring for multiple years, the scientists were limited in their ability to conclude with statistical certainty that fragmentation affects survival. Moreover, they discovered that the ability of researchers to detect this cryptic species depends strongly on annual rainfall: in dry years the birds tend to be much less detectable.

These findings illustrate the difficulties that scientists encounter in searching to understand the dynamics of wild populations in a changing world. Teasing apart the effects of development on sensitive species like the rufous-crowned sparrow will help conservationists prevent further declines of biodiversity.

Making Fisheries Sustainable

Researchers at the David Suzuki Foundation have recently released a report that outlines changes necessary for sustainable fishery and ecosystem management on the Pacific coast of Canada. Seas of Change: Ten Recommendations for Sustainable Fisheries on the B.C. Coast was reviewed by experts from academia, industry and government, and is available online at <>. The report critically evaluates ecological evidence to provide the top ten changes needed to ensure the long-term viability of fisheries and ecosystems on the British Columbia coast. Among other things, the report outlines the need for precautionary management, comprehensive ecosystem-based management and full participation of communities surrounding fisheries in management decisions.

In proposing necessary changes, researchers further explored best practices from around the globe, and critically evaluated current legislation to assess whether legislation, implementation practices or both need to change to ensure sustainable management of Canada's oceans.

Several key findings emerged from this research, including:

  • Government commitment to responsible oceans management and its will to enforce existing legislation is currently in decline;

  • Well-functioning populations of marine species on Canada's Pacific coast are being incrementally lost. Management must become more precautionary and function within an ecosystem context that takes habitat and other species, among other things, into account; and,

  • Fisheries benefits are moving away from coastal communities and towards centralized corporate entities. This can cause powerful incentives for poor management practices.

Current Literature

Abellán, P., Sánchez-Fernández, D., Velasco, J., and Millán, A. 2005. Assessing conservation priorities for insects: status of water beetles in southeast Spain. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):79-90.

Abrahamson, W.G., and Gohn, A.C. 2004. Classification and successional changes of mixed-oak forests at the Mohn Mill area, Pennsylvania. Castanea 69(3):194-206.

Aebischer, N.J., and Ewald, J.A. 2004. Managing the UK grey partridge Perdix perdix recovery: population change, reproduction, habitat and shooting. Ibis 146:181-191.

Aguraiuja, R., Moora, M., and Zobel, M. 2004. Population stage structure of Hawaiian endemic fern taxa of Diellia (Aspleniaceae): implications for monitoring and regional dynamics. Can. J. Bot. 82(10):1438-1445.

Alagona, P.S. 2004. The ghosts of endangered species past: recent lessons at the intersection of history and biology. BioScience 54(11):984-985.

Aldhous, P. 2004. The toads are coming! Nature 432(7019):796-798.

Allison, S.D., and Vitousek, P.M. 2004. Rapid nutrient cycling in leaf litter from invasive plants in Hawai'i. Oecologia 141(4):612-619.

Alvarez, N., Garine, E., Khasah, C., Dounias, E., Hossaert-McKey, M., and McKey, D. 2005. Farmers' practices, metapopulation dynamics, and conservation of agricultural biodiversity on-farm: a case study of sorghum among the Duupa in sub-sahelian Cameroon. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):533-543.

Angulo, F., and Barrio, J. 2004. Evaluation of a potential reintroduction site for the white-winged guan Penelope albipennis (Aves, Cracidae) in northern Peru. Oryx 38(4):448-451.

Arribas, O., and Carranza, S. 2004. Morphological and genetic evidence of the full species status of Iberolacerta cyreni martinezricai (Arribas, 1996). Zootaxa (634):1-24.

Arunachalam, A., Adhikari, D., Sarmah, R., Majumder, M., and Khan, M.L. 2004. Population and conservation of Sapria himalayana Griffith. in Namdapha national park, Aarunachal Pradesh, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2391-2397.

Ashworth, J.S., and Ormond, R.F.G. 2005. Effects of fishing pressure and trophic group on abundance and spillover across boundaries of a no-take zone. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):333-344.

Balakrishnan, M., and Thomas, S.K. 2004. Conserving the breeding habitat of the near threatened Oriental White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus. Curr. Sci. 87(9):1190-1192.

Baum, K.A., Haynes, K.J., Dillemuth, F.P., and Cronin, J.T. 2004. The matrix enhances the effectiveness of corridors and stepping stones. Ecology 85(10):2671-2676.

Baxter, C.V., Fausch, K.D., Murakami, M., and Chapman, P.L. 2004. Fish invasion restructures stream and forest food webs by interrupting reciprocal prey subsidies. Ecology 85(10):2656-2663.

Behrens, M.D., and Lafferty, K.D. 2004. Effects of marine reserves and urchin disease on southern Californian rocky reef communities. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 279:129-139.

Bianco, P.G. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Scardinius scardafa (Bonaparte, 1837) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 71(3):246.

Bianco, P.G., and Delmastro, G. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Barbus caninus Bonaparte, 1839 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 71(4):352.

Bilodeau, A.L., and Bourgeois, R.P. 2004. Impact of beach restoration on the deep-burrowing ghost shrimp, Callichirus islagrande. J. Coastal Res. 20(3):931-936.

Birkeland, C. 2004. Ratcheting down the coral reefs. BioScience 54(11):1021-1027.

Bizoux, J.R., Brevers, F., Meerts, P., Graitson, E., and Mahy, G. 2004. Ecology and conservation of Belgian populations of Viola calaminaria, a metallophyte with a restricted geographic distribution. Belgian J. Bot. 137(1):91-104.

Blake, J.G. 2005. Effects of prescribed burning on distribution and abundance of birds in a closed-canopy oak-dominated forest, Missouri, USA. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):519-531.

Boubli, J.P., Eriksson, J., Wich, S., Hohmann, G., and Fruth, B. 2004. Mesoscale transect sampling of trees in the Lomako-Yekokora interfluvium, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2399-2417.

Brightsmith, D., Hilburn, J., del Campo, A., Boyd, J., Frisius, M., Frisius, R., Janik, D., and Guillen, F. 2005. The use of hand-raised psittacines for reintroduction: a case study of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) in Peru and Costa Rica. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):465-472.

Brito, D., and Grelle, C.E.D. 2004. Effectiveness of a reserve network for the conservation of the endemic marsupial Micoureus travassosi in Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2519-2536.

Buckingham, D.L., Atkinson, P.W., and Rook, A.J. 2004. Testing solutions in grass-dominated landscapes: a review of current research. Ibis 146:163-170.

Buitrón, X. 2004. Understanding the medicinal plant trade in South America. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:18-20.

Butler, S.J., and Gillings, S. 2004. Quantifying the effects of habitat structure on prey detectability and accessibility to farmland birds. Ibis 146:123-130.

Cadi, A., and Joly, P. 2004. Impact of the introduction of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) on survival rates of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2511-2518.

Calvete, C., Angulo, E., and Estrada, R. 2005. Conservation of European wild rabbit populations when hunting is age and sex selective. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):623-634.

Carpenter, F.L., Nichols, J.D., Pratt, R.T., and Young, K.C. 2004. Methods of facilitating reforestation of tropical degraded land with the native timber tree, Terminalia amazonia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 202(1-3):281-291.

Carter, I., and Newbery, P. 2004. Reintroduction as a tool for population recovery of farmland birds. Ibis 146:221-229.

Castelletta, M., Thiollay, J.M., and Sodhi, N.S. 2005. The effects of extreme forest fragmentation on the bird community of Singapore Island. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):135-155.

Chávez-León, G., and Velázquez, A. 2004. Abundance and distribution of the long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a temperate coniferous forest. J. Field Ornithol. 75(4):345-352.

Chiappone, M., Dienes, H., Swanson, D.W., and Miller, S.L. 2005. Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):221-230.

Chung, M., Gelembiuk, G., and Givnish, T.J. 2004. Population genetics and phylogeography of endangered Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea and relatives: Arctic-alpine disjuncts in eastern North America. Mol. Ecol. 13(12):3657-3673.

Ciani, A.C., Palentini, L., Arahou, M., Martinoli, L., Capiluppi, C., and Mouna, M. 2005. Population decline of Macaca sylvanus in the middle atlas of Morocco. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):635-641.

Cibois, A., Thibault, J.C., and Pasquet, E. 2004. Biogeography of eastern Polynesian monarchs (Pomarea): an endemic genus close to extinction. Condor 106(4):837-851.

Clarke, A., Lake, P.S., and O'Dowd, D.J. 2004. Ecological impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates following upland stream invasion by a ponded pasture grass (Glyceria maxima) in southern Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 55(7):709-713.

Clevenger, A.P., and Waltho, N. 2005. Performance indices to identify attributes of highway crossing structures facilitating movement of large mammals. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):453-464.

Cook, W.M., Casagrande, D.G., Hope, D., Groffman, P.M., and Collins, S.L. 2004. Learning to roll with the punches: adaptive experimentation in human-dominated systems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(9):467-474.

Cooke, S.J., Bunt, C.M., Hamilton, S.J., Jennings, C.A., Pearson, M.P., Cooperman, M.S., and Markle, D.F. 2005. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):317-331.

Cooney, R. 2004. Better safe than sorry? The precautionary principle and biodiversity conservation. Oryx 38(4):357-358.

Courtois, R., Ouellet, J.P., Dussault, C., and Gingras, A. 2004. Forest management guidelines for forest-dwelling caribou in Quebec. Forest Chron. 80(5):598-607.

Croxton, P.J., Hann, J.P., Greatorex-Davies, J.N., and Sparks, T.H. 2005. Linear hotspots? The floral and butterfly diversity of green lanes. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):579-584.

Cruz, F., Donlan, C.J., Campbell, K., and Carrion, V. 2005. Conservation action in the Galápagos: feral pig (Sus scrofa) eradication from Santiago Island. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):473-478.

Cuthbert, R., Hilton, G., Ryan, P., and Tuck, G.N. 2005. At-sea distribution of breeding Tristan albatrosses Diomedea dabbenena and potential interactions with pelagic longline fishing in the South Atlantic Ocean. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):345-355.

Darvill, B., Knight, M.E., and Goulson, D. 2004. Use of genetic markers to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest density. Oikos 107(3):471-478.

de Solla, S.R., Shirose, L.J., Fernie, K.J., Barrett, G.C., Brousseau, C.S., and Bishop, C.A. 2005. Effect of sampling effort and species detectability on volunteer based anuran monitoring programs. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):585-594.

Decocq, G., Valentin, B., Toussaint, B., Hendoux, R., Saguez, R., and Bardat, J. 2004. Soil seed bank composition and diversity in a managed temperate deciduous forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2485-2509.

Desmet, P., and Cowling, R. 2004. Using the species-area relationship to set baseline targets for conservation Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):11. <>

Devereux, C.L., McKeever, C.U., Benton, T.G., and Whittingham, M.J. 2004. The effect of sward height and drainage on common starlings Sturnus vulgaris and northern lapwings Vanellus vanellus foraging in grassland habitats. Ibis 146:115-122.

Duncan, R.P., and Blackburn, T.M. 2004. Extinction and endemism in the New Zealand avifauna. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 13(6):509-517.

Durell, S.E.A.L.D., McGrorty, S., West, A.D., Clarke, R.T., Goss-Custard, J.D., and Stillman, R.A. 2005. A strategy for baseline monitoring of estuary Special Protection Areas. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):289-301.

Edgin, B. 2004. Status and distribution of Illinois populations of Stenanthium gramineum (Ker-Gawl.) Morong, grass-leaved lily (Liliaceae): an endangered plant in Illinois. Castanea 69(3):216-225.

Elderkin, C.L., Perkins, E.J., Leberg, P.L., Klerks, P.L., and Lance, R.F. 2004. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of the genetic structure of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Mississippi River. Freshwater Biol. 49(11):1487-1494.

Epstein, N., Vermeij, M.J.A., Bak, R.P.M., and Rinkevich, B. 2005. Alleviating impacts of anthropogenic activities by traditional conservation measures: can a small reef reserve be sustainedly managed? Biol. Conserv. 121(2):243-255.

Evans, T., Sam, R.J., and Duckworth, W. 2004. Management priorities amongst the harvested medicinal plants of Myohyang Mountains Protected Area, DPR Korea. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:28-38.

Evstatieva, L., and Hardalova, R. 2004. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Bulgaria. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:24-28.

Fa, J.E., Ryan, S.F., and Bell, D.J. 2005. Hunting vulnerability, ecological characteristics and harvest rates of bushmeat species in afrotropical forests. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):167-176.

Field, R.H., and Anderson, G.Q.A. 2004. Habitat use by breeding tree sparrows Passer montanus. Ibis 146:60-68.

Finney, S.K., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., and Yalden, D.W. 2005. The effect of recreational disturbance on an upland breeding bird, the golden plover Pluvialis apricaria. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):53-63.

Fisher, J.A.D., and Frank, K.T. 2004. Abundance-distribution relationships and conservation of exploited marine fishes. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 279:201-213.

French, K., Major, R., and Hely, K. 2005. Use of native and exotic garden plants by suburban nectarivorous birds. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):545-559.

Fuller, R.J., Hinsley, S.A., and Swetnam, R.D. 2004. The relevance of non-farmland habitats, uncropped areas and habitat diversity to the conservation of farmland birds. Ibis 146:22-31.

Gervasio, V., Berg, D.J., Lang, B.K., Allan, N.L., and Guttman, S.I. 2004. Genetic diversity in the Gammarus pecos species complex: implications for conservation and regional biogeography in the Chihuahuan Desert. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49(2):520-531.

Gilchrist, H.G., and Mallory, M.L. 2005. Declines in abundance and distribution of the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Arctic Canada. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):303-309.

Gillison, A.N., Liswanti, N., Budidarsono, S., van Noordwijk, M., and Tomich, T.P. 2004. Impact of cropping methods on biodiversity in coffee agroecosystems in Sumatra, Indonesia. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):7. <>

Githiru, M., and Lens, L. 2004. Using scientific evidence to guide the conservation of a highly fragmented and threatened Afrotropical forest. Oryx 38(4):404-409.

Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R., and Gómez, J.M. 2005. The regeneration status of the endangered Acer opalus subsp. granatense throughout its geographical distribution in the Iberian Peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):195-206.

Green, A.J., Fuentes, C., Figuerola, J., Viedma, C., and Ramón, N. 2005. Survival of marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) released back into the wild. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):595-601.

Gregory, R.D., Noble, D.G., and Custance, J. 2004. The state of play of farmland birds: population trends and conservation status of lowland farmland birds in the United Kingdom. Ibis 146:1-13.

Griffiths, R.A. 2004. Mismatches between conservation science and practice. TREE 19(11):564-565.

Guichard, F., Levin, S.A., Hastings, A., and Siegel, D. 2004. Toward a dynamic metacommunity approach to marine reserve theory. BioScience 54(11):1003-1011.

Halbert, N.D., Grant, W.E., and Derr, J.N. 2005. Genetic and demographic consequences of importing animals into a small population: a simulation model of the Texas State Bison Herd (USA). Ecol. Model. 181(2-3):263-276.

Hanks, J.H., and Belk, M.C. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Iotichthys phlegethontis Cope, 1874 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 71(4):378.

Harper, K.T., and Van Buren, R. 2004. Dynamics of a dwarf bear-poppy (Arctomecon humilis) population over a sixteen-year period. West. N. Am. Naturalist 64(4):482-491.

Hassanin, A., and Ropiquet, A. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Bovidae, Bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the kouprey, Bos sauveli Urbain 1937. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 33(3):896-907.

Hazlitt, S.L., Eldridge, M.D.B., and Goldizen, A.W. 2004. Fine-scale spatial genetic correlation analyses reveal strong female philopatry within a brush-tailed rock-wallaby colony in southeast Queensland. Mol. Ecol. 13(12):3621-3632.

Holway, D.A. 2005. Edge effects of an invasive species across a natural ecological boundary. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):561-567.

Hurt, C., and Hedrick, P. 2004. Conservation genetics in aquatic species: general approaches and case studies in fishes and springsnails of arid lands. Aquat. Sci. 66(4):402-413.

Iverson, E. 2004. Scientists join forces to save the endangered Andean mountain cat. Oryx 38(4):368-369.

Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., Hermy, M., and Willems, J.H. 2005. Does nectar reward affect rarity and extinction probabilities of orchid species? An assessment using historical records from Belgium and the Netherlands. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):257-263.

Johnson, A.E., Knott, C.D., Pamungkas, B., Pasaribu, M., and Marshall, A.J. 2005. A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):495-507.

Karavas, N., Georghiou, K., Arianoutsou, M., and Dimopoulos, D. 2005. Vegetation and sand characteristics influencing nesting activity of Caretta caretta on Sekania beach. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):177-188.

Kato, M., and Kawakita, A. 2004. Plant-pollinator interactions in New Caledonia influenced by introduced honey bees. Am. J. Bot. 91(11):1814-1827.

Kauffman, M.J., Pollock, J.F., and Walton, B. 2004. Spatial structure, dispersal, and management of a recovering raptor population. Am. Nat. 164(5):582-597.

Kaul, R., Hilaluddin, Jandrotia, J.S., and McGowan, P.J.K. 2004. Hunting of large mammals and pheasants in the Indian western Himalaya. Oryx 38(4):426-431.

Kercher, S.M., and Zedler, J.B. 2004. Flood tolerance in wetland angiosperms: a comparison of invasive and noninvasive species. Aquat. Bot. 80(2):89-102.

Kerr, J.T., and Deguise, I. 2004. Habitat loss and the limits to endangered species recovery. Ecol. Lett. 7(12):1163-1169.

Kim, K.S., Min, M.S., An, J.H., and Lee, H. 2004. Cross-species amplification of Bovidae microsatellites and low diversity of the endangered Korean goral. J. Heredity 95(6):521-525.

Kinne, O. 2004. The essence of IR involvement. Endang. Species Res. 1:1-2. <>

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Kinne, O., Kunert, J., and Zimmermann, W. 2004. Breeding, rearing and raising the red-bellied toad Bombina bombina in the laboratory. Endang. Species Res. 3:1-13. <>

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Klein, J.A., Harte, J., and Zhao, X.Q. 2004. Experimental warming causes large and rapid species loss, dampened by simulated grazing, on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecol. Lett. 7(12):1170-1179.

Knaepkens, G., Bruyndoncx, L., Coeck, J., and Eens, M. 2004. Spawning habitat enhancement in the European bullhead (Cottus gobio), an endangered freshwater fish in degraded lowland rivers. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2443-2452.

Knaepkens, G., Bruyndoncx, L., and Eens, M. 2004. Assessment of residency and movement of the endangered bullhead (Cottus gobio) in two Flemish rivers. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 13(4):317-322.

Knapp, R.A. 2005. Effects of nonnative fish and habitat characteristics on lentic herpetofauna in Yosemite National Park, USA. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):265-279.

Korner, C. 2004. Mountain biodiversity, its causes and function. Ambio Suppl. 13: 11-17.

Kumara, H.N., Kumar, M.A., Sharma, A.K., Sushma, H.S., Singh, M., and Singh, M. 2004. Diversity and management of wild mammals in tea gardens in the rainforest regions of the Western Ghats, India: a case study from a tea estate in the Anaimalai Hills. Curr. Sci. 87(9):1282-1287.

Laidre, K.L., and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 2005. Arctic sea ice trends and narwhal vulnerability. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):509-517.

Leaman, D.J. 2004. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Latin America. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:9.

Lee, H.Y., and Shih, S.S. 2004. Impacts of vegetation changes on the hydraulic and sediment transport characteristics in Guandu mangrove wetland. Ecol. Eng. 23(2):85-94.

Lewison, R.L., Crowder, L.B., Read, A.J., and Freeman, S.A. 2004. Understanding impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine megafauna. TREE 19(11):598-604.

Linares, E., Bye, R., and Balcázar, T. 2004. The role of education in the conservation of medicinal plants. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:9-12.

Lindell, C.A., Chomentowski, W.H., and Zook, J.R. 2004. Characteristics of bird species using forest and agricultural land covers in southern Costa Rica. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2419-2441.

Linderman, M., Bearer, S., An, L., Tan, Y.C., Ouyang, Z.Y., and Liu, H.G. 2005. The effects of understory bamboo on broad-scale estimates of giant panda habitat. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):383-390.

Lu, X. 2004. Conservation status and reproductive ecology of giant babax Babax waddelli (Aves, Timaliinae), endemic to the tibet Plateau. Oryx 38(4):418-425.

Maehr, D.S., Larkin, J.L., and Cox, J.J. 2004. Shopping centers as panther habitat: inferring animal locations from models. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):9. <>

Magin, G. 2004. Mahogany - progress or pessimism? Oryx 38(4):368.

Mahan, C., Sullivan, K.L., Black, B., Kim, K.C., and Yahner, R.H. 2004. Overstory tree composition of eastern hemlock stands threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Castanea 69(1):30-37.

Maroney, R.L. 2005. Conservation of argali Ovis ammon in western Mongolia and the Altai-Sayan. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):231-241.

Martin, S. 2004. The cost of restoration as a way of defining resilience: a viability approach applied to a model of lake eutrophication. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):8. <>

Martínez-Morales, M.A. 2005. Landscape patterns influencing bird assemblages in a fragmented neotropical cloud forest. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):117-126.

Mathews, F., Orros, M., McLaren, G., Gelling, M., and Foster, R. 2005. Keeping fit on the ark: assessing the suitability of captive-bred animals for release. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):569-577.

Mayer, A.L., and Rietkerk, M. 2004. The dynamic regime concept for ecosystem management and restoration. BioScience 54(11):1013-1020.

McConkey, K.R., and Chivers, D.J. 2004. Low mammal and hornbill abundance in the forests of Barito Ulu, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Oryx 38(4):439-447.

McCracken, D.I., and Tallowin, J.R. 2004. Swards and structure: the interactions between farming practices and bird food resources in lowland grasslands. Ibis 146:108-114.

Mealor, B.A., Hild, A.L., and Shaw, N.L. 2004. Native plant community composition and genetic diversity associated with long-term weed invasions. West. N. Am. Naturalist 64(4):503-513.

Miles, L., Grainger, A., and Phillips, O. 2004. The impact of global climate change on tropical forest biodiversity in Amazonia. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 13(6):553-565.

Mills, M.D., Rader, R.B., and Belk, M.C. 2004. Complex interactions between native and invasive fish: the simultaneous effects of multiple negative interactions. Oecologia 141(4):713-721.

Molano-Flores, B. 2004. Reproductive success of the federally endangered leafy prairie clover, Dalea foliosa (A. Gray) Barneby (Fabaceae) in Illinois: a third year of data. Castanea 69(1):9-14.

Moore, I.T., Greene, M.J., Lerner, D.T., Asher, C.E., Krohmer, R.W., Hess, D.L., Whittier, J., and Mason, R.T. 2005. Physiological evidence for reproductive suppression in the introduced population of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):91-98.

Morley, C.G. 2004. Has the invasive mongoose Herpestes javanicus yet reached the island of Taveuni, Fiji? Oryx 38(4):457-460.

Morris, A.J., Holland, J.M., Smith, B., and Jones, N.E. 2004. Sustainable Arable Farming for an Improved Environment (SAFFIE): managing winter wheat sward structure for skylarks Alauda arvensis. Ibis 146:155-162.

Muir, W.M., and Howard, R.D. 2004. Characterization of environmental risk of genetically engineered (GE) organisms and their potential to control exotic invasive species. Aquat. Sci. 66(4):414-420.

Nevin, O.T., and Gilbert, B.K. 2005. Perceived risk, displacement and refuging in brown bears: positive impacts of ecotourism? Biol. Conserv. 121(4):611-622.

Ngobo, M., McDonald, M., and Weise, S. 2004. Impacts of type of fallow and invasion by Chromolaena odorata on weed communities in crop fields in Cameroon. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):1. <>

Nielsen, L.R. 2004. Molecular differentiation within and among island populations of the endemic plant Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands. Heredity 93(5):434-442.

Nijboer, R. 2004. The ecological requirements of Agapetus fuscipes Curtis (Glossosomatidae), a characteristic species in unimpacted streams. Limnologica 34(3):213-223.

Norden, A.H., and Kirkman, L.K. 2004. Herbivory of the federally endangered Schwalbea americana. Castanea 69(1):67-68.

Økland, B., Götmark, F., Nordén, B., Franc, N., Kurina, A., and Polevoi, A. 2005. Regional diversity of mycetophilids (Diptera: Sciaroidea) in Scandinavian oak-dominated forests. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):9-20.

Oliveira, M.A., Grillo, A.S., and Tabarelli, M. 2004. Forest edge in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: drastic changes in tree species assemblages. Oryx 38(4):389-394.

Olivera-Gómez, L.D., and Mellink, E. 2005. Distribution of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) as a function of habitat characteristics, in Bahía de Chetumal, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):127-133.

Pain, D.J., Meharg, A.A., Ferrer, M., Taggart, M., and Penteriani, V. 2005. Lead concentrations in bones and feathers of the globally threatened Spanish imperial eagle. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):603-610.

Pajaro, M.G., Meeuwig, J.J., Giles, B.G., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2004. Biology, fishery and trade of sea moths (Pisces: Pegasidae) in the central Philippines. Oryx 38(4):432-438.

Pardini, R. 2004. Effects of forest fragmentation on small mammals in an Atlantic Forest landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2567-2586.

Park, K. 2004. Assessment and management of invasive alien predators. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):12. <>

Paunovic, M., Cakic, P., Hegedis, A., Kolarevic, J., and Lenhardt, M. 2004. A report of Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne Edwards, 1854) [Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsidae] from the Serbian part of the Danube River. Hydrobiologia 529(1):275-277.

Perfecto, I., Vandermeer, J.H., Bautista, G.L., Nuñez, G.I., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., and Langridge, S. 2004. Greater predation in shaded coffee farms: the role of resident neotropical birds. Ecology 85(10):2677-2681.

Potvin, C., and Barrios, H. 2004. Conservation of medicinal plants in an Emberá community of Panama: property rights and knowledge transmission. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:14-18.

Precht, W.F., Robbart, M.L., and Aronson, R.B. 2004. The potential listing of Acropora species under the US Endangered Species Act. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49(7-8):534-536.

Price, E.R., Wallace, B.P., Reina, R.D., Spotila, J.R., Paladino, F.V., Piedra, R., and Vélez, E. 2004. Size, growth, and reproductive output of adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Endang. Species Res. 5:1-8. <>

Proffitt, F.M., Newton, I., Wilson, J.D., and Siriwardena, G.M. 2004. Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula breeding ecology in lowland farmland and woodland: comparisons across time and habitat. Ibis 146:78-86.

Pyke, C.R., and Fischer, D.T. 2005. Selection of bioclimatically representative biological reserve systems under climate change. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):429-441.

Pywell, R.F., Warman, E.A., Carvell, C., Sparks, T.H., Dicks, L.V., Bennett, D., Wright, A., Critchley, C.N.R., and Sherwood, A. 2005. Providing foraging resources for bumblebees in intensively farmed landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 121(4):479-494.

Rees, E.C., Bruce, J.H., and White, G.T. 2005. Factors affecting the behavioural responses of whooper swans (Cygnus c. cygnus) to various human activities. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):369-382.

Richards, P.M., Mooij, W.M., and DeAngelis, D.L. 2004. Evaluating the effect of salinity on a simulated American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) population with applications to conservation and Everglades restoration. Ecol. Model. 180(2-3):371-394.

Riitters, K., Wickham, J., and Coulston, J. 2004. Use of road maps in national assessments of forest fragmentation in the United States. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):13. <>

Robinson, R.A., Hart, J.D., Holland, J.M., and Parrott, D. 2004. Habitat use by seed-eating birds: a scale-dependent approach. Ibis 146:87-98.

Rodríguez, J.P., Rojas-Suárez, F., and Sharpe, C.J. 2004. Setting priorities for the conservation of Venezuela's threatened birds. Oryx 38(4):373-382.

Römermann, C., Dutoit, T., Poschlod, P., and Buisson, E. 2005. Influence of former cultivation on the unique Mediterranean steppe of France and consequences for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):21-33.

Rossetto, M. 2005. A simple molecular approach for identifying a rare Acronychia (Rutaceae) provides new insights on its multiple hybrid origins. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):35-43.

Rossetto, M., Jones, R., and Hunter, J. 2004. Genetic effects of rainforest fragmentation in an early successional tree (Elaeocarpus grandis). Heredity 93(6):610-618.

Rowe, S., Hutchings, J.A., Bekkevold, D., and Rakitin, A. 2004. Depensation, probability of fertilization, and the mating system of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61(7):1144-1150.

Rubidge, E.M., and Taylor, E.B. 2004. Hybrid zone structure and the potential role of selection in hybridizing populations of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and introduced rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Mol. Ecol. 13(12):3735-3749.

Rubinoff, D., and Powell, J.A. 2004. Conservation of fragmented small populations: endemic species persistence on California's smallest channel island. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2537-2550.

Salgueiro, P., Coelho, M.M., Palmeirim, J.M., and Ruedi, M. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA variation and population structure of the island endemic Azorean bat (Nyctalus azoreum). Mol. Ecol. 13(11):3357-3366.

Schmera, D. 2004. Effect of 'species weighting' on conservation status evaluation: a case study with light-traped adult caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera). Limnologica 34(3):274-278.

Schmidt, M.H., Lefebvre, G., Poulin, B., and Tscharntke, T. 2005. Reed cutting affects arthropod communities, potentially reducing food for passerine birds. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):157-166.

Schmit, J.P., Mueller, G.M., Leacock, P.R., Mata, J.L., Wu, Q.X., and Huang, Y.G. 2005. Assessment of tree species richness as a surrogate for macrofungal species richness. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):99-110.

Schrank, A.J., and Rahel, F.J. 2004. Movement patterns in inland cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki utah): management and conservation implications. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61(8):1528-1537.

Shaw, P. 2005. Estimating local extinction rates over successive time-frames. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):281-287.

Sheldon, R., Bolton, M., Gillings, S., and Wilson, A. 2004. Conservation management of lapwing Vanellus vanellus on lowland arable farmland in the UK. Ibis 146:41-49.

Shinn, E.A. 2004. The mixed value of environmental regulations: do acroporid corals deserve endangered species status? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49(7-8):531-533.

Shochat, E., Wolfe, D.H., Patten, M.A., Reinking, D.L., and Sherrod, S.K. 2005. Tallgrass prairie management and bird nest success along roadsides. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):399-407.

Shoo, L.P., and Williams, Y. 2004. Altitudinal distribution and abundance of microhylid frogs (Cophixalus and Austrochaperina) of north-eastern Australia: baseline data for detecting biological responses to future climate change. Aust. J. Zool. 52(6):667-676.

Smith, C.G., Hamel, P.B., Devall, M.S., and Schiff, N.M. 2004. Hermit thrush is the first observed dispersal agent for pondberry (Lindera melissifolia). Castanea 69(1):1-8.

Steinmetz, R. 2004. Gaur (Bos gaurus) and banteng (B. javanicus) in the lowland forest mosaic of Xe Pian protected area, Lao PDR: abundance, habitat use, and conservation. Mammalia 68(2-3):141-157.

Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L., and Waller, R.W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306(5702):1783-1786.

Suding, K.N., Lejeune, K.D., and Seastedt, T.R. 2004. Competitive impacts and responses of an invasive weed: dependencies on nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Oecologia 141(3):526-535.

Sun, J.W.C., and Narins, P.A. 2005. Anthropogenic sounds differentially affect amphibian call rate. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):419-427.

Suorsa, P., Huhta, E., Jäntti, A., Nikula, A., Helle, H., Kuitunen, M., Koivunen, V., and Hakkarainen, H. 2005. Thresholds in selection of breeding habitat by the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). Biol. Conserv. 121(3):443-452.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M., and Knight, T.M. 2004. Response to Griffiths. Mismatches between conservation science and practice. TREE 19(11):565-566.

Tepedino, V.J., Sipes, S.D., and Griswold, T.L. 2004. Reproduction and demography of Townsendia aprica (Asteraceae), a rare endemic of the Southern Utah Plateau. West. N. Am. Naturalist 64(4):465-470.

Thom, C.S.B., La Peyre, M.K.G., and Nyman, J.A. 2004. Evaluation of nekton use and habitat characteristics of restored Louisiana marsh. Ecol. Eng. 23(2):63-75.

Thompson, D., Strange, I., Riddy, M., and Duck, C.D. 2005. The size and status of the population of southern sea lions Otaria flavescens in the Falkland Islands. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):357-367.

Tognelli, M.F. 2005. Assessing the utility of indicator groups for the conservation of South American terrestrial mammals. Biol. Conserv. 121(3):409-417.

Tompkins, E.L., and Adger, W.N. 2004. Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):10. <>

Tooker, J.F., and Hanks, L.M. 2004. Endophytic insect communities of two prairie perennials (Asteraceae: Silphium spp.). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2551-2566.

Torrents, O., Garrabou, J., Marschal, C., and Harmelin, J.G. 2005. Age and size at first reproduction in the commercially exploited red coral Corallium rubrum (L.) in the Marseilles area (France, NW Mediterranean). Biol. Conserv. 121(3):391-397.

Tourenq, C., Combreau, O., Lawrence, M., Pole, S.B., Spalton, A., Gao, X.J., Al Baidani, M., and Launay, F. 2005. Alarming houbara bustard population trends in Asia. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):1-8.

Troëng, S., Chacón, D., and Dick, B. 2004. Possible decline in leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea nesting along the coast of Caribbean Central America. Oryx 38(4):395-403.

Troëng, S., and Rankin, E. 2005. Long-term conservation efforts contribute to positive green turtle Chelonia mydas nesting trend at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):111-116.

Tudela, S., Kai, A.K., Maynou, F., El Andalossi, M., and Guglielmi, P. 2005. Driftnet fishing and biodiversity conservation: the case study of the large-scale Moroccan driftnet fleet operating in the Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean). Biol. Conserv. 121(1):65-78.

Tuxbury, S.M., and Salmon, M. 2005. Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during seafinding by hatchling marine turtles. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):311-316.

Vallan, D., Andreone, F., Raherisoa, V.H., and Dolch, R. 2004. Does selective wood exploitation affect amphibian diversity? The case of An'ala, a tropical rainforest in eastern Madagascar. Oryx 38(4):410-417.

Vanderpoorten, A., Sotiaux, A., and Engels, P. 2005. A GIS-based survey for the conservation of bryophytes at the landscape scale. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):189-194.

Vélez-Espino, L.A. 2003. Taxonomic revision, ecology and endangerment categorization of the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai (Teleostei: Astroblepidae). Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 13(4):367-378.

Vélez-Espino, L.A. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Astroblepus ubidiai (Pellegrin, 1931) (Astroblepidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 71(3):296.

Vergara, P.M., and Simonetti, J.A. 2004. Avian responses to fragmentation of the Maulino Forest in central Chile. Oryx 38(4):383-388.

Villamil, C.B. 2004. Conservation of medicinal plants in the southern cone of South American. Med. Plant Conserv. 9/10:12-14.

Villanueva, R., and Roubik, D.W. 2004. Why are African honey bees and not European bees invasive? Pollen diet diversity in community experiments. Apidologie 35(5):481-491.

Walker, B., Holling, C.S., Carpenter, S.R., and Kinzig, A. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):5. <>

Walker, B., and Meyers, J.A. 2004. Thresholds in ecological and social-ecological systems: a developing database. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(2):3. <>

Whinam, J., Chilcott, N., and Bergstrom, D.M. 2005. Subantarctic hitchhikers: expeditioners as vectors for the introduction of alien organisms. Biol. Conserv. 121(2):207-219.

Whittingham, M.J., and Evans, K.L. 2004. The effects of habitat structure on predation risk of birds in agricultural landscapes. Ibis 146:210-220.

Wilkinson, D.M. 2004. Do we need a process-based approach to nature conservation? Continuing the parable of Green Mountain, Ascension Island. J. Biogeogr. 31(12):2041-2042.

Wilson, A.M., Ausden, M., and Milsom, T.P. 2004. Changes in breeding wader populations on lowland wet grasslands in England and Wales: causes and potential solutions. Ibis 146:32-40.

Wu, W., Wang, X.M., Claro, F., Youzhong, D., Souris, A.C., Wang, C.D., Wang, C.H., and Berzins, R. 2004. The current status of the Hainan black-crested gibbon Nomascus sp. cf. nasutus hainanus in Bawangling National Nature Reserve, Hainan, China. Oryx 38(4):452-456.

Yan, P., Wu, X.B., Shi, Y., Gu, C.M., Wang, R.P., and Wang, C.L. 2005. Identification of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) meat by diagnostic PCR of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Biol. Conserv. 121(1):45-51.

Yasuda, H., Evans, E.W., Kajita, Y., Urakawa, K., and Takizawa, T. 2004. Asymmetric larval interactions between introduced and indigenous ladybirds in North America. Oecologia 141(4):722-731.

Zent, E.L., and Zent, S. 2004. Floristic composition, structure, and diversity of four forest plots in the Sierra Maigualida, Venezuelan Guayana. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(13):2453-2484.

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