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Department ofBotany

No. 243
March 2005

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In This Issue

Hope for Maned Wolves

Smithsonian scientists investigating the decline of the maned wolf have joined thirty years of field and laboratory research with high-tech genetic studies, cutting-edge reproductive sciences, and extensive pathological work to begin a conservation plan for the wolf's future survival in South America.

Maned wolf pups born on January 1 at the the National Zoo's CRC. The tallest of the wild canids, these pups will grow to 3 feet high at the shoulder and will weigh 55 pounds. (Photo by Katy Parise)

Maned wolves, which have been successfully breeding for almost thirty years at the National Zoological Park's Conservation & Research Center (NZP/CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia, are natives of the South American savannas, called cerrados or pampas. Possibly extinct in Uruguay, the remaining maned wolves live in Bolivia and Brazil, with a handful in Argentina and Paraguay, and just a single pair in Peru. Competition for habitat with humans is a major cause of the decline, but scientists from the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) and the National Zoo have discovered more.

Using a nonintrusive collecting technique, Jesús Maldonado (NMNH) compared the genetics of study animals in Bolivia's Nöel Kempff National Park with the genetics of maned wolves from Brazil in the Zoo's breeding colony at CRC, as well as the genetics of animals from Argentina. Though the wolves exhibited an overall low genetic diversity as a species - and perhaps suffered a genetic bottleneck in the past - the Nöel Kempff animals exhibited as much variability as other wolves sampled, suggesting good potential for survival.

According to Sharon Deem (NZP), who joined the study while at the Wildlife Conservation Society, association with domesticated animals appears to have introduced numerous infectious diseases. Maned wolves are also plagued by a hereditary metabolic flaw, resulting in a syndrome called cystinuria, which may cause death from kidney failure (a study pioneered by NZP veterinarian Mitchell Bush).

Wolves obtain about half their diet from a variety of fruits, including a softball-sized, tomato-like fruit called lobiera or wolf fruit, and the other half from small animals, such as mice, guinea pigs, armadillos, and an occasional bird. Before this research result was obtained, the wolves were sometimes fed carnivore diets. Studies initiated by NZP staff have demonstrated the impact of diet on health and reproductive success, an obvious key to the survival of the wolves.

Nucharin Songsasen, a CRC gamete biologist who is studying maned wolf reproductive physiology, is discovering intriguing differences from other canids that may be key to understanding reproductive success in wolves maintained in zoos. She is currently working with Robb Santymire (CRC) to develop a noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis method that will be extremely useful for captive management of this species.

Conservation efforts will combine zoo work with efforts on the ground. At CRC, Melissa Rodden coordinates the American Zoo Association's Species Survival Plan for maned wolves, a program to cooperatively manage captive breeding by a consortium of zoos. Louise Emmons (NMNH) plans to develop a management plan for the Nöel Kempff Park with the Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza, the Bolivian nongovernmental organization supporting scientific studies there. She hopes the genetic diversity and the relative isolation of the park from humans will provide a formula for success. In Brazil, Nucharin Songsasen is working with the Associacão Procarnivoros to study the impact of human development on wolf ecology, health, and reproduction in the Serra da Canastra National Park. Knowledge gained from these two studies will help researchers formulate conservation plans to ensure that this magnificent species continues to exist in the wild.


Denver Botanic Gardens and the United States Botanic Garden announce the Applied Plant Conservation Training Program, 7-17 June 2005. The program will feature seminars and workshops taught in part by the Center for Plant Conservation, which joins national leaders in the fields of plant conservation, ecology and botanic garden management for a hands-on program that explores the principles and techniques used in the research, documentation, study, conservation and reintroduction of threatened plants. Admission is limited and competitive with an application deadline of 1 April 2005. For more details, visit <>.

Current Literature

Aerts, R., Wagendorp, T., November, E., Behailu, M., Deckers, J., and Muys, B. 2004. Ecosystem thermal buffer capacity as an indicator of the restoration status of protected areas in the northern Ethiopian highlands. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):586-596.

Ancrenaz, M., Goossens, B., Gimenez, O., Sawang, A., and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2004. Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. Anim. Conserv. 7:375-385.

Andueza, I.L., and Alcayde, V.S. 2004. Advances in the action plan for Emys orbicularis in the Valencia region, Spain. Biologia 59:173-176.

Armacost, J.W. 2004. The nest, eggs and nestlings of the Castelnau's antshrike (Thamnophilus cryptoleucus), with notes on its ecology and conservation. Wilson Bull. 116(3):262-266.

Arriaga, L., Castellanos, A.E., Moreno, E., and Alarcón, J. 2004. Potential ecological distribution of alien invasive species and risk assessment: a case study of buffel grass in arid regions of Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1504-1514.

Asoh, K., Yoshikawa, T., Kosaki, R., and Marschall, E.A. 2004. Damage to cauliflower coral by monofilament fishing lines in Hawaii. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1645-1650.

Austin, G.E., and Rehfisch, M.M. 2005. Shifting nonbreeding distributions of migratory fauna in relation to climatic change. Global Change Biol. 11(1):31-38.

Averett, J.M., Klips, R.A., Nave, L.E., Frey, S.D., and Curtis, P.S. 2004. Effects of soil carbon amendment on nitrogen availability and plant growth in an experimental tallgrass prairie restoration. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):568-574.

Bakker, J.D., and Wilson, S.D. 2004. Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1058-1064.

Banks, J.E. 2004. Divided culture: integrating and conservation biology agriculture. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(10):537-545.

Baranga, D. 2004. Forest fragmentation and primates' survival status in non-reserved forests of the 'Kampala area', Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 42:70-77.

Baranga, D. 2004. Red-tail monkey groups in forest patches outside the protected area system in the 'Kampala area'. Afr. J. Ecol. 42:78-83.

Bartolomé, J., Plaixats, J., Fanlo, R., and Boada, M. 2005. Conservation of isolated Atlantic heathlands in the Mediterranean region: effects of land-use changes in the Montseny biosphere reserve (Spain). Biol. Conserv. 122(1):81-88.

Battin, J. 2004. When good animals love bad habitats: ecological traps and the conservation of animal populations. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1482-1491.

Behangana, M., and Arusi, J. 2004. The distribution and diversity of amphibian fauna of Lake Nabugabo and surrounding areas. Afr. J. Ecol. 42:6-13.

Bellis, L.M., Martella, M.B., Navarro, J.L., and Vignolo, P.E. 2004. Home range of greater and lesser rhea in Argentina: relevance to conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2589-2598.

Bertini, G., Fransozo, A., and de Mel, G.A.S. 2004. Biodiversity of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda) from non-consolidated sublittoral bottom on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2185-2207.

Beverly, J.L., and Martell, D.L. 2004. Modeling prescribed surface-fire regimes for Pinus strobus conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1541-1552.

Bissels, S., Hölzel, N., and Otte, N. 2004. Population structure of the threatened perennial Serratula tinctoria in relation to vegetation and management. Appl. Veg. Sci. 7(2):267-274.

Bjaerke, M.R., and Rueness, J. 2004. Effects of temperature and salinity on growth, reproduction and survival in the introduced red alga Heterosiphonia japonica (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Bot. Mar. 47(5):373-380.

Blackburn, T.M., and Cassey, P. 2004. Are introduced and re-introduced species comparable? A case study of birds. Anim. Conserv. 7:427-433.

Blom, A. 2004. An estimate of the costs of an effective system of protected areas in the Niger Delta - Congo Basin Forest Region. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2661-2678.

Bollen, A., Van Elsacker, L., and Ganzhorn, J.U. 2004. Relations between fruits and disperser assemblages in a Malagasy littoral forest: a community-level approach. J. Trop. Ecol. 20:599-612.

Bradford, J., and Jaffré, T. 2004. Plant species microendemism and conservation of montane maquis in New Caledonia: two new species of Pancheria (Cunoniaceae) from the Roche Ouaïème. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2253-2273.

Bridgewater, S., Ratter, J.A., and Ribeiro, J.F. 2004. Biogeographic patterns, ß-diversity and dominance in the cerrado biome of Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2295-2318.

Brooks, T., da Fonseca, G.A.B., and Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2004. Species, data, and conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1682-1688.

Brown, M., Kendal, T.A., Cooksley, H., Saint, K.M., Taylor, A.C., Carthew, S.M., and Cooper, S.J.B. 2004. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the gliding marsupials Petaurus australis and Petaurus breviceps. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):704-706.

Brunner, P.C., and Frey, J.E. 2004. Isolation and characterization of six polymorphic microsatellite loci in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):599-601.

Brys, R., Jacquemyn, H., Endels, P., De Blust, G., and Hermy, M. 2004. The effects of grassland management on plant performance and demography in the perennial herb Primula veris. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1080-1091.

Bunnell, F.L., Campbell, R.W., and Squires, K.A. 2004. Conservation priorities for peripheral species: the example of British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 34(11):2240-2247.

Cadi, A., and Miquet, A. 2004. A reintroduction programme for the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Lake Bourget (Savoie, France): first results after two years. Biologia 59:155-159.

Cadi, A., Nemoz, M., Thienpont, S., and Joly, P. 2004. Home range, movements, and habitat use of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in the Rhone-Alpes region, France. Biologia 59:89-94.

Calabrese, J.M., and Fagan, W.F. 2004. A comparison-shopper's guide to connectivity metrics. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(10):529-536.

Campeau, S., Rochefort, L., and Price, J.S. 2004. On the use of shallow basins to restore cutover peatlands: plant establishment. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):471-482.

Campos, J.A., Herrera, M., Biurrun, I., and Loidi, J. 2004. The role of alien plants in the natural coastal vegetation in central-northern Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2275-2293.

Carlson, A.M., and Gorchov, D.L. 2004. Effects of herbicide on the invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and initial responses of native plants in a southwestern Ohio Forest. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):559-567.

Carrete, M., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Calvo, J.F., and Lande, R. 2005. Demography and habitat availability in territorial occupancy of two competing species. Oikos 108(1):125-136.

Casas-Criville, A., and Valera, F. 2005. The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) as an ecosystem engineer in arid environments. J. Arid Environ. 60(2):227-238.

Chadd, R., and Extence, C. 2004. The conservation of freshwater macroinvertebrate populations: a community-based classification scheme. Aquat. Conserv. 14(6):597-624.

Chung, M.Y., Nason, J.D., and Chung, M.G. 2004. Implications of clonal structure for effective population size and genetic drift in a rare terrestrial orchid, Cremastra appendiculata. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1515-1524.

Clavero, M., Blanco-Garrido, F., and Prenda, J. 2004. Fish fauna in Iberian Mediterranean river basins: biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts. Aquat. Conserv. 14(6):575-585.

Cobbaert, D., Rochefort, L., and Price, J.S. 2004. Experimental restoration of a fen plant community after peat mining. Appl. Veg. Sci. 7(2):209-220.

Cohen, S., Braham, R., and Sanchez, F. 2004. Seed bank viability in disturbed longleaf pine sites. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):503-515.

Collins, J.P., Brunner, J.L., Jancovich, J.K., and Schock, D.M. 2004. A model host-pathogen system for studying infectious disease dynamics in amphibians: tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Herp. J. 14(4):195-200.

Coomes, O.T., Barham, B.L., and Takasaki, Y. 2004. Targeting conservation-development initiatives in tropical forests: insights from analyses of rain forest use and economic reliance among Amazonian peasants. Ecol. Econ. 51(1-2):47-64.

Coughlan, J.P., Kitson, L., Dillane, E., Davenport, J., and Cross, T.F. 2004. Characterization of six microsatellite loci in the Bermuda skink (Eumeces longirostris). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):678-679.

Couvreur, M., Christiaen, B., Verheyen, K., and Hermy, M. 2004. Large herbivores as mobile links between isolated nature reserves through adhesive seed dispersal. Appl. Veg. Sci. 7(2):229-236.

Cowling, R.M., Knight, A.T., Faith, D.P., Ferrier, S., Lombard, A.T., Driver, A., Rouget, M., Maze, K., and Desmet, P.G. 2004. Nature conservation requires more than a passion for species. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1674-1676.

D'Antonio, C.M., Jackson, N.E., Horvitz, C.C., and Hedberg, R. 2004. Invasive plants in wildland ecosystems: merging the study of invasion processes with management needs. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(10):513-521.

Dodd, C.K., and Dorazio, R.M. 2004. Using counts to simultaneously estimate abundance and detection probabilities in a salamander community. Herpetologica 60(4):468-478.

Dulvy, N.K., and Polunin, N.V.C. 2004. Using informal knowledge to infer human-induced rarity of a conspicuous reef fish. Anim. Conserv. 7:365-374.

Duriez, O., Eraud, C., Barbraud, C., and Ferrand, Y. 2005. Factors affecting population dynamics of Eurasian woodcocks wintering in France: assessing the efficiency of a hunting-free reserve. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):89-97.

Edgar, G.J., and Samson, C.R. 2004. Catastrophic decline in mollusc diversity in eastern Tasmania and its concurrence with shellfish fisheries. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1579-1588.

Edgar, P.W., Griffiths, R.A., and Foster, J.P. 2005. Evaluation of translocation as a tool for mitigating development threats to great crested newts (Triturus cristatus) in England, 1990-2001. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):45-52.

Edgerton, B.F., Henttonen, P., Jussila, J., Mannonen, A., Paasonen, P., Taugbøl, T., Edsman, L., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2004. Understanding the causes of disease in European freshwater crayfish. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1466-1474.

Fa, J.E., Johnson, P.J., Dupain, J., Lapuente, J., Köster, P., and Macdonald, D.W. 2004. Sampling effort and dynamics of bushmeat markets. Anim. Conserv. 7:409-416.

Fattizzo, T. 2004. Distribution and conservational problems of Emys orbicularis in Salento (South Apulia, Italy). Biologia 59:13-18.

Ferguson, S.H., and Elkie, P.C. 2004. Habitat requirements of boreal forest caribou during the travel seasons. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(5):465-474.

Flueck, W.T. 2004. Observations of interactions between puma, Puma concolor, and introduced European red deer, Cervus elaphus, in Patagonia. Can. Field-Natural. 118(1):132-134.

Fortin, M.J., Keitt, T.H., Maurer, B.A., Taper, M.L., Kaufman, D.M., and Blackburn, T.M. 2005. Species' geographic ranges and distributional limits: pattern analysis and statistical issues. Oikos 108(1):7-17.

Foster, J.P., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2004. Research as a tool to inform amphibian conservation policy in the UK. Herp. J. 14(4):209-214.

Frankie, G.W., Mata, A., and Vinson, S.B. (eds.). 2004. Biodiversity Conservation in Costa Rica: Learning the Lessons in a Seasonal Dry Forest. University of California Press. Berkeley, California. 352 pp.

Fratini, S., Zaccara, S., Barbaresi, S., Grandjean, F., Souty-Grosset, C., Crosa, G., and Gherardi, F. 2005. Phylogeography of the threatened crayfish (genus Austropotamobius) in Italy: implications for its taxonomy and conservation. Heredity 94(1):108-118.

Frederiksen, M., Wanless, S., Rothery, P., and Wilson, L.J. 2004. The role of industrial fisheries and oceanographic change in the decline of North Sea black-legged kittiwakes. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1129-1139.

Fritz, U., Guicking, D., Lenk, P., Joger, U., and Wink, M. 2004. When turtle distribution tells European history: mtDNA haplotypes of Emys orbicularis reflect in Germany former division by the iron curtain. Biologia 59:19-25.

Fujihara, M., and Kikuchi, T. 2005. Changes in the landscape structure of the Nagara River Basin, central Japan. Landscape Urban Plan. 70(3-4):271-281.

Gardiner, E.S., Stanturf, J.A., and Schweitzer, C.J. 2004. An afforestation system for restoring bottomland hardwood forests: biomass accumulation of Nuttall oak seedlings interplanted beneath eastern cottonwood. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):525-532.

Gavin, M.C. 2004. Changes in forest use value through ecological succession and their implications for land management in the Peruvian Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1562-1570.

Gerber, L.R., Buenau, K.E., and Vanblaricom, G.R. 2004. Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2741-2757.

Giménez, E., Melendo, M., Valle, F., Gómez-Mercado, F., and Cano, E. 2004. Endemic flora biodiversity in the south of the Iberian Peninsula: altitudinal distribution, life forms and dispersal modes. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2641-2660.

Goffredo, S., Piccinetti, C., and Zaccanti, F. 2004. Volunteers in marine conservation monitoring: a study of the distribution of seahorses carried out in collaboration with recreational scuba divers. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1492-1503.

Gordon, I.J., Hester, A.J., and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2004. The management of wild large herbivores to meet economic, conservation and environmental objectives. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1021-1031.

Gössling, S., Kunkel, T., Schumacher, K., and Zilger, M. 2004. Use of molluscs, fish, and other marine taxa by tourism in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2623-2639.

Goulson, D., Hanley, M.E., Darvill, B., Ellis, J.S., and Knight, M.E. 2005. Causes of rarity in bumblebees. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):1-8.

Greer, D., and Harvey, B. 2004. Blue Genes: Sharing and Conserving the World's Aquatic Biodiversity. Earthscan. London. 248 pp.

Griffiths, R.A., and Halliday, T.R. 2004. Global amphibian declines: is current research meeting conservation needs? Herp. J. 14(4):165-166.

Grosfeld, J., and Barthelemy, D. 2004. Primary growth and morphological markers of interannual growth limits in Cupressaceae from Patagonia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146(3):285-293.

Hammer, M.P., and Walker, K.F. 2004. A catalogue of South Australian freshwater fishes, including new records, range extensions and translocations. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 128:85-97.

Harris, G.M., and Pimm, S.L. 2004. Bird species' tolerance of secondary forest habitats and its effects on extinction. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1607-1616.

Harrison, S.S.C., Pretty, J.L., Shepherd, D., Hildrew, A.G., Smith, C., and Hey, R.D. 2004. The effect of instream rehabilitation structures on macroinvertebrates in lowland rivers. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1140-1154.

Hastings, A., Cuddington, K., Davies, K.F., Dugaw, C.J., Elmendorf, S., Freestone, A., Harrison, S., Holland, M., Lambrinos, J., Malvadkar, U., Melbourne, B.A., Moore, K., Taylor, C., and Thomson, D. 2005. The spatial spread of invasions: new developments in theory and evidence. Ecol. Lett. 8(1):91-101.

Hayes, D. 2004. Deflating the ecological bubble. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1461-1462.

Heinsohn, R., Lacy, R.C., Lindenmayer, D.B., Marsh, H., Kwan, D., and Lawler, I.R. 2004. Unsustainable harvest of dugongs in Torres Strait and Cape York (Australia) waters: two case studies using population viability analysis. Anim. Conserv. 7:417-425.

Hellgren, E.C., Onorato, D.P., and Skiles, J.R. 2005. Dynamics of a black bear population within a desert metapopulation. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):131-140.

Hernandez-Stefanoni, J.L., and Ponce-Hernandez, R. 2004. Mapping the spatial distribution of plant diversity indices in a tropical forest using multi-spectral satellite image classification and field measurements. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2599-2621.

Hero, J.M., and Morrison, C. 2004. Frog declines in Australia: global implications. Herp. J. 14(4):175-186.

Higgins, J.V., Ricketts, T.H., Parrish, J.D., Dinerstein, E., Powell, G., Palminteri, S., Hoekstra, J.M., Morrison, J., Tomasek, A., and Adams, J. 2004. Beyond Noah: saving species is not enough. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1672-1673.

Hincuicliffe, J., and Conran, J.G. 2004. The Tennyson sand dunes: vegetation structure and conservation status. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 128:239-248.

Hirzel, A.H., Posse, B., Oggier, P.A., Crettenand, Y., Glenz, C., and Arlettaz, R. 2004. Ecological requirements of reintroduced species and the implications for release policy: the case of the bearded vulture. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1103-1116.

Hitt, N.P., and Frissell, C.A. 2004. A case study of surrogate species in aquatic conservation planning. Aquat. Conserv. 14(6):625-633.

Hobbs, J.J. 2004. Problems in the harvest of edible birds' nests in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2209-2226.

Hoekstra, J.M., Boucher, T.M., Ricketts, T.H., and Roberts, C. 2005. Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection. Ecol. Lett. 8(1):23-29.

Hole, D.G., Perkins, A.J., Wilson, J.D., Alexander, I.H., Grice, F., and Evans, A.D. 2005. Does organic farming benefit biodiversity? Biol. Conserv. 122(1):113-130.

Huddleston, R.T., and Young, T.P. 2004. Spacing and competition between planted grass plugs and preexisting perennial grasses in a restoration site in Oregon. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):546-551.

Jaeger, J.A.G., and Fahrig, L. 2004. Effects of road fencing on population persistence. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1651-1657.

Jansen, A.J.M., Fresco, L.F.M., Grootjans, A.P., and Jalink, M.H. 2004. Effects of restoration measures on plant communities of wet heathland ecosystems. Appl. Veg. Sci. 7(2):243-252.

Ji, Y.J., Liu, Y.D., Ding, C.Q., and Zhang, D.X. 2004. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the critically endangered crested ibis, Nipponia nippon (Ciconiiformes: Threskiornithidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):615-617.

Jones, J.W., Culver, M., David, V., Struthers, J., Johnson, N.A., Neves, R.J., O'Brien, S.J., and Hallerman, E.M. 2004. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the endangered oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):649-652.

Kaiser, M.J. 2004. Marine protected areas: the importance of being earnest. Aquat. Conserv. 14(6):635-638.

Kalpoutzakis, E., and Constantinidis, T. 2004. A new species of Centaurea (Sect. Phalolepis, Compositae: Cardueae) from eastern Peloponnisos, Greece. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146(3):375-383.

Keller, V., and Bollmann, K. 2004. From red lists to species of conservation concern. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1636-1644.

Kemp, J.F., and Lacroix, C.R. 2004. Estimation of seed bank and seed viability of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence aster, Symphyotrichum laurentianum, (Fernald) Nesom. Can. Field-Natural. 118(1):105-110.

Kery, M., and Matthies, D. 2004. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae). Plant Biol. 6(6):683-688.

Kim, M.S., Yang, E.C., Mansilla, A., and Sung, M.B. 2004. Recent introduction of Polysiphonia morrowii (Cerarniales, Rhodophyta) to Punta Arenas, Chile. Bot. Mar. 47(5):389-394.

King, R., Berg, C., and Hay, B. 2004. A repatriation study of the eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) in Wisconsin. Herpetologica 60(4):429-437.

Kodandapani, N., Cochrane, M.A., and Sukumar, R. 2004. Conservation threat of increasing fire frequencies in the Western Ghats, India. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1553-1561.

Koh, L.P., Sodhi, N.S., and Brook, B.W. 2004. Ecological correlates of extinction proneness in tropical butterflies. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1571-1578.

Kotenko, T. 2004. Distribution, habitats, abundance and problems of conservation of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in the Crimea (Ukraine): first results. Biologia 59:33-46.

Krauss, S.L., and Koch, J.M. 2004. Rapid genetic delineation of provenance for plant community restoration. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1162-1173.

Kushwaha, S.P.S., and Hazarika, R. 2004. Assessment of habitat loss in Kameng and Sonitpur Elephant Reserves. Curr. Sci. 87(10):1447-1453.

Lachance, D., and Lavoie, C. 2004. Vegetation of Sphagnum bogs in highly disturbed landscapes: relative influence of abiotic and anthropogenic factors. Appl. Veg. Sci. 7(2):183-192.

Laffont, E.R., Torales, G.J., Coronel, J.M., Arbino, M.O., and Godoy, M.C. 2004. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera) fauna from national parks of the northeast region of Argentina. Sci. Agr. 61(6):665-670.

Lazar, B., Casale, P., Tvrtkovic, N., Kozul, V., Tutman, P., and Glavic, N. 2004. The presence of the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Adriatic Sea. Herp. J. 14(3):143-147.

Lindh, H., and Martin, K. 2004. Systematic reserve selection for conservation in Whistler, Canada - assessing approaches in a North American mountain resort community - a case study. Mtn. Res. Dev. 24(4):319-326.

Loehr, V.J.T., Henen, B.T., and Hofmeyr, M.D. 2004. Reproduction of the smallest tortoise, the Namaqualand speckled padloper, Homopus signatus signatus. Herpetologica 60(4):444-454.

Lopez-Zamora, I., Comerford, N.B., and Muchovej, R.M. 2004. Root development and competitive ability of the invasive species Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake in the south Florida flatwoods. Plant Soil 263(1-2):239-247.

Lovejoy, T.E. 2004. Dreaming the impossible. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1465.

Mac Nally, R., Fleishman, E., and Murphy, D.D. 2004. Influence of temporal scale of sampling on detection of relationships between invasive plants and the diversity patterns of plants and butterflies. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1525-1532.

Maciantowicz, M., and Najbar, B. 2004. Distribution and active conservation of Emys orbicularis in Lubuskie province (west Poland). Biologia 59:177-183.

Maestre, F.T., and Cortina, J. 2004. Insights into ecosystem composition and function in a sequence of degraded semiarid steppes. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):494-502.

Marsh, H., Lawler, I.R., Kwan, D., Delean, S., Pollock, K., and Alldredge, M. 2004. Aerial surveys and the potential biological removal technique indicate that the Torres Strait dugong fishery is unsustainable. Anim. Conserv. 7:435-443.

Martel, C., Guarini, J.M., Blanchard, G., Sauriau, P.G., Trichet, C., Robert, S., and Garcia-Meunier, P. 2004. Invasion by the marine gastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus in France. III. Comparison of biological traits with the resident species Ocenebra erinacea. Mar. Biol. 146(1):93-102.

Mateu-Andrés, I. 2004. Low levels of allozyme variability in the threatened species Antirrhinum subbaeticum and A. pertegasii (Scrophulariaceae): implications for conservation of the species. Ann. Botany 94(6):797-804.

Mateu-Andrés, I., and Segarra-Moragues, J.G. 2004. Reproductive system in the Iberian endangered endemic Antirrhinum valentinum F.Q. (Antirrhineae, Scrophulariaceae): consequences for species conservation. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165(5):773-778.

McConkey, K.R., Meehan, H.J., and Drake, D.R. 2004. Seed dispersal by Pacific pigeons (Ducula pacifica) in Tonga, western Polynesia. Emu 104(4):369-376.

McHugh, J.M., and Dighton, J. 2004. Influence of mycorrhizal, inoculation, inundation period, salinity, and phosphorus availability on the growth of two salt marsh grasses, Spartina alterniflora Lois. and Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth., in nursery systems. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):533-545.

McLoughlin, P.D., and Messier, F. 2004. Relative contributions of sampling error in initial population size and vital rates to outcomes of population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1665-1669.

Miller, D.A., Thill, R.E., Melchiors, M.A., Wigley, T.B., and Tappe, P.A. 2004. Small mammal communities of streamside management zones in intensively managed pine forests of Arkansas. Forest Ecol. Manag. 203(1-3):381-393.

Mills, H.R., Moro, D., and Spencer, P.B.S. 2004. Conservation significance of island versus mainland populations: a case study of dibblers (Parantechinus apicalis) in Western Australia. Anim. Conserv. 7:387-395.

Molnar, J., Marvier, M., and Kareiva, P. 2004. The sum is greater than the parts. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1670-1671.

Morimoto, J., and Yoshida, H. 2005. Dynamic changes of native Rhododendron colonies in the urban fringe of Kyoto city in Japan: detecting the long-term dynamism for conservation of secondary nature. Landscape Urban Plan. 70(3-4):195-204.

Mosimann, D., and Cadi, A. 2004. On the occurrence and viability of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Moulin-de-Vert (Geneva, Switzerland): 50 years after first introduction. Biologia 59:109-112.

Murakami, K., Maenaka, H., and Morimoto, Y. 2005. Factors influencing species diversity of ferns and fern allies in fragmented forest patches in the Kyoto city area. Landscape Urban Plan. 70(3-4):221-229.

Mwanja, W.W. 2004. The role of satellite water bodies in the evolution and conservation of Lake Victoria Region fishes. Afr. J. Ecol. 42:14-20.

Nabhan, G.P. (ed.). 2004. Conserving Migratory Pollinators and Nectar Corridors in Western North America. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 190 pp.

Natori, Y., Fukui, W., and Hikasa, M. 2005. Empowering nature conservation in Japanese rural areas: a planning strategy integrating visual and biological landscape perspectives. Landscape Urban Plan. 70(3-4):315-324.

Natuhara, Y., Kitano, M., Goto, K., Tsuchinaga, T., Imai, C.B., Tsuruho, K., and Takada, H. 2005. Creation and adaptive management of a wild bird habitat on reclaimed land in Osaka Port. Landscape Urban Plan. 70(3-4):283-290.

Nemoz, M., Cadi, A., and Thienpont, S. 2004. Effects of recreational fishing on survival in an Emys orbicularis population. Biologia 59:185-189.

Numa, C., Verdú, J.R., and Sánchez-Palomino, P. 2005. Phyllostomid bat diversity in a variegated coffee landscape. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):151-158.

O'Grady, J.J., Burgman, M.A., Keith, D.A., Master, L.L., Andelman, S.J., Brook, B.W., Hammerson, G.A., Regan, T., and Frankham, R. 2004. Correlations among extinction risks assessed by different systems of threatened species categorization. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1624-1635.

Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., and Galil, B.S. 2004. A uniform terminology on bioinvasions: a chimera or an operative tool? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49(9-10):688-694.

Ormerod, S.J. 2004. A golden age of river restoration science? Aquat. Conserv. 14(6):543-549.

Orr, D.W. 2004. Orr's laws. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1457-1460.

Palomares, F., Revilla, E., Calzada, J., Fernández, N., and Delibes, M. 2005. Reproduction and pre-dispersal survival of Iberian lynx in a subpopulation of the Doñana National Park. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):53-59.

Paul, R. 2004. Population viability analysis and effect of conservation measures in Emys orbicularis in northeast Germany using computer simulation. Biologia 59:191-200.

Peacock, M.M., Neville, H., and Kirchoff, V.S. 2004. Ten species specific microsatellite loci for Lahontan cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):557-559.

Pellet, J., Guisan, A., and Perrin, N. 2004. A concentric analysis of the impact of urbanization on the threatened European tree frog in an agricultural landscape. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1599-1606.

Pellet, J., Hoehn, S., and Perrin, N. 2004. Multiscale determinants of tree frog (Hyla arborea L.) calling ponds in western Switzerland. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2227-2235.

Peñuela, M.C., and Drew, A.P. 2004. A model to assess restoration of abandoned pasture in Costa Rica based on soil hydrologic features and forest structure. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):516-524.

Pergams, O.R.W., Czech, B., Haney, J.C., and Nyberg, D. 2004. Linkage of conservation activity to trends in the US economy. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1617-1623.

Piessens, K., Honnay, O., and Hermy, M. 2005. The role of fragment area and isolation in the conservation of heathland species. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):61-69.

Pressey, R.L. 2004. Conservation planning and biodiversity: assembling the best data for the job. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1677-1681.

Price, S.V., and Reichle, S. 2004. ICO approaches to tropical forest conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1452.

Puky, M., Gemesi, D., and Schad, P. 2004. Distribution of Emys orbicularis in Hungary with notes on related conservational and environmental education activities. Biologia 59:55-60.

Putz, F.E., and Fredericksen, T.S. 2004. Silvicultural intensification for tropical forest conservation: a response to Sist and Brown. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2387-2390.

Recher, H.F., and Calver, M. 2004. Conservation biology in the Pacific. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1449-1451.

Reid, D.T., Ashton, K.G., and Zamudio, K.R. 2004. Characterization of microsatellite markers in the threatened sand skink (Neoseps reynoldsi). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):691-693.

Rice, R.E., and Niesten, E.T. 2004. ICO approaches to tropical forest conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1452-1454.

Riemann, H., and Ezcurra, E. 2005. Plant endemism and natural protected areas in the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):141-150.

Ries, L., and Sisk, T.D. 2004. A predictive model of edge effects. Ecology 85(11):2917-2926.

Rivera, A.C., and Fernandez, C.A. 2004. A management plan for the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) populations of the Louro river basin (northwest Spain). Biologia 59:161-171.

Robertson, B.C., and Gemmell, N.J. 2004. Defining eradication units to control invasive pests. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1042-1048.

Robertson, H.A., and Fitzsimons, J.A. 2004. Hydrology or floristics? Mapping and classification of wetlands in Victoria, Australia, and implications for conservation planning. Environ. Manage. 34(4):499-507.

Robinson, J.G., and Bennett, E.L. 2004. Having your wildlife and eating it too: an analysis of hunting sustainability across tropical ecosystems. Anim. Conserv. 7:397-408.

Rodríguez-Rojo, M.P., and Sánchez-Mata, D. 2004. Mediterranean hay meadow communities: diversity and dynamics in mountain areas throughout the Iberian Central Range (Spain). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2361-2380.

Rolim, S.G., and Chiarello, A.G. 2004. Slow death of Atlantic forest trees in cocoa agroforestry in southeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2679-2694.

Romero, C., and Andrade, G.I. 2004. ICO approaches to tropical forest conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1454-1455.

Rosenfield, J.A., Nolasco, S., Lindauer, S., Sandoval, C., and Kodric-Brown, A. 2004. The role of hybrid vigor in the replacement of Pecos pupfish by its hybrids with sheepshead minnow. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1589-1598.

Rowden, A.A., Warwick, R.M., and Gordon, D.P. 2004. Bryozoan biodiversity in the New Zealand region and implications for marine conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2695-2721.

Saxon, E., Baker, B., Hargrove, W., Hoffman, F., and Zganjar, C. 2005. Mapping environments at risk under different global climate change scenarios. Ecol. Lett. 8(1):53-60.

Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E., and Balmford, A. 2004. Land-use trends in Endemic Bird Areas: global expansion of agriculture in areas of high conservation value. Global Change Biol. 10(12):2046-2051.

Schmidt, B.R. 2004. Declining amphibian populations: the pitfalls of count data in the study of diversity, distributions, dynamics, and demography. Herp. J. 14(4):167-174.

Senior, K. 2004. Involving local people in biodiversity conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(10):512.

Sheridan, P. 2004. Comparison of restored and natural seagrass beds near Corpus Christi, Texas. Estuaries 27(5):781-792.

Silori, C.S. 2004. Socio-economic and ecological consequences of the ban on adventure tourism in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, western Himalaya. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2237-2252.

Sist, P., and Brown, N. 2004. Silvicultural intensification for tropical forest conservation: a response to Fredericksen and Putz. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2381-2385.

Smart, R., Whiting, M.J., and Twine, W. 2005. Lizards and landscapes: integrating field surveys and interviews to assess the impact of human disturbance on lizard assemblages and selected reptiles in a savanna in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):23-31.

Smith, R.K., Jennings, N.V., Robinson, A., and Harris, S. 2004. Conservation of European hares Lepus europaeus in Britain: is increasing habitat heterogeneity in farmland the answer? J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1092-1102.

Smith, T.J., and Smith, G.F. 2004. Selecting important plant areas in southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 100(9-10):434-435.

Snyder, S.A., Haight, R.G., and Revelle, C.S. 2004. Scenario optimization model for dynamic reserve site selection. Environ. Model Assess. 9(3):179-187.

Song, I.J., Hong, S.K., Kim, H.O., Byun, B., and Gin, Y. 2005. The pattern of landscape ratches and invasion of naturalized plants in developed areas of urban Seoul. Landscape Urban Plan. 70(3-4):205-219.

Stiling, P., Moon, D., and Gordon, D. 2004. Endangered cactus restoration: mitigating the non-target effects of a biological control agent (Cactoblastis cactorum) in Florida. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):605-610.

Swinnerton, K.J., Groombridge, J.J., Jones, C.G., Burn, R.W., and Mungroo, Y. 2004. Inbreeding depression and founder diversity among captive and free-living populations of the endangered pink pigeon Columba mayeri. Anim. Conserv. 7:353-364.

Tallamy, D.W. 2004. Do alien plants reduce insect biomass? Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1689-1692.

Tallmon, D.A., and Mills, L.S. 2004. Edge effects and isolation: red-backed voles revisited. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1658-1664.

Taylor, C.M., and Hastings, A. 2004. Finding optimal control strategies for invasive species: a density-structured model for Spartina alterniflora. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(6):1049-1057.

Tegelstrom, H., and Sjogren-Gulve, P. 2004. Genetic differentiation among northern European pool frog (Rana lessonae) populations. Herp. J. 14(4):187-193.

Telfer, E.S. 2004. Continuing environmental change - an example from Nova Scotia. Can. Field-Natural. 118(1):39-44.

Thompson, J.R., Anderson, M.D., and Johnson, K.N. 2004. Ecosystem management across ownerships: the potential for collision with antitrust laws. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1475-1481.

Tisdell, C., and Wilson, C. 2004. The public's knowledge of and support for conservation of Australia's tree-kangaroos and other animals. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2339-2359.

Topinka, J.R., Donovan, A.J., and May, B. 2004. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Kearney's bluestar (Amsonia keameyana) and cross-amplification in other Amsonia species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4(4):710-712.

Trammell, T.L.E., Rhoades, C.C., and Bukaveckas, P.A. 2004. Effects of prescribed fire on nutrient pools and losses from glades occurring within oak-hickory forests of central Kentucky. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):597-604.

Tuittila, E.S., Vasander, H., and Laine, J. 2004. Sensitivity of C sequestration in reintroduced Sphagnum to water-level variation in a cutaway peatland. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):483-493.

Van Dyke, F., Van Kley, S.E., Page, C.E., and Van Beek, J.G. 2004. Restoration efforts for plant and bird communities in tallgrass prairies using prescribed burning and mowing. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):575-585.

van Hamburg, H., Andersen, A.N., Meyer, W.J., and Robertson, H.G. 2004. Ant community development on rehabilitated ash dams in the South African highveld. Restor. Ecol. 12(4):552-558.

van Wilgen, B.W., Govender, N., Biggs, H.C., Ntsala, D., and Funda, X.N. 2004. Response of savanna fire regimes to changing fire-management policies in a large African national park. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1533-1540.

Vega, I.L., Ayala, O.A., and Contreras-Medina, R. 2004. Patterns of diversity, endemism and conservation: an example with Mexican species of Ternstroemiaceae Mirb. ex DC. (Tricolpates: Ericales). Biodivers. Conserv. 13(14):2723-2739.

Vidya, T.N.C., Fernando, P., Melnick, D.J., and Sukumar, R. 2005. Population differentiation within and among Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) populations in southern India. Heredity 94(1):71-80.

Vitek, B. 2004. Abandon environmentalism for the sake of the revolution. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1463-1464.

Ward, M., and Johnson, S.D. 2005. Pollen limitation and demographic structure in small fragmented populations of Brunsvigia radulosa (Amaryllidaceae). Oikos 108(2):253-262.

Weibull, H., and Rydin, H. 2005. Bryophyte species richness on boulders: relationship to area, habitat diversity and canopy tree species. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):71-79.

Williams, P. 2005. Does specialization explain rarity and decline among British bumblebees? - A response to Goulson et al. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):33-43.

Wilson, B., Reid, R.J., Grellier, K., Thompson, P.M., and Hammond, P.S. 2004. Considering the temporal when managing the spatial: a population range expansion impacts protected areas-based management for bottlenose dolphins. Anim. Conserv. 7:331-338.

Wilson, K., Newton, A., Echeverría, C., Weston, C., and Burgman, M. 2005. A vulnerability analysis of the temperate forests of south central Chile. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):9-21.

Wilson, K.A., Westphal, M.I., Possingham, H.P., and Elith, J. 2005. Sensitivity of conservation planning to different approaches to using predicted species distribution data. Biol. Conserv. 122(1):99-112.

Winfree, R. 2004. High offspring survival of the brown-headed cowbird in an invaded habitat. Anim. Conserv. 7:445-453.

Witt, A.B.R., and Giliomee, J.H. 2004. The impact of an invasive ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), on the dispersal of Phylica pubescens Aiton seeds in South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 12(2):179-185.

Wotton, D.M., O'Brien, C., Stuart, M.D., and Fergus, D.J. 2004. Eradication success down under: heat treatment of a sunken trawler to kill the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49(9-10):844-849.

Yamaguchi, N., Kitchener, A.C., Driscoll, C.A., Ward, J.M., and Macdonald, D.W. 2004. Craniological differentiation amongst wild-living cats in Britain and southern Africa: natural variation or the effects of hybridisation? Anim. Conserv. 7:339-351.

Zaharieva, M., Prosperi, J.M., and Monneveux, P. 2004. Ecological distribution and species diversity of Aegilops L. genus in Bulgaria. Biodivers. Conserv. 13(12):2319-2337.

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