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Department ofBotany

No. 244
April 2005

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In This Issue

A Virtual Tour of Mangal Cay's Mangrove

There is a significant need for public education about often inaccessible, yet seriously endangered mangrove ecosystems. Smithsonian ecologist Candy Feller and graphic designer (and retired Smithsonian illustrator) George Venable have produced a Virtual Mangrove Tour of Belize's Mangal Cay. Using state-of-the-art digital imaging and virtual reality techniques, they developed an effective teaching and learning tool that is now available on line at <>.

The project was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation as an educational element of a larger, five-year, multidisciplinary biocomplexity project to investigate microbial and nutrient controls on mangrove ecosystems. Many of the Smithsonian marine scientists and their collaborators who are working on the biocomplexity project at the Smithsonian's Carrie Bow Cay Field Station in Belize contributed many of the stunning digital photographs for the Virtual Tour. Much of this input represents decades of research discovering and describing the plants, animals, and microbes living in these marine ecosystems and understanding the factors that control their distribution and abundance in the physical environment.

Mangrove forests are intertidal wetlands that once existed along 75 percent of the world's tropical and subtropical coasts, largely between 30 degrees North and South latitude. These marine systems, which are often associated with coral reefs, perform a number of vital ecosystem functions, such as protecting shorelines, filtering pollutants, and providing nursery areas for marine fishes. Despite their critical role in sustaining healthy ecosystems, mangrove forests are being increasingly assaulted by shoreline development, increased sediment runoff, oil spillage, sewage discharge, global warming and sea level rise, and garbage dumping. As a result, over half of the world's mangroves have been destroyed.

While about 70 percent of the people in the world live in coastal areas, mangrove forests can be inaccessible to the casual visitor and are poorly understood. The new Smithsonian Virtual Mangrove Tour endeavors to bring the mangrove experience to those who might not get the opportunity to see them in person, and to provide a resource for teachers, students, and environmental managers.

New Publications

Götz Schroth and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos of Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (STRI/BDFFP) with colleagues from Conservation International, CATIE, Costa Rica, and CIRAD, France, edited the new book Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes, recently published by Island Press, Washington, D.C. The book brings together 46 scientists and practitioners from 13 countries with decades of field experience in tropical regions to explore how agroforestry practices can help promote biodiversity conservation in human dominated landscapes, to synthesize the current state of knowledge in the field, and to identify areas where further research is needed. The book is available at <>.

By 2020, the world will be eating almost as much farmed as wild fish, marine bacteria could yield the cure for cancer and deep sea bacteria may be exploited to consume oil spills. The demand for genetic resources is growing rapidly - yet governance and policy lag far behind. Blue Genes: Sharing and Conserving the World's Aquatic Biodiversity, by D. Greer and B. Harvey, is the first book to tackle the ownership and trade in aquatic genetic resources, including who's collecting aquatic genetic resources and why. Special attention is paid to the rights of indigenous and local communities providing access to those resources. Blue Genes presents case studies from four continents, and concludes with policy recommendations specifically tailored to aquatic resources. The book is available at <>.

Elizabeth A. Colburn's book Vernal Pools: Natural History and Conservation, published by The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, is the most comprehensive synthesis ever written of the natural history, ecology and conservation of the myriad seasonally wet pools that occur throughout the formerly glaciated region of eastern North America-essentially the Great Lakes Basin, New England, and adjacent areas of Canada and the United States. The information on pool history, content, and ecology-and conservation issues relevant to vernal pools-is applicable to pools in any geographic region. For more information, please visit <>.

Current Literature

Agoramoorthy, G., and Hsu, M.J. 2005. Religious freeing of wildlife promotes alien species invasion. BioScience 55(1):5-6.

Akalin, E., and Pimenov, M.G. 2004. Ferulago trojana (Umbelliferae), a new species from western Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146(4):499-504.

Alexander, J.A., Liston, A., and Popovich, S.J. 2004. Genetic diversity of the narrow endemic Astragalus oniciformis (Fabaceae). Am. J. Bot. 91(12):2004-2012.

Anderson, C.R., Lindzey, F.G., and McDonald, D.B. 2004. Genetic structure of cougar populations across the Wyoming Basin: metapopulation or megapopulation. J. Mammal. 85(6):1207-1214.

Antongiovanni, M., and Metzger, J.P. 2005. Influence of matrix habitats on the occurrence of insectivorous bird species in Amazonian forest framents. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):441-451.

Arthur, J.L., Camm, J.D., Haight, R.G., Montgomery, C.A., and Polasky, S. 2004. Weighing conservation objectives: maximum expected coverage versus endangered species protection. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1936-1945.

Ausden, M., Hall, M., Pearson, P., and Strudwick, T. 2005. The effects of cattle grazing on tall-herb fen vegetation and molluscs. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):317-326.

Barbanera, F., Negro, J.J., Di Giuseppe, G., Bertoncini, F., Cappelli, F., and Dini, F. 2005. Analysis of the genetic structure of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, Galliformes) populations by means of mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers: a study from central Italy. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):275-287.

Barton, B.J., and Bach, C.E. 2005. Habitat use by the federally endangered Mitchell's satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii) in a Michigan prairie fen. Am. Midl. Nat. 153(1):41-51.

Bartsch, I., and Tittley, I. 2004. The rocky intertidal biotopes of Helgoland: present and past. Helgoland Mar. Res. 58(4):289-302.

Bass, A.L., Epperly, S.P., and Braun-McNeill, J. 2004. Multi-year analysis of stock composition of a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) foraging habitat using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):783-796.

Bawa, K.S., Kress, W.J., Nadkarni, N.M., and Lele, S. 2004. Beyond paradise - meeting the challenges in tropical biology in the 21st century. Biotropica 36(4):437-446.

Berendse, F., Chamberlain, D., Kleijn, D., and Schekkerman, H. 2004. Declining biodiversity in agricultural landscapes and the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes. Ambio 33(8):499-502.

Bestelmeyer, B.T. 2005. Does desertification diminish biodiversity? Enhancement of ant diversity by shrub invasion in south-western USA. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):45-55.

Betrus, C.J., Fleishman, E., and Blair, R.B. 2005. Cross-taxonomic potential and spatial transferability of an umbrella species index. J. Environ. Manage. 74(1):79-87.

Borgmann, K.L., and Rodewald, A.D. 2004. Nest predation in an urbanizing landscape: the role of exotic shrubs. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1757-1765.

Bowen, K.D., Colbert, P.L., and Janzen, F.J. 2004. Survival and recruitment in a human-impacted population of ornate box turtles, Terrapene ornata, with recommendations for conservation and management. J. Herpetol. 38(4):562-568.

Bowyer, R.T. 2004. Sexual segregation in ruminants: definitions, hypotheses, and implications for conservation and management. J. Mammal. 85(6):1039-1052.

Broadhurst, L., Byrne, M., Craven, L., and Lepschi, B. 2004. Genetic congruence with new species boundaries in the Melaleuca uncinata complex (Myrtaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 52(6):729-737.

Broadhurst, L.M., and Coates, D.J. 2004. Genetic divergence among and diversity within two rare Banksia species and their common close relative in the subgenus Isostylis R.Br. (Proteaceae). Conserv. Genet. 5(6):837-846.

Brooks, T.M., Bakarr, M.I., Boucher, T., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoekstra, J.M., Moritz, T., Olivier, S., Parrish, J., Pressey, R.L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Sechrest, W., Stattersfield, A., Strahm, W., and Stuart, S.N. 2004. Coverage provided by the global protected-area system: is it enough? BioScience 54(12):1081-1091.

Brown, L.M., Ramey, R.R., Tamburini, B., and Gavin, T.A. 2004. Population structure and mitochondrial DNA variation in sedentary neotropical birds isolated by forest fragmentation. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):743-757.

Brudvig, L.A., and Asbjornsen, H. 2005. Oak regeneration before and after initial restoration efforts in a tall grass oak savanna. Am. Midl. Nat. 153(1):180-186.

Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., and Balmford, A. 2004. Financial costs and shortfalls of managing and expanding protected-area systems in developing countries. BioScience 54(12):1119-1126.

Camill, P., McKone, M.J., Sturges, S.T., Severud, W.J., Ellis, E., Limmer, J., Martin, C.B., Navratil, R.T., Purdie, A.J., Sandel, B.S., Talukder, S., and Trout, A. 2004. Community- and ecosystem-level changes in a species-rich tallgrass prairie restoration. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1680-1694.

Carlo, T.A., Collazo, J.A., and Groom, M.J. 2004. Influences of fruit diversity and abundance on bird use of two shaded coffee plantations. Biotropica 36(4):602-614.

Cassinello, J. 2005. Inbreeding depression on reproductive performance and survival in captive gazelles of great conservation value. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):453-464.

Ceccherelli, G., Casu, D., and Sechi, N. 2005. Spatial variation of intertidal assemblages at Tavolara-Capo Coda Cavallo MPA (NE Sardinia): geographical vs. protection effect. Mar. Environ. Res. 59(5):533-546.

Chappell, D.E., Van Den Bussche, R.A., Krizan, J., and Patterson, B. 2004. Contrasting levels of genetic differentiation among populations of wolverines (Gulo gulo) from northern Canada revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial loci. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):759-767.

Chefaoui, R.M., Hortal, J., and Lobo, J.M. 2005. Potential distribution modelling, niche characterization and conservation status assessment using GIS tools: a case study of Iberian Copris species. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):327-338.

Chouteau, P. 2004. The impacts of logging on the microhabitats used by two species of couas in the western forest of Madagascar. C.R. Biologies 327(12):1157-1170.

Colburn, E.A. 2004. Vernal Pools: Natural History and Conservation. The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company. Granville, OH. 456 pp.

Conroy, J.D., and Culver, D.A. 2005. Do dreissenid mussels affect Lake Erie ecosystem stability processes? Am. Midl. Nat. 153(1):20-32.

Conte, L., Cotti, C., Schicchi, R., Raimondo, F.M., and Cristofolini, G. 2004. Detection of ephemeral genetic sub-structure in the narrow endemic Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) using RAPD markers. Plant Biosystems 138(3):279-289.

Copenheaver, C.A., Fuhrman, N.E., Gellerstedt, L.S., and Gellerstedt, P.A. 2004. Tree encroachment in forest openings: a case study from Buffalo Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 69(4):297-308.

Coulston, J.W., and Riitters, K.H. 2005. Preserving biodiversity under current and future climates: a case study. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 14(1):31-38.

Crane, P.A., Lewis, C.J., Kretschmer, E.J., Miller, S.J., Spearman, W.J., Decicco, A.L., Lisac, M.J., and Wenburg, J.K. 2004. Characterization and inheritance of seven microsatellite loci from Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma, and cross-species amplification in Arctic char, S. alpinus. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):737-741.

Croxall, J.P., and Nicol, S. 2004. Management of Southern Ocean fisheries: global forces and future sustainability. Antarct. Sci. 16(4):569-584.

Culver, C.S., and Kuris, A.M. 2004. Susceptibility of California gastropods to an introduced South African sabellid polychaete, Terebrasabella heterouncinata. Invertebr. Biol. 123(4):316-323.

Curole, J.P. 2004. Universal primers for the specific amplification of the male mitotype of the Unionoidea (Bivalvia). Conserv. Genet. 5(5):733-735.

Cushman, J.H., Tierney, T.A., and Hinds, J.M. 2004. Variable effects of feral pig disturbances on native and exotic plants in a California grassland. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1746-1756.

Deluca, W.V., Studds, C.E., Rockwood, L.L., and Marra, P.P. 2004. Influence of land use on the integrity of marsh bird communities of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Wetlands 24(4):837-847.

Dewoody, J., Nason, J.D., and Smith, M. 2004. Inferring demographic processes from the genetic structure of a metapopulation of Boltonia decurrens (Asteraceae). Conserv. Genet. 5(5):603-617.

Donlan, E.M., Townsend, J.H., and Golden, E.A. 2004. Predation of Caretta caretta (Testudines: Cheloniidae) eggs by larvae of Lanelater sallei (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on Key Biscayne, Florida. Caribbean J. Sci. 40(3):415-420.

Drake, J.M. 2005. Risk analysis for invasive species and emerging infectious diseases: concepts and applications. Am. Midl. Nat. 153(1):4-19.

Drake, J.M., Costello, C., and Lodge, D.M. 2005. When did the discovery rate for invasive species in the North American Great Lakes accelerate? BioScience 55(1):4.

Drechsler, M. 2005. Probabilistic approaches to scheduling reserve selection. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):253-262.

Duriez, O., Ferrand, Y., Binet, F., Corda, E., Gossmann, F., and Fritz, H. 2005. Habitat selection of the Eurasian woodcock in winter in relation to earthworms availability. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):479-490.

Edgerton, B.F., and Jussila, J. 2004. Keynote presentation and roundtable session 4 - Crayfish pathology in Europe: past, present and a programme for the future. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:473-482.

Edsman, L., and Smietana, P. 2004. Roundtable session 2 - Exploitation, conservation and legislation. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:457-464.

Eken, G., Bennun, L., Brooks, T.M., Darwall, W., Fishpool, L.D.C., Foster, M., Knox, D., Langhammer, P., Matiku, P., Radford, E., Salaman, P., Sechrest, W., Smith, M.L., Spector, S., and Tordoff, A. 2004. Key biodiversity areas as site conservation targets. BioScience 54(12):1110-1118.

Eppink, F.V., van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., and Rietveld, P. 2004. Modelling biodiversity and land use: urban growth, agriculture and nature in a wetland area. Ecol. Econ. 51(3-4):201-216.

Ericsson, T.S., Berglund, H., and Östlund, L. 2005. History and forest biodiversity of woodland key habitats in south boreal Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):289-303.

Evans, K.L., Warren, P.H., and Gaston, K.J. 2005. Does energy availability influence classical patterns of spatial variation in exotic species richness? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 14(1):57-65.

Fenton, N.J., and Frego, K.A. 2005. Bryophyte (moss and liverwort) conservation under remnant canopy in managed forests. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):417-430.

Ferrier, S., Powell, G.V.N., Richardson, K.S., Manion, G., Overton, J.M., Allnutt, T.F., Cameron, S.E., Mantle, K., Burgess, N.D., Faith, D.P., Lamoreux, J.F., Kier, G., Hijmans, R.J., Funk, V.A., Cassis, G.A., Fisher, B.L., Flemons, P., Lees, D., Lovett, J.C., and Van Rompaey, R.S.A.R. 2004. Mapping more of terrestrial biodiversity for global conservation assessment. BioScience 54(12):1101-1109.

Fiedler, K., and Schulze, C.H. 2004. Forest modification affects diversity (but not dynamics) of speciose tropical pyraloid moth communities. Biotropica 36(4):615-627.

Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., and Holling, C.S. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 35:557-581.

Ford, M.J., Teel, D., Van Doornik, D.M., Kuligowski, D., and Lawson, P.W. 2004. Genetic population structure of central Oregon Coast coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Conserv. Genet. 5(6):797-812.

Francesca, V., Livia, L., Nadia, M., Bernardino, R., Ettore, R., and Fausto, P. 2004. A simple and rapid PCR-RFLP method to distinguishing Martes martes and Martes foina. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):869-871.

Franke, T.H., Sainge, M.N., and Agerer, R. 2004. A new species of Afrothismia (Burmanniaceae: Thismieae) from the western foothills of Mount Cameroon. Blumea 49(2-3):451-456.

Fraschetti, S., Terlizzi, A., Bussotti, S., Guarnieri, G., D'Ambrosio, P., and Boero, F. 2005. Conservation of Mediterranean seascapes: analyses of existing protection schemes. Mar. Environ. Res. 59(4):309-332.

Garrett, G.P., Edwards, R.J., and Hubbs, C. 2004. Discovery of a new population of Devils River minnow (Dionda diaboli), with implications for conservation of the species. Southwest. Nat. 49(4):435-441.

Goulson, D., and Hanley, M.E. 2004. Distribution and forage use of exotic bumblebees in South Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(2):225-232.

Graham, K., Beckerman, A.P., and Thirgood, S. 2005. Human-predator-prey conflicts: ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):159-171.

Grant, P.R., Grant, B.R., Petren, K., and Keller, L.F. 2005. Extinction behind our backs: the possible fate of one of the Darwin's finch species on Isla Floreana, Galápagos. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):499-503.

Gray, M.J., Smith, L.M., and Leyva, R.I. 2004. Influence of agricultural landscape structure on a Southern High Plains, USA, amphibian assemblage. Landscape Ecol. 19(7):719-729.

Green, R.E., Cornell, S.J., Scharlemann, J.P.W., and Balmford, A. 2005. Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307(5709):550-555.

Greer, D., and Harvey, B. 2004. Blue Genes: Sharing and Conserving the World's Aquatic Biodiversity. Earthscan. London. 248 pp.

Haig, S.M., Mullins, T.D., and Forsman, E.D. 2004. Subspecific relationships and genetic structure in the spotted owl. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):683-705.

Håkansson, J., and Jensen, P. 2005. Behavioural and morphological variation between captive populations of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) - possible implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):431-439.

Hall, C.S., and Kress, S.W. 2004. Comparison of common tern reproductive performance at four restored colonies along the Maine coast, 1991-2002. Waterbirds 27(4):424-433.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 2005. Bugs reveal an extensive, long-lost northern tallgrass prairie. BioScience 55(1):49-59.

Harper, M.J., McCarthy, M.A., and van der Ree, R. 2005. The abundance of hollow-bearing trees in urban dry sclerophyll forest and the effect of wind on hollow development. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):181-192.

Harveson, P.M., Lopez, R.R., Silvy, N.J., and Frank, P.A. 2004. Source-sink dynamics of Florida key deer on Big Pine Key, Florida. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):909-915.

Hice, C.L., Velazco, P.M., and Willig, M.R. 2004. Bats of the Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo-Misliana, northeastern Peru, with notes on community structure. Acta Chiropterol. 6(2):319-334.

Hierro, J.L., Maron, J.L., and Callaway, R.M. 2005. A biogeographical approach to plant invasions: the importance of studying exotics in their introduced and native range. J. Ecology 93(1):5-15.

Hoagland, B.W., and Johnson, F. 2004. The vascular flora of Red Slough and Grassy Slough Wildlife Management Areas, Gulf Coastal Plain, McCurtain County, Oklahoma. Castanea 69(4):284-296.

Hodgson, J.G., Montserrat-Martí, G., Tallowin, J., Thompson, K., Díaz, S., Cabido, M., Grime, J.P., Wilson, P.J., Band, S.R., Bogard, A., Cabido, R., Cáceres, D., Castro-Díez, P., Ferrer, C., Maestro-Martínez, M., Pérez-Rontomé, M.C., Charles, M., Cornelissen, J.H.C., Dabbert, S., Pérez-Harguindeguy, N., Krimly, T., Sijtsma, F.J., Strijker, D., Vendramini, F., Guerrero-Campo, J., Hynd, A., Jones, G., Romo-Díez, A., Espuny, L.D., Villar-Salvador, P., and Zak, M.R. 2005. How much will it cost to save grassland diversity? Biol. Conserv. 122(2):263-273.

Hopper, S.D., and Gioia, P. 2004. The Southwest Australian Floristic Region: evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 35:623-650.

Hoving, C.L., Harrison, D.J., Krohn, W.B., Jakubas, W.J., and McCollough, M.A. 2004. Canada lynx Lynx canadensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA. Wildlife Biol. 10(4):285-294.

Howells, M., and Slater, F. 2004. Changes over time in perceptions of species value: the case of Austropotamobius pallipes in Wales. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:329-332.

Hula, V., Konvicka, M., Pavlicko, A., and Fric, Z. 2004. Marsh fritillary (Euphydiyas aurinia) in the Czech Republic: monitoring, metapopulation structure, and conservation of an endangered butterfly. Entomol. Fennica 15(4):231-241.

Hunter, J.T. 2005. Phytogeography, range size and richness of Australian endemic Sauropus (Euphorbiaceae). J. Biogeogr. 32(1):63-73.

Inchausti, P., and Bretagnolle, V. 2005. Predicting short-term extinction risk for the declining little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) in intensive agricultural habitats. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):375-384.

Johnson, J.B., Dowling, T.E., and Belk, M.C. 2004. Neglected taxonomy of rare desert fishes: congruent evidence for two species of leatherside chub. Syst. Biol. 53(6):841-855.

Johst, K., and Huth, A. 2005. Testing the intermediate disturbance hypothesis: when will there be two peaks of diversity? Divers. Distrib. 11(1):111-120.

Kauffman, J.B., Thorpe, A.S., and Brookshire, E.N.J. 2004. Livestock exclusion and belowground ecosystem responses in riparian meadows of eastern Oregon. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1671-1679.

Keller, I., Excoffier, L., and Largiader, C.R. 2005. Estimation of effective population size and detection of a recent population decline coinciding with habitat fragmentation in a ground beetle. J. Evol. Biol. 18(1):90-100.

Kelley, J.L., Magurran, A.E., and Macías-Garcia, C. 2005. The influence of rearing experience on the behaviour of an endangered Mexican fish, Skiffia multipunctata. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):223-230.

Kelly, D.W., and Dick, J.T.A. 2005. Introduction of the non-indigenous amphipod Gammarus pulex alters population dynamics and diet of juvenile trout Salmo trutta. Freshwater Biol. 50(1):127-140.

Kennedy, R.S.H., and Spies, T.A. 2005. Dynamics of hardwood patches in a conifer matrix: 54 years of change in a forested landscape in Coastal Oregon, USA. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):363-374.

Kim, K.D. 2005. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 62(1-2):353-364.

Kimball, M.E., Miller, J.M., Whitfield, P.E., and Hare, J.A. 2004. Thermal tolerance and potential distribution of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles complex) on the east coast of the United States. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 283:269-278.

King, T.L., and Julian, S.E. 2004. Conservation of microsatellite DNA flanking sequence across 13 Emydid genera assayed with novel bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) loci. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):719-725.

Koh, L.P., and Sodhi, N.S. 2004. Importance of reserves, fragments, and parks for butterfly conservation in a tropical urban landscape. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1695-1708.

Kumssa, D.B., van Aarde, R.J., and Wassenaar, T.D. 2004. The regeneration of soil micro-arthropod assemblages in a rehabilitating coastal dune forest at Richards Bay, South Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 42(4):346-354.

Kuper, W., Sommer, J.H., Lovett, J.C., Mutke, J., Linder, H.P., Beentje, H.J., Van Rompaey, R.S.A.R., Chatelain, C., Sosef, M., and Barthlott, W. 2004. Africa's hotspots of biodiversity redefined. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 91(4):525-535.

Lassau, S.A., Hochuli, D.F., Cassis, G., and Reid, C.A.M. 2005. Effects of habitat complexity on forest beetle diversity: do functional groups respond consistently? Divers. Distrib. 11(1):73-82.

Lau, J., Fernandez-Duque, E., Evans, S., Dixson, A., and Ryder, O.A. 2004. Heterologous amplification and diversity of microsatellite loci in three owl monkey species (Aotus azarai, A. lemurinus, A. naneymaae). Conserv. Genet. 5(5):727-731.

Lee, T.M., Soh, M.C.K., Sodhi, N., Koh, L.P., and Lim, S.L.H. 2005. Effects of habitat disturbance on mixed species bird flocks in a tropical sub-montane rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):193-204.

Leishman, M.R., and Thomson, V.P. 2005. Experimental evidence for the effects of additional water, nutrients and physical disturbance on invasive plants in low fertility Hawkesbury Sandstone soils, Sydney, Australia. J. Ecology 93(1):38-49.

Lichstein, J.W., Grau, H.R., and Aragon, R. 2004. Recruitment limitation in secondary forests dominated by an exotic tree. J. Veg. Sci. 15(6):721-728.

Litzgus, J.D., and Moussea, T.A. 2004. Home range and seasonal activity of southern spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata): implications for managment. Copeia (4):804-817.

Lopez, R.R., Silvy, N.J., Wilkins, R.N., Frank, P.A., Peterson, M.J., and Peterson, M.N. 2004. Habitat use patterns of Florida Key Deer: implications of urban development. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):900-908.

Lumsden, L.F., and Bennett, A.F. 2005. Scattered trees in rural landscapes: foraging habitat for insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):205-222.

Mack, J.J., and Boerner, R.E.J. 2004. At the tip of the Prairie Peninsula: vegetation of Daughmer Savannah, Crawford County, Ohio. Castanea 69(4):309-323.

Mackintosh, M.A., and Briskie, J.V. 2005. High levels of hatching failure in an insular population of the South Island robin: a consequence of food limitation? Biol. Conserv. 122(3):409-416.

Maerz, J.C., Karuzas, J.M., Madison, D.M., and Blossey, B. 2005. Introduced invertebrates are important prey for a generalist predator. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):83-90.

Martin, A.P., and Wilcox, J.L. 2004. Evolutionary history of Ash Meadows pupfish (genus Cyprinodon) populations inferred using microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):769-782.

Mawdsley, J.R. 2005. Extirpation of a population of Cicindela patruela DeJean (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelini) in suburban Washington, DC, USA. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107(1):64-70.

McNair, D.B., and Lombard, C.D. 2004. Population estimates, habitat associations, and management of Ameiva polops (Cope) at Green Cay, United States Virgin Islands. Caribbean J. Sci. 40(3):353-361.

Méndez, M., Durán, R., Olmsted, I., and Oyama, K. 2004. Population dynamics of Pterocereus gaumeri, a rare and endemic columnar cactus of Mexico. Biotropica 36(4):492-504.

Micheli, F., Halpern, B.S., Botsford, L.W., and Warner, R.R. 2004. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1709-1723.

Miller, L., Savage, A., and Giraldo, H. 2004. Quantifying remaining forested habitat within the historic distribution of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia: implications for long-term conservation. Am. J. Primatol. 64(4):451-457.

Mock, K.E., Latch, E.K., and Rhodes, O.E. 2004. Assessing losses of genetic diversity due to translocation: long-term case histories in Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami). Conserv. Genet. 5(5):631-645.

Monsen, K.J., and Blouin, M.S. 2004. Extreme isolation by distance in a montane frog Rana cascadae. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):827-835.

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Moser, D.M., Gygax, A., Baumler, B., Wyler, N., and Palese, R. 2004. 68th Swiss floristic notes. Bot. Helvetica 114(2):181-198.

Mosseler, A., Rajora, O.P., Major, J.E., and Kim, K.H. 2004. Reproductive and genetic characteristics of rare, disjunct pitch pine populations at the northern limits of its range in Canada. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):571-583.

Myster, R.W. 2004. Post-agricultural invasion, establishment, and growth of neotropical trees. Bot. Rev. 70(4):381-402.

Palmer, M., Linde, M., and Pons, G.X. 2004. Correlational patterns between invertebrate species composition and the presence of an invasive plant. Acta Oecol. 26(3):219-226.

Paracuellos, M., and Telleria, J.L. 2004. Factors affecting the distribution of a waterbird community: the role of habitat configuration and bird abundance. Waterbirds 27(4):446-453.

Pearse, D.E., and Crandall, K.A. 2004. Beyond FST: analysis of population genetic data for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):585-602.

Newmaster, S.G., Belland, R.J., Arsenault, A., Vitt, D.H., and Stephens, T.R. 2005. The ones we left behind: comparing plot sampling and floristic habitat sampling for estimating bryophyte diversity. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):57-72.

Niemi, G.J., and McDonald, M.E. 2004. Application of ecological indicators. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 35:89-111.

Norton, D.A., and Roper-Lindsay, J. 2004. Assessing significance for biodiversity conservation on private land in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 28(2):295-305.

Nyhagen, D.F., Turnbull, S.D., Olesen, J.M., and Jones, C.G. 2005. An investigation into the role of the Mauritian flying fox, Pteropus niger, in forest regeneration. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):491-497.

O'Meally, D., and Colgan, D. 2005. Genetic ranking for biological conservation using information from multiple species. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):395-407.

Oka, T., Miura, S., Masaki, T., Suzuki, W., Osumi, K., and Saitoh, S. 2004. Relationship between changes in beechnut production and Asiatic black bears in northern Japan. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):979-986.

Orlova, M.I., Muirhead, J.R., Antonov, P.I., Shcherbina, G.K., Starobogatov, Y.I., Biochino, G.I., Therriault, T.W., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2004. Range expansion of quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis bugensis in the Volga River and Caspian Sea basin. Aquat. Ecol. 38(4):561-573.

Ortega, J., Franco, M.D., Adams, B.A., Ralls, K., and Maldonado, J.E. 2004. A reliable, non-invasive method for sex determination in the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and other canids. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):715-718.

Peay, S. 2004. Keynote - a cost-led evaluation of survey methods and monitoring for white-clawed crayfish - lessons from the UK. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:335-352.

Peterson, M.N., Allison, S.A., Peterson, M.J., Peterson, T.R., and Lopez, R.R. 2004. A tale of two species: habitat conservation plans as bounded conflict. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):743-761.

Pino, J., Font, X., Carbó, J., Jové, M., and Pallarès, L. 2005. Large-scale correlates of alien plant invasion in Catalonia (NE of Spain). Biol. Conserv. 122(2):339-350.

Pires, A.M., Da Costa, L.M., Alves, M.J., and Coelho, M.M. 2004. Fish assemblage structure across the Arade basin (southern Portugal). Cybium 28(4):357-365.

Ponomarev, A., Tatarinova, T., Bubyakina, V., Smagulova, F., Kashentseva, T., and Morozov, I. 2004. Variation of mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in the endangered Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):847-851.

Poonswad, P., Sukkasem, C., Phataramata, S., Hayeemuida, S., Plongmai, K., Chuailua, P., Thiensongrusame, P., and Jirawatkavi, N. 2005. Comparison of cavity modification and community involvement as strategies for hornbill conservation in Thailand. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):385-393.

Poschadel, J.R., and Moller, D. 2004. A versatile field method for tissue sampling on small reptiles and amphibians, applied to pond turtles, newts, frogs and toads. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):865-867.

Potts, M.D., Kassim, A.R., Supardi, M.N.N., Tan, S., and Bossert, W.H. 2005. Sampling tree diversity in Malaysian tropical forests: an evaluation of a pre-felling inventory. Forest Ecol. Manag. 205(1-3):385-395.

Pöyry, J., Lindgren, S., Salminen, J., and Kuussaari, M. 2005. Responses of butterfly and moth species to restored cattle grazing in semi-natural grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 122(3):465-478.

Prinzing, A., Durka, W., Klotz, S., and Brandl, R. 2005. How to characterize and predict alien species? A response to Pysek et al. (2004). Divers. Distrib. 11(1):121-123.

Probst, J.R., Donner, D.M., Worland, M., Weinrich, J., Huber, P., and Ennis, K.R. 2005. Comparing census methods for the endangered Kirtland's warbler. J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):50-60.

Pye, M.G., and Gadek, P.A. 2004. Genetic diversity, differentiation and conservation in Araucaria bidwillii (Araucariaceae), Australia's Bunya pine. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):619-629.

Rashleigh, B. 2004. Fish assemblage groups in the upper Tennessee River basin. Southeast. Nat. 3(4):621-636.

Reed, J.M. 2004. Recognition behavior based problems in species conservation. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 41(6):859-877.

Rehage, J.S., Barnett, B.K., and Sih, A. 2005. Behavioral responses to a novel predator and competitor of invasive mosquitofish and their non-invasive relatives (Gambusia sp.). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 57(3):256-266.

Reinhart, K.O., and Callaway, R.M. 2004. Soil biota facilitate exotic Acer invasions in Europe and North America. Ecol. Appl. 14(6):1737-1745.

Rhode, J.M., and Duffy, J.E. 2004. Relationships between bed age, bed size, and genetic structure in Chesapeake Bay (Virginia, USA) eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Conserv. Genet. 5(5):661-671.

Richards, C.M., Reilley, A., Touchell, D., Antolin, M.F., and Walters, C. 2004. Microsatellite primers for Texas wild rice (Zizania texana), and a preliminary test of the impact of cryogenic storage on allele frequency at these loci. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):853-859.

Richardson, D.M. 2005. Diversity, distributions and conservation biogeography. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):1-2.

Ries, L., Fletcher, R.J., Battin, J., and Sisk, T.D. 2004. Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models, and variability explained. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 35:491-522.

Robert, A., and Couvet, F.S.D. 2004. Influence of the rate of introduction on the fitness of restored populations. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):673-682.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Akçakaya, H.R., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T.M., Chanson, J.S., Fishpool, L.D.C., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gaston, K.J., Hoffmann, M., Marquet, P.A., Pilgrim, J.D., Pressey, R.L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S.N., Underhill, L.G., Waller, R.W., Watts, M.E.J., and Yan, X. 2004. Global gap analysis: priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. BioScience 54(12):1092-1100.

Roig-Junent, S., and Debandi, G. 2004. Conservation priorities using phylogenetic information and endemicity: an example based on carabid beetles from southern South America. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(4):695-709.

Rominger, E.M., Whitlaw, H.A., Weybright, D.L., Dunn, W.C., and Ballard, W.B. 2004. The influence of mountain lion predation on bighorn sheep translocations. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):993-999.

Roth, H.H., Hoppe-Dominik, B., Muhlenberg, M., Steinhauer-Burkart, B., and Fischer, F. 2004. Distribution and status of the hippopotamids in the Ivory Coast. Afr. Zool. 39(2):211-224.

Russello, M.A., Gladyshev, E., Miquelle, D., and Caccone, A. 2004. Potential genetic consequences of a recent bottleneck in the Amur tiger of the Russian Far East. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):707-713.

Sabine, D.L., Makepeace, S., and McAlpine, D.F. 2004. The yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) in New Brunswick: a population of significant conservation value. Northeastern Nat. 11(4):407-420.

Sada, D.W., Fleishman, E., and Murphy, D.D. 2005. Associations among spring-dependent aquatic assemblages and environmental and land use gradients in a Mojave Desert mountain range. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):91-99.

Sætersdal, M., Gjerde, I., and Blom, H.H. 2005. Indicator species and the problem of spatial inconsistency in nestedness patterns. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):305-316.

Sage, R.B., Ludolf, C., and Robertson, P.A. 2005. The ground flora of ancient semi-natural woodlands in pheasant release pens in England. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):243-252.

Schroth, G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Harvey, C.A., Gascon, C., Vasconcelos, H.L., and Izac, A.N. (eds.). 2004. Agroforestry and Biodiveristy Conservation in Tropical Landscapes. Island Press. Washington, D.C. 576 pp.

Schulz, H.K., Smietana, P., and Schulz, R. 2004. Assessment of DNA variations of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.) in Germany and Poland using inter-simple sequence Repeats (Issrs). B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:387-399.

Schulz, R., and Schulz, H.K. 2004. Roundtable session 1 - Threats to indigenous crayfish populations studies on a landscape level. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:449-456.

Scott-Morales, L., Estrada, E., Chávez-Ramírez, F., and Cotera, M. 2004. Continued decline in geographic distribution of the Mexican prairie dog (Cynomys mexicanus). J. Mammal. 85(6):1095-1101.

Sheil, D., and Lawrence, A. 2004. Tropical biologists, local people and conservation: new opportunities for collaboration. TREE 19(12):634-638.

Shuey, J.A. 2005. Assessing the conservation value of a complementary system of habitat reserves relative to butterfly species at risk and divergent populations. Am. Midl. Nat. 153(1):110-120.

Sint, D., and Fureder, L. 2004. Reintroduction of Astacus astacus L. in East Tyrol, Austria. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:301-314.

Slotta-Bachmayr, L., Boegel, R., Kaczensky, P., Stauffer, C., and Walzer, C. 2004. Use of population viability analysis to identify management priorities and success in reintroducing Przewalski's horses to southwestern Mongolia. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):790-798.

Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Brook, B.W., and Ng, P.K.L. 2004. Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. TREE 19(12):654-660.

Sodhi, N.S., Liow, L.H., and Bazzaz, F.A. 2004. Avian extinctions from tropical and subtropical forests. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 35:323-345.

Spooner, P.G. 2005. Response of Acacia species to disturbance by roadworks in roadside environments in southern New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):231-242.

Starks, P.T. 2004. Recognition systems: from components to conservation. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 41(6):689-690.

Stastny, M., Schaffner, U., and Elle, E. 2005. Do vigour of introduced populations and escape from specialist herbivores contribute to invasiveness? J. Ecology 93(1):27-37.

Storfer, A., Mech, S.G., Reudink, M.W., Ziemba, R.E., Warren, J., and Collins, J.P. 2004. Evidence for introgression in the endangered Sonora tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi (Lowe). Copeia (4):783-796.

Storz, S.R., and Tschinkel, W.R. 2004. Distribution, spread, and ecological associations of the introduced ant Pheidole obscurithorax in the southeastern United States. J. Insect Sci. 4:12.

Tallmon, D.A., Bellemain, E., Swenson, J.E., and Taberlet, P. 2004. Genetic monitoring of Scandinavian brown bear effective population size and immigration. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):960-965.

Taugbol, T. 2004. Exploitation is a prerequisite for conservation of Astacus astacus. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:275-279.

Taugbol, T., and Peay, S. 2004. Roundtable session 3 - Reintroduction of native crayfish and habitat restoration. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 372-73:465-471.

Taylor, C.M., Davis, H.G., Civille, J.C., Grevstad, F.S., and Hastings, A. 2004. Consequences of an allee effect in the invasion of a Pacific estuary by Spartina alterniflora. Ecology 85(12):3254-3266.

Thibaut, T., Meinesz, A., and Coquillard, P. 2004. Biomass seasonality of Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat. Bot. 80(4):291-297.

Tommasi, D., Miro, A., Higo, H.A., and Winston, M.L. 2004. Bee diversity and abundance in an urban setting. Can. Entomol. 136(6):851-869.

Topinka, J.R., and May, B. 2004. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and cross-amplification in other raptor species. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):861-864.

Triant, D.A., Pace, R.M., and Stine, M. 2004. Abundance, genetic diversity and conservation of Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus) as detected through noninvasive sampling. Conserv. Genet. 5(5):647-659.

Vamosi, J.C., and Vamosi, S.M. 2005. Present day risk of extinction may exacerbate the lower species richness of dioecious clades. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):25-32.

Van der Veken, S., Verheyen, K., and Hermy, M. 2004. Plant species loss in an urban area (Turnhout, Belgium) from 1880 to 1999 and its environmental determinants. Flora 199(6):516-523.

Vandewoestijne, S., and Baguette, M. 2004. Demographic versus genetic dispersal measures. Pop. Ecol. 46(3):281-285.

Vasconcelos, D., and Calhoun, A.J.K. 2004. Movement patterns of adult and juvenile Rana sylvatica (Leconte) and Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw) in three restored seasonal pools in Maine. J. Herpetol. 38(4):551-561.

Von Holle, B. 2005. Biotic resistance to invader establishment of a southern Appalachian plant community is determined by environmental conditions. J. Ecology 93(1):16-26.

Voolma, K., Mandelshtam, M.J., Shcherbakov, A.N., Yakovlev, E.B., Ounap, H., Suda, I., Popovichev, B.G., Sharapa, T.V., Galasjeva, T.V., Khairetdinov, R.R., Lipatkin, V.A., and Mozolevskaya, E.C. 2004. Distribution and spread of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) around the Gulf of Finland: a comparative study with notes on rare species of Estonia, Finland and north-western Russia. Entomol. Fennica 15(4):198-210.

Walsh, P.D., Henschel, P., and Abernethy, K.A. 2004. Logging speeds little red fire ant invasion of Africa. Biotropica 36(4):637-640.

Walter, H.S. 2004. Understanding places and organisms in a changing world. Taxon 53(4):905-910.

Wang, J.L. 2004. Monitoring and managing genetic variation in group breeding populations without individual pedigrees. Conserv. Genet. 5(6):813-825.

Wang, Z.S., An, S.Q., Liu, H., Leng, L., Zheng, J.W., and Liu, Y.H. 2005. Genetic structure of the Endangered plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) from the Zhoushan archipelago using RAPD markers. Ann. Botany 95(2):305-313.

Watson, L.H., Odendaal, H.E., Barry, T.J., and Pietersen, J. 2005. Population viability of Cape mountain zebra in Gamka Mountain Nature Reserve, South Africa: the influence of habitat and fire. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):173-180.

Wells, M., and McShane, T.O. 2004. Integrating protected area management with local needs and aspirations. Ambio 33(8):513-519.

Whigham, D.E. 2004. Ecology of woodland herbs in temperate deciduous forests. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 35:583-621.

Whittaker, D.G., Ostermann, S.D., and Boyce, W.M. 2004. Genetic variability of reintroduced California bighorn sheep in Oregon. J. Wildlife Manag. 68(4):850-859.

Whittaker, R.J., Araújo, M.B., Paul, J., Ladle, R.J., Watson, J.E.M., and Willis, K.J. 2005. Conservation biogeography: assessment and prospect. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):3-23.

Whittall, J.B., Hellquist, C.B., Schneider, E.L., and Hodges, S.A. 2004. Cryptic species in an endangered pondweed community (Potamogeton potamogetonaceae) revealed by AFLP markers. Am. J. Bot. 91(12):2022-2029.

Wyatt, A.S.J., Hewitt, C.L., Walker, D.I., and Ward, T.J. 2005. Marine introductions in the Shark Bay World Heritage Property, Western Australia: a preliminary assessment. Divers. Distrib. 11(1):33-44.

Wyatt, J.L., and Forys, E.A. 2004. Conservation implications of predation by Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) on native hylids in Florida. Southeast. Nat. 3(4):695-700.

Young, T.P., Palmer, T.A., and Gadd, M.E. 2005. Competition and compensation among cattle, zebras, and elephants in a semi-arid savanna in Laikipia, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 122(2):351-359.

Zimmerer, K.S., Galt, R.E., and Buck, M.V. 2004. Globalization and multi-spatial trends in the coverage of protected-area conservation (1980-2000). Ambio 33(8):520-529.

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