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Department ofBotany

No. 245
May 2005

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In This Issue

The Mystery of Frog Population Decline

Unraveling the mysterious decline in frogs has been a world-wide effort among scientists and conservationists alike. Research by a team while at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has described the fungal organism and the deadly disease that it causes in frogs and linked it to this decline.

Joyce Longcore (University of Maine, Orono), Allan Pessier (formerly Department of Pathology, NZP) and Donald Nichols (formerly Associate Pathologist, NZP) have described a newly-discovered species in the fungal class Chytridiomycetes (chytrids) that causes a fatal disease in otherwise healthy dart frogs. The team chose the name Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis for the fungus based on the fact that the first two isolates were from poison dart frogs in the genus Dendrobates, but little did the team know then that it was not just affecting captive dendrobates, but was the fungus behind many of the massive die-offs of wild frog populations worldwide. Habitat destruction and introduced predators are clearly involved in the decline of amphibian populations.

This fungus was first reported as a chytrid by Lee Berger et al. based on research begun in 1993 while a PhD student under Rick Speare of James Cook University. In 1998, she and 13 other authors reported a chytrid fungus that was in frogs associated with die-off events and population declines in Australia and Central America.

While Berger was conducting her studies, Nichols found a similar disease in blue poison dart frog metamorphs that died at NZP. He had previously reported similar pathology from wild cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) in Illinois and captive arroyo toads (Bufo microscaphus californicus) from California. With Pessier, Nichols pointed his research in the direction of aquatic fungi. Electron photomicrograph examination showed the cross section of a zoospore that indicated the organism was a chytrid. They then asked Longcore for her assistance in identifying the organism. Longcore was able to isolate and grow the organism in cultures. She realized that this fungus differed distinctly from other chytridialean genera and species, and the team named it Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

New Journal

Conservation & Society is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal that aims to promote work on the theory and practice of conservation. The journal is committed to disseminating information in the developing world. Free online access is available for all articles and subscriptions are highly subsidized for Asia, Africa and Latin America. The journal was initiated two years ago to integrate conservation research from the natural and social sciences and now covers basic and applied research in areas including political ecology, human-wildlife conflicts, conservation policy, ecosystem structure and functioning, systematics, community and species ecology, landscape ecology, restoration ecology, and conservation biology. Although the journal was originally visualized to have a focus on South Asia, its geographical scope has been expanded to include issues regarding conservation from developing countries around the world. Free online access is available at Further details are available by sending an e-mail to

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project <> works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, a Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2005.

Current Literature

Alcala, E.L., Alcala, A.C., and Dolino, C.N. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles in tropical rainforest fragments on Negros Island, the Philippines. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):254-261.

Amar, A., and Redpath, S.M. 2005. Habitat use by hen harriers Circus cyaneus on Orkney: implications of land-use change for this declining population. Ibis 147(1):37-47.

Amat, F., Hontoria, F., Ruiz, O., Green, A.J., Sánchez, M.I., Figuerola, J., and Hortas, F. 2005. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean. Biol. Invasions 7(1):37-47.

Anders, A.D., and Marshall, M.R. 2005. Increasing the accuracy of productivity and survival estimates in assessing landbird population status. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):66-74.

Anderson, D.L., Wiedenfeld, D.A., Bechard, M.J., and Novak, S.J. 2004. Avian diversity in the Moskitia region of Honduras. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 15(4):447-482.

Anderson, R.C., Nelson, D., Anderson, M.R., and Rickey, M.A. 2005. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) browsing effects on tallgrass prairie forbs: diversity and species abundances. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):19-25.

Andrade, G.I. 2005. Science and society at the World Parks Congress. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):4-5.

Bach, L., Burkhardt, P., and Limpens, H.J.G.A. 2004. Tunnels as a possibility to connect bat habitats. Mammalia 68(4):411-420.

Baker, T.L., and Jennings, C.A. 2005. Striped bass survival in Lake Blackshear, Georgia during drought conditions: implications for restoration efforts in Gulf of Mexico drainages. Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(1):73-84.

Balbontin, J., Penteriani, V., and Ferrer, M. 2005. Humans act against the natural process of breeder selection: a modern sickness for animal populations? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):179-186.

Balvanera, P., Kremen, C., and Martínez-Ramos, M. 2005. Applying community structure analysis to ecosystem function: examples from pollination and carbon storage. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):360-375.

Bar-David, S., Saltz, D., Dayan, T., Perelberg, A., and Dolev, A. 2005. Demographic models and reality in reintroductions: Persian fallow deer in Israel. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):131-138.

Barve, N., Kiran, M.C., Vanaraj, G., Aravind, N.A., Rao, D., Shaanker, R.U., Ganeshaiah, K.N., and Poulsen, J.G. 2005. Measuring and mapping threats to a wildlife sanctuary in southern India. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):122-130.

Beier, P. 2005. Being ethical as conservation biologists and as a society. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):1-2.

Bellemain, E., Swenson, J.E., Tallmon, O., Brunberg, S., and Taberlet, P. 2005. Estimating population size of elusive animals with DNA from hunter-collected feces: four methods for brown bears. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):150-161.

Beuneux, G. 2004. Morphometrics and ecology of Myotis cf. punicus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in Corsica. Mammalia 68(4):269-273.

Blendinger, P.C., Caplionch, P., and Alvarez, M.E. 2004. Abundance and distribution of raptors in the Sierra de San Javier Biological Park, northwestern Argentina. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 15(4):501-512.

Borghesio, L., and Giannetti, F. 2005. Habitat degradation threatens the survival of the Ethiopian bush crow Zavattariornis stresemanni. Oryx 39(1):44-49.

Bowen, T. 2004. Archaeology, biology and conservation on islands in the Gulf of California. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):199-206.

Bronzi, P., Vecsei, P., and Arlati, G. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Acipenser naccarii Bonaparte, 1836 (Acipenseridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(1):66.

Brugière, D., Dia, M., Diakité, S., Gbansara, M., Mamy, M., Saliou, B., and Magassouba, B. 2005. Large- and medium-sized ungulates in the Haut Niger National Park, Republic of Guinea: population changes 1997-2002. Oryx 39(1):50-55.

Buckton, S.T., and Safford, R.J. 2004. The avifauna of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):279-322.

Burton, J.A., Hedges, S., and Burton, J.A. 2005. The taxonomic status, distribution and conservation of the lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi. Mammal Rev. 35(1):25-50.

Çakan, H., Yilmaz, K.T., and Düzenli, A. 2005. First comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the flora of the Çukurova Deltas, southern Turkey. Oryx 39(1):17-21.

Campbell, M.O. 2004. Traditional forest protection and woodlots in the coastal savannah of Ghana. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):225-232.

Cantanhede, A.M., da Silva, V.M.F., Farias, I.P., Hrbek, T., Lazzarini, S.M., and Alves-Gomes, J. 2005. Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia). Mol. Ecol. 14(2):401-413.

Capdevila-Argüelles, L., and Zilletti, B. 2005. Issues in bioinvasion science - EEI 2003: a contribution to the knowledge on invasive alien species - introduction. Biol. Invasions 7(1):1-2.

Carpintero, S., Reyes-López, J., and de Reyna, L.A. 2005. Impact of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) on an arboreal ant community in Doñana National Park, Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):151-163.

Carson, W.P., Banta, J.A., Royo, A.A., and Kirschbaum, C. 2005. Plant communities growing on boulders in the Allegheny National Forest: evidence for boulders as refugia from deer and as a bioassay of overbrowsing. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):10-18.

Castillo, J.M., Rubio-Casal, A.E., Redondo, S., Álvarez-López, A.A., Luque, T., Luque, C., Nieva, F.J., Castellanos, E.M., and Figueroa, M.E. 2005. Short-term responses to salinity of an invasive cordgrass. Biol. Invasions 7(1):29-35.

Cleary, D.F.R., Boyle, T.J.B., Setyawati, T., and Menken, S.B.J. 2005. The impact of logging on the abundance, species richness and community composition of butterfly guilds in Borneo. J. Appl. Entomol. 129(1):52-59.

Clergeau, P., Croci, S., and Jokimäki, J. 2004. How useful are urban island ecosystems for defining invader patterns? Environ. Conserv. 31(3):181-184.

Constantinidis, T., and Kalpoutzakis, E. 2005. A new species of Achillea (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) from south-east Peloponnisos, Greece. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147(2):249-256.

Cotterill, F.P.D. 2005. The Upemba lechwe, Kobus anselli: an antelope new to science emphasizes the conservation importance of Katange, Democratic Republic of Congo. J. Zool. 265:113-132.

Cowlishaw, G., Mendelson, S., and Rowcliffe, J.M. 2005. Structure and operation of a bushmeat commodity chain in southwestern Ghana. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):139-149.

Crehan, C.L., Newman, D.H., Flick, W.A., and Neuhauserz, H. 2005. Land trust activity and highest and best uses under conservation easements in Georgia, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):91-100.

Crist, M.R., Wilmer, B., and Aplet, G.H. 2005. Assessing the value of roadless areas in a conservation reserve strategy: biodiversity and landscape connectivity in the northern Rockies. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):181-191.

Cruz-Angón, A., and Greenberg, R. 2005. Are epiphytes important for birds in coffee plantations? An experimental assessment. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):150-159.

Cummings, J., Reid, N., Davies, I., and Grant, C. 2005. Adaptive restoration of sand-mined areas for biological conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):160-170.

Curtis, O., Simmons, R.E., and Jenkins, A.R. 2004. Black harrier Circus maurus of the Fynbos biome, South Africa: a threatened specialist or an adaptable survivor? Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):233-245.

Danielopol, D.L., Gibert, J., Griebler, C., Gunatilaka, A., Hahn, H.J., Messana, G., Notenboom, J., and Sket, B. 2004. Incorporating ecological perspectives in European groundwater management policy. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):185-189.

Davis, G.E. 2005. National park stewardship and 'vital signs' monitoring: a case study from Channel Islands National Park, California. Aquat. Conserv. 15(1):71-89.

Decandido, R., and Lamont, E.E. 2004. The historical and extant vascular flora of Pelham Bay Park, Bronx County, New York 1947-1998. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131(4):368-386.

DeFries, R., Hansen, A., Newton, A.C., and Hansen, M.C. 2005. Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):19-26.

Denoel, M., Dzukic, G., and Kalezic, M.L. 2005. Effects of widespread fish introductions on paedomorphic newts in Europe. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):162-170.

Díez, J. 2005. Invasion biology of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced with eucalypt plantations into the Iberian Peninsula. Biol. Invasions 7(1):3-15.

Dirmenci, T. 2005. A new subspecies of Nepeta (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147(2):229-233.

Dove, A.D.M., and O'Donoghue, P.J. 2005. Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from native and exotic Australian freshwater fishes. Acta Protozool. 44(1):51-60.

Dowling, T.E., Marsh, P.C., Kelsen, A.T., and Tibbets, C.A. 2005. Genetic monitoring of wild and repatriated populations of endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus, Catostomidae, Teleostei) in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada. Mol. Ecol. 14(1):123-135.

Drescher, C. 2004. Radiotracking of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in South Tyrol and implications for its conservation. Mammalia 68(4):387-395.

Driscoll, D.A., and Weir, T. 2005. Beetle responses to habitat fragmentation depend on ecological traits, habitat condition, and remnant size. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):182-194.

Duran, A., and Ocak, A. 2005. Hesperis turkmendaghensis (sect. Hesperis) (Cruciferae/Brassicaceae), a new species from the Central Anatolia region, Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147(2):239-247.

Edgar, G.J., Bustamante, R.H., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M., Martínez, C., and Toral-Granda, M.V. 2004. Bias in evaluating the effects of marine protected areas: the importance of baseline data for the Galapagos marine reserve. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):212-218.

Edwards, A.L., Wiltshire, B., and Nickrent, D.L. 2004. Genetic diversity in Astragalus tennesseensis and the federal endangered Dalea foliosa (Fabaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131(4):279-291.

Ehrenfeld, D. 2005. Sustainability: living with the imperfections. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):33-35.

Emery, S.M., and Gross, K.L. 2005. Effects of timing of prescribed fire on the demography of an invasive plant, spotted knapweed Centaurea maculosa. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):60-69.

Engeman, R.M., Smith, H.T., Severson, R., Severson, M.A., Woolard, J., Shwiff, S.A., Constantin, B., and Griffin, D. 2004. Damage reduction estimates and benefit-cost ratios for feral swine control from the last remnant of a basin marsh system in Florida. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):207-211.

Eritja, R., Escosa, R., Lucientes, J., Marquès, E., Molina, R., Roiz, D., and Ruiz, S. 2005. Worldwide invasion of vector mosquitoes: present European distribution and challenges for Spain. Biol. Invasions 7(1):87-97.

Fagan, W.E., Aumann, C., Kennedy, C.M., and Unmack, P.J. 2005. Rarity, fragmentation, and the scale dependence of extinction risk in desert fishes. Ecology 86(1):34-41.

Fazey, I., Salisbury, J.G., Lindenmayer, D.B., Maindonald, J., and Douglas, R. 2004. Can methods applied in medicine be used to summarize and disseminate conservation research? Environ. Conserv. 31(3):190-198.

Forup, M.L., and Memmott, J. 2005. The relationship between the abundances of bumblebees and honeybees in a native habitat. Ecol. Entomol. 30(1):47-57.

Fox, H.E., Mous, P.J., Pet, J.S., Muljadi, A.H., and Caldwell, R.L. 2005. Experimental assessment of coral reef rehabilitation following blast fishing. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):98-107.

Franco, A., Fiorin, R., Franzoi, P., and Torricelli, P. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Pomatoschistus canestrinii Ninni, 1883 (Gobiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(1):32.

Gardner, T.A., Côté, I.M., Gill, J.A., Grant, A., and Watkinson, A.R. 2005. Hurricanes and Caribbean coral reefs: impacts, recovery patterns, and role in long-term decline. Ecology 86(1):174-184.

Garrett, G.P., Hubbs, C., and Edwards, R.J. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Cyprinodon eximius Girard 1859 (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(1):98.

Gascoigne, J., and Lipcius, R.N. 2004. Conserving populations at low abundance: delayed functional maturity and allee effects in reproductive behaviour of the queen conch Strombus gigas. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 284:185-194.

Geiger, W., Alcorlo, P., Baltanás, A., and Montes, C. 2005. Impact of an introduced crustacean on the trophic webs of Mediterranean wetlands. Biol. Invasions 7(1):49-73.

Geist, J., and Kuehn, R. 2005. Genetic diversity and differentiation of central European freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) populations: implications for conservation and management. Mol. Ecol. 14(2):425-439.

Genovesi, P. 2005. Eradications of invasive alien species in Europe: a review. Biol. Invasions 7(1):127-133.

Gillespie, T.W. 2005. Predicting woody-plant species richness in tropical dry forests: a case study from south Florida, USA. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):27-37.

Goodman, S.M., and Benstead, J.P. 2005. Updated estimates of biotic diversity and endemism for Madagascar. Oryx 39(1):73-77.

Goossens, B., Chikhi, L., Jalil, M.F., Ancrenaz, M., Lackman-Ancrenaz, I., Mohamed, M., Andau, P., and Bruford, M.W. 2005. Patterns of genetic diversity and migration in increasingly fragmented and declining orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) populations from Sabah, Malaysia. Mol. Ecol. 14(2):441-456.

Gordon, J.E., González, M.A., Hernández, J.V., Lavariega, R.O., and Reyes-García, A. 2005. Guaiacum coulteri: an over-logged dry forest tree of Oaxaca, Mexico. Oryx 39(1):82-85.

Gower, D.J., and Wilkinson, M. 2005. Conservation biology of caecilian amphibians. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):45-55.

Green, R.E., Balmford, A., Crane, P.R., Mace, G.M., Reynolds, J.D., and Turner, R.K. 2005. A framework for improved monitoring of biodiversity: responses to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):56-65.

Greene, H.W. 2005. Organisms in nature as a central focus for biology. TREE 20(1):23-27.

Griffith, A.B., and Forseth, I.N. 2005. Population matrix models of Aeschynomene virginica, a rare annual plant: implications for conservation. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):222-233.

Griswold, M.W., and Lounibos, L.P. 2005. Does differential predation permit invasive and native mosquito larvae to coexist in Florida? Ecol. Entomol. 30(1):122-127.

Gutierrez, R.J., and Barrowclough, G.F. 2005. Redefining the distributional boundaries of the northern and California spotted owls: implications for conservation. Condor 107(1):182-187.

Haddad, N.M., and Tewksbury, J.J. 2005. Low-quality habitat corridors as movement conduits for two butterfly species. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):250-257.

Hawkes, L.A., Broderick, A.C., Godfrey, M.H., and Godley, B.J. 2005. Status of nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta at Bald Head Island (North Carolina, USA) after 24 years of intensive monitoring and conservation. Oryx 39(1):65-72.

Hawkins, C.E., and Racey, P.A. 2005. Low population density of a tropical forest carnivore, Cryptoprocta ferox: implications for protected area management. Oryx 39(1):35-43.

Heenan, P.B., and de Lange, P.J. 2004. Myrsine aquilonia and M. umbricola (Myrsinaceae), two new species from New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 42(5):753-769.

Henshaw, M.T., Kunzmann, N., Vanderwoude, C., Sanetra, M., and Crozier, R.H. 2005. Population genetics and history of the introduced fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in Australia. Aust. J. Entomol. 44:37-44.

Hiremath, A.J. 2004. The ecological consequences of managing forests for non-timber products. Conserv. Soc. [Online] 2(2):211-216.

Hollingsworth, P.M., Dawson, I.K., Goodall-Copestake, W.P., Richardson, J.E., Weber, J.C., Montes, C.S., and Pennington, R.T. 2005. Do farmers reduce genetic diversity when they domesticate tropical trees? A case study from Amazonia. Mol. Ecol. 14(2):497-501.

Holyoak, D.T. 2004. Taxonomic notes on some European species of Bryum (Bryopsida: Bryaceae). J. Bryol. 26:247-264.

Huntington, H.P., Suydam, R.S., and Rosenberg, D.H. 2004. Traditional knowledge and satellite tracking as complementary approaches to ecological understanding. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):177-180.

Inogwabini, B.I. 2005. Fishes of the Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo: survey and conservation issues. Oryx 39(1):78-81.

Inogwabini, B.I., Ilambu, O., and Gbanzi, M.A. 2005. Protected areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):15-22.

Ishtiaq, F., and Rahmani, A.R. 2005. The forest owlet Heteroglaux blewitti: vocalization, breeding biology and conservation. Ibis 147(1):197-205.

James, M.C., Ottensmeyer, C.A., and Myers, R.A. 2005. Identification of high-use habitat and threats to leatherback sea turtles in northern waters: new directions for conservation. Ecol. Lett. 8(2):195-201.

Jensen, A.B., Palmer, K.A., Boomsma, J.J., and Pedersen, B.V. 2005. Varying degrees of Apis mellifera ligustica introgression in protected populations of the black honeybee, Apis mellifera mellifera, in northwest Europe. Mol. Ecol. 14(1):93-106.

Jobin, B., Grenier, M., and Laporte, P. 2005. Using satellite imagery to assess breeding habitat availability of the endangered loggerhead shrike in Quebec. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):81-95.

Johnson, M.T., Follett, P.A., Taylor, A.D., and Jones, V.P. 2005. Impacts of biological control and invasive species on a non-target native Hawaiian insect. Oecologia 142(4):529-540.

Jordan, A., Lawler, M., Halley, V., and Barrett, N. 2005. Seabed habitat mapping in the Kent Group of islands and its role in marine protected area planning. Aquat. Conserv. 15(1):51-70.

Karl, J.W., Scott, J.M., and Strand, E. 2005. An assessment of Idaho's Wildlife Management Areas for the protection of wildlife. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):36-45.

Katano, O., Nakamura, T., Yamamoto, S., and Abe, S. 2005. Summer daytime habitat and population density of the torrent catfish, Liobagrus reini, in the Urano River. Ichthyol. Res. 52(1):50-56.

Kathriarachchi, H.S., Tennakoon, K.U., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., and Ashton, P.M.S. 2004. Ecology of two selected liana species of utility value in a lowland rain forest of Sri Lanka: implications for management. Conserv. Soc. [Online] 2(2):273-288.

Kerans, B.L., Dybdahl, M.E., Gangloff, M.M., and Jannot, J.E. 2005. Potamopyrgus antipodarum: distribution, density, and effects on native macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(1):123-138.

Killeen, I.J., and McFarland, B. 2004. The distribution and ecology of Gyraulus acronicus (Ferussac, 1807) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in England. J. Conchology 38:441-456.

Kjærandsen, J. 2005. Species assemblages and community structure of adult caddisflies along a headwater stream in southeastern Ghana (Insecta: Trichoptera). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):1-43.

Knapp, S., Lughadha, E.N., and Paton, A. 2005. Taxonomic inflation, species concepts and global species lists. TREE 20(1):7-8.

Knutson, M.G., McColl, L.E., and Suarez, S.A. 2005. Breeding bird assemblages associated with stages of forest succession in large river floodplains. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):55-70.

Lamont, E.E., and Young, S.M. 2004. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range - 2002 and 2003. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131(4):394-402.

Lapidge, S.J. 2005. Reintroduction increased vitamin E and condition in captive-bred yellow-footed rock wallabies Petrogale xanthopus. Oryx 39(1):56-64.

Lawes, M.J., MacFarlane, D.M., and Eeley, H.A.C. 2004. Forest landscape pattern in the KwaZulu-Natal midlands, South Africa: 50 years of change or stasis? Austral Ecol. 29(6):613-623.

Lawrence, A., Phillips, O.L., Ismodes, A.R., Lopez, M., Rose, S., Wood, D., and Farfan, A.J. 2005. Local values for harvested forest plants in Madre de Dios, Peru: towards a more contextualised interpretation of quantitative ethnobotanical data. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):45-79.

Le Hir, M., and Hily, C. 2005. Macrofaunal diversity and habitat structure in intertidal boulder fields. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):233-250.

Leps, J. 2004. What do the biodiversity experiments tell us about consequences of plant species loss in the real world? Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(6):529-534.

Li, Y.M., and Wilcove, D.S. 2005. Threats to vertebrate species in China and the United States. BioScience 55(2):147-153.

Li, Y.Y., Chen, X.Y., Zhang, X., Wu, T.Y., Lu, H.P., and Cai, Y.W. 2005. Genetic differences between wild and artificial populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides: implications for species recovery. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):224-231.

Lindborg, R., Cousins, S.A.O., and Eriksson, O. 2005. Plant species response to land use change - Campanula rotundifolia, Primula veris and Rhinanthus minor. Ecography 28(1):29-36.

Liu, H., Menges, E.S., and Quintana-Ascencio, P.F. 2005. Population viability analyses of Chamaecrista keyensis: effects of fire season and frequency. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):210-221.

Liu, H., Menges, E.S., Snyder, J.R., Koptur, S., and Ross, M.S. 2005. Effects of fire intensity on vital rates of an endemic herb of the Florida Keys, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):71-76.

Lloyd, H. 2004. Habitat and population estimates of some threatened lowland forest bird species in Tambopata, south-east Peru. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):261-277.

Lodé, T., Guiral, G., and Peltier, D. 2005. European mink-polecat hybridization events: hazards from natural process? J. Heredity 96(2):89-96.

Lodé, T., and Peltier, D. 2005. Genetic neighbourhood and effective population size in the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):251-259.

Loot, G., Aldana, M., and Navarrete, S.A. 2005. Effects of human exclusion on parasitism in intertidal food webs of central Chile. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):203-212.

Lorvelec, O., and Pascal, M. 2005. French attempts to eradicate non-indigenous mammals and their consequences for native biota. Biol. Invasions 7(1):135-140.

Louda, S.M., Rand, T.A., Arnett, A.E., McClay, A.S., Shea, K., and McEachern, A.K. 2005. Evaluation of ecological risk to populations of a threatened plant from an invasive biocontrol insect. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):234-249.

MacDougall, A.S., and Turkington, R. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of change in degraded ecosystems? Ecology 86(1):42-55.

Madeira, M.J., Gómez-moliner, B.J., and Barbé, A.M. 2005. Genetic introgression on freshwater fish populations caused by restocking programmes. Biol. Invasions 7(1):117-125.

Mäki-Petäys, H., Zakharov, A., Viljakainen, L., Corander, J., and Pamilo, P. 2005. Genetic changes associated to declining populations of Formica ants in fragmented forest landscape. Mol. Ecol. 14(3):733-742.

Martínez-Abraín, A., Sarzo, B., Villuendas, E., Bartolomé, M.A., Mínguez, E., and Oro, D. 2004. Unforeseen effects of ecosystem restoration on yellow-legged gulls in a small western Mediterranean island. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):219-224.

Maunder, M., and Byers, O. 2005. The IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of Ex Situ Populations for Conservation: reflecting major changes in the application of ex situ conservation. Oryx 39(1):95-98.

Maxwell, D., and Jennings, S. 2005. Power of monitoring programmes to detect decline and recovery of rare and vulnerable fish. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):25-37.

McGraw, J.B., and Furedi, M.A. 2005. Deer browsing and population viability of a forest understory plant. Science 307(5711):920-922.

McIntyre, P.B., Michel, E., France, K., Rivers, A., Hakizimana, P., and Cohen, A.S. 2005. Individual- and assemblage-level effects of anthropogenic sedimentation on snails in Lake Tanganyika. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):171-181.

Meyer, S.E., Quinney, D., and Weaver, J. 2005. A life history study of the Snake River plains endemic Lepidium papilliferum (Brassicaceae). West. N. Am. Naturalist 65(1):11-23.

Mora, C., and Robertson, D.R. 2005. Factors shaping the range-size frequency distribution of the endemic fish fauna of the Tropical Eastern Pacific. J. Biogeogr. 32(2):277-286.

Mugisha, A.R., and Jacobson, S.K. 2004. Threat reduction assessment of conventional and community-based conservation approaches to managing protected areas in Uganda. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):233-241.

Mulligan, M.R., and Gorchov, D.L. 2004. Population loss of goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), in Ohio. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131(4):305-310.

Mylecraine, K.A., Kuser, J.E., Smouse, P.E., and Zimmermann, G.L. 2004. Geographic allozyme variation in Atlantic white-cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides (Cupressaceae). Can. J. Forest Res. 34(12):2443-2454.

Newall, P., and Walsh, C.J. 2005. Response of epilithic diatom assemblages to urbanization influences. Hydrobiologia 532:53-67.

Newton, J.L., and Freyfogle, E.T. 2005. All about nature. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):42-44.

Newton, J.L., and Freyfogle, E.T. 2005. Sustainability: a dissent. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):23-32.

Oliver, G. 2004. A protocol for the publication of distributional records of endangered species. J. Conchology 38:327.

Orueta, J.F., Aranda, Y., Gómez, T., Tapia, G.G., and Sanchez-Mármol, L. 2005. Successful eradication of invasive rodents from a small island through pulsed baiting inside covered stations. Biol. Invasions 7(1):141-147.

Osborne, P.E. 2005. Key issues in assessing the feasibility of reintroducing the great bustard Otis tarda to Britain. Oryx 39(1):22-29.

Packer, L., Zayed, A., Grixti, J.C., Ruz, L., Owen, R.E., Vivallo, F., and Toro, H. 2005. Conservation genetics of potentially endangered mutualisms: reduced levels of genetic variation in specialist versus generalist bees. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):195-202.

Padilla, J.A., Blasco, M., Parejo, J.C., Rabasco, A., Sansinforiano, M.E., and Martinez-Trancon, M. 2004. Genetic population structure of Spanish chameleon: implications for its conservation. Israel J. Zool. 50(4):355-366.

Padoch, C., and Sears, R.R. 2005. Conserving concepts: in praise of sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):39-41.

Paehlke, R. 2005. Sustainability as a bridging concept. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):36-38.

Parham, J.F., Stuart, B.L., Bour, R., and Fritz, U. 2004. Evolutionary distinctiveness of the extinct Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis) revealed by DNA from an old museum specimen. Proc. R. Soc. London 271:S391-S394.

Pascal, M., and Lorvelec, O. 2005. Holocene turnover of the French vertebrate fauna. Biol. Invasions 7(1):99-106.

Peterson, A.T., Komar, N., Komar, O., Navarro-Sigüenza, A., Robbins, M.B., and Martínez-Meyer, E. 2004. West Nile virus in the New World: potential impacts on bird species. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):215-232.

Power, A.J., Walker, R.L., Payne, K., and Hurley, D. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) in coastal Georgia, United States. J. Shellfish Res. 23(3):741-744.

Presetnik, P. 2004. Bat species and conservation issues in the castle Grad na Gorickem (NE Slovenia). Mammalia 68(4):427-435.

Pyke, C.R. 2005. Interactions between habitat loss and climate change: implications for fairy shrimp in the Central Valley ecoregion of California, USA. Climatic Change 68(1-2):199-218.

Qiu, Y.X., Zhou, X.W., Fu, C.X., and Chan, Y.S.G. 2005. A preliminary study of genetic variation in the endangered, Chinese endemic species Dysosma versipellis (Berberidaceae). Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46(1):61-69.

Quist, M.C., Hubert, W.A., and Rahel, F.J. 2005. Fish assemblage structure following impoundment of a Great Plains river. West. N. Am. Naturalist 65(1):53-63.

Quist, M.C., Rahel, F.J., and Hubert, W.A. 2005. Hierarchical faunal filters: an approach to assessing effects of habitat and nonnative species on native fishes. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 14(1):24-39.

Rapp, J., Wang, D., Capen, D., Thompson, E., and Lautzenheiser, T. 2005. Evaluating error in using the national vegetation classification system for ecological community mapping in northern New England, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):46-54.

Recasens, J., Calvet, V., Cirujeda, A., and Conesa, J.A. 2005. Phenological and demographic behaviour of an exotic invasive weed in agroecosystems. Biol. Invasions 7(1):17-27.

Reiter, G. 2004. The importance of woodland for Rhinolophus hipposideros (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae) in Austria. Mammalia 68(4):403-410.

Rentch, J.S., Fortney, R.H., Stephenson, S.L., Adams, H.S., Grafton, W.N., and Anderson, J.T. 2005. Vegetation-site relationships of roadside plant communities in West Virginia, USA. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):129-138.

Rich, T.C.G., Mardon, D., Curtis, I., Heyward, S.J., Heyward, V.G., McKean, D.R., Hall, T., Harris, S., O'Rourke, A., Cowan, R.S., and Fay, M.F. 2005. Is the enigma a variation? Sagina boydii F. B. White (Caryophyllaceae), Boyd's pearlwort. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147(2):203-211.

Ridgway, T. 2005. Allozyme electrophoresis still represents a powerful technique in the management of coral reefs. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):135-149.

Rimer, R.L., and McCue, K.A. 2005. Restoration of Helenium virginicum Blake, a threatened plant of the Ozark Highlands. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):86-90.

Roback, P.J., and Askins, R.A. 2005. Judicious use of multiple hypothesis tests. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):261-267.

Rödel, M.O., and Bangoura, M.A. 2004. A conservation assessment of amphibians in the Forêt Classée du Pic de Fon, Simandou Range, southeastern Republic of Guinea, with the description of a new Amnirana species (Amphibia Anura Ranidae). Trop. Zool. 17(2):201-232.

Rodríguez, C.F., Bécares, E., Fernández-aláez, M., and Fernández-aláez, C. 2005. Loss of diversity and degradation of wetlands as a result of introducing exotic crayfish. Biol. Invasions 7(1):75-85.

Roff, J.C. 2005. Conservation of marine biodiversity: too much diversity, too little co-operation. Aquat. Conserv. 15(1):1-5.

Romo, J.T. 2005. Emergence and establishment of Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) (crested wheatgrass) seedlings in a sandhills prairie of central Saskatchewan. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):26-35.

Ryan, P.G., Sinclair, I., Cohen, C., Mills, M.S.L., Spottiswoode, C.N., and Cassidy, R. 2004. The conservation status and vocalizations of threatened birds from the scarp forests of the Western Angola Endemic Bird Area. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):247-260.

Ryder, C., Moran, J., Mc Donnell, R., and Gormally, M. 2005. Conservation implications of grazing practices on the plant and dipteran communities of a turlough in Co. Mayo, Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):187-204.

Sale, P.F., Cowen, R.K., Danilowicz, B.S., Jones, G.P., Kritzer, J.P., Lindeman, K.C., Planes, S., Polunin, N.V.C., Ruse, G.R., Sadovy, Y.J., and Steneck, R.S. 2005. Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. TREE 20(2):74-80.

Sánchez, J.M., del Viejo, A.M., Corbacho, C., Costillo, E., and Fuentes, C. 2004. Status and trends of gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica in Europe and Africa. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):335-351.

Santavy, D.L., Summers, J.K., Engle, V.D., and Harwell, L.C. 2005. The condition of coral reefs in south Florida (2000) using coral disease and bleaching as indicators. Environ. Monit. Assess. 100(1-3):129-152.

Sax, D.F., Kinlan, B.P., and Smith, K.F. 2005. A conceptual framework for comparing species assemblages in native and exotic habitats. Oikos 108(3):457-464.

Schembri, P.J., Deidun, A., Mallia, A., and Mercieca, L. 2005. Rocky shore biotic assemblages of the Maltese islands (central Mediterranean): a conservation perspective. J. Coastal Res. 21(1):157-166.

Schläpfer, F., Pfisterer, A.B., and Schmid, B. 2005. Non-random species extinction and plant production: implications for ecosystem functioning. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):13-24.

Schnitzler, A., Hale, B.W., and Alsum, E. 2005. Biodiversity of floodplain forests in Europe and eastern North America: a comparative study of the Rhine and Mississippi Valleys. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):97-117.

Seddon, J.M., Parker, H.G., Ostrander, E.A., and Ellegren, H. 2005. SNPs in ecological and conservation studies: a test in the Scandinavian wolf population. Mol. Ecol. 14(2):503-511.

Shaanker, R.U., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Krishnan, S., Ramya, R., Meera, C., Aravind, N.A., Kumar, A., Rao, D., Vanaraj, G., Ramachandra, J., Gauthier, R., Ghazoul, J., Poole, N., and Reddy, B.V.C. 2004. Livelihood gains and ecological costs of non-timber forest product dependence: assessing the roles of dependence, ecological knowledge and market structure in three contrasting human and ecological settings in south India. Environ. Conserv. 31(3):242-253.

Siitonen, P., Lehtinen, A., and Siitonen, M. 2005. Effects of forest edges on the distribution, abundance, and regional persistence of wood-rotting fungi. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):250-260.

Simmons, R.E., Barnard, P., Dean, W.R.J., Midgley, G.F., Thuiller, W., and Hughes, G. 2004. Climate change and birds: perspectives and prospects from southern Africa. Ostrich 75(4):295-308.

Slavov, G.T., and Zhelev, P. 2004. Allozyme variation, differentiation, and inbreeding in populations of Pinus mugo in Bulgaria. Can. J. Forest Res. 34(12):2611-2617.

Smith, M.A., and Green, D.M. 2005. Dispersal and the metapopulation paradigm in amphibian ecology and conservation: are all amphibian populations metapopulations? Ecography 28(1):110-128.

Snäll, T., Ehrlén, J., and Rydin, H. 2005. Colonization-extinction dynamics of an epiphyte metapopulation in a dynamic landscape. Ecology 86(1):106-115.

Soulé, M.E., Estes, J.A., Miller, B., and Honnold, D.L. 2005. Strongly interacting species. conservation policy, management, and ethics. BioScience 55(2):168-176.

Suh, A.N., and Samways, M.J. 2005. Significance of temporal changes when designing a reservoir for conservation of dragonfly diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):165-178.

Sundar, K.S.G. 2004. Group size and habitat use by black-necked storks Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus in an agriculture-dominate landscape in Uttar Pradesh, India. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(4):323-334.

Sutherland, W.J. 2005. How can we make conservation more effective? Oryx 39(1):1-2.

Tait, C.J., Daniels, C.B., and Hill, R.S. 2005. Changes in species assemblages within the Adelaide metropolitan area, Australia, 1836-2002. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):346-359.

Talhouk, S.N., van Breugel, P., Zurayk, R., Al-Khatib, A., Estephan, J., Ghalayini, A., Debian, N., and Lychaa, D. 2005. Status and prospects for the conservation of remnant semi-natural carob Ceratonia siliqua L. populations in Lebanon. Forest Ecol. Manag. 206(1-3):49-59.

Tella, J.L., Vögeli, M., Serrano, D., and Carrete, M. 2005. Current status of the threatened Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti in Spain: overestimation, decline, and extinction of local populations. Oryx 39(1):90-94.

Terborgh, J. 2005. Science and society at the World Parks Congress. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):5-6.

Ticktin, T. 2005. Applying a metapopulation framework to the management and conservation of a non-timber forest species. Forest Ecol. Manag. 206(1-3):249-261.

Tindall, J.R., Gerrath, J.A., Melzer, M., McKendry, K., Husband, B.C., and Boland, G.J. 2004. Ecological status of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in its native range in Canada. Can. J. Forest Res. 34(12):2554-2563.

Trakhtenbrot, A., and Kadmon, R. 2005. Environmental cluster analysis as a tool for selecting complementary networks of conservation sites. Ecol. Appl. 15(1):335-345.

Trapnell, D.W., and Hamrick, J.L. 2005. Mating patterns and gene flow in the neotropical epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens. Mol. Ecol. 14(1):75-84.

Trewhella, W.J., Rodriguez-Clark, K.M., Corp, N., Entwistle, A., Garrett, S.R.T., Granek, E., Lengel, K.L., Raboude, M.J., Reason, P.F., and Sewall, B.J. 2005. Environmental education as a component of multidisciplinary conservation programs: lessons from conservation initiatives for critically endangered fruit bats in the western Indian Ocean. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):75-85.

Ungricht, S., Rasplus, J.Y., and Kjellberg, F. 2005. Extinction threat evaluation of endemic fig trees of New Caledonia: priority assessment for taxonomy and conservation with herbarium collections. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):205-232.

Van der Putten, W.H., de Ruiter, P.C., Bezemer, T.M., Harvey, J.A., Wassen, M., and Wolters, V. 2004. Trophic interactions in a changing world. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5(6):487-494.

van Heezik, Y., and Seddon, P.J. 2005. Structure and content of graduate wildlife management and conservation biology programs: an international perspective. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):7-14.

van Treuren, R., Bas, N., Goossens, P.J., Jansen, J., and van Soest, L.J.M. 2005. Genetic diversity in perennial ryegrass and white clover among old Dutch grasslands as compared to cultivars and nature reserves. Mol. Ecol. 14(1):39-52.

Vandvik, V., Heegaard, E., Måren, I.E., and Aarrestad, P.A. 2005. Managing heterogeneity: the importance of grazing and environmental variation on post-fire succession in heathlands. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):139-149.

Verrier, F.J., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2005. Frequent mowing is better than grazing for the conservation value of lowland tussock grasssland at Pontville, Tasmania. Austral Ecol. 30(1):74-78.

Viggers, K.L., and Hearn, J.P. 2005. The kangaroo conundrum: home range studies and implications for land management. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(1):99-107.

Vila-Gispert, A., Alcaraz, C., and García-Berthou, E. 2005. Life-history traits of invasive fish in small Mediterranean streams. Biol. Invasions 7(1):107-116.

Villaseñor, J.L., Ibarra-Manríquez, G., Meave, J.A., and Ortíz, E. 2005. Higher taxa as surrogates of plant biodiversity in a megadiverse country. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):232-238.

Wahbe, T.R., Bunnell, F.L., and Bury, R.B. 2004. Terrestrial movements of juvenile and adult tailed frogs in relation to timber harvest in coastal British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 34(12):2455-2466.

Wares, J.P., Alo, D., and Turner, T.F. 2004. A genetic perspective on management and recovery of federally endangered trout (Oncorhynchus gilae) in the American southwest. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61(10):1890-1899.

Webb, C.O. 2005. Engineering hope. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):275-277.

Wei-Dong, L., and Smith, A.T. 2005. Dramatic decline of the threatened Ili pika Ochotona iliensis (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) in Xinjiang, China. Oryx 39(1):30-34.

Weigle, S.M., Smith, L.D., Carlton, J.T., and Pederson, J. 2005. Assessing the risk of introducing exotic species via the live marine species trade. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):213-223.

Wichmann, M.C., Dean, W.R.J., and Jeltsch, F. 2004. Global change challenges the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax): modelling extinction risk with respect to predicted climate and land use changes. Ostrich 75(4):204-210.

Wiegand, T., Revilla, E., and Moloney, K.A. 2005. Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population dynamics. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):108-121.

Wilkie, D.S., Starkey, M., Abernethy, K., Effa, E.N., Telfer, P., and Godoy, R. 2005. Role of prices and wealth in consumer demand for bushmeat in Gabon, Central Africa. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):268-274.

Williams, C.L., Fedynich, A.M., Pence, D.B., and Rhodes, O.E. 2005. Evaluation of allozyme and microsatellite variation in Texas and Florida mottled ducks. Condor 107(1):155-161.

Williams-Linera, G., Palacios-Rios, M., and Hernández-Gómez, R. 2005. Fern richness, tree species surrogacy, and fragment complementarity in a Mexican tropical montane cloud forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(1):119-133.

Wolf, A.T., Howe, R.W., and Dana, R.P. 2005. Conservation of the northern blue butterfly Plebejus (Lycaeides) idas nabokovi in the western Great Lakes region. Nat. Areas J. 25(1):77-85.

Yates, C.J., and Ladd, P.G. 2005. Relative importance of reproductive biology and establishment ecology for persistence of a rare shrub in a fragmented landscape. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):239-249.

Zacharias, M.A., and Gregr, E.J. 2005. Sensitivity and vulnerability in marine environments: an approach to identifying vulnerable marine areas. Conserv. Biol. 19(1):86-97.

Zuercher, G.L., Gipson, P.S., and Carrillo, O. 2005. Diet and habitat associations of bush dogs Speothos venaticus in the interior Atlantic forest of eastern Paraguay. Oryx 39(1):86-89.

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