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Department ofBotany

No. 246
June 2005

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In This Issue

Major Study Documents Loss of Hawaiian Plant Biodiversity

After more than a decade of collaboration, Warren Wagner from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and colleagues Stephen Weller and Ann Sakai, both from the University of California at Irvine, have published a book-length monograph documenting the loss of biodiversity in Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae, carnation family) due to global change.

One of the most critically endangered lineages of the 31 genera of plants endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, Schiedea is an excellent example of adaptive radiation. Among its most prominent evolutionary transitions have been remarkable changes in its growth habit, ranging from rainforest vines to cliff-dwelling shrubs. The latter are particularly notable for a lineage within the carnation family, which is normally a family of herbaceous annuals and perennials.

Artwork of Schiedea by Alice Tangerini

Schiedea species occur in an extraordinary range of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, and the monograph illustrates all of the species and maps their ranges. The authors describe two new species (S. laui and S. perlmanii) in the monograph, along with several species that they had presumed to be extinct but rediscovered during their fieldwork. In addition, the authors did not relocate S. amplexicaulis and S. implexa, which they now consider to be extinct. Most of the other species of Schiedea are at great risk of extinction.

Schiedea is divided into seven sections and 34 species. In four species (formerly treated as a separate genus, Alsinidendron), the floral nectary appendages are flap- or cup-like. These appendages are unique within the carnation family and serve as a key feature to delineate Schiedea as a monophyletic group resulting from a single colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. Molecular information indicates that a clade of two small circumboreal-Alaskan genera is most closely related to Schiedea, suggesting that the ancestor of this subtropical genus colonized the Hawaiian Islands from a north temperate-boreal region.

This research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation; the National Geographic Society; and the Smithsonian's Scholarly Studies, Andrew W. Mellon Smithsonian Fellowships, and Walcott Botanical fund.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) <> was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2005.

The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) <> is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming. The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2005.

Current Literature

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Didham, R.K., Ewers, R.M., and Gemmell, N.J. 2005. Comment on "Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands". Science 307(5714):1412a.

Dinter, I., and Greuter, W. 2004. Silene rothmaleri (Caryophyllaceae), believed extinct, rediscovered at Cabo de São Vicente (Algarve, Portugal). Willdenowia 34(2):371-380.

Dobson, A. 2005. Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1454):229-241.

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Dover, J.W., and Rowlingson, B. 2005. The western jewel butterfly (Hypochrysops halyaetus): factors affecting adult butterfly distribution within native Banksia bushland in an urban setting. Biol. Conserv. 122(4):599-609.

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Dudley, N., Baldock, D., Nasi, R., and Stolton, S. 2005. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1454):457-470.

Durell, S.E.A.L., Stillman, R.A., Triplet, P., Aulert, C., Biot, D.O.D., Bouchet, A., Duhamel, S., Mayot, S., and Goss-Custard, J.D. 2005. Modelling the efficacy of proposed mitigation areas for shorebirds: a case study on the Seine estuary, France. Biol. Conserv. 123(1):67-77.

Durán, S.M., and Kattan, G.H. 2005. A test of the utility of exotic tree plantations for understory birds and food resources in the Colombian Andes. Biotropica 37(1):129-135.

Ehrenfeld, D. 2005. The environmental limits to globalization. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):318-326.

Endels, P., Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., and Hermy, M. 2005. Rapid response to habitat restoration by the perennial Primula veris as revealed by demographic monitoring. Plant Ecol. 176(2):143-156.

Enright, N.J., Miller, B.P., and Akhter, R. 2005. Desert vegetation and vegetation-environment relationships in Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan. J. Arid Environ. 61(3):397-418.

Espeland, E.K., Carlsen, T.M., and Macqueen, D. 2005. Fire and dynamics of granivory on a California grassland forb. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(2):267-280.

Fermon, H., Waltert, M., Vane-Wright, R.I., and Muhlenberg, M. 2005. Forest use and vertical stratification in fruit-feeding butterflies of Sulawesi, Indonesia: impacts for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(2):333-350.

Ficetola, G.F., and De Bernardi, F. 2005. Supplementation or in situ conservation? Evidence of local adaptation in the Italian agile frog Rana latastei and consequences for the management of populations. Anim. Conserv. 8:33-40.

Ficetola, G.F., Padoa-Schioppa, E., Monti, A., Massa, R., De Bernardi, F., and Bottoni, L. 2004. The importance of aquatic and terrestrial habitat for the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis): implications for conservation planning and management. Can. J. Zool. 82(11):1704-1712.

Finnoff, D., and Tschirhart, J. 2005. Identifying, preventing and controlling invasive plant species using their physiological traits. Ecol. Econ. 52(3):397-416.

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Fitter, A.H. 2005. Darkness visible: reflections on underground ecology. J. Ecology 93(2):231-243.

Flood, R. 2005. Speak truth to power: thoughts on a bold strategy for conservation biologists. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):293.

Fraser, A., and Kindscher, K. 2005. Spatial distribution of Spartina pectinata transplants to restore wet prairie. Restor. Ecol. 13(1):144-151.

Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M., and Bergstrom, D.M. 2005. Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biol. Rev. 80(1):45-72.

Galatowitsch, S., and Richardson, D.M. 2005. Riparian scrub recovery after clearing of invasive alien trees in headwater streams of the Western Cape, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 122(4):509-521.

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Garibaldi, A., and Turner, N. 2004. Cultural keystone species: implications for ecological conservation and restoration. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(3):1.

Gaston, K.J., Smith, R.M., Thompson, K., and Warren, P.H. 2005. Urban domestic gardens (II): experimental tests of methods for increasing biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(2):395-413.

Ghimire, S.K., McKey, D., and Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Y. 2004. Heterogeneity in ethnoecological knowledge and management of medicinal plants in the Himalayas of Nepal: implications for conservation. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(3):6.

Gibbs, J.P., and Steen, D.A. 2005. Trends in sex ratios of turtles in the United States: implications of road mortality. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):552-556.

Githiru, M., Lens, L., and Cresswell, W. 2005. Nest predation in a fragmented Afrotropical forest: evidence from natural and artificial nests. Biol. Conserv. 123(2):189-196.

Gjerde, I., Sætersdal, M., and Nilsen, T. 2005. Abundance of two threatened woodpecker species in relation to the proportion of spruce plantations in native pine forests of western Norway. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(2):377-393.

Gjershaug, J.O., Rov, N., Nygard, T., Prawiradilaga, D.M., Afianto, M.Y., Hapsoro, and Supriatna, A. 2004. Home-range size of the Javan hawk-eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi) estimated from direct observations and radiotelemetry. J. Raptor Res. 38(4):343-349.

Glasby, T.M., Creese, R.G., and Gibson, P.T. 2005. Experimental use of salt to control the invasive marine alga Caulerpa taxifolia in New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 122(4):573-580.

Godt, M.J.W., Caplow, F., and Hamrick, J.L. 2005. Allozyme diversity in the federally threatened golden paintbrush, Castilleja levisecta (Scrophulariaceae). Conserv. Genet. 6(1):87-99.

Goldberg, T.L., Grant, E.C., Inendino, K.R., Kassler, T.W., Claussen, J.E., and Philipp, D.P. 2005. Increased infectious disease susceptibility resulting from outbreeding depression. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):455-462.

Goodall-Copestake, W.P., Hollingsworth, M.L., Hollingsworth, P.M., Jenkins, G.I., and Collin, E. 2005. Molecular markers and ex situ conservation of the European elms (Ulmus spp.). Biol. Conserv. 122(4):537-546.

Gorokhova, E., Hansson, S., Hoglander, H., and Andersen, C.M. 2005. Stable isotopes show food web changes after invasion by the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi in a Baltic Sea bay. Oecologia 143(2):251-259.

Grayson, D.K., and Delpech, F. 2005. Pleistocene reindeer and global warming. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):557-562.

Gregory, R.D., van Strien, A., Vorisek, P., Meyling, A.W.G., Noble, D.G., Foppen, R.P.B., and Gibbons, D.W. 2005. Developing indicators for European birds. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1454):269-288.

Grimm, V., Revilla, E., Groeneveld, J., Kramer-Schadt, S., Schwager, M., Tews, J., Wichmann, M.C., and Jeltsch, F. 2005. Importance of buffer mechanisms for population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):578-580.

Groeneveld, E.V.G., and Rochefort, L. 2005. Polytrichum strictum as a solution to frost heaving in disturbed ecosystems: a case study with milled peatlands. Restor. Ecol. 13(1):74-82.

Gross, K.L., Mittelbach, G.G., and Reynolds, H.L. 2005. Grassland invasibility and diversity: responses to nutrients, seed input, and disturbance. Ecology 86(2):476-486.

Grund, K., Conedera, M., Schroder, H., and Walther, G.R. 2005. The role of fire in the invasion process of evergreen broad-leaved species. Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(1):47-56.

Haddad, C.F.B., and Prado, C.P.A. 2005. Reproductive modes in frogs and their unexpected diversity in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. BioScience 55(3):207-217.

Haight, R.G., Snyder, S.A., and Revelle, C.S. 2005. Metropolitan open-space protection with uncertain site availability. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):327-337.

Hannah, L., Midgley, G., Hughes, G., and Bomhard, B. 2005. The view from the Cape. Extinction risk, protected areas, and climate change. BioScience 55(3):231-242.

Hansson, B., and Richardson, D.S. 2005. Genetic variation in two endangered Acrocephalus species compared to a widespread congener: estimates based on functional and random loci. Anim. Conserv. 8:83-90.

Hartl, G.B., Zachos, F.E., Nadlinger, K., Ratkiewicz, M., Klein, F., and Lang, G. 2005. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis of French red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations: genetic structure and its implications for management and conservation. Mamm. Biol. 70(1):24-34.

Hedin, M., and Dellinger, B. 2005. Descriptions of a new species and previously unknown males of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) from caves in eastern North America, with comments on species rarity. Zootaxa 904:1-19.

Heilmann-Clausen, J., and Christensen, M. 2005. Wood-inhabiting macrofungi in Danish beech-forests - conflicting diversity patterns and their implications in a conservation perspective. Biol. Conserv. 122(4):633-642.

Heino, J., Paavola, R., Virtanen, R., and Muotka, T. 2005. Searching for biodiversity indicators in running waters: do bryophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish show congruent diversity patterns? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(2):415-428.

Helgen, K.M., and Groves, C.P. 2005. Biodiversity in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats. Science 308(5719):199.

Hensen, I., and Oberprieler, C. 2005. Effects of population size on genetic diversity and seed production in the rare Dictamnus albus (Rutaceae) in central Germany. Conserv. Genet. 6(1):63-73.

Herrmann, H.L., Babbitt, K.J., Baber, M.J., and Congalton, R.G. 2005. Effects of landscape characteristics on amphibian distribution in a forest-dominated landscape. Biol. Conserv. 123(2):139-149.

Hietz, P. 2005. Conservation of vascular epiphyte diversity in Mexican coffee plantations. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):391-399.

Higgins, J.V., Bryer, M.T., Khoury, M.L., and Fitzhugh, T.W. 2005. A freshwater classification approach for biodiversity conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):432-445.

Higgs, E. 2005. The two-culture problem: ecological restoration and the integration of knowledge. Restor. Ecol. 13(1):159-164.

Hilborn, R., Orensanz, J.M., and Parma, A.M. 2005. Institutions, incentives and the future of fisheries. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1453):47-57.

Huang, S.C., Wang, W.K., Peng, C.I., and Chiang, T.Y. 2005. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of Hygrophila pogonocalyx (Acanthaceae) based on atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer cpDNA. J. Plant Res. 118(1):1-11.

Hutchings, J.A., and Baum, J.K. 2005. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1454):315-338.

Ishihama, F., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2005. Gene flow and inbreeding depression inferred from fine-scale genetic structure in an endangered heterostylous perennial, Primula sieboldii. Mol. Ecol. 14(4):983-990.

Jepsen, J.U., Baveco, J.M., Topping, C.J., Verboom, J., and Vos, C.C. 2005. Evaluating the effect of corridors and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal probability: a comparison of three spatially explicit modelling approaches. Ecol. Model. 181(4):445-459.

Jiménez, J., Jurado, E., Aguirre, O., and Estrada, E. 2005. Effect of grazing on restoration of endemic dwarf pine (Pinus culminicola Andresen et Beaman) populations in northeastern Mexico. Restor. Ecol. 13(1):103-107.

Jones, K.L., Barzen, J.A., and Ashley, M.V. 2005. Geographical partitioning of microsatellite variation in the sarus crane. Anim. Conserv. 8:1-8.

Kala, C.P. 2005. Indigenous uses, population density, and conservation of threatened medicinal plants in protected areas of the Indian Himalayas. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):368-378.

Kallimanis, A.S., Kunin, W.E., Halley, J.M., and Sgardelis, S.P. 2005. Metapopulation extinction risk under spatially autocorrelated disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):534-546.

Kamenetsky, R., Shafir, I.L., Khassanov, F., Kik, C., van Heusden, A.W., Vrielink-van Ginkel, M., Burger-Meijer, K., Auger, J., Arnault, I., and Rabinowitch, H.D. 2005. Diversity in fertility potential and organo-sulphur compounds among garlics from Central Asia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(2):281-295.

Keener, A.L., and Sharpe, W.E. 2005. The effects of doubling limestone sand applications in two acidic southwestern Pennsylvania streams. Restor. Ecol. 13(1):108-119.

Keller, R.P., and Lodge, D.M. 2005. Probability of nonindigenous seafood species becoming established. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):287-288.

Knight, G.L., and Gido, K.B. 2005. Habitat use and susceptibility to predation of four prairie stream fishes: implications for conservation of the endangered Topeka Shiner. Copeia 2005(1):38-47.

Knight, K.S., and Reich, P.B. 2005. Opposite relationships between invasibility and native species richness at patch versus landscape scales. Oikos 109(1):81-88.

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Phua, M.H., and Minowa, M. 2005. A GIS-based multi-criteria decision making approach to forest conservation planning at a landscape scale: a case study in the Kinabalu area, Sabah, Malaysia. Landscape Urban Plan. 71(2-4):207-222.

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Politi, N., and Rivera, L.O. 2005. Abundance and distribution of parrots along the elevational gradient of Calilegua National Park, Argentina. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(1):43-52.

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Roberts, M.A., Anderson, C.J., Stender, B., Segars, A., Whittaker, J.D., Grady, J.M., and Quattro, J.M. 2005. Estimated contribution of Atlantic coastal loggerhead turtle nesting populations to offshore feeding aggregations. Conserv. Genet. 6(1):133-139.

Robinson, T.J., Trifonov, V., Espie, I., and Harley, E.H. 2005. Interspecific hybridisation in rhinoceroses: confirmation of a black x white rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and microsatellite analysis. Conserv. Genet. 6(1):141-145.

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Roth, R. 2004. Spatial organization of environmental knowledge: conservation conflicts in the inhabited forest of northern Thailand. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(3):5.

Rouquette, J.R., and Thompson, D.J. 2005. Habitat associations of the endangered damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale, in a water meadow ditch system in southern England. Biol. Conserv. 123(2):225-235.

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Seddon, J.M. 2005. Canid-specific primers for molecular sexing using tissue or non-invasive samples. Conserv. Genet. 6(1):147-149.

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Sözer, R., and Nijman, V. 2005. Effects of ENSO-induced forest fires and habitat disturbance on the abundance and spatial distribution of an endangered riverine bird in Borneo. Anim. Conserv. 8:27-31.

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Traveset, A., and Riera, N. 2005. Disruption of a plant-lizard seed dispersal system and its ecological effects on a threatened endemic plant in the Balearic Islands. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):421-431.

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Welch, N.E., and MacMahon, J.A. 2005. Identifying habitat variables important to the rare Columbia spotted frog in Utah (USA): an information-theoretic approach. Conserv. Biol. 19(2):473-481.

West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D., Durell, S.E.A.L., and Stillman, R.A. 2005. Maintaining estuary quality for shorebirds: towards simple guidelines. Biol. Conserv. 123(2):211-224.

Wethered, R., and Lawes, M.J. 2005. Nestedness of bird assemblages in fragmented Afromontane forest: the effect of plantation forestry in the matrix. Biol. Conserv. 123(1):125-137.

Wikelski, M., Foufopoulos, J., Vargas, H., and Snell, H. 2004. Galapagos birds and diseases: invasive pathogens as threats for island species. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 9(1):5.

Wilbur, A.E., Seyoum, S., Bert, T.M., and Arnold, W.S. 2005. A genetic assessment of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) restoration efforts in Florida's Gulf of Mexico coastal waters (USA). Conserv. Genet. 6(1):111-122.

Wimmer, T., and Whitehead, H. 2004. Movements and distribution of northern bottlenose whales, Hyperoodon ampullatus, on the Scotian Slope and in adjacent waters. Can. J. Zool. 82(11):1782-1794.

Wolters, M., Garbutt, A., and Bakker, J.P. 2005. Salt-marsh restoration: evaluating the success of de-embankments in north-west Europe. Biol. Conserv. 123(2):249-268.

Woodroffe, R., and Frank, L.G. 2005. Lethal control of African lions (Panthera leo): local and regional population impacts. Anim. Conserv. 8:91-98.

Yoshimura, C., Omura, T., Furumai, H., and Tockner, K. 2005. Present state of rivers and streams in Japan. River Res. Appl. 21(2-3):93-112.

Zahawi, R.A. 2005. Establishment and growth of living fence species: an overlooked tool for the restoration of degraded areas in the tropics. Restor. Ecol. 13(1):92-102.

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