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Department ofBotany

No. 248
August 2005

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In This Issue

Florida Panther Makes a Comeback

Researchers at the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoo report that efforts to save the Florida panther look promising. The critical status of the panther (Puma concolor coryi) was recognized as early as 1967 when it was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1973 with the creation of the Endangered Species Act, it was estimated that only 30-50 animals were alive.

The cats, which once ranged throughout the southeastern United States as far west as eastern Texas, as far north as Tennessee and South Carolina suffered from hunting and loss of habitat. In 1989, Jo Gayle Howard, David Wildt and Jon Ballou of the National Zoo and a research team developed a recovery plan. Population viability work was done and a species survival plan developed.

Using tracking dogs to locate wild Florida panthers, Howard and other National Zoo researchers conducted reproductive exams on many free-ranging panthers and animals that had been killed. Results indicated that the animals had severe reproductive problems, including extremely poor semen quality with low sperm numbers and high sperm abnormalities. The Florida pumas also had severe health problems: susceptibility to disease, low kitten survival, heart murmurs and rare heart defects.

The recovery program had to improve the genetic composition of the population that had been maintained a century ago by the panthers ranging so widely. In 1994, it was decided to introduce animals from a closely related subspecies, the Texas puma (Puma concolor stanleyana) into Florida. Eight Texas females were released in 1995. While three died very soon after the release, five females bred with Florida panther males and produced offspring.

These kittens and their descendants now appear to have turned the tide for the dangerously inbred Florida panther. The intercross kittens did not have the cowlicks or kinked tails that were the outward signs of inbreeding, and they appeared more robust than their purebred cousins. More importantly, the offspring did not have heart defects and other health problems.

National Zoo researchers continue to conduct biomedical tests and genetic analyses to see whether other negative effects of inbreeding have vanished, and the outlook is promising. Currently, there are at least 130 Florida panthers. Survival depends on habitat with humans and panthers co-existing despite land use pressures.

North America's Most Vulnerable Pollinators

The first step to effectively protect pollinators at risk of extinction is to identify those species in need of conservation. To that end, the Xerces Society, in cooperation with scientists across the United States and Canada, has produced the Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America.

The Xerces Society Pollinator Red List includes 115 species and subspecies: 57 butterflies, 2 moths, and 56 bees from across the US and Canada. Each species has a brief status review that distills the current state of knowledge of life history, distribution, threats, conservation needs, and research needs into a single document. The status reviews also include discussions of taxonomy and identification and lists of contacts, publications, and Web sites.

"For many of these species more research is needed into population distribution, life history, and habitat needs so we can determine the course of conservation action," said Scott Hoffman Black, Executive Director of the Xerces Society.

Pollinators are keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems. They provide the critical ecological function that guarantees rich and diverse plant communities, which, in turn, provide food and other commodities for us, and form habitat for wildlife.

Many of the pollinators included in the Red List suffer from destruction of their habitat for intensive agriculture and urbanization. Pesticides have negatively impacted pollinator populations, and pose a continuing threat. Introduced diseases and parasites are a leading factor in the decline of several species.

The Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America, the most complete assessment of the state of the continent's at-risk pollinators, is published as a CD-ROM and is also accessible on the Xerces Society's Web site <>. To contact the Xerces Society, visit their Web site or write to the society at 4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, Oregon 97215, USA.

Current Literature

Agostinho, A.A., Thomaz, S.M., and Gomes, L.C. 2005. Conservation of the biodiversity of Brazil's inland waters. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):646-652.

Allanson, B.R., and Herbert, D.G. 2005. A newly discovered population of the critically endangered false limpet Siphonaria compressa Allanson, 1958 (Pulmonata: Siphonarildae), with observations on its reproductive biology. S. Afr. J. Sci. 101(1-2):95-97.

Almeida, R., Gonçalves, S., and Romano, A. 2005. In vitro micropropagation of endangered Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. baeticum (Boissier & Reuter) Handel-Mazzetti. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1059-1069.

Amaral, A.C.Z., and Jablonski, S. 2005. Conservation of marine and coastal biodiversity in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):625-631.

Anand, M., Laurence, S., and Rayfield, B. 2005. Diversity relationships among taxonomic groups in recovering and restored forests. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):955-962.

Andersson, M.S., and Gradstein, S.R. 2005. Impact of management intensity on non-vascular epiphyte diversity in cacao plantations in western Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1101-1120.

Armbrecht, I., Rivera, L., and Perfecto, I. 2005. Reduced diversity and complexity in the leaf-litter ant assemblage of Colombian coffee plantations. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):897-907.

Armbruster, G.F.J., Koller, B., and Baur, B. 2005. Foot mucus and periostracum fraction as non-destructive source of DNA in the land snail Arianta arbustorum, and the development of new microsatellite loci. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):313-316.

Aune, K., Jonsson, B.G., and Moen, J. 2005. Isolation and edge effects among woodland key habitats in Sweden: is forest policy promoting fragmentation? Biol. Conserv. 124(1):89-95.

Baker, R., Cannon, R., Bartlett, P., and Barker, I. 2005. Novel strategies for assessing and managing the risks posed by invasive alien species to global crop production and biodiversity. Ann. Appl. Biol. 146(2):177-191.

Band, H.T., Bächli, G., and Band, R.N. 2005. Behavioral constancy for interspecies dependency enables Nearctic Chymomyza amoena (Loew) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to spread in orchards and forests in Central and Southern Europe. Biol. Invasions 7(3):509-530.

Bandeira, F.P., Martorell, C., Meave, J.A., and Caballero, J. 2005. The role of rustic coffee plantations in the conservation of wild tree diversity in the Chinantec region of Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1225-1240.

Banks, S.A., Skilleter, G.A., and Skilleter, G.A. 2005. Intertidal habitat conservation: identifying conservation targets in the absence of detailed biological information. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):271-288.

Barbour, R.C., Potts, B.M., and Vaillancourt, R.E. 2005. Pollen dispersal from exotic eucalypt plantations. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):253-257.

Baur, B., Coray, A., Minoretti, N., and Zschokke, S. 2005. Dispersal of the endangered flightless beetle Dorcadion fuliginator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in spatially realistic landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):49-61.

Bearzi, G., Politi, E., Agazzi, S., Bruno, S., Costa, M., and Bonizzoni, S. 2005. Occurrence and present status of coastal dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus) in the eastern Ionian Sea. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):243-257.

Bell, C.D.L., Parsons, J., Austin, T.J., Broderick, A.C., Ebanks-Petrie, G., and Godley, B.J. 2005. Some of them came home: the Cayman Turtle Farm headstarting project for the green turtle Chelonia mydas. Oryx 39(2):137-148.

Berry, O., Tocher, M.D., Gleeson, D.M., and Sarre, S.D. 2005. Effect of vegetation matrix on animal dispersal: genetic evidence from a study of endangered skinks. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):855-864.

Bonn, A., and Gaston, K.J. 2005. Capturing biodiversity: selecting priority areas for conservation using different criteria. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1083-1100.

Borghesio, L., Palestrini, C., and Balletto, E. 2005. Butterfly ecology and conservation of a site in the pre-Apennines of Piedmont (NW Italy). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(1):33-44.

Brandon, K., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands, A.B., and da Silva, J.M.C. 2005. Brazilian conservation: challenges and opportunities. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):595-600.

Bruna, E.M., Vasconcelos, H.L., and Heredia, S. 2005. The effect of habitat fragmentation on communities of mutualists: Amazonian ants and their host plants. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):209-216.

Burger, J., Jeitner, C., Clark, K., and Niles, L.J. 2004. The effect of human activities on migrant shorebirds: successful adaptive management. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):283-288.

Burn, D.M., and Doroff, A.M. 2005. Decline in sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations along the Alaska Peninsula, 1986-2001. Fishery Bull. 103(2):270-279.

Burrows, J.E., and WIllis, C.K. (eds.). 2005. Plants of the Nyika Plateau: An Account of the Vegetation of the Nyika National Parks of Malawi and Zambia. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31. SABONET. Pretoria.

Butcher, P.A., Skinner, A.K., and Gardiner, C.A. 2005. Increased inbreeding and inter-species gene flow in remnant populations of the rare Eucalyptus benthamii. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):213-226.

Callaway, J.C. 2005. The challenge of restoring functioning salt marsh ecosystems. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:24-36.

Cardoso, P.G., Brandao, A., Pardal, M.A., Raffaelli, D., and Marques, J.C. 2005. Resilience of Hydrobia ulvae populations to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 289:191-199.

Cardoso, S.R.S., Provan, J., Lira, C.C.D., Pereira, L.D.R., Ferreira, P.C.G., and Cardoso, M.A. 2005. High levels of genetic structuring as a result of population fragmentation in the tropical tree species Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1047-1057.

Carey, C. 2005. How physiological methods and concepts can be useful in conservation biology. Integr. Comp. Biol. 45(1):4-11.

Carlberg, S.R. 2005. Conservation of marine ecological quality - a current European perspective. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):211-214.

Carvajal-Rodríguez, A., Rolán-Alvarez, E., and Caballero, A. 2005. Quantitative variation as a tool for detecting human-induced impacts on genetic diversity. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):1-13.

Chapman, D.J., and Julius, B.E. 2005. The use of preventative projects as compensatory restoration. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:120-131.

Chen, X.W., Li, B.L., Scott, T.A., Tennant, T., Rotenberry, J.T., and Allen, M.F. 2005. Spatial structure of multispecies distributions in southern California, USA. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):169-175.

Cherry, M. 2005. South Africa - serious about biodiversity science. PLoS Biol. 3(5):743-747.

Cheung, W.W.L., Pitcher, T.J., and Pauly, D. 2005. A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):97-111.

Clark-Tapia, R., Mandujano, M.C., Valverde, T., Mendoza, A., and Molina-Freaner, F. 2005. How important is clonal recruitment for population maintenance in rare plant species? The case of the narrow endemic cactus, Stenocereus eruca, in Baja California, México. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):123-132.

Coart, E., Van Glabeke, S., Petit, R.J., Van Bockstaele, E., and Roldán-Ruiz, I. 2005. Range wide versus local patterns of genetic diversity in hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.). Conserv. Genet. 6(2):259-273.

Cole, P.G., and Weltzin, J.F. 2005. Light limitation creates patchy distribution of an invasive grass in eastern deciduous forests. Biol. Invasions 7(3):477-488.

Cook, R.R., and Auster, P.J. 2005. Use of simulated annealing for identifying essential fish habitat in a multispecies context. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):876-886.

Cooke, S.J., and Suski, C.D. 2005. Do we need species-specific guidelines for catch-and-release recreational angling to effectively conserve diverse fishery resources? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1195-1209.

Costa, L.P., Leite, Y.L.R., Mendes, S.L., and Ditchfield, A.D. 2005. Mammal conservation in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):672-679.

Cousins, J.A., and Compton, S.G. 2005. The Tongan flying fox Pteropus tonganus: status, public attitudes and conservation in the Cook Islands. Oryx 39(2):196-203.

Craig, M.D., and Roberts, J.D. 2005. The short-term impacts of logging on the jarrah forest avifauna in south-west Western Australia: implications for the design and analysis of logging experiments. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):177-188.

Cuervo, A.M., Cadena, C.D., Krabbe, N., and Renjifo, L.M. 2005. Scytalopus stilesi, a new species of tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae) from the Cordillera Central of Colombia. Auk 122(2):445-463.

Cullen, L., Alger, K., and Rambaldi, D.M. 2005. Land reform and biodiversity conservation in Brazil in the 1990s: conflict and the articulation of mutual interests. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):747-755.

da Silva, J.M.C., Rylands, A.B., and da Fonseca, G.A.B. 2005. The fate of the Amazonian areas of endemism. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):689-694.

Davies, Z.G., Wilson, R.J., Brereton, T.M., and Thomas, C.D. 2005. The re-expansion and improving status of the silver-spotted skipper butterfly (Hesperia comma) in Britain: a metapopulation success story. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):189-198.

de la Luz, J.L.L. 2005. Evaluation of the conservation status of Morangaya pensilis (Cactaceae), a little known endemic monotypic genus of southern Baja California, Mexico. Oryx 39(2):219-222.

de Thoisy, B., Renoux, F., and Julliot, C. 2005. Hunting in northern French Guiana and its impact on primate communities. Oryx 39(2):149-157.

Deng, W.H., Zheng, G.M., Zhang, Z.W., Garson, P.J., and McGowan, P.J.K. 2005. Providing artificial nest platforms for Cabot's tragopan Tragopan caboti (Aves: Galliformes): a useful conservation tool? Oryx 39(2):158-163.

Downs, C.T. 2005. Abundance of the endangered Cape parrot, Poicephalus robustus, in South Africa: implications for its survival. Afr. Zool. 40(1):15-24.

Duckworth, J.W., Poole, C.M., Tizard, R.J., Walston, J.L., and Timmins, R.J. 2005. The Jungle Cat Felis chaus in Indochina: a threatened population of a widespread and adaptable species. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1263-1280.

Ernst, C.M., and Cappuccino, N. 2005. The effect of an invasive alien vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Asclepiadaceae), on arthropod populations in Ontario old fields. Biol. Invasions 7(3):417-425.

Evans, C., Abrams, E., Reitsma, R., Roux, K., Salmonsen, L., and Marra, P.P. 2005. The Neighborhood Nestwatch program: participant outcomes of a citizen-science ecological research project. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):589-594.

Fazey, I., Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. What do conservation biologists publish? Biol. Conserv. 124(1):63-73.

Fearnside, P.M. 2005. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: history, rates, and consequences. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):680-688.

Firbank, L.G. 2005. Striking a new balance between agricultural production and biodiversity. Ann. Appl. Biol. 146(2):163-175.

Floerl, O., Inglis, G.J., and Marsh, H.M. 2005. Selectivity in vector management: an investigation of the effectiveness of measures used to prevent transport of non-indigenous species. Biol. Invasions 7(3):459-475.

Furusawa, T., Pahari, K., Umezaki, M., and Ohtsuka, R. 2004. Impacts of selective logging on New Georgia Island, Solomon Islands evaluated using very-high-resolution satellite (IKONOS) data. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):349-355.

García-Robledo, C.A., and Murcia, C. 2005. Comparative habitat susceptibility to invasion by Chinese ash (Fraxinus chinensis: Oleaceae) in a tropical Andean landscape. Biol. Invasions 7(3):405-415.

Gelcich, S., Edwards-Jones, G., and Kaiser, M.J. 2005. Importance of attitudinal differences among artisanal fishers toward co-management and conservation of marine resources. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):865-875.

Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Moleón, M., Bautista, J., and Otero, M. 2005. Differential composition in the age of mates in Bonelli's eagle populations: the role of spatial scale, non-natural mortality reduction, and the age classes definition. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):149-152.

Giulietti, A.M., Harley, R.M., de Queiroz, L.P., Wanderley, M.D.L., and Van den Berg, C. 2005. Biodiversity and conservation of plants in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):632-639.

González-Astorga, J., Vovides, A.P., Cruz-Angón, A., Octavio-Aguilar, P., and Iglesias, C. 2005. Allozyme variation in the three extant populations of the narrowly endemic cycad Dioon angustifolium Miq. (Zamiaceae) from north-eastern Mexico. Ann. Botany 95(6):999-1007.

Gonçalves, S., and Romano, A. 2005. Micropropagation of Drosophyllum lusitanicum (Dewy pine), an endangered West Mediterranean endemic insectivorous plant. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1071-1081.

Goudie, R.I., and Jones, I.L. 2004. Dose-response relationships of harlequin duck behaviour to noise from low-level military jet over-flights in central Labrador. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):289-298.

Gravuer, K., von Wettberg, E., and Schmitt, J. 2005. Population differentiation and genetic variation inform translocation decisions for Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae, a rare New England grassland perennial. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):155-167.

Gray, D.K., Bailey, S.A., Duggan, I.C., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2005. Viability of invertebrate diapausing eggs exposed to saltwater: implications for Great Lakes' ship ballast management. Biol. Invasions 7(3):531-539.

Green, R.E., Cornell, S.J., Scharlemann, J.P.W., and Balmford, A. 2005. The future of farming and conservation - response. Science 308(5726):1257-1258.

Greller, A.M., Lotowycz, G.E., Moore, G., Lamont, E., Binger, H., Conolly, B., Dankel, V., Hoar, J., Johnston, C., Mangiacapre, A., Schmidt, J., Zimmerman, L., Luisi, V., Quigley, B., Lamont, M.L., and Clemants, S.E. 2005. Vascular flora of Caumsett State Historic Park, Lloyd Neck, Long Island, New York, with notes on the vegetation. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(1):149-168.

Grill, A., Knoflach, B., Cleary, D.F.R., and Kati, V. 2005. Butterfly, spider, and plant communities in different land-use types in Sardinia, Italy. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1281-1300.

Grogan, J., and Barreto, P. 2005. Big-leaf mahogany on CITES Appendix II: big challenge, big opportunity. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):973-976.

Gruner, D.S. 2005. Biotic resistance to an invasive spider conferred by generalist insectivorous birds on Hawai'i Island. Biol. Invasions 7(3):541-546.

Hansen, M.M., and Jensen, L.F. 2005. Sibship within samples of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and implications for supportive breeding. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):297-305.

Harper, K.A., MacDonald, S.E., Burton, P.J., Chen, J.Q., Brosofske, K.D., Saunders, S.C., Euskirchen, E.S., Roberts, D., Jaiteh, M.S., and Esseen, P.A. 2005. Edge influence on forest structure and composition in fragmented landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):768-782.

Harris, M.B., Tomas, W., Mourão, G., da Silva, C.J., Guimarães, E., Sonoda, F., and Fachim, E. 2005. Safeguarding the Pantanal wetlands: threats and conservation initiatives. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):714-720.

Hedges, S., Tyson, M.J., Sitompul, A.F., Kinnaird, M.F., Gunaryadi, D., and Aslan. 2005. Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):35-48.

Hidalgo, F.J., Barón, P.J., and Orensanz, J.M. 2005. A prediction come true: the green crab invades the Patagonian coast. Biol. Invasions 7(3):547-552.

Honnay, O., Jacquemyn, H., Bossuyt, B., and Hermy, M. 2005. Forest fragmentation effects on patch occupancy and population viability of herbaceous plant species. New Phytol. 166(3):723-736.

Ikeda, N. 2004. Economic impacts of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal Himalaya. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):322-330.

Irwin, M.T., Johnson, S.E., and Wright, P.C. 2005. The state of lemur conservation in south-eastern Madagascar: population and habitat assessments for diurnal and cathemeral lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39(2):204-218.

Ito, T.Y., Miura, N., Lhagvasuren, B., Enkhbileg, D., Takatsuki, S., Tsunekawa, A., and Jiang, Z.W. 2005. Preliminary evidence of a barrier effect of a railroad on the migration of Mongolian gazelles. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):945-948.

Jacq, F.A., Hladik, A., and Bellefontaine, R. 2005. Dynamics of the introduced tree Litsea glutinosa (Lauraceae) in Mayotte Island: is it an invasive species? Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(1):21-32.

Jehle, R., Burke, T., and Arntzen, J.W. 2005. Delineating fine-scale genetic units in amphibians: probing the primacy of ponds. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):227-234.

Jones, T., Ehardt, C.L., Butynski, T.M., Davenport, T.R.B., Mpunga, N.E., Machaga, S.J., and De Luca, D.W. 2005. The highland mangabey Lophocebus kipunji: a new species of African monkey. Science 308(5725):1161-1164.

Kadereit, G., and Kadereit, J.W. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary origin, taxonomic status, and genetic structure of the endangered local Lower Elbe river (Germany) endemic Oenanthe conioides (Nolte ex Rchb.f.) Lange (Apiaceae): ITS and AFLP evidence. Flora 200(1):15-29.

Keith, P. 2005. Introduction of freshwater fishes and decapod crustaceans in New Caledonia, a review. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(1):45-55.

Kim, S.C., Lee, C., and Santos-Guerra, A. 2005. Genetic analysis and conservation of the endangered Canary Island woody sow-thistle, Sonchus gandogeri (Asteraceae). J. Plant Res. 118(2):147-153.

King, S.R.B., and Gurnell, J. 2005. Habitat use and spatial dynamics of takhi introduced to Hustai National Park, Mongolia. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):277-290.

Kirsch, K.D., Barry, K.A., Fonseca, M.S., Whitfield, P.E., Meehan, S.R., Kenworthy, W.J., and Julius, B.E. 2005. The mini-312 Program - an expedited damage assessment and restoration process for seagrasses in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:109-119.

Kitamura, S., Suzuki, S., Yumoto, T., Chuailua, P., Plongmai, K., Poonswad, P., Noma, N., Maruhashi, T., and Suckasam, C. 2005. A botanical inventory of a tropical seasonal forest in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand: implications for fruit-frugivore interactions. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1241-1262.

Kleijn, D., and Báldi, A. 2005. Effects of set-aside land on farmland biodiversity: comments on Van Buskirk and Willi. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):963-966.

Klink, C.A., and Machado, R.B. 2005. Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):707-713.

Kohler, B., Gigon, A., Edwards, P.J., Krusi, B., Langenauer, R., Luscher, A., and Ryser, P. 2005. Changes in the species composition and conservation value of limestone grasslands in northern Switzerland after 22 years of contrasting managements. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 7(1):51-67.

Kolb, A., and Diekmann, M. 2005. Effects of life-history traits on responses of plant species to forest fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):929-938.

Komdeur, J., and Pels, M.D. 2005. Rescue of the Seychelles warbler on Cousin Island, Seychelles: the role of habitat restoration. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):15-26.

Kreb, D., and Budiono. 2005. Conservation management of small core areas: key to survival of a Critically Endangered population of Irrawaddy river dolphins Orcaella brevirostris in Indonesia. Oryx 39(2):178-188.

Kuniyal, C.P., Rawat, Y.S., Oinam, S.S., Kuniyal, J.C., and Vishvakarma, S.C.R. 2005. Kuth (Saussurea lappa) cultivation in the cold desert environment of the Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India: arising threats and need to revive socio-economic values. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1035-1045.

Le Clerc, V., Suel, A., and Briard, M. 2005. Identification of duplicates for the optimization of carrot collection management. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1211-1223.

Lea, J.M., Luiselli, L., and Politano, E. 2005. Are there shifts in amphibian faunal composition in Nigerian landscapes undergoing long-term degradation? A case study from a montane environment. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(1):65-76.

Leal, I.R., da Silva, J.M.C., Tabarelli, M., and Lacher, T.E. 2005. Changing the course of biodiversity conservation in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):701-706.

Leclerc, J., and DesGranges, J.L. 2005. Exploratory multiscale analysis of the fish assemblages and habitats of the lower St. Lawrence River, Québec, Canada. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1153-1174.

Lewinsohn, T.M., Freitas, A.V.L., and Prado, P.I. 2005. Conservation of terrestrial invertebrates and their habitats in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):640-645.

Lewinsohn, T.M., and Prado, P.I. 2005. How many species are there in Brazil? Conserv. Biol. 19(3):619-624.

Light, T. 2005. Behavioral effects of invaders: alien crayfish and native sculpin in a California stream. Biol. Invasions 7(3):353-367.

Liu, M.Z., Jiang, G.M., Li, L.H., Li, Y.G., Gao, L.M., and Niu, S.L. 2004. Control of sandstorms in Inner Mongolia, China. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):269-273.

Lloyd, J.D., and Martin, T.E. 2005. Reproductive success of chestnut-collared longspurs in native and exotic grassland. Condor 107(2):363-374.

Lõhmus, A., and Väli, Ü. 2005. Habitat use by the Vulnerable greater spotted eagle Aquila clanga, interbreeding with the lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina in Estonia. Oryx 39(2):170-177.

López-Mendilaharsu, M., Gardner, S.C., Seminoff, J.A., and Riosmena-Rodriguez, R. 2005. Identifying critical foraging habitats of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) along the Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):259-269.

Lovejoy, T.E. 2005. Spotlight on Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):587-588.

Luckenbach, M.W., Coen, L.D., Ross, P.G., and Stephen, J.A. 2005. Oyster reef habitat restoration: relationships between oyster abundance and community development based on two studies in Virginia and South Carolina. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:64-78.

Lui, K., Thompson, F.L., and Eckert, C.G. 2005. Causes and consequences of extreme variation in reproductive strategy and vegetative growth among invasive populations of a clonal aquatic plant, Butomus umbellatus L. (Butomaceae). Biol. Invasions 7(3):427-444.

Mallet, J. 2005. Hybridization as an invasion of the genorne. TREE 20(5):229-237.

Marini, M.Â., and Garcia, F.I. 2005. Bird conservation in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):665-671.

Martinez, J.A., and Zuberogoitia, I. 2004. Habitat preferences and causes of population decline for barn owls Tyto alba: a multi-scale approach. Ardeola 51(2):303-317.

Martorell, C., and Peters, E.M. 2005. The measurement of chronic disturbance and its effects on the threatened cactus Mammillaria pectinifera. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):199-207.

Marty, P., Angélibert, S., Giani, N., and Joly, P. 2005. Directionality of pre- and post-breeding migrations of a marbled newt population (Triturus marmoratus): implications for buffer zone management. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):215-225.

Matern, S.A., and Brown, L.R. 2005. Invaders eating invaders: exploitation of novel alien prey by the alien shimofuri goby in the San Francisco Estuary, California. Biol. Invasions 7(3):497-507.

McCleery, R.A., Lopez, R.R., Silvy, N.J., and Grant, W.E. 2005. Effectiveness of supplemental stockings for the endangered Key Largo woodrat. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):27-33.

McLachlan, S.M., and Knispel, A.L. 2005. Assessment of long-term tallgrass prairie restoration in Manitoba, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):75-88.

Merker, S., Yustian, I., and Mühlenberg, M. 2005. Responding to forest degradation: altered habitat use by Dian's tarsier Tarsius dianae in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 39(2):189-195.

Miller, M.P., Haig, S.M., and Wagner, R.S. 2005. Conflicting patterns of genetic structure produced by nuclear and mitochondrial markers in the Oregon slender salamander (Batrachoseps wrighti): implications for conservation efforts and species management. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):275-287.

Mittermeier, R.A., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands, A.B., and Brandon, K. 2005. A brief history of biodiversity conservation in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):601-607.

Mony, F., and Muller, S. 2005. Relationships between Carex hordeistichos Vill. and halophilic plant communities in Lorraine (France). Acta Bot. Gallica 152(1):57-64.

Muwanika, V.B., Nyakaana, S., and Siegismund, H.R. 2005. Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Uganda's large mammals. Afr. Zool. 40(1):107-113.

Nichols, R.K., Woolaver, L.G., and Jones, C.G. 2005. Breeding biology of the endangered Mauritius olive white-eye Zosterops chloronothos. Ostrich 76(1-2):1-7.

Niel, C., and Lebreton, J.D. 2005. Using demographic invariants to detect overharvested bird populations from incomplete data. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):826-835.

Nijman, V. 2005. Decline of the endemic Hose's langur Presbytis hosei in Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Borneo. Oryx 39(2):223-226.

Nol, E., Francis, C.M., and Burke, D.M. 2005. Using distance from putative source woodlots to predict occurrence of forest birds in putative sinks. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):836-844.

Odom, D., Sinden, J.A., Cacho, O., and Griffith, G.R. 2005. Economic issues in the management of plants invading natural environments: Scotch broom in Barrington Tops National Park. Biol. Invasions 7(3):445-457.

Olson, K.A., Fuller, T.K., Schaller, G.B., Odonkhuu, D., and Murray, M.G. 2005. Estimating the population density of Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa by driving long-distance transects. Oryx 39(2):164-169.

Ontiveros, D., Real, J., Balbontin, J., Carrete, M.R., Ferreiro, E., Ferrer, M., Manosa, S., Pleguezuelos, J.M., and Sanchez-Zapata, J.A. 2004. Conservation biology of the Bonelli's eagle in Spain: research and management. Ardeola 51(2):461-470.

Pabijan, M., Babik, W., and Rafinski, J. 2005. Conservation units in north-eastern populations of the Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris). Conserv. Genet. 6(2):307-312.

Pardini, R., de Souza, S.M., Braga-Neto, R., and Metzger, J.P. 2005. The role of forest structure, fragment size and corridors in maintaining small mammal abundance and diversity in an Atlantic forest landscape. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):253-266.

Parris, K.M., and Hazell, D.L. 2005. Biotic effects of climate change in urban environments: the case of the grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Melbourne, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):267-276.

Peres, C.A. 2005. Why we need megareserves in Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):728-733.

Perkins, T.E., and Wilson, M.V. 2005. The impacts of Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) invasion on wetland plant richness in the Oregon Coast Range, USA depend on beavers. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):291-295.

Peterson, M.N., Lopez, R.R., Laurent, E.J., Frank, P.A., Silvy, N.J., and Liu, J.G. 2005. Wildlife loss through domestication: the case of endangered Key deer. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):939-944.

Peterson, M.N., Peterson, M.J., and Peterson, T.R. 2005. Conservation and the myth of consensus. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):762-767.

Prato, T. 2005. Accounting for uncertainty in making species protection decisions. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):806-814.

Price, M.R.S. 2005. Zoos as a force for conservation: a simple ambition - but how? Oryx 39(2):109-110.

Radashevsky, V.I., and Olivares, C. 2005. Polydora uncinata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) in Chile: an accidental transportation across the Pacific. Biol. Invasions 7(3):489-496.

Radeloff, V.C., Hammer, R.B., and Stewart, S.I. 2005. Rural and suburban sprawl in the US Midwest from 1940 to 2000 and its relation to forest fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):793-805.

Reece, J.S., Castoe, T.A., and Parkinson, C.L. 2005. Historical perspectives on population genetics and conservation of three marine turtle species. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):235-251.

Rees, P.A. 2005. Towards a research-based conservation identity for zoos - a reply to Wehnelt and Wilkinson, and Thomas. Oryx 39(2):135-136.

Rees, P.A. 2005. Will the EC Zoos Directive increase the conservation value of zoo research? Oryx 39(2):128-131.

Reid, J., and de Sousa, W.C. 2005. Infrastructure and conservation policy in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):740-746.

Reid, S.E., and Marion, J.L. 2004. Effectiveness of a confinement strategy for reducing campsite impacts in Shenandoah National Park. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):274-282.

Resh, V.H. 2005. Stream crossings and the conservation of diadromous invertebrates in South Pacific island streams. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):313-317.

Reynolds, J.D., Webb, T.J., and Hawkins, L.A. 2005. Life history and ecological correlates of extinction risk in European freshwater fishes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62(4):854-862.

Rodrigues, M.T. 2005. The conservation of Brazilian reptiles: challenges for a megadiverse country. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):659-664.

Rodríguez, J.P., Simonetti, J.A., Premoli, A., and Marini, M.Â. 2005. Conservation in Austral and Neotropical America: building scientific capacity equal to the challenges. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):969-972.

Rozas, L.P., Caldwell, P., and Minello, T.J. 2005. The fishery value of salt marsh restoration projects. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:37-50.

Russell, K.N., Ikerd, H., and Droege, S. 2005. The potential conservation value of unmowed powerline strips for native bees. Biol. Conserv. 124(1):133-148.

Rylands, A.B., and Brandon, K. 2005. Brazilian protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):612-618.

Sagvik, J., Uller, T., and Olsson, M. 2005. Outbreeding depression in the common frog, Rana temporaria. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):205-211.

Sarkar, S., Justus, J., Fuller, T., Kelley, C., Garson, J., and Mayfield, M. 2005. Effectiveness of environmental surrogates for the selection of conservation area networks. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):815-825.

Sayre, N.E. 2005. Interacting effects of landownership, land use, and endangered species on conservation of southwestern US rangelands. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):783-792.

Schilthuizen, M., Liew, T.S., Bin Elahan, B., and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2005. Effects of karst forest degradation on pulmonate and prosobranch land snail communities in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):949-954.

Schultz, C.B., and Crone, E.E. 2005. Patch size and connectivity thresholds for butterfly habitat restoration. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):887-896.

Schwartzman, S., and Zimmerman, B. 2005. Conservation alliances with indigenous peoples of the Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):721-727.

Scott, N.J., and Parsons, E.C.M. 2005. A survey of public opinion in south-west Scotland on cetacean conservation issues. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):299-312.

Setsuko, S., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Tomaru, N. 2005. Development of microsatellite markers in Magnolia stellata (Magnoliaceae), a threatened Japanese tree. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):317-320.

Shafroth, P.B., Cleverly, J.R., Dudley, T.L., Taylor, J.P., van Riper, C., Weeks, E.P., and Stuart, J.N. 2005. Control of Tamarix in the western United States: implications for water salvage, wildlife use, and riparian restoration. Environ. Manage. 35(3):231-246.

Shahabuddin, G., and Ponte, C.A. 2005. Frugivorous butterfly species in tropical forest fragments: correlates of vulnerability to extinction. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1137-1152.

Shuman, C.S., Hodgson, G., and Ambrose, R.F. 2004. Managing the marine aquarium trade: is eco-certification the answer? Environ. Conserv. 31(4):339-348.

Shuster, W.D., Herms, C.P., Frey, M.N., Doohan, D.J., and Cardina, J. 2005. Comparison of survey methods for an invasive plant at the subwatershed Level. Biol. Invasions 7(3):393-403.

Shute, J.R., Rakes, P.L., and Shute, P.W. 2005. Reintroduction of four imperiled fishes in Abrams Creek, Tennessee. Southeast. Nat. 4(1):93-110.

Silva, M. 2005. The Brazilian protected areas program. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):608-611.

Silvano, D.L., and Segalla, M.V. 2005. Conservation of Brazilian amphibians. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):653-658.

Simenstad, C., Tanner, C., Crandell, C., White, J., and Cordell, J. 2005. Challenges of habitat restoration in a heavily urbanized estuary: evaluating the investment. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:6-23.

Singh, G., and Bhati, A. 2004. Soil and plant mineral composition and productivity of Acacia nilotica (L.) under irrigation with municipal effluent in an arid environment. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):331-338.

Solis-Montero, L., Flores-Palacios, A., and Cruz-Angón, A. 2005. Shade-coffee plantations as refuges for tropical wild orchids in central Veracruz, Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):908-916.

Spencer, R.J., and Thompson, M.B. 2005. Experimental analysis of the impact of foxes on freshwater turtle populations. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):845-854.

Stevenson, R.D., Tuberty, S.R., Defur, P.L., and Wingfield, J.C. 2005. Ecophysiology and conservation: the contribution of endocrinology and immunology - introduction to the symposium. Integr. Comp. Biol. 45(1):1-3.

Stiles, D. 2004. The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):309-321.

Storey, C., and de Oliveira, H.T. 2004. Social representations and environmental education with a women's group in Manaus, Amazonas-Brazil. Environ. Conserv. 31(4):299-308.

Strzelec, M. 2005. Impact of the introduced Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) on the snail fauna in post-industrial ponds in Poland. Biologia 60(2):159-163.

Suárez-Seoane, S., and García-Rovés, P. 2004. Do disturbances in surrounding areas affect a core population of Cantabrian capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus? The case of the natural reserve of Muniellos (Asturias, NW Spain). Ardeola 51(2):395-409.

Suehs, C.M., Affre, L., and Medail, F. 2005. Unexpected insularity effects in invasive plant mating systems: the case of Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) taxa in the Mediterranean Basin. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 85(1):65-79.

Tabarelli, M., and Gascon, C. 2005. Lessons from fragmentation research: improving management and policy guidelines for biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):734-739.

Tabarelli, M., Pinto, L.P., Silva, J.M.C., Hirota, M., and Bedê, L. 2005. Challenges and opportunities for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):695-700.

Teal, J.M., and Peterson, S. 2005. Restoration benefits in a watershed context. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:132-140.

Thayer, G.W., and Kentula, M.E. 2005. Coastal restoration: where have we been, where are we now, and where should we be going? J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:1-5.

Thiery, P., and Kiszka, J. 2005. Description and interpretation of precocious strandings of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina, Linnaeus 1758) in the Baie de Somme (Picardie, France). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(1):57-63.

Thiollay, J.M. 2005. Effects of hunting on Guianan forest game birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1121-1135.

Thom, R.M., Williams, G., Borde, A., Southard, J., Sargeant, S., Woodruff, D., Laufle, J.C., and Glasoe, S. 2005. Adaptively addressing uncertainty in estuarine and near coastal restoration projects. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:94-108.

Thomas, R. 2005. Internal drive vs external directive: the delivery of conservation through zoo-based research - a response to Rees. Oryx 39(2):134.

Thomson, D.M. 2005. Matrix models as a tool for understanding invasive plant and native plant interactions. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):917-928.

Tiegs, S.D., O'Leary, J.F., Pohl, M.M., and Munill, C.L. 2005. Flood disturbance and riparian species diversity on the Colorado River Delta. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(5):1175-1194.

Twilley, R.R., and Rivera-Monroy, V.H. 2005. Developing performance measures of mangrove wetlands using simulation models of hydrology, nutrient biogeochemistry, and community dynamics. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:79-93.

Van Buskirk, J., and Willi, Y. 2005. Meta-analysis of farmland biodiversity within set-aside land: reply to Kleijn and Báldi. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):967-968.

Van Houdt, J.K.J., Pinceel, J., Flamand, M.C., Briquet, M., Dupont, E., Volckaert, F.A.M., and Baret, P.V. 2005. Migration barriers protect indigenous brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from introgression with stocked hatchery fish. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):175-191.

Vandermeer, J., and Perfecto, I. 2005. The future of farming and conservation. Science 308(5726):1257.

Veit, M.L., Robertson, R.J., Hamel, P.B., and Friesen, V.L. 2005. Population genetic structure and dispersal across a fragmented landscape in cerulean warblers (Dendroica cerulea). Conserv. Genet. 6(2):159-174.

Vellend, M. 2005. Land-use history and plant performance in populations of Trillium grandiflorum. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):217-224.

Venevsky, S., and Venevskaia, I. 2005. Hierarchical systematic conservation planning at the national level: identifying national biodiversity hotspots using abiotic factors in Russia. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):235-251.

Verheyen, K., Schreurs, K., Vanholen, B., and Hermy, M. 2005. Intensive management fails to promote recruitment in the last large population of Juniperus communis (L.) in Flanders (Belgium). Biol. Conserv. 124(1):113-121.

Wagner, R.S., Miller, M.P., Crisafulli, C.M., and Haig, S.M. 2005. Geographic variation, genetic structure, and conservation unit designation in the Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli). Can. J. Zool. 83(3):396-406.

Walker, B.G., Boersma, P.D., and Wingfield, J.C. 2005. Field endocrinology and conservation biology. Integr. Comp. Biol. 45(1):12-18.

Walsh, H.E., and Edwards, S.V. 2005. Conservation genetics and Pacific fisheries bycatch: mitochondrial differentiation and population assignment in black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes). Conserv. Genet. 6(2):289-295.

Weakland, C.A., and Wood, P.B. 2005. Cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) microhabitat and landscape-level habitat characteristics in southern West Virginia. Auk 122(2):497-508.

Wehnelt, S., and Wilkinson, R. 2005. Research, conservation and zoos: the EC Zoos Directive - a response to Rees. Oryx 39(2):132-133.

Weinstein, M.P., Litvin, S.Y., and Guida, V.G. 2005. Considerations of habitat linkages, estuarine landscapes, and the trophic spectrum in wetland restoration design. J. Coastal Res. Sp. Iss. 40:51-63.

Wingfield, R., Murphy, K., and Gaywood, M. 2005. Lake habitat suitability for the rare European macrophyte Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt. Aquat. Conserv. 15(3):227-241.

Wittmer, H.U., McLellan, B.N., Seip, D.R., Young, J.A., Kinley, T.A., Watts, G.S., and Hamilton, D. 2005. Population dynamics of the endangered mountain ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 83(3):407-418.

Wonham, M.J., and Carlton, J.T. 2005. Trends in marine biological invasions at local and regional scales: the Northeast Pacific Ocean as a model system. Biol. Invasions 7(3):369-392.

Woodroffe, R., Lindsey, P., Romañach, S., Stein, A., and ole Ranah, S.M.K. 2005. Livestock predation by endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in northern Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 124(2):225-234.

Young, C.E.F. 2005. Financial mechanisms for conservation in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(3):756-761.

Zenger, K.R., Eldridge, M.D.B., and Johnston, P.G. 2005. Phylogenetics, population structure and genetic diversity of the endangered southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in south-eastern Australia. Conserv. Genet. 6(2):193-204.

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