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Department ofBotany

No. 249
September 2005

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In This Issue

Global Plant Biodiversity Is Mapped

For years, experts have been calling for an improved database that would enable them to develop more effective global nature conservation strategies. Botanists at the University of Bonn have now taken a major step in this direction with a publication of a world map of plant biodiversity (Kier, et al., 2005. Journal of Biogeography).

The atlas is arranged in 867 zones, known as ecoregions. "This makes the data on the world's plant diversity accessible in accordance with a common geographical standard," explains Gerold Kier, head of the project at Bonn University's Nees Institute for Plant Biodiversity. This work, says Kier, represents a significant advance because the results are needed both for nature conservation planners and those engaged in basic research.

A central innovation here is the breakdown of data by vegetation zone. Tropical rainforests are, unsurprisingly, shown to be among the most species-rich areas on earth. Indeed, Borneo's lowland rainforest is the most diverse of all, with around 10,000 plant species. By comparison, Germany contains some 2,700 different native plants. "However, we have found out for the first time where, within each of the different vegetation zones, plant biodiversity is highest," says Professor Wilhelm Barthlott, founder of the working group and Director of the Nees Institute. It has emerged, for example, that the Sundarbans region (which spreads across Bangladesh and India), the world's most species-rich mangrove area, has not so far been included on many nature conservation priority lists.

An important outcome from the project is a map showing how thoroughly the plant world has been studied in different regions. Among the "white patches" on the map, areas for which floristic knowledge is very poor, are the southern Amazon basin and north Colombia, which are two of the world's most biologically diverse areas. "There is also little known about the biodiversity that exists in large parts of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, the north of China and, surprisingly, even Japan," adds Kier. Of all the different types of vegetation zone, the flooded savannas and grasslands are the least explored by botanists. Greater efforts are needed in future to discover more about the plant life they contain. The project was conducted as a component of the large-scale BIOLOG-BIOTA program, funded by German's Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and run with the cooperation of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

Exploring Tropical Rainforests

The University of Chicago Press just published the book Tropical Rainforests: Past, Present, and Future, edited by Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute deputy director Eldredge Bermingham, STRI postdoctoral fellow Christopher Dick, and Craig Moritz from the University of California at Berkeley. Synthesizing theoretical and empirical analyses of the processes that help shape these unique ecosystems, Tropical Rainforests looks at the effect of evolutionary histories, climate change, and ecological dynamics on the origin and maintenance of tropical rainforest communities. Featuring advances in paleoecology, climatology, geology, molecular systematics, biogeography, and community ecology, the volume also offers insights from these fields into how rainforests will endure the impact of anthropogenic change. With more than sixty contributors, Tropical Rainforests will be of great interest to students and professionals in tropical ecology and conservation. The 745-page book includes papers by many STRI researchers and with colleagues from STRI's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, among others.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Presented by the Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Fujifilm, Conservation Central <> offers a suite of fun, online activities designed to educate middle school students about habitat conservation. In one site activity, participants travel to central China to "help make decisions about a fictional forest reserve." In another activity, visitors conduct scientific research in an eastern US forest using a variety of tools and methods. A third activity enables site visitors to design a zoo habitat for giant pandas. For educators, the Web site supplies a cohesive curriculum which aligns with national science standards. For families, the site offers a collection of activity ideas such as creating a Family Conservation Action Plan.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2005.

Current Literature

Adams, V.M., Marsh, D.M., and Knox, J.S. 2005. Importance of the seed bank for population viability and population monitoring in a threatened wetland herb. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):425-436.

Alados, C.L., Pueyo, Y., Navas, D., Cabezudo, B., Gonzalez, A., and Freeman, D.C. 2005. Fractal analysis of plant spatial patterns: a monitoring tool for vegetation transition shifts. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1453-1468.

Alard, D., Chabrerie, O., Dutoit, T., Roche, P., and Langlois, E. 2005. Patterns of secondary succession in calcareous grasslands: can we distinguish the influence of former land uses from present vegetation data? Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(2):161-173.

Alava, J.J. 2005. Census, distribution and conservation status of roseate spoonbill (Plataka ajaja) in the Guayaquil Gulf Estuary, Ecuador. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(2):175-185.

Aldous, A., McCormick, P., Ferguson, C., Graham, S., and Craft, C. 2005. Hydrologic regime controls soil phosphorus fluxes in restoration and undisturbed wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):341-347.

Allen, M.F., Allen, E.B., and Gómez-Pompa, A. 2005. Effects of mycorrhizae and nontarget organisms on restoration of a seasonal tropical forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico: factors limiting tree establishment. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):325-333.

An, J., Min, M.S., Sommer, J., Louis, E., Brenneman, R., Kwon, S.W., Shin, N.S., and Lee, H. 2005. Isolation and characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the Korean goral (Nemorhaedus caudatus). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):421-423.

Arbogast, B.S., Browne, R.A., Weigl, P.D., and Kenagy, G.J. 2005. Conservation genetics of endangered flying squirrels (Glaucomys) from the Appalachian mountains of eastern North America. Anim. Conserv. 8:123-133.

Arnold, C., Schnitzler, A., Douard, A., Peter, R., and Gillet, F. 2005. Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1507-1523.

Ashenafi, Z.T., Coulson, T., Sillero-Zubiri, C., and Leader-Williams, N. 2005. Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas. Anim. Conserv. 8:113-121.

Baer, S.G., Collins, S.L., Blair, J.M., Knapp, A.K., and Fiedler, A.K. 2005. Soil heterogeneity effects on tallgrass prairie community heterogeneity: an application of ecological theory to restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):413-424.

Barney, J.N., Di Tommaso, A., and Weston, L.A. 2005. Differences in invasibility of two contrasting habitats and invasiveness of two mugwort Artemisia vulgaris populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(3):567-576.

Bart, J. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of bird populations. Auk 122(1):15-25.

Baskale, E., and Kaska, Y. 2005. Sea turtle nest conservation techniques on southwestern beaches in Turkey. Israel J. Zool. 51(1):13-26.

Beebee, T.J.C., Buckley, J., Evans, I., Foster, J.P., Gent, A.H., Gleed-Owen, C.P., Kelly, G., Rowe, G., Snell, C., Wycherley, J.T., and Zeisset, I. 2005. Neglected native or undesirable alien? Resolution of a conservation dilemma concerning the pool frog Rana lessonae. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1607-1626.

Bennett, M.G., Arrington, D.A., Kuhajda, B.R., and Shepard, T.E. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Noturus munitus Suttkus & Taylor 1965 (Ictaluridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(2):226.

Benítez-Malvido, J., and Lemus-Albor, A. 2005. The seedling community of tropical rain forest edges and its interaction with herbivores and pathogens. Biotropica 37(2):301-313.

Bermingham, E., Dick, C.W., and Moritz, C. (eds.). 2005. Tropical Rainforests: Past, Present, and Future. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 672 pp.

Bonner, T.H., and McDonald, D.L. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Etheostoma fonticola (Jordan & Gilbert 1886) (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(3):333-334.

Borgella, R., and Gavin, T.A. 2005. Avian community dynamics in a fragmented tropical landscape. Ecol. Appl. 15(3):1062-1073.

Borgmann, K.L., and Rodewald, A.D. 2005. Forest restoration in urbanizing landscapes: interactions between land uses and exotic shrubs. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):334-340.

Bowen, B.W., Bass, A.L., Soares, L., and Toonen, R.J. 2005. Conservation implications of complex population structure: lessons from the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Mol. Ecol. 14(8):2389-2402.

Brotons, L., Wolff, A., Paulus, G., and Martin, J.L. 2005. Effect of adjacent agricultural habitat on the distribution of passerines in natural grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):407-414.

Buner, F., Jenny, M., Zbinden, N., and Naef-Daenzer, B. 2005. Ecologically enhanced areas - a key habitat structure for re-introduced grey partridges Perdix perdix. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):373-381.

Burgess, N., Küper, W., Mutke, J., Brown, J., Westaway, S., Turpie, S., Meshack, C., Taplin, J., McClean, C., and Lovett, J.C. 2005. Major gaps in the distribution of protected areas for threatened and narrow range Afrotropical plants. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1877-1894.

Burke, A. 2005. Vegetation types of mountain tops in Damaraland, Namibia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1487-1506.

Bustarnante, M.R., Ron, S.R., and Coloma, L.A. 2005. Changes in diversity of seven anuran communities in the Ecuadorian Andes. Biotropica 37(2):180-189.

Campell, C.L., and Lagueux, C.J. 2005. Survival probability estimates for large juvenile and adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas) exposed to an artisanal marine turtle fishery in the western Caribbean. Herpetologica 61(2):91-103.

Cartar, R.V. 2005. Short-term effects of experimental boreal forest logging disturbance on bumble bees, bumble bee-pollinated flowers and the bee-flower match. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1895-1907.

Chapman, C.A., Struhsaker, T.T., and Lambert, J.E. 2005. Thirty years of research in Kibale National Park, Uganda, reveals a complex picture for conservation. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):539-555.

Chapman, M.G., People, J., and Blockley, D. 2005. Intertidal assemblages associated with natural Corallina turf and invasive mussel beds. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1761-1776.

Chen, L., Gao, Q.K., Chen, D.M., and Xu, C.J. 2005. The use of RAPD markers for detecting genetic diversity, relationship and molecular identification of Chinese elite tea genetic resources [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] preserved in a tea germplasm repository. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1433-1444.

Clarke, P.J., Latz, P.K., and Albrecht, D.E. 2005. Long-term changes in semi-arid vegetation: invasion of an exotic perennial grass has larger effects than rainfall variability. J. Veg. Sci. 16(2):237-248.

Costedoat, C., Pech, N., Salducci, M.D., Chappaz, R., and Gilles, A. 2005. Evolution of mosaic hybrid zone between invasive and endemic species of Cyprinidae through space and time. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 85(2):135-155.

Cowlishaw, G., Mendelson, S., and Rowcliffe, J.M. 2005. Evidence for post-depletion sustainability in a mature bushmeat market. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(3):460-468.

Daehler, C.C., and Goergen, E.M. 2005. Experimental restoration of an indigenous Hawaiian grassland after invasion by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Restor. Ecol. 13(2):380-389.

Detwiler, K.M., Burrell, A.S., and Jolly, C.J. 2005. Conservation implications of hybridization in African cercopithecine monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):661-684.

Dominy, N.J., and Duncan, B.W. 2005. Seed-spitting primates and the conservation and dispersion of large-seeded trees. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):631-649.

Dorland, E., van den Berg, L.J.L., Brouwer, E., Roelofs, J.G.M., and Bobbink, R. 2005. Catchment liming to restore degraded, acidified heathlands and moorland pools. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):302-311.

Drinnan, I.N. 2005. The search for fragmentation thresholds in a southern Sydney suburb. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):339-349.

Dudash, M.R., Murren, C.J., and Carr, D.E. 2005. Using Mimulus as a model system to understand the role of inbreeding in conservation: genetic and ecological approaches. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 92(1):36-51.

Economou, A.N., Barbieri, R., and Stoumboudi, M.T. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Leuciscus keadicus (Stephanidis 1971) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(3):252.

Ehardt, C.L., Jones, T.P., and Butynski, T.M. 2005. Protective status, ecology and strategies for improving conservation of Cercocebus sanjei in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):557-583.

Estrada, A., and Coates-Estrada, R. 2005. Diversity of neotropical migratory landbird species assemblages in forest fragments and man-made vegetation in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1719-1734.

Eterovick, P.C., Carnaval, A.C.O.d., Borges-Nojosa, D.M., Silvano, D.L., Segalla, M.V., and Sazima, I. 2005. Amphibian declines in Brazil: an overview. Biotropica 37(2):166-179.

Evans, B.E.I., Ashley, J., and Marsden, S.J. 2005. Abundance, habitat use, and movements of blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve. Wilson Bull. 117(2):154-164.

Ewers, R.M., Didham, R.K., Wratten, S.D.D., and Tylianakis, J.M. 2005. Remotely sensed landscape heterogeneity as a rapid tool for assessing local biodiversity value in a highly modified New Zealand landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1469-1485.

Fargione, J.E., and Tilman, D. 2005. Diversity decreases invasion via both sampling and complementarity effects. Ecol. Lett. 8(6):604-611.

Ferguson, M.E., Jarvis, A., Stalker, H.T., Williams, D.E., Guarino, L., Valls, J.F.M., Pittman, R.N., Simpson, C.E., and Bramel, P.J. 2005. Biogeography of wild Arachis (Leguminosae): distribution and environmental characterisation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1777-1798.

Fernandez, L. 2005. Risk of extinction of a rare catfish of Andean groundwater and its priority for conservation. Ambio 34(3):269-270.

Ferreira, L.B., and Tidon, R. 2005. Colonizing potential of Drosophilidae (Insecta, Diptera) in environments with different grades of urbanization. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1809-1821.

Field, R.G., Gardiner, T., Mason, C.F., and Hill, J. 2005. Agri-environment schemes and butterflies: the utilisation of 6 m grass margins. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1969-1976.

Filho, A.R., Dal Vesco, L.L., Nodari, R.O., Lischka, R.W., Müller, C.V., and Guerra, M.P. 2005. Tissue culture for the conservation and mass propagation of Vriesea reitzii Leme and Costa, a bromeliad threatened of extinction from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1799-1808.

Fitzgerald, M., Shine, R., Lemckert, F., and Towerton, A. 2005. Habitat requirements of the threatened snake species Hoplocephalus stephensii (Elapidae) in eastern Australia. Austral Ecol. 30(4):465-474.

Fjeldså, J., Álvarez, M.D., Lazcano, J.M., and León, B. 2005. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region. Ambio 34(3):205-211.

Fleishman, E., Mac Nally, R., and Murphy, D.D. 2005. Relationships among non-native plants, diversity of plants and butterflies, and adequacy of spatial sampling. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 85(2):157-166.

Foote, A.L., and Hornung, C.L.R. 2005. Odonates as biological indicators of grazing effects on Canadian prairie wetlands. Ecol. Entomol. 30(3):273-283.

Forrest, S. 2005. Getting the story right: a response to Vermeire and colleagues. BioScience 55(6):526-530.

Forup, M.L., and Memmott, J. 2005. The restoration of plant-pollinator interactions in hay meadows. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):265-274.

Foster, R.D., and Wetzel, P.R. 2005. Invading monotypic stands of Phalaris arundinacea: a test of fire, herbicide, and woody and herbaceous native plant groups. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):318-324.

Frankham, R. 2005. Stress and adaptation in conservation genetics. J. Evol. Biol. 18(4):750-755.

Fuller, R.M., Devereux, B.J., Gillings, S., Amable, G.S., and Hill, R.A. 2005. Indices of bird-habitat preference from field surveys of birds and remote sensing of land cover: a study of south-eastern England with wider implications for conservation and biodiversity assessment. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 14(3):223-239.

Galat-Luong, A., and Galat, G. 2005. Conservation and survival adaptations of Temminck's red colobus (Procolobus badius temmincki), in Senegal. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):585-603.

Gao, L.Z., and Zhang, C.H. 2005. Comparisons of microsatellite variability and population genetic structure of two endangered wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon and O. officinalis, and their conservation implications. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1663-1679.

Gautier-Hion, A., and Brugière, D. 2005. Significance of riparian forests for the conservation of Central African primates. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):515-523.

Gillespie, G., Howard, S., Lockie, D., Scroggie, M., and Boeadi. 2005. Herpetofaunal richness and community structure of offshore islands of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biotropica 37(2):279-290.

Giorgi, A., Feijoó, C., and Tell, G. 2005. Primary producers in a Pampean stream: temporal variation and structuring role. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1699-1718.

Goldstein, P., Wyner, K., Doukakis, P., Egan, M.G., Amato, G., Rosenbaum, H., and DeSalle, R. 2005. Theory and methods for diagnosing species and populations in conservation. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 92(1):12-27.

Gompper, M.E., and Hackett, H.M. 2005. The long-term, range-wide decline of a once common carnivore: the eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius). Anim. Conserv. 8:195-201.

Goodman, S.M., Andriafidison, D., Andrianaivoarivelo, R., Cardiff, S.G., Ifticene, E., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A., Mbohoahy, T., Rakotondravony, D., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F., Razafimanahaka, J., and Racey, P.A. 2005. The distribution and conservation of bats in the dry regions of Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 8:153-165.

Gorenflo, L.J., and Brandon, K. 2005. Agricultural capacity and conservation in high biodiversity forest ecosystems. Ambio 34(3):199-204.

Gozlan, R.E., St-Hilaire, S., Feist, S.W., Martin, P., and Kent, M.L. 2005. Disease threat to European fish. Nature 435(7045):1046.

Gratton, C., and Denno, R.F. 2005. Restoration of arthropod assemblages in a Spartina salt marsh following removal of the invasive plant Phragmites australis. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):358-372.

Green, J.L., Hastings, A., Arzberger, P., Ayala, F.J., Cottingham, K.L., Cuddington, K., Davis, F., Dunne, J.A., Fortin, M.J., Gerber, L., and Neubert, M. 2005. Complexity in ecology and conservation: mathematical, statistical, and computational challenges. BioScience 55(6):501-510.

Grgic, T., and Kos, I. 2005. Influence of forest development phase on centipede diversity in managed beech forests in Slovenia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1841-1862.

Günther, J., and Assmann, T. 2005. Restoration ecology meets carabidology: effects of floodplain restitution on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1583-1606.

Gustafson, D.J., and Latham, R.E. 2005. Is the serpentine aster, Symphyotrichum depauperatum (Fern.) Nesom, a valid species and actually endemic to eastern serpentine barrens? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1445-1452.

Halbert, N.D., Ward, T.J., Schnabel, R.D., Taylor, J.F., and Derr, J.N. 2005. Conservation genomics: disequilibrium mapping of domestic cattle chromosomal segments in North American bison populations. Mol. Ecol. 14(8):2343-2362.

Hassett, B., Palmer, M., Bernhardt, E., Smith, S., Carr, J., and Hart, D. 2005. Restoring watersheds project by project: trends in Chesapeake Bay tributary restoration. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(5):259-267.

Helenurm, K., West, R., and Burckhalter, S.J. 2005. Allozyme variation in the endangered insular endemic Castilleja grisea. Ann. Botany 95(7):1221-1227.

Hérault, B., Honnay, O., and Thoen, D. 2005. Evaluation of the ecological restoration potential of plant communities in Norway spruce plantations using a life-trait based approach. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(3):536-545.

Hilli, M., and Kuitunen, M.T. 2005. Testing the use of a land cover map for habitat ranking in boreal forests. Environ. Manage. 35(4):505-516.

Hirst, R.A., Pywell, R.F., Marrs, R.H., and Putwain, P.D. 2005. The resilience of calcareous and mesotrophic grasslands following disturbance. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(3):498-506.

Hobbs, R.J. 2005. The future of Restoration Ecology: challenges and opportunities. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):239-241.

Hodgson, J.G., Grime, J.P., Wilson, P.J., Thompson, K., and Band, S.R. 2005. The impacts of agricultural change (1963-2003) on the grassland flora of Central England: processes and prospects. Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(2):107-118.

Hodkinson, I.D. 2005. Terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as bioindicators for environmental monitoring, with particular reference to mountain ecosystems. Environ. Manage. 35(5):649-666.

Horppila, J., and Liljendahl-Nurminen, A. 2005. Clay-turbid interactions may not cascade - a reminder for lake managers. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):242-246.

Huber, C., and Baumgarten, M. 2005. Early effects of forest regeneration with selective and small scale clear-cutting on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in a Norway spruce stand in Southern Bavaria (Höglwald). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1989-2007.

Huber-Sannwald, E., and Pyke, D.A. 2005. Establishing native grasses in a big sagebrush-dominated site: an intermediate restoration step. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):292-301.

Huggett, A.J. 2005. The concept and utility of 'ecological thresholds' in biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):301-310.

Huhta, A.P., and Rauti, P. 2005. Condition of semi-natural meadows in northern Finland today - do the classical vegetation types still exist? Ann. Bot. Fenn. 42(2):81-93.

Hung, K.H., Hsu, T.W., Schaal, B.A., and Chiang, T.Y. 2005. Loss of genetic diversity and erroneous phylogeographical inferences in Lithocarpus konishii (Fagaceae) of Taiwan caused by the Chi-Chi Earthquake: implications for conservation. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 92(1):52-65.

Ingram, J.C., Whittaker, R.J., and Dawson, T.P. 2005. Tree structure and diversity in human-impacted littoral forests, Madagascar. Environ. Manage. 35(6):779-798.

Jansen, A. 2005. Avian use of restoration plantings along a creek linking rainforest patches on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):275-283.

Jha, C.S., Goparaju, L., Tripathi, A., Gharai, B., Raghubanshi, A.S., and Singh, J.S. 2005. Forest fragmentation and its impact on species diversity: an analysis using remote sensing and GIS. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1681-1698.

Jones, B.E., Rickman, T.H., Vazquez, A., Sado, Y., and Tate, K.W. 2005. Removal of encroaching conifers to regenerate degraded aspen stands in the Sierra Nevada. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):373-379.

Jones, R.C., McKinnon, G.E., Potts, B.M., and Vaillancourt, R.E. 2005. Genetic diversity and mating system of an endangered tree Eucalyptus morrisbyi. Aust. J. Bot. 53(4):367-377.

Kaiser, M.J. 2005. Are marine protected areas a red herring or fisheries panacea? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62(5):1194-1199.

Kang, M., Jiang, M.X., and Huang, H.W. 2005. Genetic diversity in fragmented populations of Berchemiella wilsonii var. pubipetiolata (Rhamnaceae). Ann. Botany 95(7):1145-1151.

Kappel, C.V. 2005. Losing pieces of the puzzle: threats to marine, estuarine, and diadromous species. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(5):275-282.

Khumbongmayum, A.D., Khan, M.L., and Tripathi, R.S. 2005. Sacred groves of Manipur, northeast India: biodiversity value, status and strategies for their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1541-1582.

Kier, G., Mutke, J., Dinerstein, E., Ricketts, T.H., Küper, W., Kreft, H., and Barthlott, W. 2005. Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. J. Biogeogr. 32(7):1107-1116.

Klein, J., Ruitton, S., Verlaque, M., and Boudouresque, C.F. 2005. Species introductions, diversity and disturbances in marine macrophyte assemblages of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 290:79-88.

Kraus, R.T., and Secor, D.H. 2005. Application of the nursery-role hypothesis to an estuarine fish. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 291:301-305.

La Marca, E., Lips, K.R., Lötters, S., Puschendorf, R., Ibáñez, R., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Schulte, R., Marty, C., Castro, F., Manzanilla-Puppo, J., García-Pérez, J.E., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J.A., Toral, E., and Young, B.E. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37(2):190-201.

La Sorte, F.A., and Boecklen, W.J. 2005. Temporal turnover of common species in avian assemblages in North America. J. Biogeogr. 32(7):1151-1160.

Lane, D.R., and BassiriRad, H. 2005. Diminishing spatial heterogeneity in soil organic matter across a prairie restoration chronosequence. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):403-412.

Lane, D.R., and LeJeune, K.D. 2005. Introduction to the special section on resource heterogeneity and restoration success. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):390.

Larrea-Alcázar, D., and López, R.P. 2005. An estimation of the floristic richness of Bolivia's Andean dry valleys. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1923-1927.

Latta, S.C., Ralph, C.J., and Geupel, G.R. 2005. Strategies for the conservation monitoring of resident landbirds and wintering neotropical migrants in the Americas. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(2):163-174.

Le Cuziat, J., Lacroix, F., Roche, P., Vidal, E., Médail, F., Orhant, N., and Béranger, P.M. 2005. Landscape and human influences on the distribution of the endangered North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) in Eastern Morocco. Anim. Conserv. 8:143-152.

Legalle, M., Santoul, F., Figuerola, J., Mastrorillo, S., and Cereghino, R. 2005. Factors influencing the spatial distribution patterns of the bullhead (Cottus gobio L., Teleostei Cottidae): a multi-scale study. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1319-1334.

Leimgruber, P., Christen, C.A., and Laborderie, A. 2005. The impact of Landsat satellite monitoring on conservation biology. Environ. Monit. Assess. 106(1-3):81-101.

Li, M., Wei, F.W., Goossens, B., Feng, Z.J., Tamate, H.B., Bruford, M.W., and Funk, S.M. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 36(1):78-89.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Fischer, J., and Cunningham, R.B. 2005. Native vegetation cover thresholds associated with species responses. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):311-316.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Luck, G. 2005. Synthesis: thresholds in conservation and management. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):351-354.

Lips, K.R., Burrowes, P.A., Mendelson, J.R., and Parra-Olea, G. 2005. Amphibian declines in Latin America: widespread population declines, extinctions, and impacts. Biotropica 37(2):163-165.

Lips, K.R., Burrowes, P.A., Mendelson, J.R., and Parra-Olea, G. 2005. Amphibian population declines in Latin America: a synthesis. Biotropica 37(2):222-226.

Liu, J.G., and Diamond, J. 2005. China's environment in a globalizing world. Nature 435(7046):1179-1186.

Lõhmus, A., Sellis, U., and Rosenvald, R. 2005. Have recent changes in forest structure reduced the Estonian black stork Ciconia nigra population? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1421-1432.

López-Fernández, H., and Winemiller, K.O. 2005. Status of Dionda diaboli and report of established populations of exotic fish species in Lower San Felipe Creek, Val Verde County, Texas. Southwest. Nat. 50(2):246-251.

Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Godfray, H.C.J., West, S.A., Hansson, C., and Cook, J.M. 2005. The evolution of host use and unusual reproductive strategies in Achrysocharoides parasitoid wasps. J. Evol. Biol. 18(4):1029-1041.

Lorenzini, R. 2005. A panel of polymorphic microsatellites in the threatened Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):372-374.

Luck, G.W. 2005. An introduction to ecological thresholds. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):299-300.

Maes, D., Bauwens, D., De Bruyn, L., Anselin, A., Vermeersch, G., Van Landuyt, W., De Knijf, G., and Gilbert, M. 2005. Species richness coincidence: conservation strategies based on predictive modelling. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1345-1364.

Magalhães, C., Bueno, S.L.S., Bond-Buckup, G., Valenti, W.C., da Silva, H.L.M., Kiyohara, F., Mossolin, E.C., and Rocha, S.S. 2005. Exotic species of freshwater decapod crustaceans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: records and possible causes of their introduction. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1929-1945.

Magnuson, L. 2005. Conservation of African monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):511-513.

Mänd, R., Tilgar, V., Lõhmus, A., and Leivits, A. 2005. Providing nest boxes for hole-nesting birds - does habitat matter? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1823-1840.

Mata, C., Hervás, I., Herranz, J., Suárez, F., and Malo, J.E. 2005. Complementary use by vertebrates of crossing structures along a fenced Spanish motorway. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):397-405.

May, B.E., and Kaeding, L.R. 2005. Moving forward from recovery under the US Endangered Species Act to long-term conservation of inland cutthroat trout. Fisheries 30(6):30-33.

McGraw, W.S. 2005. Update on the search for Miss Waldron's red colobus monkey. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):605-619.

McKinney, M.L. 2005. Scaling of park trail length and visitation with park area: conservation implications. Anim. Conserv. 8:135-141.

Mesquita, N., Hanfling, B., Carvalho, G.R., and Coelho, M.M. 2005. Phylogeography of the cyprinid Squalius aradensis and implications for conservation of the endemic freshwater fauna of southern Portugal. Mol. Ecol. 14(7):1939-1954.

Michalski, F., and Peres, C.A. 2005. Anthropogenic determinants of primate and carnivore local extinctions in a fragmented forest landscape of southern Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):383-396.

Michaux, J.R., Hardy, O.J., Justy, F., Fournier, P., Kranz, A., Cabria, M., Davison, A., Rosoux, R., and Libois, R. 2005. Conservation genetics and population history of the threatened European mink Mustela lutreola, with an emphasis on the west European population. Mol. Ecol. 14(8):2373-2388.

Mills, M.H., and Schwartz, M.W. 2005. Rare plants at the extremes of distribution: broadly and narrowly distributed rare species. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1401-1420.

Mitrovski, P., Heinze, D.A., Guthridge, K., and Weeks, A.R. 2005. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Australian endemic mountain pygmy-possum, Burramys parvus Broom. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):395-397.

Moffatt, K.C., Crone, E.E., Holl, K.D., Schlorff, R.W., and Garrison, B.A. 2005. Importance of hydrologic and landscape heterogeneity for restoring bank swallow (Riparia riparia) colonies along the Sacramento River, California. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):391-402.

Moilanen, A. 2005. Reserve selection using nonlinear species distribution models. Am. Nat. 165(6):695-706.

Morales, M.B., García, J.T., and Arroyo, B. 2005. Can landscape composition changes predict spatial and annual variation of little bustard male abundance? Anim. Conserv. 8:167-174.

Moundiotiya, C., Kulshreshtha, M., Bhatia, A.L., and Sisodia, R. 2005. Diversity of avifauna of Jamwa Ramgarh wetland of Rajasthan in India. J. Environ. Biol. 26(3):579-583.

Neira, C., Levin, L.A., and Grosholz, E.D. 2005. Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 292:111-126.

Nunes, P.A.L.D., and Riyanto, Y.E. 2005. Information as a regulatory instrument to price biodiversity benefits: certification and ecolabeling policy practices. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):2009-2027.

Nyakaana, S., Okello, J.B.A., Muwanika, V., and Siegismund, H.R. 2005. Six new polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated and characterized from the African savannah elephant genome. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):223-225.

Orrock, J.L., and Damschen, E.I. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Appl. 15(3):793-798.

Palacois, E., and Peres, C.A. 2005. Primate population densities in three nutrient-poor Amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern Colombia. Folia Primatolog. 76(3):135-145.

Pardiñas, U.F.J., D'Elía, G., Cirignoli, S., and Suarez, P. 2005. A new species of Akodon (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from the Northern Campos grasslands of Argentina. J. Mammal. 86(3):462-474.

Parra-Olea, G., Martínez-Meyer, E., and de León, G.F.P. 2005. Forecasting climate change effects on salamander distribution in the highlands of central Mexico. Biotropica 37(2):202-208.

Pataki, D.E., Bush, S.E., Gardner, P., Solomon, D.K., and Ehleringer, J.R. 2005. Ecohydrology in a Colorado River riparian forest: implications for the decline of Populus fremontii. Ecol. Appl. 15(3):1009-1018.

Patra, M.K., Acharjee, S.K., and Chakraborty, S.K. 2005. Conservation categories of siluroid fishes in north-east Sundarbans, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1863-1876.

Pejchar, L., Holl, K.D., and Lockwood, J.L. 2005. Hawaiian honeycreeper home range size varies with habitat: implications for native Acacia koa forestry. Ecol. Appl. 15(3):1053-1061.

Perez-Sweeney, B.M., Valladares-Padua, C., Burrell, A.S., Di Fiore, A., Satkoski, J., De Groot, P.J.V., Boag, P.T., and Melnick, D.J. 2005. Dinucleotide microsatellite primers designed for a critically endangered primate, the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):198-201.

Petty, J.T., and Thorne, D. 2005. An ecologically based approach to identifying restoration priorities in an acid-impacted watershed. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):348-357.

Pimentel, D. 2005. Aquatic nuisance species in the New York State Canal and Hudson River systems and the Great Lakes Basin: an economic and environmental assessment. Environ. Manage. 35(5):692-701.

Pinto, M., Rocha, P., and Moreira, F. 2005. Long-term trends in great bustard (Otis tarda) populations in Portugal suggest concentration in single high quality area. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):415-423.

Pons, P., and Wendenburg, C. 2005. The impact of fire and forest conversion into savanna on the bird communities of West Madagascan dry forests. Anim. Conserv. 8:183-193.

Poschlod, P., Bakker, J.P., and Kahmen, S. 2005. Changing land use and its impact on biodiversity. Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(2):93-98.

Puglisi, L., Adamo, M.C., and Baldaccini, N.E. 2005. Man-induced habitat changes and sensitive species: a GIS approach to the Eurasian bittern (Botaurus stellaris) distribution in a Mediterranean wetland. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1909-1922.

Puragganan, M.D., and Robichaux, R.H. 2005. Adaptive radiation and regulatory gene evolution in the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae). Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 92(1):28-35.

Puth, L.M., and Post, D.M. 2005. Studying invasion: have we missed the boat? Ecol. Lett. 8(7):715-721.

Radford, J.Q., Bennett, A.F., and Cheers, G.J. 2005. Landscape-level thresholds of habitat cover for woodland-dependent birds. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):317-337.

Ravan, S., Dixit, A.M., and Mathur, V.B. 2005. Spatial analysis for identification and evaluation of forested corridors between two protected areas in central India. Curr. Sci. 88(9):1441-1448.

Redi, B.H., van Aarde, R.J., and Wassenaar, T.D. 2005. Coastal dune forest development and the regeneration of millipede communities. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):284-291.

Ribeiro, R.A., Ramos, A.C.S., Filho, J.P.D., and Lovato, M.B. 2005. Genetic variation in remnant populations of Dalbergia nigra (Papilionoideae), an endangered tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ann. Botany 95(7):1171-1177.

Riitters, K.H., and Coulston, J.W. 2005. Hot spots of perforated forest in the eastern United States. Environ. Manage. 35(4):483-492.

Rimmer, C.C., Townsend, J.M., Townsend, A.K., Fernandez, E.M., and Almonte, J. 2005. Avian diversity, abundance, and conservation status in the Macaya Biosphere Reserve of Haiti. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(2):219-230.

Rinkevich, B. 2005. Conservation of coral reefs through active restoration measures: recent approaches and last decade progress. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(12):4333-4342.

Rixon, C.A.M., Duggan, I.C., Bergeron, N.M.N., Ricciardi, A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2005. Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets on the Laurentian Great Lakes. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1365-1381.

Rodríguez-Pérez, J. 2005. Breeding system, flower visitors and seedling survival of two endangered species of Helianthemum (Cistaceae). Ann. Botany 95(7):1229-1236.

Ron, S.R. 2005. Predicting the distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the New World. Biotropica 37(2):209-221.

Roon, D.A., Waits, L.P., and Kendall, K.C. 2005. A simulation test of the effectiveness of several methods for error-checking non-invasive genetic data. Anim. Conserv. 8:203-215.

Rowcliffe, J.M., Milner-Gulland, E., and Cowlishaw, G. 2005. Do bushmeat consumers have other fish to fry? TREE 20(6):274-276.

Ruiz-Pérez, M., Almeida, M., Dewi, S., Costa, E.M.L., Pantoja, M.C., Puntodewo, A., Postigo, A.D., and de Andrade, A.G. 2005. Conservation and development in Amazonian extractive reserves: the case of Alto Juruá. Ambio 34(3):218-223.

Salgueiro, F., Caron, H., de Souza, M.I.F., Kremer, A., and Margis, R. 2005. Characterization of nuclear microsatellite loci in South American Araucariaceae species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):256-258.

Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Anadón, J.D., Carrete, M., Giménez, A., Navarro, J., Villacorta, C., and Botella, F. 2005. Breeding waterbirds in relation to artificial pond attributes: implications for the design of irrigation facilities. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1627-1639.

Schaal, B.A., and Leverich, W.J. 2005. Conservation genetics: theory and practice. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 92(1):1-11.

Scoppettone, G.G., Rissler, P.H., Gourley, C., and Martinez, C. 2005. Habitat restoration as a means of controlling non-native fish in a Mojave Desert oasis. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):247-256.

Shebitz, D.J., and Kimmerer, R.W. 2005. Reestablishing roots of a Mohawk community and a culturally significant plant: sweetgrass. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):257-264.

Shuler, R.E., Roulston, T.H., and Farris, G.E. 2005. Farming practices influence wild pollinator populations on squash and pumpkin. J. Econ. Entomol. 98(3):790-795.

Smart, S.M., Bunce, R.G.H., Marrs, R., LeDuc, M., Firbank, L.G., Maskell, L.C., Scott, W.A., Thompson, K., and Walker, K.J. 2005. Large-scale changes in the abundance of common higher plant species across Britain between 1978, 1990 and 1998 as a consequence of human activity: tests of hypothesised changes in trait representation. Biol. Conserv. 124(3):355-371.

Smith, G.C., Henderson, I.S., and Robertson, P.A. 2005. A model of ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis eradication for the UK. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(3):546-555.

Smith, J.E., McKay, D., Brenner, G., McIver, J., and Spatafora, J.W. 2005. Early impacts of forest restoration treatments on the ectomycorrhizal fungal community and fine root biomass in a mixed conifer forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(3):526-535.

Sodhi, N.S., Lee, T.M., Koh, L.P., and Dunn, R.R. 2005. A century of avifaunal turnover in a small tropical rainforest fragment. Anim. Conserv. 8:217-222.

Spinks, P.Q., and Shaffer, H.B. 2005. Range-wide molecular analysis of the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata): cryptic variation, isolation by distance, and their conservation implications. Mol. Ecol. 14(7):2047-2064.

Stanisci, A., Pelino, G., and Blasi, C. 2005. Vascular plant diversity and climate change in the alpine belt of the central Apennines (Italy). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1301-1318.

Struhsaker, T.T. 2005. Conservation of red colobus and their habitats. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):525-538.

Tani, N., Kawahara, T., and Yoshimaru, H. 2005. Development and diversity of microsatellite markers for endangered species, Morus boninensis Koidz., to establish conservation program. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):398-400.

Thorburn, D.C., and Morgan, D.L. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Glyphis sp. C (Carcharhinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(2):140.

Tixier, G., and Guérold, F. 2005. Plecoptera response to acidification in several headwater streams in the Vosges Mountains (northeastern France). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1525-1539.

Troeng, S., Dutton, P.H., and Evans, D. 2005. Migration of hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata from Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Ecography 28(3):394-402.

Uesugi, R., Tani, N., Goka, K., Nishihiro, J., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2005. Isolation and characterization of highly polymorphic microsatellites in the aquatic plant, Nymphoides peltata (Menyanthaceae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(2):343-345.

Van Lear, D.H., Carroll, W.D., Kapeluck, P.R., and Johnson, R. 2005. History and restoration of the longleaf pine-grassland ecosystem: implications for species at risk. Forest Ecol. Manag. 211(1-2):150-165.

Van Zandt, P.A., Collins, E., Losos, J.B., and Chase, J.M. 2005. Implications of food web interactions for restoration of Missouri Ozark glade habitats. Restor. Ecol. 13(2):312-317.

Venkateswaran, R., and Parthasarathy, N. 2005. Tree population changes in a tropical dry evergreen forest of south India over a decade (1992-2002). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1335-1344.

Villanueva-G, R., Roubik, D.W., and Colli-Ucán, W. 2005. Extinction of Melipona beecheii and traditional beekeeping in the Yucatan peninsula. Bee World 86(2):35-41.

Wahungu, G.M., Muoria, P.K., Moinde, N.N., Oguge, N.O., and Kirathe, J.N. 2005. Changes in forest fragment sizes and primate population trends along the River Tana floodplain, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 43(2):81-90.

Warren, M.L., and Haag, W.R. 2005. Spatio-temporal patterns of the decline of freshwater mussels in the Little South Fork Cumberland River, USA. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(6):1383-1400.

Werner, U., and Buszko, J. 2005. Detecting biodiversity hotspots using species-area and endemics-area relationships: the case of butterflies. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1977-1988.

Whiteman, N.K., and Parker, P.G. 2005. Using parasites to infer host population history: a new rationale for parasite conservation. Anim. Conserv. 8:175-181.

Wieczkowski, J. 2005. Comprehensive conservation profile of Tana mangabeys. Int. J. Primatol. 26(3):651-660.

Williams, J.E., Macdonald, C.A., Williams, C.D., Weeks, H., Lampman, G., and Sada, D.W. 2005. Prospects for recovering endemic fishes pursuant to the US Endangered Species Act. Fisheries 30(6):24-29.

Wilson, K., Pressey, R.L., Newton, A., Burgman, M., Possingham, H., and Weston, C. 2005. Measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning. Environ. Manage. 35(5):527-543.

Wolf, J.H.D. 2005. The response of epiphytes to anthropogenic disturbance of pine-oak forests in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 212(1-3):376-393.

Wolfe, B.E., and Klironomos, J.N. 2005. Breaking new ground: soil communities and exotic plant invasion. BioScience 55(6):477-487.

Yan, Z.L., Sun, J.H., Don, O., and Zhang, Z.N. 2005. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Scolytidae): an exotic invasive pest of pine in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1735-1760.

Yli-Pelkonen, V., and Niemelä, J. 2005. Linking ecological and social systems in cities: urban planning in Finland as a case. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(8):1947-1967.

Young, J., Watt, A., Nowicki, P., Alard, D., Clitherow, J., Henle, K., Johnson, R., Laczko, E., McCracken, D., Matouch, S., Niemela, J., and Richards, C. 2005. Towards sustainable land use: identifying and managing the conflicts between human activities and biodiversity conservation in Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1641-1661.

Young, T.P., Petersen, D.A., and Clary, J.J. 2005. The ecology of restoration: historical links, emerging issues and unexplored realms. Ecol. Lett. 8(6):662-673.

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