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Department ofBotany



No. 250
October 2005


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In This Issue


Coalition Against Wildlife Trafficking


The formation of the global Coalition Against Wildlife Trafficking was announced at the conclusion of the prestigious Wildlife Film Festival in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, on 23 September. The coalition, initiated by the United States, will focus political and public attention on growing threats to wildlife from poaching and illegal trade. Seven major U.S.-based environmental and business groups with global interests and programs have joined the Coalition: Conservation International, Save the Tiger Fund, the Smithsonian Institution, Traffic International, WildAid, Wildlife Conservation Society, and the American Forest & Paper Association.

Wildlife trafficking is a soaring black market worth $10 billion a year. Unchecked demand for exotic pets, rare foods, trophies and traditional medicines is driving tigers, elephants, rhinos, unusual birds and many other species to the brink of extinction, threatening global biodiversity. Added to this is the alarming rise in virulent zoonotic diseases, such as SARS and avian influenza, crossing species lines to infect humans and endanger public health.

In July 2005, at the initiative of the United States, G-8 leaders recognized the devastating effects of illegal logging on wildlife and committed to help countries enforce laws to combat wildlife trafficking.

The Coalition on Wildlife Trafficking will focus its initial efforts on Asia, a major supplier of black market wildlife and wildlife parts to the world. Coalition partners are already working with the Government of Thailand and other members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The Thai government will host a regional wildlife trafficking workshop for law enforcement officials and officials responsible for compliance with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species in October 2005. Soon after the workshop, Southeast Asian environment ministers are expected to announce the development of a regional wildlife trafficking law enforcement network.

During the announcement, Scott Miller, Associate Director for Science at the National Zoological Park (NZP) and Senior Biodiversity Advisor to the Director of the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), representing Cristián Samper, Director of NMNH, mentioned the interest of the Smithsonian Institution in general, and NMNH, NZP, and the Consortium for the Barcode of Life in specific. The Smithsonian Institution may contribute to the initiative in several ways, such as through exhibits and outreach, in-country training and capacity building, and research, including the development of improved diagnostic tools for identification and monitoring of wildlife and epizootic diseases.

Additional government and non-government partners from Asia and Europe are expected to join the Coalition in the coming months.


Assessing Biological Invasions


Biological invasions are reshaping biological communities in many ways. For coastal ecosystems, one of the main sources of biological invasions is the dispersal of freshwater and marine organisms through commercial shipping. Plants and animals are transported from one area to another in ships' ballast water or on the outer surfaces of these vessels. What determines the likelihood of invasion in a bay or estuary not only depends on the characteristics of the environment, but also on the type, quantity, and quality of the organisms supplied to the new ecosystem. In invasion risk assessments, the number of these organisms is termed "propagule supply."

In research published in the June 2005 edition of the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, scientists Emma Verling, Gregory Ruiz, Whitman Miller, and Kathleen Murphy of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) and colleagues find that not all shipping vessels are equal when it comes to propagule supply to coastal ecosystems. The authors analyzed data on ship arrivals to U.S. ports from overseas and looked at the frequency, amount, and the geographic source regions of ballast water discharged into U.S. waters by different ship types. They also examined the survivorship of zooplankton in water over different voyage lengths. Their research quantifies how various types of vessels differ in the frequency and amount of ballast water they discharge at a particular port. For example, a port heavily visited by container ships, which discharge relatively little ballast in U.S. waters, might not have the same invasions risk as a port visited by bulk carriers, which discharge the most ballast into U.S. waters. Furthermore, the authors found that though zooplankton survivorship declines in ballasted waters as voyage length increases, the magnitude of the decline varies between source regions and with voyage length. Additionally, the type of organisms present in ballasted water depends on the time of year and which ports the ballast was picked up from. Their research reveals the complex interactions that must be considered when estimating invasions risk and predicting when and where coastal invasions might occur.


Current Literature


Amat, J.A., Rendón, M.A., Rendón-Martos, M., Garrido, A., and Ramírez, J.M. 2005. Ranging behaviour of greater flamingos during the breeding and post-breeding periods: linking connectivity to biological processes. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):183-192.

Andreasen, K. 2005. Implications of molecular systematic analyses on the conservation of rare and threatened taxa: contrasting examples from Malvaceae. Conserv. Genet. 6(3):399-412.

Auvinen, H., Jurvelius, J., Koskela, J., and Sipilä, T. 2005. Comparative use of vendace by humans and Saimaa ringed sea in Lake Pihlajavesi, Finland. Biol. Conserv. 125(3):381-389.

Bache, S.J. 2005. Marine policy development: the impact of a flagship species. MAST 3(2)/4(1):241-271.

Baghli, A., and Verhagen, R. 2005. Activity patterns and use of resting sites by polecats in an endangered population. Mammalia 69(2):211-222.

Barnett, J.M., Carlos, C.J., and Roda, S.A. 2005. Renewed hope for the threatened avian endemics of northeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2265-2274.

Bayne, E.M., Boutin, S., Tracz, B., and Charest, K. 2005. Functional and numerical responses of ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) to changing seismic exploration practices in Alberta's boreal forest. Ecoscience 12(2):216-222.

Beebee, T.J.C., and Griffiths, R.A. 2005. The amphibian decline crisis: a watershed for conservation biology? Biol. Conserv. 125(3):271-285.

Begg, G.A., Campana, S.E., Fowler, A.J., and Suthers, I.M. 2005. Otolith research and application: current directions in innovation and implementation. Mar. Freshwater Res. 56(5):477-483.

Bekker, R.M., and Kwak, M.M. 2005. Life history traits as predictors of plant rarity, with particular reference to hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae. Folia Geobot. 40(2-3):231-242.

Bhagwat, S.A., Kushalappa, C.G., Williams, P.H., and Brown, N.D. 2005. The role of informal protected areas in maintaining biodiversity in the Western Ghats of India. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):8.

Birchard, B. 2005. Nature's Keepers : The Remarkable Story of How the Nature Conservancy Became the Largest Environmental Group in the World. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco. 272 pp.

Bishop, D.C., and Haas, C.A. 2005. Burning trends and rotential negative effects of suppressing wetland fires on flatwoods salamanders. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):290-294.

Blamires, S.J., Spencer, R.J., King, P., and Thompson, M.B. 2005. Population parameters and life-table analysis of two coexisting freshwater turtles: are the Bellinger River turtle populations threatened? Wildlife Res. 32(4):339-347.

Borges, P.A.V., Aguiar, C., Amaral, J., Amorim, I.R., André, G., Arraiol, A., Baz, A., Dinis, F., Enghoff, H., Gaspar, C., Ilharco, F., Mahnert, V., Melo, C., Pereira, F., Quartau, J.A., Ribeiro, S.P., Ribes, J., Serrano, A.R.M., Sousa, A.B., Strassen, R.Z., Vieira, L., Vieira, V., Vitorino, A., and Wunderlich, J. 2005. Ranking protected areas in the Azores using standardised sampling of soil epigean arthropods. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2029-2060.

Bothma, J.D. 2005. It is time to end the debate on introducing exotic wildlife. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 35(1):97-102.

Bruna, E.M., and Oli, M.K. 2005. Demographic effects of habitat fragmentation on a tropical herb: life-table response experiments. Ecology 86(7):1816-1824.

Bullock, J.M., and Pywell, R.F. 2005. Rhinanthus: a tool for restoring diverse grassland? Folia Geobot. 40(2-3):273-288.

Campbell, L.M., and Smith, C. 2005. Volunteering for sea turtles? Characteristics and motives of volunteers working with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation in Tortuguero, Costa Rica. MAST 3(2)/4(1):169-193.

Cannon, A.R., Chamberlain, D.E., Toms, M.P., Hatchwell, B.J., and Gaston, K.J. 2005. Trends in the use of private gardens by wild birds in Great Britain 1995-2002. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):659-671.

Cardillo, M., Mace, G.M., Jones, K.E., Bielby, J., Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Sechrest, W., Orme, C.D.L., and Purvis, A. 2005. Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species. Science 309(5738):1239-1241.

Causton, C.E., Sevilla, C.R., and Porter, S.D. 2005. Eradication of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from Marchena Island, Galapagos: on the edge of success? Fl. Entomol. 88(2):159-168.

Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P.R., Soberón, J., Salazar, I., and Fay, J.P. 2005. Global mammal conservation: what must we manage? Science 309(5734):603-607.

Chen, J.M., Liu, X., Wang, J.Y., Robert, G.W., and Wang, Q.F. 2005. Genetic variation within the endangered quillwort Isoetes hypsophila (Isoetaceae) in China as evidenced by ISSR analysis. Aquat. Bot. 82(2):89-98.

Chen, Z.G., Yang, J.Y., and Xie, Z.Q. 2005. Economic development of local communities and biodiversity conservation: a case study from Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2095-2108.

Christie, F.J., and Hochuli, D.F. 2005. Elevated levels of herbivory in urban landscapes: are declines in tree health more than an edge effect? Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):10.

Coelho, M.M., Mesquita, N., and Collares-Pereira, M.J. 2005. Chondrostoma almacai, a new cyprinid species from the southwest of Portugal, Iberian Peninsula. Folia Zoolog. 54(1-2):201-212.

Creegan, H.P., and Osborne, P.E. 2005. Gap-crossing decisions of woodland songbirds in Scotland: an experimental approach. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):678-687.

Croshaw, D.A., Schable, N.A., Peters, M.B., and Glenn, T.C. 2005. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci from Ambystoma salamanders. Conserv. Genet. 6(3):473-479.

Culliney, T.W. 2005. Benefits of classical biological control for managing invasive plants. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 24(2):131-150.

Dalton, R. 2005. Is this any way to save a species? Nature 436(7047):14-16.

Delgado, S., and Nichols, W.J. 2005. Saving sea turtles from the ground up: awakening sea turtle conservation in northwestern Mexico. MAST 3(2)/4(1):89-104.

Diggins, T.P., and Kershner, B. 2005. Canopy and understory composition of old-growth riparian forest in Zoar Valley, New York, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):219-227.

du Rau, P.D., Barbraud, C., and Mondain-Monval, J.Y. 2005. Incorporating uncertainty into analyses of red-crested pochard habitat selection. Biol. Conserv. 125(3):355-367.

Dumbrell, A.J., and Hill, J.K. 2005. Impacts of selective logging on canopy and ground assemblages of tropical forest butterflies: implications for sampling. Biol. Conserv. 125(1):123-131.

Dunn, R.R., and Romdal, T.S. 2005. Mean latitudinal range sizes of bird assemblages in six neotropical forest chronosequences. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 14(4):359-366.

Eckert, K.L., and Hemphill, A.H. 2005. Sea turtles as flagships for protection of the wider Caribbean region. MAST 3(2)/4(1):119-143.

El-Keblawy, A., and Ksiksi, T. 2005. Artificial forests as conservation sites for the native flora of the UAE. Forest Ecol. Manag. 213(1-3):288-296.

Emms, J., Virtue, J.G., Preston, C., and Bellotti, W.D. 2005. Legumes in temperate Australia: a survey of naturalisation and impact in natural ecosystems. Biol. Conserv. 125(3):323-333.

Eyre, T.J., and Buck, R.G. 2005. The regional distribution of large gliding possums in southern Queensland, Australia. 1. The yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis). Biol. Conserv. 125(1):65-86.

Fernández-Juricic, E., Venier, M.P., Renison, D., and Blumstein, D.T. 2005. Sensitivity of wildlife to spatial patterns of recreationist behavior: a critical assessment of minimum approaching distances and buffer areas for grassland birds. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):225-235.

Ferreira, S.M., Hansen, K.M., Parrish, G.R., Pierce, R.J., Pulham, G.A., and Taylor, S. 2005. Conservation of the endangered New Zealand fairy tern. Biol. Conserv. 125(3):345-354.

Figueredo, C.C., and Giani, A. 2005. Ecological interactions between Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) and the phytoplanktonic community of the Furnas Reservoir (Brazil). Freshwater Biol. 50(8):1391-1403.

Foley, J.A., DeFries, R., Asner, G.P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S.R., Chapin, F.S., Coe, M.T., Daily, G.C., Gibbs, H.K., Helkowski, J.H., Holloway, T., Howard, E.A., Kucharik, C.J., Monfreda, C., Patz, J.A., Prentice, I.C., Ramankutty, N., and Snyder, P.K. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309(5734):570-574.

Forys, E.A., and Allen, C.R. 2005. The impacts of sprawl on biodiversity: the ant fauna of the lower Florida Keys. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):25.

Frazier, J. 2005. Flagging the flagship: valuing experiences from ancient depths. MAST 3(2)/4(1):273-303.

Frazier, J. 2005. Marine turtles: the role of flagship species in interactions between people and the sea. MAST 3(2)/4(1):5-38.

Gapare, W.J., and Aitken, S.N. 2005. Strong spatial genetic structure in peripheral but not core populations of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.]. Mol. Ecol. 14(9):2659-2667.

Gauci, M.J., Deidun, A., and Schembri, P.J. 2005. Faunistic diversity of Maltese pocket sandy and shingle beaches: are these of conservation value? Oceanologia 47(2):219-241.

Gavin, M.C., and Anderson, G.J. 2005. Testing a rapid quantitative ethnobiological technique: first steps towards developing a critical conservation tool. Econ. Bot. 59(2):112-121.

Ghazoul, J. 2005. Buzziness as usual? Questioning the global pollination crisis. TREE 20(7):367-373.

Ghimire, S.K., McKey, D., and Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Y. 2005. Conservation of Himalayan medicinal plants: harvesting patterns and ecology of two threatened species, Nardostachys grandiflora DC. and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):463-475.

Gilbert, B., and Lechowicz, M.J. 2005. Invasibility and abiotic gradients: the positive correlation between native and exotic plant diversity. Ecology 86(7):1848-1855.

Gilbert, G., Tyler, G.A., Dunn, C.J., and Smith, K.W. 2005. Nesting habitat selection by bitterns Botaurus stellaris in Britain and the implications for wetland management. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):547-553.

Gilchrist, G., Mallory, M., and Merkel, F. 2005. Can local ecological knowledge contribute to wildlife management? Case studies of migratory birds. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):20.

Gillespie, T.R., Chapman, C.A., and Greiner, E.C. 2005. Effects of logging on gastrointestinal parasite infections and infection risk in African primates. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):699-707.

Goode, M.J., Horrace, W.C., Sredl, M.J., and Howland, J.M. 2005. Habitat destruction by collectors associated with decreased abundance of rock-dwelling lizards. Biol. Conserv. 125(1):47-54.

Gordon, D.R., Greenberg, C.H., Crownover, S.H., and Slapcinsky, O.L. 2005. Effects of unpaved road soils on persistence of three non-native grass species. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):257-262.

Grabowski, J.H., Hughes, A.R., Kimbro, D.L., and Dolan, M.A. 2005. How habitat setting influences restored oyster reef communities. Ecology 86(7):1926-1935.

Grassi, F., Cazzaniga, E., Minuto, L., Peccenini, S., Barberis, G., and Basso, B. 2005. Evaluation of biodiversity and conservation strategies in Pancratium maritimum L. for the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2159-2169.

Guevara, R. 2005. Saprotrophic mycelial cord abundance, length and survivorship are reduced in the conversion of tropical cloud forest to shaded coffee plantation. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):261-268.

Guillén, A.K.Z., Barrett, G.M., and Takenaka, O. 2005. Genetic diversity among African great apes based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2221-2233.

Hadrys, H., Schroth, W., Schierwater, B., Streit, B., and Fincke, O.M. 2005. Tree hole odonates as environmental monitors: non-invasive isolation of polymorphic microsatellites from the neotropical damselfly Megaloprepus caerulatus. Conserv. Genet. 6(3):481-483.

Hansen, M.J., and Clevenger, A.P. 2005. The influence of disturbance and habitat on the presence of non-native plant species along transport corridors. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):249-259.

Harcourt, A.H., and Doherty, D.A. 2005. Species-area relationships of primates in tropical forest fragments: a global analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):630-637.

Harris, C.M. 2005. Aircraft operations near concentrations of birds in Antarctica: the development of practical guidelines. Biol. Conserv. 125(3):309-322.

Harrod, R.J., and Halpern, C.B. 2005. The seed ecology of Iliamna longisepala (Torr.) Wiggins, an east Cascade endemic. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):246-256.

Heilmann-Clausen, J., Aude, E., and Christensen, M. 2005. Cryptogam communities on decaying deciduous wood - does tree species diversity matter? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2061-2078.

Heino, J., Virtanen, R., Vuori, K.M., Saastamoinen, J., Ohtonen, A., and Muotka, T. 2005. Spring bryophytes in forested landscapes: land use effects on bryophyte species richness, community structure and persistence. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):539-545.

Helenurm, K., and Hall, S.S. 2005. Dissimilar patterns of genetic variation in two insular endemic plants sharing species characteristics, distribution, habitat, and ecological history. Conserv. Genet. 6(3):341-353.

Hemp, C. 2005. The Chagga home gardens - relict areas for endemic Saltatoria species (Insecta: Orthoptera) on Mount Kilimanjaro. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):203-209.

Hendrickson, C., Bell, T., Butler, K., and Hermanutz, L. 2005. Disturbance-enabled invasion of Tussilago farfara (L.) in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland: management implications. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):263-274.

Hilderbrand, R.H., Watts, A.C., and Randle, A.M. 2005. The myths of restoration ecology. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):19.

Hughes, F.M.R., Colston, A., and Mountford, J.O. 2005. Restoring riparian ecosystems: the challenge of accommodating variability and designing restoration trajectories. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):12.

Hughes, T.P., Bellwood, D.R., Folke, C., Steneck, R.S., and Wilson, J. 2005. New paradigms for supporting the resilience of marine ecosystems. TREE 20(7):380-386.

Huitric, M. 2005. Lobster and conch fisheries of Belize: a history of sequential exploitation. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):21.

Huntly, P.M., Van Noort, S., and Hamer, M. 2005. Giving increased value to invertebrates through ecotourism. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 35(1):53-62.

Jackson, J. 2005. Is there a relationship between herbaceous species richness and buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)? Austral Ecol. 30(5):505-517.

Jegu, M., and Zuanon, J. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Ossubtus xinguense (Jegu 1992) (Characidae: Serrasalminae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(4):414.

Kinan, I., and Dalzell, P. 2005. Sea turtles as a flagship species: different perspectives create conflicts in the Pacific Islands. MAST 3(2)/4(1):195-212.

Knisley, C.B., Hill, J.M., and Scherer, A.M. 2005. Translocation of threatened tiger beetle Cicindela dorsalis dorsalis (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) to Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 98(4):552-557.

Kolseth, A.K., Lönn, M., and Svensson, B.M. 2005. Genetic structure in two meadow varieties of Euphrasia stricta on the Baltic Island of Gotland (Sweden) and implications for conservation. Folia Geobot. 40(2-3):163-176.

Kramer-Schadt, S., Revilla, E., and Wiegand, T. 2005. Lynx reintroductions in fragmented landscapes of Germany: projects with a future or misunderstood wildlife conservation? Biol. Conserv. 125(2):169-182.

Krauss, J., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Muller, C.B., and Tscharntke, T. 2005. Relative importance of resource quantity, isolation and habitat quality for landscape distribution of a monophagous butterfly. Ecography 28(4):465-474.

La Peyre, M.K.G., Thom, C.S.B., Winslow, C., Caldwell, A., and Nyman, J.A. 2005. Comparison of seed bank size and composition in fringing, restored, and impounded marsh in southwest Louisiana. Southeast. Nat. 4(2):273-286.

Laporta, M., and Miller, P. 2005. Sea turtles in Uruguay: where will they lead us? MAST 3(2)/4(1):63-87.

Lee, M.A.B., Ponzio, K.J., and Miller, S.J. 2005. Response of willow (Salix caroliniana Michx.) in a floodplain marsh to a growing season prescribed fire. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):239-245.

Lepczyk, C.A. 2005. Integrating published data and citizen science to describe bird diversity across a landscape. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):672-677.

Leuteritz, T.E.J., Lamb, T., and Limberaza, J.C. 2005. Distribution, status, and conservation of radiated tortoises (Geochelone radiata) in Madagascar. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):451-461.

Levey, D.J., Bolker, B.M., Tewksbury, J.J., Sargent, S., and Haddad, N.M. 2005. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309(5731):146-148.

Levin, P.S., and Stunz, G.W. 2005. Habitat triage for exploited fishes: can we identify essential "essential fish habitat?". Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 64(1):70-78.

Lewis, P.N., Riddle, M.J., and Smith, S.D.A. 2005. Assisted passage or passive drift: a comparison of alternative transport mechanisms for non-indigenous coastal species into the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 17(2):183-191.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., and Peakall, R. 2005. The recovery of populations of bush rat Rattus fuscipes in forest fragments following major population reduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):649-658.

Lindsey, P.A., du Toit, J.T., and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. Attitudes of ranchers towards African wild dogs Lycaon pictus: conservation implications on private land. Biol. Conserv. 125(1):113-121.

Lite, S.J., and Stromberg, J.C. 2005. Surface water and ground-water thresholds for maintaining Populus-Salix forests, San Pedro River, Arizona. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):153-167.

Little, I.T., Little, R.M., Jansen, R., and Crowe, T.M. 2005. Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance at a re-vegetated coal mine in the Middelburg district, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 35(1):13-22.

Lorenzini, R., Fico, R., and Mattioli, S. 2005. Mitochondrial DNA evidence for a genetic distinction of the native red deer of Mesota, northern Italy, from the alpine populations and the Sardinian subspecies. Mamm. Biol. 70(3):187-198.

Luken, J.O. 2005. Characterizing illegal harvest of the venus' fly trap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) at Lewis Ocean Bay Heritage Preserve, South Carolina, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):295-299.

MacLeod, C.D., Bannon, S.M., Pierce, G.J., Schweder, C., Learmonth, J.A., Herman, J.S., and Reid, R.J. 2005. Climate change and the cetacean community of north-west Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):477-483.

Marcovaldi, M.Â., Patiri, V., and Thomé, J.C. 2005. Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA: Twenty-five years protecting Brazilian sea turtles through a community-based conservation program. MAST 3(2)/4(1):39-62.

Maron, M., and Lill, A. 2005. The influence of livestock grazing and weed invasion on habitat use by birds in grassy woodland reminants. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):439-450.

Martin, K., and James, M.C. 2005. The need for altruism: engendering a stewardship ethic amongst fishermen for the conservation of sea turtles in Canada. MAST 3(2)/4(1):105-118.

Martínez-García, M., Urrutia, E.L., Campos, J.E., Aguirre-León, E., and Santos-Hernández, L. 2005. An assessment of conservation alternatives of Laelia albida (Orchidaceae) in Zapotitlan Salinas, Puebla, through the Mexican Wild Species Extinction Risk Evaluation Method (MER): culture and uses of the biological resource. Environ. Sci. Policy 8(2):145-151.

Mathooko, J.M. 2005. Application of traditional ecological knowledge in the management and sustainability of fisheries in East Africa: a long-neglected strategy? Hydrobiologia 537:1-6.

McCallum, H., Gerber, L., and Jani, A. 2005. Does infectious disease influence the efficacy of marine protected areas? A theoretical framework. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(4):688-698.

McCarthy, T.M., Fuller, T.K., and Munkhtsog, B. 2005. Movements and activities of snow leopards in Southwestern Mongolia. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):527-537.

McEwan, R.W., Rhoades, C., and Beiting, S. 2005. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in the pre-settlement vegetation of Mammoth Cave National Park, central Kentucky, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(3):275-281.

McShea, W.J., Koy, K., Clements, T., Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., and Aung, M. 2005. Finding a needle in the haystack: regional analysis of suitable Eld's deer (Cervus eldi) forest in Southeast Asia. Biol. Conserv. 125(1):101-111.

Meyer, G., Clare, R., and Weber, E. 2005. An experimental test of the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis in goldenrod, Solidago gigantea. Oecologia 144(2):299-307.

Mitchell, B.D., and Banks, P.B. 2005. Do wild dogs exclude foxes? Evidence for competition from dietary and spatial overlaps. Austral Ecol. 30(5):581-591.

Moilanen, A. 2005. Methods for reserve selection: interior point search. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):485-492.

Monadjem, A., and Garcelon, D.K. 2005. Nesting distribution of vultures in relation to land use in Swaziland. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2079-2093.

Montigny, M.K., and MacLean, D.A. 2005. Using heterogeneity and representation of ecosite criteria to select forest reserves in an intensively managed industrial forest. Biol. Conserv. 125(2):237-248.

Moore, P.D. 2005. Where slugs may safely graze. Nature 436(7047):35-36.

Murray, B.R., and Hose, G.C. 2005. Life-history and ecological correlates of decline and extinction in the endemic Australian frog fauna. Austral Ecol. 30(5):564-571.

Nagendra, H., Karmacharya, M., and Karna, B. 2005. Evaluating forest management in Nepal: views across space and time. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(1):24.

Nath, P.C., Arunachalam, A., Khan, M.L., Arunachalam, K., and Barbhuiya, A.R. 2005. Vegetation analysis and tree population structure of tropical wet evergreen forests in and around Namdapha National Park, northeast India. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2109-2136.

Nekaris, K.A.I., Liyanage, W.K.D.D., and Gamage, S.N. 2005. Influence of forest structure and composition on population density of the red slender loris Loris tardigradus tardigradus in Masmullah Proposed Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. Mammalia 69(2):201-210.

Nicole, F., Brzosko, E., and Till-Bottraud, I. 2005. Population viability analysis of Cypripedium calceolus in a protected area: longevity, stability and persistence. J. Ecology 93(4):716-726.

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Rango, J.J. 2005. Arthropod communities on creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in desert patches of varying degrees of urbanization. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2185-2206.

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Riojas-López, M.E., and Mellink, E. 2005. Potential for biological conservation in man-modified semiarid habitats in northeastern Jalisco, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2251-2263.

Rizzolli, F., Sergio, F., Marchesi, L., and Pedrini, P. 2005. Density, productivity, diet and population status of the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus in the Italian Alps. Bird Study 52:188-192.

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Sergio, F., Blas, J., Forero, M., Fernández, N., Donázar, J.A., and Hiraldo, F. 2005. Preservation of wide-ranging top predators by site-protection: black and red kites in Doñana National Park. Biol. Conserv. 125(1):11-21.

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Serrano, D., and Astrain, C. 2005. Microhabitat use and segregation of two sibling species of Calandrella larks during the breeding season: conservation and management strategies. Biol. Conserv. 125(3):391-397.

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Shanker, K., and Kutty, R. 2005. Sailing the flagship fantastic: different approaches to sea turtle conservation in India. MAST 3(2)/4(1):213-240.

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Watson, A.M., and Ormerod, S.J. 2005. The distribution and conservation of threatened Sphaeriidae on British grazing marshland. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(9):2207-2220.

Watson-Capps, J.J., and Mann, J. 2005. The effects of aquaculture on bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops sp.) ranging in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 124(4):519-526.

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Yuan-Farrell, C., Marvier, M., Press, D., and Kareiva, P. 2005. Conservation easements as a conservation strategy: is there a sense to the spatial distribution of easements? Nat. Areas J. 25(3):282-289.

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