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Department ofBotany

No. 251
November 2005

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In This Issue

The Future of Expeditionary Research

While we explore distant stars, we still know little about life's diversity on Earth. Research expeditions to document biodiversity are diminishing and museums are, for the most part, the last places one finds large multi-disciplinary biodiversity programs. Such projects must plan carefully to maximize resources and the location of the collecting expeditions must be carefully determined.

In a recently published paper in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vicki Funk of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution and colleagues Karen Richardson (University of Queensland) and Simon Ferrier (New South Wales Department of Environment and Conservation) use environmental variables and information on existing collections to help predict the optimum sites for future expeditions.

A survey gap analysis tool based on 'environmental diversity (ED) complementarity' was developed to help select the sites that would most likely contribute the most new taxa. The tool does not evaluate how well-collected a previous site survey might be; however, collecting effort was estimated based on species accumulation curves. The tool was tested in Guyana; the data were supplied by the Smithsonian's Biological Diversity of the Guiana Shield Program (National Museum of Natural History). Plants, birds, and termites from Guyana were examined and sites for future collecting expeditions were determined. The southeast section of Guyana had virtually no collecting information available but it was excluded due to its inaccessibility for political reasons.

The range of the ED complementarity values dropped sharply after the first 10 sites were selected, indicating that carefully placed expeditions can have a major impact on our level of understanding biodiversity. Results demonstrate that the use of a survey gap analysis tool designed to solve a locational problem using continuous environmental data can help maximize resources for gathering new information on biodiversity. Future work, pending funding, will involve testing the hypotheses presented by these analyses by sending expeditions to the suggested areas and then reanalyzing the data.


The Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program (MAB) is offering a professional training course for international scientists, resource managers and educators. The Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring course will take place 17 May - 3 June 2006, in Front Royal, Virginia, at the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center. The cost is $3,250 which covers tuition, course materials, lodging and meals, and local transportation. Topics include vegetation, mammals and arthropods, an introduction to project planning, GIS, and statistics. For more information contact Jennifer Sevin at or view <>.

New Journal

Madagascar Wildlife Conservation <> and the Jane Goodall Institute Switzerland <> plan to publish the new journal Madagascar Conservation & Development. The aims of the journal are to provide a forum for exchange of information about all aspects of conservation and development work in Madagascar and to alert interested people to particular threats to nature and culture as they arise. The journal is distributed free-of-charge to all interested persons and institutions and will be politically neutral.

Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar, as well as announcements of organizations active in Madagascar and internet platforms informing about Madagascar. Manuscripts should be sent to the editors by email to The deadline for contributions for the first issue is 1 February 2006. The first issue will be published at the beginning of June 2006. The journal will be available online and if desired it will be distributed in hard copy as well. For more information please visit the two Web sites mentioned above.

Current Literature

Aguiar, F.C., and Ferreira, M.T. 2005. Human-disturbed landscapes: effects on composition and integrity of riparian woody vegetation in the Tagus River basin, Portugal. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):30-41.

Alcaraz, C., Vila-Gispert, A., and García-Berthou, E. 2005. Profiling invasive fish species: the importance of phylogeny and human use. Divers. Distrib. 11(4):289-298.

Allendorf, F.W., Leary, R.E., Hitt, N.P., Knudsen, K.L., Boyer, M.C., and Spruell, P. 2005. Cutthroat trout hybridization and the US Endangered Species Act: one species, two policies. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1326-1328.

Allombert, S., Gaston, A.J., and Martin, J.L. 2005. A natural experiment on the impact of overabundant deer on songbird populations. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):1-13.

Alò, D., and Turner, T.F. 2005. Effects of habitat fragmentation on effective population size in the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1138-1148.

Anon. 2005. Endangered act. Nature 437(7056):170.

Ashton, I.W., Hyatt, L.A., Howe, K.M., Gurevitch, J., and Lerdau, M.T. 2005. Invasive species accelerate decomposition and litter nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1263-1272.

Badola, R., and Hussain, S.A. 2005. Valuing ecosystem functions: an empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):85-92.

Bahir, M.M., Ng, P.K.L., Crandall, K., and Pethiyagoda, R. 2005. A conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs of Sri Lanka. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 12:121-126.

Bahir, M.M., and Surasinghe, T.D. 2005. A conservation assessment of the Sri Lankan Agamidae (Reptilia: Sauria). Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 12:407-412.

Balbontin, J. 2005. Identifying suitable habitat for dispersal in Bonelli's eagle: an important issue in halting its decline in Europe. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):74-83.

Barbour, R.C., Potts, B.M., and Vaillancourt, R.E. 2005. Gene flow between introduced and native Eucalyptus species: crossability of native Tasmanian species with exotic E. nitens. Aust. J. Bot. 53(5):465-477.

Barker, M.J., and Schluessel, V. 2005. Managing global shark fisheries: suggestions for prioritizing management strategies. Aquat. Conserv. 15(4):325-347.

Bäumler, B., Moser, D.M., Gygax, A., Latour, C., and Wyler, N. 2005. 69th Swiss floristic notes (Biodiversity Monitoring Switzerland 2001-2003; new floristic records, neophytes and red list species). Bot. Helvetica 115(1):83-90.

Bergamini, A., Scheidegger, C., Stofer, S., Carvalho, P., Davey, S., Dietrich, M., Dubs, F., Farkas, E., Groner, U., Kärkkäinen, K., Keller, C., Lökös, L., Lommi, S., Máguas, C., Mitchell, R., Pinho, P., Rico, V.J., Aragón, G., Truscott, A.M., Wolseley, P., and Watt, A. 2005. Performance of macrolichens and lichen genera as indicators of lichen species richness and composition. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1051-1062.

Berggren, Å. 2005. Effect of propagule size and landscape structure on morphological differentiation and asymmetry in experimentally introduced Roesel's bush-crickets. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1095-1102.

Bini, L.M., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Carvalho, P., Pinto, M.P., and Rangel, T.F.L.V.B. 2005. Lomborg and the litany of biodiversity crisis: what the peer-reviewed literature says. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1301-1305.

Bowen, B.W., and Roman, J. 2005. Gaia's handmaidens: the Orlog model for conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1037-1043.

Brehm, G., Pitkin, L.M., Hilt, N., and Fiedler, K. 2005. Montane Andean rain forests are a global diversity hotspot of geometrid moths. J. Biogeogr. 32(9):1621-1627.

Britton, A.J., Pearce, I.S.K., and Jones, B. 2005. Impacts of grazing on montane heath vegetation in Wales and implications for the restoration of montane areas. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):515-524.

Brockerhoff, E.G., Berndt, L.A., and Jactel, H. 2005. Role of exotic pine forests in the conservation of the critically endangered New Zealand ground beetle Holcaspis brevicula (Coleoptera: Carabidae). New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(1):37-43.

Bulte, E.H., and Damania, R. 2005. An economic assessment of wildlife farming and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1222-1233.

Burgman, M.A., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Elith, J. 2005. Managing landscapes for conservation under uncertainty. Ecology 86(8):2007-2017.

Caiola, N., and de Sostoa, A. 2005. Possible reasons for the decline of two native toothcarps in the Iberian Peninsula: evidence of competition with the introduced eastern mosquitofish. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 21(4):358-363.

Campton, D.E., and Kaeding, L.R. 2005. Westslope cutthroat trout, hybridization, and the US Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1323-1325.

Caputo, F.P., Canestrelli, D., and Boitani, L. 2005. Conserving the terecay (Podocnemis unifilis, Testudines: Pelomedusidae) through a community-based sustainable harvest of its eggs. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):84-92.

Cariaga, K.A., Lewis, C.E., Maschinski, J., Wright, S.J., and Francisco-Ortega, J. 2005. Patterns of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Florida Key endemic Consolea corallicola Small (Cactaceae): evidence from inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSRs) DNA polymorphisms. Caribbean J. Sci. 41(2):225-233.

Carroll, S.P., Loye, J.E., Dingle, H., Mathieson, M., Famula, T.R., and Zalucki, M.P. 2005. And the beak shall inherit - evolution in response to invasion. Ecol. Lett. 8(9):944-951.

Céréghino, R., Santoul, F., Compin, A., Figuerola, J., and Mastrorillo, S. 2005. Co-occurrence patterns of some small-bodied freshwater fishes in southwestern France: implications for fish conservation and environmental management. Ambio 34(6):440-444.

Céréghino, R., Santoul, F., Compin, A., and Mastrorillo, S. 2005. Using self-organizing maps to investigate spatial patterns of non-native species. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):459-465.

Chu, C., Mandrak, N.E., and Minns, C.K. 2005. Potential impacts of climate change on the distributions of several common and rare freshwater fishes in Canada. Divers. Distrib. 11(4):299-310.

Chung, M.Y., Suh, Y., López-Pujol, J., Nason, J.D., and Chung, M.G. 2005. Clonal and fine-scale genetic structure in populations of a restricted Korean endemic, Hosta jonesii (Liliaceae) and the implications for conservation. Ann. Botany 96(2):279-288.

Clarke, F.M., Pio, D.V., and Racey, P.A. 2005. A comparison of logging systems and bat diversity in the Neotropics. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1194-1204.

Clavero, M., Blanco-Garrido, F., and Prenda, J. 2005. Fish-habitat relationships and fish conservation in small coastal streams in southern Spain. Aquat. Conserv. 15(4):415-426.

Cohn, J.P. 2005. Tiff over tamarisk: can a nuisance be nice, too? BioScience 55(8):648-654.

Cole, N.C., Jones, C.G., and Harris, S. 2005. The need for enemy-free space: the impact of an invasive gecko on island endemics. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):467-474.

Connolly, S.R., Hughes, T.P., Bellwood, D.R., and Karlson, R.H. 2005. Community structure of corals and reef fishes at multiple scales. Science 309(5739):1363-1365.

Copp, G.H., Wesley, K.J., and Vilizzi, L. 2005. Pathways of ornamental and aquarium fish introductions into urban ponds of Epping Forest (London, England): the human vector. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 21(4):263-274.

Czech, B. 2005. The capacity of the National Wildlife Refuge System to conserve threatened and endangered animal species in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1246-1253.

de Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Soubeyran, Y., Maillard, D., and Duncan, P. 2005. The diets of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a native sclerophyll forest and a native rainforest of New Caledonia. New Zeal. J. Zool. 32(2):117-126.

Debrot, A.O., Esteban, N., Le Scao, R., Caballero, A., and Hoetjes, P.C. 2005. New sea turtle nesting records for the Netherlands Antilles provide impetus to conservation action. Caribbean J. Sci. 41(2):334-339.

Deckers, B., Kerselaers, E., Gulinck, H., Muys, B., and Hermy, M. 2005. Long-term spatio-temporal dynamics of a hedgerow network landscape in Flanders, Belgium. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):20-29.

Derraik, J.G.B., Rufaut, C.G., Closs, G.P., and Dickinson, K.J.M. 2005. Ground invertebrate fauna associated with native shrubs and exotic pasture in a modified rural landscape, Otago, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(1):129-135.

Donald, P.F., Brooke, M.D., Bolton, M.R., Taylor, R., Wells, C.E., Marlow, T., and Hille, S.M. 2005. Status of Raso lark Alauda razae in 2003, with further notes on sex ratio, behaviour and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(2):165-172.

Drew, J.A. 2005. Use of traditional ecological knowledge in marine conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1286-1293.

Dunn, R.R. 2005. Modern insect extinctions, the neglected majority. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1030-1036.

Duran, A., and Hamzaoglu, E. 2005. Psephellus turcicus sp. nov. (Asteraceae), a new chasmophyte species from central Anatolia, Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148(4):495-500.

Edgar, G.J., Samson, C.R., and Barrett, N.S. 2005. Species extinction in the marine environment: Tasmania as a regional example of overlooked losses in biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1294-1300.

Elliman, T. 2005. Vascular flora and plant communities of the Boston Harbor Islands. Northeastern Nat. 12(3):49-76.

Farnsworth, A. 2005. Flight calls and their value for future ornithological studies and conservation research. Auk 122(3):733-746.

Feer, F., and Hingrat, Y. 2005. Effects of forest fragmentation on a dung beetle community in French Guiana. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1103-1112.

Ferdinands, K., Beggs, K., and Whitehead, P. 2005. Biodiversity and invasive grass species: multiple-use or monoculture? Wildlife Res. 32(5):447-457.

Fernandez, J., Villanueva, B., Pong-Wong, R., and Toro, M.A. 2005. Efficiency of the use of pedigree and molecular marker information in conservation programs. Genetics 170(3):1313-1321.

Feuerherdt, L., Petit, S., and Jusaitis, M. 2005. Distribution of mycorrhizal fungus associated with the endangered pink-lipped spider orchid (Arachnorchis (syn. Caladenia) behrii) at Warren Conservation Park in South Australia. New Zeal. J. Bot. 43(2):367-371.

Fleishman, E., Thomson, J.R., Mac Nally, R., Murphy, D.D., and Fay, J.P. 2005. Using indicator species to predict species richness of multiple taxonomic groups. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1125-1137.

Foster, S.J., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Enhancing sustainability of the international trade in seahorses with a single minimum size limit. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1044-1050.

Fox, J., and Nino-Murcia, A. 2005. Status of species conservation banking in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):996-1007.

Fox, N.J., and Beckley, L.E. 2005. Priority areas for conservation of Western Australian coastal fishes: a comparison of hotspot, biogeographical and complementarity approaches. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):399-410.

Funk, V.A., Richardson, K.S., and Ferrier, S. 2005. Survey-gap analysis in expeditionary research: where do we go from here? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 85(4):549-567.

Gadd, M.E. 2005. Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):50-63.

Gaines, W.L., Lyons, A.L., Lehmkuhl, J.F., and Raedeke, K.J. 2005. Landscape evaluation of female black bear habitat effectiveness and capability in the North Cascades, Washington. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):411-425.

Galeuchet, D.J., and Holderegger, R. 2005. Conservation and re-introduction of dwarf bulrush (Typha minima) - vegetation surveys, monitoring and genetic analysis of origin. Bot. Helvetica 115(1):15-32.

García, J.D.D., Arévalo, J.R., and Fernández-Palacios, J.M. 2005. Patterns of artificial avian nest predation by introduced rats in a fragmented laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands). J. Nat. Hist. 39(28):2661-2669.

Garner, A., Rachlow, J.L., and Hicks, J.F. 2005. Patterns of genetic diversity and its loss in mammalian populations. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1215-1221.

Gayubo, S.F., González, J.A., Asís, J.D., and Tormos, J. 2005. Conservation of European environments: the Spheciformes wasps as biodiversity indicators (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Ampulicidae, Sphecidae and Crabronidae). J. Nat. Hist. 39(29):2705-2714.

Gibbs, J.P., Whiteleather, K.K., and Schueler, F.W. 2005. Changes in frog and toad populations over 30 years in New York State. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1148-1157.

Glessner, K.D.G., and Britt, A. 2005. Population density and home range size of Indri indri in a protected low altitude rain forest. Int. J. Primatol. 26(4):855-872.

Gómez, R., Hurtado, I., Suárez, M.L., and Vidal-Abarca, M.R. 2005. Ramblas in south-east Spain: threatened and valuable ecosystems. Aquat. Conserv. 15(4):387-402.

Goncalves, E.J., Beldade, R., and Henriques, M. 2005. Opeatogenys gracilis (Pisces: Gobiesocidae): an overlooked species or another 'Mediterranean endemism' found in Atlantic waters? J. Fish Biol. 67(2):481-489.

Grabowska, J., and Grabowski, M. 2005. Diel-feeding activity in early summer of racer goby Neogobius gymnotrachelus (Gobiidae): a new invader in the Baltic basin. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 21(4):282-286.

Graham, C.H., Smith, T.B., and Languy, M. 2005. Current and historical factors influencing patterns of species richness and turnover of birds in the Gulf of Guinea highlands. J. Biogeogr. 32(8):1371-1384.

Granek, E.F., Brumbaugh, D.R., Heppell, S.A., Heppell, S.S., and Secord, D. 2005. A blueprint for the oceans: implications of two national commission reports for conservation practitioners. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1008-1018.

Greene, C.W., Gregory, L.L., Mittelhauser, G.H., Rooney, S.C., and Weber, J.E. 2005. Vascular flora of the Acadia National Park region, Maine. Rhodora 107(930):117-185.

Guénette, J.S., and Villard, M.A. 2005. Thresholds in forest bird response to habitat alteration as quantitative targets for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1168-1180.

Guisan, A., and Thuiller, W. 2005. Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecol. Lett. 8(9):993-1009.

Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., and Dilhan, M.A.A.B. 2005. Plant biogeography and conservation of the south-western hill forests of Sri Lanka. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 12:9-22.

Gundale, M.J., Jolly, W.M., and Deluca, T.H. 2005. Susceptibility of a northern hardwood forest to exotic earthworm invasion. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1075-1083.

Güsewell, S., Zuberbuhler, N., and Clerc, C. 2005. Distribution and functional traits of Solidago gigantea in a Swiss lakeshore wetland. Bot. Helvetica 115(1):63-75.

Hamer, K.C., Hill, J.K., Mustaffa, N., Benedick, S., Sherratt, T.N., Chey, V.K., and Maryati, M. 2005. Temporal variation in abundance and diversity of butterflies in Bornean rain forests: opposite impacts of logging recorded in different seasons. J. Trop. Ecol. 21:417-425.

Harley, E.H., Baumgarten, I., Cunningham, J., and O'Ryan, C. 2005. Genetic variation and population structure in remnant populations of black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, in Africa. Mol. Ecol. 14(10):2981-2990.

Hasbún, C.R., Gómez, A., Köhler, G., and Lunt, D.H. 2005. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Mesoamerican spiny-tailed lizards (Ctenosaura quinquecarinata complex): historical biogeography, species status and conservation. Mol. Ecol. 14(10):3095-3107.

Hebblewhite, M., White, C.A., Nietvelt, C.G., McKenzie, J.A., Hurd, T.E., Fryxell, J.M., Bayley, S.E., and Paquet, P.C. 2005. Human activity mediates a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Ecology 86(8):2135-2144.

Herben, T. 2005. Species pool size and invasibility of island communities: a null model of sampling effects. Ecol. Lett. 8(9):909-917.

Hobbs, R.J. 2005. Landscapes, ecology and wildlife management in highly modified environments - an Australian perspective. Wildlife Res. 32(5):389-398.

Holyoak, D.T., and Bryan, V.S. 2005. Ephemerum hibernicum sp. nov. (Bryopsida: Ephemeraceae) from Ireland. J. Bryol. 27:89-95.

Horn, D.J., Phillips, M.L., Koford, R.R., Clark, W.R., Sovada, M.A., and Greenwood, R.J. 2005. Landscape composition, patch size, and distance to edges: interactions affecting duck reproductive success. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1367-1376.

Hoving, C.L., Harrison, D.J., Krohn, W.B., Joseph, R.A., and O'Brien, M. 2005. Broad-scale predictors of Canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(2):739-751.

Hoyle, M., and James, M. 2005. Global warming, human population pressure, and viability of the world's smallest butterfly. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1113-1124.

Hunter, M.L. 2005. A mesofilter conservation strategy to complement fine and coarse filters. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1025-1029.

Jackson, V.L., Laack, L.L., and Zimmerman, E.G. 2005. Landscape metrics associated with habitat use by ocelots in south Texas. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(2):733-738.

James, M.C., Eckert, S.A., and Myers, R.A. 2005. Migratory and reproductive movements of male leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Mar. Biol. 147(4):845-853.

Jiménez, I. 2005. Development of predictive models to explain the distribution of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in tropical watercourses. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):491-503.

Johnson, J.B., Edwards, J.W., and Wood, P.B. 2005. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia. Northeastern Nat. 12(2):233-240.

Jones, C., Moss, K., and Sanders, M. 2005. Diet of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in the upper Waitaki Basin, New Zealand: implications for conservation. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(1):29-35.

Jones, C.B., and Horwich, R.H. 2005. Constructive criticism of community-based conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):990-991.

Jones, G.A., Sieving, K.E., and Jacobson, S.K. 2005. Avian diversity and functional insectivory on north-central Florida farmlands. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1234-1245.

Jump, A.S., and Peñuelas, J. 2005. Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol. Lett. 8(9):1010-1020.

Jurickova, L., and Kucera, T. 2005. Ruins of medieval castles as refuges for endangered species of molluscs. J. Molluscan Stud. 71:233-246.

Karubian, J., Fabara, J., Yunes, D., Jorgenson, J.P., Romo, D., and Smith, T.B. 2005. Temporal and spatial patterns of macaw abundance in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Condor 107(3):617-626.

Kaschula, S.A., Twine, W.C., and Scholes, M.C. 2005. The effect of catena position and stump characteristics on the coppice response of three savannah fuelwood species. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):76-84.

Keddy, P. 2005. Putting the plants back into plant ecology: six pragmatic models for understanding and conserving plant diversity. Ann. Botany 96(2):177-189.

Ketmaier, V., and Bernardini, C. 2005. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy. J. Heredity 96(4):318-328.

Khare, P.B., Behera, S.K., Srivastava, R., and Shukla, S.P. 2005. Studies on reproductive biology of a threatened tree fern, Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook. Curr. Sci. 89(1):173-177.

King, M.C., and Beazley, K.F. 2005. Selecting focal species for marine protected area network planning in the Scotia-Fundy region of Atlantic Canada. Aquat. Conserv. 15(4):367-385.

Klanderud, K., and Totland, Ø. 2005. Simulated climate change altered dominance hierarchies and diversity of an alpine biodiversity hotspot. Ecology 86(8):2047-2054.

Koenig, W.D. 2005. Persistence in adversity: lessons from the ivory-billed woodpecker. BioScience 55(8):646-647.

Köhler, J., Vieites, D.R., Bonett, R.M., García, F.H., Glaw, F., Steinke, D., and Vences, M. 2005. New amphibians and global conservation: a boost in species discoveries in a highly endangered vertebrate group. BioScience 55(8):693-696.

Kreb, D., and Budiono. 2005. Cetacean diversity and habitat preferences in tropical waters of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 53(1):149-155.

Krushelnycky, P.D., Joe, S.M., Medeiros, A.C., Daehler, C.C., and Loope, L.L. 2005. The role of abiotic conditions in shaping the long-term patterns of a high-elevation Argentine ant invasion. Divers. Distrib. 11(4):319-331.

Kupfer, A., Nabhitabhata, J., and Himstedt, W. 2005. Life history of amphibians in the seasonal tropics: habitat, community and population ecology of a caecilian (genus Ichthyophis). J. Zool. 266:237-247.

Latorre, A.V.P., Cano, M.J., Cabezudo, B., and Guerra, J. 2005. Phytocoenological behaviour, distribution and conservation of Trichomanes speciosum Willd. (Pteridophyta) in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. Cryptogamie Bryol. 26(3):249-261.

Leck, M.A., and Leck, C.F. 2005. Vascular plants of a Delaware river tidal freshwater wetland and adjacent terrestrial areas: seed bank and vegetation comparisons of reference and constructed marshes and annotated species list. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(2):323-354.

Leger, E.A., and Forister, M.L. 2005. Increased resistance to generalist herbivores in invasive populations of the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). Divers. Distrib. 11(4):311-317.

Lehnebach, C.A., Robertson, A.W., and Hedderley, D. 2005. Pollination studies of four New Zealand terrestrial orchids and the implication for their conservation. New Zeal. J. Bot. 43(2):467-477.

Lester, P.J. 2005. Determinants for the successful establishment of exotic ants in New Zealand. Divers. Distrib. 11(4):279-288.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Tambiah, C.R. 2005. 2004 tsunami cleanup. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):991.

Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R., du Toit, J.T., and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. The cost efficiency of wild dog conservation in South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1205-1214.

Liu, J., Liang, S.C., Liu, F.H., Wang, R.Q., and Dong, M. 2005. Invasive alien plant species in China: regional distribution patterns. Divers. Distrib. 11(4):341-347.

Llorens, L., Gil, L., Cardona, C., Franquesa, M., and Boi, M. 2005. A new species of Oxalis section Corniculatae (Oxalidaceae) from the Balearic islands. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148(4):489-493.

Locke, H., and Dearden, P. 2005. Rethinking protected area categories and the new paradigm. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):1-10.

Lyons, K.G., Brigham, C.A., Traut, B.H., and Schwartz, M.W. 2005. Rare species and ecosystem functioning. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1019-1024.

Malcolm, S.A., and Revelle, C. 2005. Models for preserving species diversity with backup coverage. Environ. Model Assess. 10(2):99-105.

Male, T.D., and Bean, M.J. 2005. Measuring progress in US endangered species conservation. Ecol. Lett. 8(9):986-992.

Malmstrom, C.M., McCullough, A.J., Johnson, H.A., Newton, L.A., and Borer, E.T. 2005. Invasive annual grasses indirectly increase virus incidence in California native perennial bunchgrasses. Oecologia 145(1):153-164.

Mamuris, Z., Stoumboudi, M.T., Stamatis, C., Barbieri, R., and Moutou, K.A. 2005. Genetic variation in populations of the endangered fish Ladigesocypris ghigii and its implications for conservation. Freshwater Biol. 50(9):1441-1453.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K., and Pethiyagoda, R. 2005. The Sri Lankan shrub-frogs of the genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae), with description of 27 new species. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 12:163-303.

Mandelik, Y., Dayan, T., and Feitelson, E. 2005. Planning for biodiversity: the role of ecological impact assessment. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1254-1261.

Manoharachary, C., Sridhar, K., Singh, R., Adholeya, A., Suryanarayanan, T.S., Rawat, S., and Johri, B.N. 2005. Fungal biodiversity: distribution, conservation and prospecting of fungi from India. Curr. Sci. 89(1):58-71.

McClanahan, T., Davies, J., and Maina, J. 2005. Factors influencing resource users and managers' perceptions towards marine protected area management in Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):42-49.

McClean, C.J., Lovett, J.C., Küper, W., Hannah, L., Sommer, J.H., Barthlott, W., Termansen, M., Smith, G.E., Tokamine, S., and Taplin, J.R.D. 2005. African plant diversity and climate change. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 92(2):139-152.

McCoy, N.H., and Atwood, S. 2005. Flaws in Orr's Laws (and the paradigm that produced them): an abbreviated response. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1318-1320.

McDonald, R., McKnight, M., Weiss, D., Selig, E., O'Connor, M., Violin, C., and Moody, A. 2005. Species compositional similarity and ecoregions: do ecoregion boundaries represent zones of high species turnover? Biol. Conserv. 126(1):24-40.

McNair, D.B., and Mackay, A. 2005. Population estimates and management of Ameiva polops (Cope) at Ruth Island, United States Virgin Islands. Caribbean J. Sci. 41(2):352-357.

McWilliams, J.P., Côté, I.M., Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., and Watkinson, A.R. 2005. Accelerating impacts of temperature-induced coral bleaching in the Caribbean. Ecology 86(8):2055-2060.

Meegaskumbura, M., and Manamendra-Arachchi, K. 2005. Description of eight new species of shrub frogs (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae: Philautus) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 12:305-338.

Mello, M.J. 2005. Inventory of macrolepidoptera and other insects in the Boston Harbor Islands national park area. Northeastern Nat. 12(3):99-144.

Mildenstein, T.L., Stier, S.C., Nuevo-Diego, C.E., and Mills, L.S. 2005. Habitat selection of endangered and endemic large flying-foxes in Subic Bay, Philippines. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):93-102.

Mitchell, A.J., Overstreet, R.M., Goodwin, A.E., and Brandt, T.M. 2005. Spread of an exotic fish-gill trematode: a far-reaching and complex problem. Fisheries 30(8):11-16.

Moore, A.A., and Palmer, M.A. 2005. Invertebrate biodiversity in agricultural and urban headwater streams: implications for conservation and management. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1169-1177.

Muerdter, H. 2005. The wonder of science. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):987-989.

Münzbergová, Z., Mildén, M., Ehrlén, J., and Herben, T. 2005. Population viability and reintroduction strategies: a spatially explicit landscape-level approach. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1377-1386.

Odell, J., Mather, M.E., and Muth, R.M. 2005. A biosocial approach for analyzing environmental conflicts. A case study of horseshoe crab allocation. BioScience 55(9):735-748.

Ogden, J.A.E., and Rejmánek, M. 2005. Recovery of native plant communities after the control of a dominant invasive plant species, Foeniculum vulgare: implications for management. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):427-439.

Olsen, C.S. 2005. Trade and conservation of Himalayan medicinal plants: Nardostachys grandiflora DC. and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):505-514.

Orr, D.W. 2005. Death and resurrection: the future of environmentalism. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):992-995.

Orr, D.W. 2005. Free marketeers on the edge: a response to McCoy and Atwood. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1321-1322.

Ottewell, K.M., Donnellan, S.C., Moran, G.F., and Paton, D.C. 2005. Multiplexed microsatellite markers for the genetic analysis of Eucalyptus leucoxylon (Myrtaceae) and their utility for ecological and breeding studies in other Eucalyptus species. J. Heredity 96(4):445-451.

Oyler-McCance, S.J., St John, J., Taylor, S.E., Apa, A.D., and Quinn, T.W. 2005. Population genetics of Gunnison sage-grouse: implications for management. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(2):630-637.

Parker, T.H., Stansberry, B.M., Becker, C.D., and Gipson, P.S. 2005. Edge and area effects on the occurrence of migrant forest songbirds. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1157-1167.

Pergams, O.R.W., and Nyberg, D.W. 2005. Evaluating the predicted local extinction of a once-common mouse. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1312-1317.

Pethiyagoda, R. 2005. Exploring Sri Lanka's biodiversity. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. No. 12:1-4.

Pétillon, J., Ysnel, F., Canard, A., and Lefeuvre, J.C. 2005. Impact of an invasive plant (Elymus athericus) on the conservation value of tidal salt marshes in western France and implications for management: responses of spider populations. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):103-117.

Petit, S., and Dickson, C.R. 2005. Grass-tree (Xanthorrhoea semiplana, Liliaceae) facilitation of the endangered pink-lipped spider orchid (Caladenia syn. Arachnorchis behrii, Orchidaceae) varies in South Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 53(5):455-464.

Pierce, S.M., Cowling, R.M., Knight, A.T., Lombard, A.T., Rouget, M., and Wolf, T. 2005. Systematic conservation planning products for land-use planning: interpretation for implementation. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):441-458.

Pires, A.S., Fernandez, F.A.S., de Freitas, D., and Feliciano, B.R. 2005. Influence of edge and fire-induced changes on spatial distribution of small mammals in Brazilian Atlantic forest fragments. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 40(1):7-14.

Plentovich, S., Morton, J.M., Bart, J., Camp, R.J., Lusk, M., Johnson, N., and VanderWerf, E. 2005. Population trends of Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(2):211-224.

Polasky, S., Nelson, E., Lonsdorf, E., Fackler, P., and Starfield, A. 2005. Conserving species in a working landscape: land use with biological and economic objectives. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1387-1401.

Pringle, R.M. 2005. The origins of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria. BioScience 55(9):780-787.

Quayle, J.F., and Ramsay, L.R. 2005. Conservation status as a biodiversity trend indicator: recommendations from a decade of listing species at risk in British Columbia. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1306-1311.

Racz, G.R., Gubanyi, A., and Vozar, A. 2005. Morphometric differences among root vole (Muridae: Microtus oeconomus) populations in Hungary. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 51(2):135-149.

Ramachandran, S., Anitha, S., Balamurugan, V., Dharanirajan, K., Vendhan, K.E., Divien, M.I.P., Vel, A.S., Hussain, I.S., and Udayaraj, A. 2005. Ecological impact of tsunami on Nicobar Islands (Camorta, Katchal Nancowry and Trinkat). Curr. Sci. 89(1):195-200.

Regan, H.M., Ben-Haim, Y., Langford, B., Wilson, W.G., Lundberg, P., Andelman, S.J., and Burgman, M.A. 2005. Robust decision-making under severe uncertainty for conservation management. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1471-1477.

Ren, Y., Liu, X., and Ge, S. 2005. Low genetic diversity among populations of the rare Chinese endemic Kingdonia uniflora revealed by RAPD analysis. Israel J. Plant Sci. 53(1):65-73.

Ritzi, C.M., Everson, B.L., and Whitaker, J.O. 2005. Use of bat boxes by a maternity colony of Indiana myotis (Myotis sodalis). Northeastern Nat. 12(2):217-220.

Robertson, J., and Lawes, M.J. 2005. User perceptions of conservation and participatory management of iGxalingenwa forest, South Africa. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):64-75.

Rodewald, A.D., and Vitz, A.C. 2005. Edge- and area-sensitivity of shrubland birds. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(2):681-688.

Rogers, G., and Walker, S. 2005. Is Pittosporum patulum Hook. f. threatened by pest herbivory in eastern South Island, New Zealand? New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(1):11-28.

Roques, S., and Negro, J.J. 2005. MtDNA genetic diversity and population history of a dwindling raptorial bird, the red kite (Milvus milvus). Biol. Conserv. 126(1):41-50.

Rose, C.A. 2005. Economic growth as a threat to fish conservation in Canada. Fisheries 30(8):36-38.

Rothley, K.D., and Rae, C. 2005. Working backwards to move forwards: graph-based connectivity metrics for reserve network selection. Environ. Model Assess. 10(2):107-113.

Rudgers, J.A., Mattingly, W.B., and Koslow, J.M. 2005. Mutualistic fungus promotes plant invasion into diverse communities. Oecologia 144(3):463-471.

Rudnick, J.A., Katzner, T.E., Bragin, E.A., Rhodes, O.E., and DeWoody, J.A. 2005. Using naturally shed feathers for individual identification, genetic parentage analyses, and population monitoring in an endangered eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) population from Kazakhstan. Mol. Ecol. 14(10):2959-2967.

Samways, M.J., Taylor, S., and Tarboton, W. 2005. Extinction reprieve following alien removal. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1329-1330.

Schmidt, B.R., Feldmann, R., and Schaub, M. 2005. Demographic processes underlying population growth and decline in Salamandra salamandra. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1149-1156.

Schrott, G.R., With, K.A., and King, A.W. 2005. Demographic limitations of the ability of habitat restoration to rescue declining populations. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1181-1193.

Seckerdieck, A., Walther, B., and Halle, S. 2005. Alternative use of two different roost types by a maternity colony of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Mamm. Biol. 70(4):201-209.

Shapiro, A.C., and Rohmann, S.O. 2005. Summit-to-sea mapping and change detection using satellite imagery: tools for conservation and management of coral reefs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53:185-193.

Shepherd, S., and Debinski, D.M. 2005. Evaluation of isolated and integrated prairie reconstructions as habitat for prairie butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):51-61.

Shi, H., Singh, A., Kant, S., Zhu, Z.L., and Waller, E. 2005. Integrating habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status into biodiversity conservation priority setting. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1273-1285.

Shirley, S.M., and Smith, J.N.M. 2005. Bird community structure across riparian buffer strips of varying width in a coastal temperate forest. Biol. Conserv. 125(4):475-489.

Smith, D.H.V., and Jamieson, I.G. 2005. Lack of movement of stoats (Mustela erminea) between Nothofagus valley floors and alpine grasslands, with implications for the conservation of New Zealand's endangered fauna. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(1):45-52.

Sodhi, N.S., Soh, M.C.K., Prawiradilaga, D.M., Darjono, and Brook, B.W. 2005. Persistence of lowland rainforest birds in a recently logged area in central Java. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(2):173-191.

Sólymos, P., and Fehér, Z. 2005. Conservation prioritization based on distribution of land snails in Hungary. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1084-1094.

Steenhof, K., Fuller, M.R., Kochert, M.N., and Bates, K.K. 2005. Long-range movements and breeding dispersal of prairie falcons from southwest Idaho. Condor 107(3):481-496.

Stockton, S.A., Allombert, S., Gaston, A.J., and Martin, J.L. 2005. A natural experiment on the effects of high deer densities on the native flora of coastal temperate rain forests. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):118-128.

Struebig, M.J., Rossiter, S.J., Bates, P.J.J., Kingston, T., Oo, S.S.L., Nwe, A.A., Aung, M.M., Win, S.S., and Mya, K.M. 2005. Results of a recent bat survey in upper Myanmar including new records from the Kachin forests. Acta Chiropterol. 7(1):147-163.

Sztatecsny, M., and Schabetsberger, R. 2005. Into thin air: vertical migration, body condition, and quality of terrestrial habitats of alpine common toads, Bufo bufo. Can. J. Zool. 83(6):788-796.

Tang, Y., Mao, L.H., and Gao, H. 2005. Over-exploitation and lack of protection is leading to a decline of a protected calcicolous tree species Excentrodendron hsienmu (Tiliaceae) in China. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):14-23.

Taylor, K.J., Lowe, A.J., Hunter, R.J., Ridgway, T., Gresshoff, P.M., and Rossetto, M. 2005. Genetic diversity and regional identity in the Australian remnant Nothofagus moorei. Aust. J. Bot. 53(5):437-444.

Tessier, N., Paquette, S., and Lapointe, F.J. 2005. Conservation genetics of the wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) in Quebec, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 83(6):765-772.

Thomas, J.R., Gibson, D.J., and Middleton, B.A. 2005. Water dispersal of vegetative bulbils of the invasive exotic Dioscorea oppositifolia L. in southern Illinois. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(2):187-196.

Thomas, V.G., and Guitart, R. 2005. Role of international conventions in promoting avian conservation through reduced lead toxicosis: progression towards a non-toxic agenda. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(2):147-160.

Toro, M.A., and Caballero, A. 2005. Characterization and conservation of genetic diversity in subdivided populations. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1459):1367-1378.

Uyarra, M.C., Côté, I.M., Gill, J.A., Tinch, R.R.T., Viner, D., and Watkinson, A.R. 2005. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism-dependent states. Environ. Conserv. 32(1):11-19.

Uysal, T., Ertugrul, K., and Dural, H. 2005. A new species of Ornithogalum (Liliaceae) from South Anatolia, Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148(4):501-504.

Vaughan, C., Nemeth, N.M., Cary, J., and Temple, S. 2005. Response of a scarlet macaw Ara macao population to conservation practices in Costa Rica. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(2):119-130.

Vincent, C., Fedak, M.A., McConnell, J.B., Meynier, L., Saint-Jean, C., and Ridoux, V. 2005. Status and conservation of the grey seal, Halichœrus grypus, in France. Biol. Conserv. 126(1):62-73.

Waltert, M., Bobo, K.S., Sainge, N.M., Fermon, H., and Mühlenberg, M. 2005. From forest to farmland: habitat effects on Afrotropical forest bird diversity. Ecol. Appl. 15(4):1351-1366.

Watson, J.E.M., Whittaker, R.J., and Freudenberger, D. 2005. Bird community responses to habitat fragmentation: how consistent are they across landscapes? J. Biogeogr. 32(8):1353-1370.

Weber, E. 2005. Lonicera henryi Hemsl. - a potential exotic forest weed in Switzerland. Bot. Helvetica 115(1):77-81.

Wiersma, Y.F., and Urban, D.L. 2005. Beta diversity and nature reserve system design in the Yukon, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1262-1272.

Wiig, O. 2005. Are polar bears threatened? Science 309(5742):1814-1815.

Wild, C., Morgan, B.J., and Dixson, A. 2005. Conservation of drill populations in Bakossiland, Cameroon: historical trends and current status. Int. J. Primatol. 26(4):759-773.

Williams, P., Hannah, L., Andelman, S., Midgley, G., Araújo, M., Hughes, G., Manne, L., Martinez-Meyer, E., and Pearson, R. 2005. Planning for climate change: identifying minimum-dispersal corridors for the Cape Proteaceae. Conserv. Biol. 19(4):1063-1074.

Woods, C.M.C. 2005. Reproductive output of male seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis, from Wellington Harbour, New Zealand: implications for conservation. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 39(4):881-888.

Yang, G.A., Ji, G.Q., Ren, W.H., Zhou, K.Y., and Wei, F.W. 2005. Pattern of genetic variation of bottlenose dolphins in Chinese waters. Raffles Bull. Zool. 53(1):157-164.

Zielinski, W.J., Truex, R.L., Schlexer, F.V., Campbell, L.A., and Carroll, C. 2005. Historical and contemporary distributions of carnivores in forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. J. Biogeogr. 32(8):1385-1407.

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