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Department ofBotany

No. 252
December 2005

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In This Issue

Untangling Fish Tales

This past spring, estuarine ecologist Denise Breitburg and her postdoctoral fellow, Richard Fulford (both of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC)) brought together 20 ecologists and fisheries biologists from academic institutions, government agencies and the Smithsonian for a three-day workshop to attempt to "disentangle" the effects of eutrophication (excessive nutrient input) and fishing on estuarine food webs.

Around the world overall fish catches are in decline, habitat for many species is shrinking, and environmental organizations and regulators are searching for ways to reverse these trends. Global fish catches peaked in the late 1980s and have been in decline ever since. With such straightforward facts, it is tempting to make the conclusions that overfishing is at the root of diminished fish catch, and agricultural runoff and sewage effluence are responsible for habitat destruction. But over the past decade or so, it's become clear that very little surrounding these issues is simple and straightforward.

Multiple stressor factors such as nutrient overload and fishing pressure often interact with one another, sometimes masking the effects of one another and at other times amplifying them. Determining the cause and effect of environmental degradation and multiple stressors has challenged researchers around the world.

Nutrient enrichment from sources such as agricultural runoff and sewage usually increases the population of microscopic plant species or phytoplankton. As a result, the phytoplankton-eaters increase in numbers, providing more prey for the larger organisms. This in turn can result in an increase in the numbers of some top consumers. Sometimes these are the commercially valuable fish that managers monitor to determine the health of a system.

At the same time, however, increases in phytoplankton reduce dissolved oxygen levels in deeper waters which diminishes habitat for deepwater organisms. These organisms may then migrate out of the low-oxygen zones and concentrate in other areas where they can become concentrated prey for fishermen, and sometimes artificially boost the survey numbers.

In such instances, it may be difficult to determine if high fish landings are the result of high overall fish populations, the concentration of fish seeking refuge from habitat loss, or the result of increased fishing effort and efficiency.

Researchers and managers agree that despite the difficulties, it is imperative that we learn how to effectively manage both nutrient loading and fishing pressures. "One of the triggers for this kind of workshop was what's going on with water quality and fisheries management in Chesapeake Bay," Breitburg said.

"One thing that really came out in this workshop," Breitburg said, "is that estuaries tend to be pretty resilient to the insults people throw at them." The nature of estuaries, with their mix of salt and fresh water and widely varying conditions, is exactly what makes them so hardy. Estuarine species tend to be generalists and can withstand a wide range of conditions. Although overfishing can nearly decimate a population, fishing stops when it is no longer a viable source of income. According to Breitburg, "you rarely get a complete local extinction. So, once you take proper management steps for recovery most species rebound."

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) <> is "to teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through research". On their Web site, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The "All About Bats" section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2005.

Current Literature

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Adamec, L. 2005. Ten years after the introduction of Aldrovanda vesiculosa to the Czech Republic. Acta Bot. Gallica 152(2):239-245.

Andrefouet, S., Gilbert, A., Yan, L., Remoissenet, G., Payri, C., and Chancerelle, Y. 2005. The remarkable population size of the endangered clam Tridacna maxima assessed in Fangatau Atoll (Eastern Tuamotu, French Polynesia) using in situ and remote sensing data. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62(6):1037-1048.

Armstrong, D.P. 2005. Integrating the metapopulation and habitat paradigms for understanding broad-scale declines of species. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1402-1410.

Baird, I.G., and Beasley, I.L. 2005. Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris in the Cambodian Mekong River: an initial survey. Oryx 39(3):301-310.

Beard, K.H., and Pitt, W.C. 2005. Potential consequences of the coqui frog invasion in Hawaii. Divers. Distrib. 11(5):427-433.

Beckage, B., Platt, W.J., and Panko, B. 2005. A climate-based approach to the restoration of fire-dependent ecosystems. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):429-431.

Beier, B.A. 2005. A revision of the desert shrub Fagonia (Zygophyllaceae). Syst. Biodivers. 3(3):221-263.

Bella, S., and Ferrauto, G. 2005. Presence of Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Lepidoptera Pterophoridae) in Sicily: new report for the Italian fauna and notes on the diffusion of its host plant Boerhavia repens L. ssp viscosa (Choisy) Maire (Nyetaginaceae). Biol. Invasions 7(4):577-587.

Bhatt, A., Joshi, S.K., and Gairola, S. 2005. Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo - a west Himalayan orchid in peril. Curr. Sci. 89(4):610-612.

Blaustein, A.R., Romansic, J.M., Scheessele, E.A., Han, B.A., Pessier, A.P., and Longcore, J.E. 2005. Interspecific variation in susceptibility of frog tadpoles to the pathogenic fungus Batracbochytrium dendrobatidis. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1460-1468.

Blumstein, D.T., Fernández-Juricic, E., Zollner, P.A., and Garity, S.C. 2005. Inter-specific variation in avian responses to human disturbance. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(5):943-953.

Boffa, J.M., Turyomurugyendo, L., Barnekow-Lilleso, J.P., and Kindt, R. 2005. Enhancing farm tree diversity as a means of conserving landscape-based biodiversity - insights from the Kigezi Highlands, southwestern Uganda. Mtn. Res. Dev. 25(3):212-217.

Bomhard, B., Richardson, D.M., Donaldson, J.S., Hughes, G.O., Midgley, G.F., Raimondo, D.C., Rebelo, A.G., Rouget, M., and Thuiller, W. 2005. Potential impacts of future land use and climate change on the Red List status of the Proteaceae in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Global Change Biol. 11(9):1452-1468.

Borman, M.M. 2005. Forest stand dynamics and livestock grazing in historical context. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1658-1662.

Bradley, E.H., Pletscher, D.H., Bangs, E.E., Kunkel, K.E., Smith, D.W., Mack, C.M., Meier, T.J., Fontaine, J.A., Niemeyer, C.C., and Jimenez, M.D. 2005. Evaluating wolf translocation as a nonlethal method to reduce livestock conflicts in the northwestern United States. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1498-1508.

Brenkman, S.J., and Corbett, S.C. 2005. Extent of anadromy in bull trout and implications for conservation of a threatened species. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 25(3):1073-1081.

Bruland, G.L., and Richardson, C.J. 2005. Hydrologic, edaphic, and vegetative responses to microtopographic reestablishment in a restored wetland. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):515-523.

Bruno, J.F., and O'Connor, M.I. 2005. Cascading effects of predator diversity and omnivory in a marine food web. Ecol. Lett. 8(10):1048-1056.

Brys, R., Jacquemyn, H., Endels, P., De Blust, G., and Hermy, M. 2005. Effect of habitat deterioration on population dynamics and extinction risks in a previously common perennial. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1633-1643.

Bulleri, F., Chapman, M.G., and Underwood, A.J. 2005. Intertidal assemblages on seawalls and vertical rocky shores in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Austral Ecol. 30(6):655-667.

Burkett, V.R., Draugelis-Dale, R.O., Williams, H.A., and Schoenholtz, S.H. 2005. Effects of flooding regime and seedling treatment on early survival and growth of Nuttall oak. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):471-479.

Buschbaum, C., and Gutow, L. 2005. Mass occurrence of an introduced crustacean (Caprella cf. mutica) in the south-eastern North Sea. Helgoland Mar. Res. 59(3):252-253.

Butaud, J.F., Rives, F., Verhaegen, D., and Bouvet, J.M. 2005. Phylogeography of Eastern Polynesian sandalwood (Santalum insulare), an endangered tree species from the Pacific: a study based on chloroplast microsatellites. J. Biogeogr. 32(10):1763-1774.

Campbell, K., and Donlan, C.J. 2005. Feral goat eradications on islands. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1362-1374.

Cañadas, A., Sagarminaga, R., De Stephanis, R., Urquiola, E., and Hammond, P.S. 2005. Habitat preference modelling as a conservation tool proposals for marine protected areas for cetaceans in southern Spanish waters. Aquat. Conserv. 15(5):495-521.

Chiarucci, A., D'Auria, F., De Dominicis, V., Laganà, A., Perini, C., and Salerni, E. 2005. Using vascular plants as a surrogate taxon to maximize fungal species richness in reserve design. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1644-1652.

Cinner, J.E., Marnane, M.J., McClanahan, T.R., Clark, T.H., and Ben, J. 2005. Trade, tenure, and tradition: influence of sociocultural factors on resource use in Melanesia. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1469-1477.

Cipollini, K.A., Maruyama, A.L., and Zimmerman, C.L. 2005. Planning for restoration: a decision analysis approach to prioritization. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):460-470.

Colautti, R.I., Muirhead, J.R., Biswas, R.N., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2005. Realized vs apparent reduction in enemies of the European starling. Biol. Invasions 7(4):723-732.

Cole, I., Lunt, I.D., and Koen, T. 2005. Effects of sowing treatment and landscape position on establishment of the perennial tussock grass Themeda triandra (Poaceae) in degraded Eucalyptus woodlands in southeastern Australia. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):552-561.

Constible, J.M., Sweitzer, R.A., Van Vuren, D.H., Schuyler, P.T., and Knapp, D.A. 2005. Dispersal of non-native plants by introduced bison in an island ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 7(4):699-709.

Côté, S.D. 2005. Extirpation of a large black bear population by introduced white-tailed deer. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1668-1671.

Cremene, C., Groza, G., Rakosy, L., Schileyko, A.A., Baur, A., Erhardt, A., and Baur, B. 2005. Alterations of steppe-like grasslands in eastern Europe: a threat to regional biodiversity hotspots. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1606-1618.

Crespo, M.B., Ríos, S., Vivero, J.L., Prados, J., Hernández-Bermejo, E., and Lledó, M.D. 2005. A new spineless species of Vella (Brassicaceae) from the high mountains of south-eastern Spain. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 149(1):121-128.

Cullen, R., Hughey, K.F.D., Fairburn, G., and Moran, E. 2005. Economic analyses to aid nature conservation decision making. Oryx 39(3):327-334.

d'Alessi, F. 2005. The cultivation of rare endangered plants: a different approach. Acta Bot. Gallica 152(2):247-250.

Dalebout, M.L., Robertson, K.M., Frantzis, A., Engelhaupt, D., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Rosario-Delestre, R.J., and Baker, C.S. 2005. Worldwide structure of mtDNA diversity among Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris): implications for threatened populations. Mol. Ecol. 14(11):3353-3371.

Dalton, T.M. 2005. Beyond biogeography: a framework for involving the public in planning of US marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1392-1401.

Darwall, W.R.T., and Vie, J.C. 2005. Identifying important sites for conservation of freshwater biodiversity: extending the species-based approach. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 12(5):287-293.

Davis, M.A., Thompson, K., and Grime, J.P. 2005. Invasibility: the local mechanism driving community assembly and species diversity. Ecography 28(5):696-704.

Devin, S., Beisel, J.N., Usseglio-Polatera, P., and Moreteau, J.C. 2005. Changes in functional biodiversity in an invaded freshwater ecosystem: the Moselle River. Hydrobiologia 542:113-120.

Díaz, J.A., Pérez-Tris, J., Tellería, J.L., Carbonell, R., and Santos, T. 2005. Reproductive investment of a lacertid lizard in fragmented habitat. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1578-1585.

Dickens, S.J.M., Gerhardt, F., and Collinge, S.K. 2005. Recreational portage trails as corridors facilitating non-native plant invasions of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (USA). Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1653-1657.

Didham, R.K., Tylianakis, J.M., Hutchison, M.A., Ewers, R.M., and Gemmell, N.J. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? TREE 20(9):470-474.

Dietz, R.W., and Czech, B. 2005. Conservation deficits for the continental United States: an ecosystem gap analysis. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1478-1487.

Dillon, S., and Fjeldså, J. 2005. The implications of different species concepts for describing biodiversity patterns and assessing conservation needs for African birds. Ecography 28(5):682-692.

Donázar, J.A., Gangoso, L., Forero, M.G., and Juste, J. 2005. Presence, richness and extinction of birds of prey in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands. J. Biogeogr. 32(10):1701-1713.

Duchok, R., Kent, K., Khumbongmayum, A.D., Paul, A., and Khan, M.L. 2005. Population structure and regeneration status of medicinal tree Illicium griffithii in relation to disturbance gradients in temperate broad-leaved forest of Arunachal Pradesh. Curr. Sci. 89(4):673-676.

Duftner, N., Koblmüller, S., Weiss, S., Medgyesy, N., and Sturmbauer, C. 2005. The impact of stocking on the genetic structure of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus, Salmonidae) in two alpine rivers. Hydrobiologia 542:121-129.

Dulvy, N.K., Jennings, S., Goodwin, N.B., Grant, A., and Reynolds, J.D. 2005. Comparison of threat and exploitation status in North-East Atlantic marine populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(5):883-891.

Eaton, M.A., Gregory, R.D., Noble, D.G., Robinson, J.A., Hughes, J., Procter, D., Brown, A.F., and Gibbons, D.W. 2005. Regional IUCN Red Listing: the process as applied to birds in the United Kingdom. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1557-1570.

Engeman, R.M., Martin, R.E., Smith, H.T., Woolard, J., Crady, C.K., Shwiff, S.A., Constantin, B., Stahl, M., and Griner, J. 2005. Dramatic reduction in predation on marine turtle nests through improved predator monitoring and management. Oryx 39(3):318-326.

Epps, C.W., Palsbøll, P.J., Wehausen, J.D., Roderick, G.K., Ramey, R.R., and McCullough, D.R. 2005. Highways block gene flow and cause a rapid decline in genetic diversity of desert bighorn sheep. Ecol. Lett. 8(10):1029-1038.

Feagin, R.A., Sherman, D.J., and Grant, W.E. 2005. Coastal erosion, global sea-level rise, and the loss of sand dune plant habitats. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(7):359-364.

Ferraro, P. 2005. Corruption and conservation: the need for empirical analyses. a response to Smith & Walpole. Oryx 39(3):257-259.

Fieberg, J., and Jenkins, K.J. 2005. Assessing uncertainty in ecological systems using global sensitivity analyses: a case example of simulated wolf reintroduction effects on elk. Ecol. Model. 187(2-3):259-280.

Figueiredo, E. 2005. The Rubiaceae of São Tomé e Principe (Gulf of Guinea): taxonomy and conservation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 149(1):85-114.

Finlayson, C.M. 2005. Plant ecology of Australia's tropical floodplain wetlands: a review. Ann. Botany 96(4):541-555.

Firlej, A., Boivin, G., Lucas, É., and Coderre, D. 2005. First report of Harmonia axyridis Pallas being attacked by Dinocampus coccinellae Schrank in Canada. Biol. Invasions 7(4):553-556.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. Nestedness in fragmented landscapes: a case study on birds, arboreal marsupials and lizards. J. Biogeogr. 32(10):1737-1750.

Floerl, O., and Inglis, G.J. 2005. Starting the invasion pathway: the interaction between source populations and human transport vectors. Biol. Invasions 7(4):589-606.

Forrester, J.A., Leopold, D.J., and Hafner, S.D. 2005. Maintaining critical habitat in a heavily managed landscape: effects of power line corridor management on Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) habitat. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):488-498.

Frankham, R. 2005. Ecosystem recovery enhanced by genotypic diversity. Heredity 95(3):183.

Friedman, J.M., Auble, G.T., Shafroth, P.B., Scott, M.L., Merigliano, M.F., Preehling, M.D., and Griffin, E.K. 2005. Dominance of non-native riparian trees in western USA. Biol. Invasions 7(4):747-751.

Funk, W.C., Greene, A.E., Corn, P.S., and Allendorf, F.W. 2005. High dispersal in a frog species suggests that it is vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. Biol. Lett. 1(1):13-16.

Gabriels, W., Goethals, P.L.M., and De Pauw, N. 2005. Implications of taxonomic modifications and alien species on biological water quality assessment as exemplified by the Belgian Biotic Index Method. Hydrobiologia 542:137-150.

Ganeshaiah, K.N. 2005. Recovery of endangered and threatened species: developing a national priority list of plants and insects. Curr. Sci. 89(4):599-600.

Ganey, J.L., Block, W.M., Ward, J.P., and Strohmeyer, B.E. 2005. Home range, habitat use, survival, and fecundity of Mexican spotted owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 50(3):323-333.

Goodman, R.M., Echternacht, A.C., and Burton, F.J. 2005. Spatial ecology of the endangered iguana, Cyclura lewisi, in a disturbed setting on Grand Cayman. J. Herpetol. 39(3):402-408.

Gopal, B. 2005. Does inland aquatic biodiversity have a future in Asian developing countries? Hydrobiologia 542:69-75.

Grelle, C.E.V. 2005. Predicting extinction of mammals in the Brazilian Amazon. Oryx 39(3):347-350.

Grevstad, F.S. 2005. Simulating control strategies for a spatially structured weed invasion: Spartina alterniflora (Loisel) in Pacific Coast estuaries. Biol. Invasions 7(4):665-677.

Gutiérrez, D. 2005. Effectiveness of existing reserves in the long-term protection of a regionally rare butterfly. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1586-1597.

Hamilton, M.A., Murray, B.R., Cadotte, M.W., Hose, G.C., Baker, A.C., Harris, C.J., and Licari, D. 2005. Life-history correlates of plant invasiveness at regional and continental scales. Ecol. Lett. 8(10):1066-1074.

Harmelin-Vivien, M.L., Bitar, G., Harmelin, J.G., and Monestiez, P. 2005. The littoral fish community of the Lebanese rocky coast (eastern Mediterranean Sea) with emphasis on Red Sea immigrants. Biol. Invasions 7(4):625-637.

Harvey, C.J., and Kareiva, P.M. 2005. Community context and the influence of non-indigenous species on juvenile salmon survival in a Columbia River reservoir. Biol. Invasions 7(4):651-663.

Henderson, D.C., and Naeth, M.A. 2005. Multi-scale impacts of crested wheatgrass invasion in mixed-grass prairie. Biol. Invasions 7(4):639-650.

Hrabar, H., and du Toit, J.T. 2005. Dynamics of a protected black rhino (Diceros bicornis) population: Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. Anim. Conserv. 8:259-267.

Hrbek, T., Farias, I.P., Crossa, M., Sampaio, I., Porto, J.I.R., and Meyer, A. 2005. Population genetic analysis of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the Amazon basin: implications for its conservation. Anim. Conserv. 8:297-308.

Hulme, P.E. 2005. Adapting to climate change: is there scope for ecological management in the face of a global threat? J. Appl. Ecol. 42(5):784-794.

Hurni, H., and von Dach, S.W. 2005. Biodiversity conservation to benefit mountain people. Mtn. Res. Dev. 25(3):199.

Islam, M.S., and Wahab, M.A. 2005. A review on the present status and management of mangrove wetland habitat resources in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove fisheries and aquaculture. Hydrobiologia 542:165-190.

Johns, D.G., Edwards, M., Greve, W., and Sjohn, A.W.G. 2005. Increasing prevalence of the marine cladoceran Penilia avirostris (Dana, 1852) in the North Sea. Helgoland Mar. Res. 59(3):214-218.

Johnson, A., Singh, S., Duangdala, M., and Hedemark, M. 2005. The western black crested gibbon Nomascus concolor in Laos: new records and conservation status. Oryx 39(3):311-317.

Josens, G., de Vaate, A.B., Usseglio-Polatera, P., Cammaerts, R., Chérot, F., Grisez, F., Verboonen, P., and Bossche, J.P.V. 2005. Native and exotic Amphipoda and other Peracarida in the River Meuse: new assemblages emerge from a fast changing fauna. Hydrobiologia 542:203-220.

Kaplan, I.C. 2005. A risk assessment for Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62(8):1710-1719.

Karatayev, A.Y., Howells, R.G., Burlakova, L.E., and Sewell, B.D. 2005. History of spread and current distribution of Corbicula fluminea (Muller) in Texas. J. Shellfish Res. 24(2):553-559.

Kark, S., and Sol, D. 2005. Establishment success across convergent Mediterranean ecosystems: an analysis of bird introductions. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1519-1527.

Katzner, T.E. 2005. Corruption - a double-edged sword for conservation? A response to Smith & Walpole. Oryx 39(3):260-262.

Keagy, J.C., Schreiber, S.J., and Cristol, D.A. 2005. Replacing sources with sinks: when do populations go down the drain? Restor. Ecol. 13(3):529-535.

Keith, M., Chimimba, C.T., Reyers, B., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2005. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distinctiveness in regional conservation assessments: a case study based on extant South African Chiroptera and Carnivora. Anim. Conserv. 8:279-288.

Kitchener, A.C., Yamaguchi, N., Ward, J.M., and Macdonald, D.W. 2005. A diagnosis for the Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris): a tool for conservation action for a critically-endangered felid. Anim. Conserv. 8:223-237.

Knaepkens, G., Baekelandt, K., and Eens, A. 2005. Assessment of the movement behaviour of the bullhead (Cottus gobio), an endangered European freshwater fish. Anim. Biol. 55(3):219-226.

Knapp, C.R., and Owens, A.K. 2005. Home range and habitat associations of a Bahamian iguana: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 8:269-278.

Koy, K., McShea, W.J., Leimgruber, P., and Aung, M. 2005. Percentage canopy cover - using Landsat imagery to delineate habitat for Myanmar's endangered Eld's deer (Cervus eldi). Anim. Conserv. 8:289-296.

Kraaijeveld-Smit, F.J.L., Beebee, T.J.C., Griffiths, R.A., Moore, R.D., and Schley, L. 2005. Low gene flow but high genetic diversity in the threatened Mallorcan midwife toad Alytes muletensis. Mol. Ecol. 14(11):3307-3315.

Laiolo, P. 2005. Spatial and seasonal patterns of bird communities in Italian agroecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1547-1556.

Lampila, P., Mönkkönen, M., and Desrochers, A. 2005. Demographic responses by birds to forest fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1537-1546.

Lévêque, C., and Balian, E.V. 2005. Conservation of freshwater biodiversity: does the real world meet scientific dreams? Hydrobiologia 542:23-26.

Lévêque, C., Balian, E.V., and Martens, K. 2005. An assessment of animal species diversity in continental waters. Hydrobiologia 542:39-67.

Lenz, T.I., and Facelli, J.M. 2005. The role of seed limitation and resource availability in the recruitment of native perennial grasses and exotics in a South Australian grassland. Austral Ecol. 30(6):684-694.

Liberg, O., Andrén, H., Pedersen, H.C., Sand, H., Sejberg, D., Wabakken, P., Åkesson, M., and Bensch, S. 2005. Severe inbreeding depression in a wild wolf (Canis lupus) population. Biol. Lett. 1(1):17-20.

Liu, X., Wang, J.Y., and Wang, Q.F. 2005. Current status and conservation strategies for Isoetes in China: a case study for the conservation of threatened aquatic plants. Oryx 39(3):335-338.

Llambi, L.D., Smith, J.K., Pereira, N., Pereira, A.C., Valero, F., Monasterio, M., and Davila, M.V. 2005. Participatory planning for biodiversity conservation in the high tropical Andes: are farmers interested? Mtn. Res. Dev. 25(3):200-205.

López-Castro, M.C., and Rocha-Olivares, A. 2005. The panmixia paradigm of eastern Pacific olive ridley turtles revised: consequences for their conservation and evolutionary biology. Mol. Ecol. 14(11):3325-3334.

Lötters, S., Schulte, R., Córdova, J.H., and Veith, M. 2005. Conservation priorities for harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.) of Peru. Oryx 39(3):343-346.

Lozano, F.D., and Schwartz, M.W. 2005. Comparative taxonomic structure of the floras of two Mediterranean-climate regions: Iberia and California. Divers. Distrib. 11(5):399-408.

Lozier, J.D., Mills, N.J., Palsbøll, P.J., and Roderick, G.K. 2005. Di- and tri-nucleotide repeat microsatellites for the mealy plum aphid, Hyalopterus pruni. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(3):499-501.

Machange, R.W., Jenkins, A.R., and Navarro, R.A. 2005. Eagles as indicators of ecosystem health: is the distribution of martial eagle nests in the Karoo, South Africa, influenced by variations in land-use and rangeland quality? J. Arid Environ. 63(1):223-243.

Maret, M.P., and Wilson, M.V. 2005. Fire and litter effects on seedling establishment in western Oregon upland prairies. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):562-568.

Marris, E. 2005. Taking quackery out of conservation. Nature 437(7059):616.

Marty, J.T. 2005. Effects of cattle grazing on diversity in ephemeral wetlands. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1626-1632.

Mathevet, R., and Mauchamp, A. 2005. Evidence-based conservation: dealing with social issues. TREE 20(8):422-423.

Mathieu, J., Rossi, J.P., Mora, P., Lavelle, P., Martins, P.F.D., Rouland, C., and Grimaldi, M. 2005. Recovery of soil macrofauna communities after forest clearance in eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1598-1605.

McCallum, H. 2005. Inconclusiveness of chytridiomycosis as the agent in widespread frog declines. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1421-1430.

McKay, J.K., Christian, C.E., Harrison, S., and Rice, K.J. 2005. "How local is local?" - a review of practical and conceptual issues in the genetics of restoration. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):432-440.

McSweeney, K. 2005. Indigenous population growth in the lowland Neotropics: social science insights for biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1375-1384.

Menzel, J.M., Menzel, M.A., Kilgo, J.C., Ford, W.M., and Edwards, J.W. 2005. Bat response to Carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern US coastal plain. Wetlands 25(3):542-550.

Miller, J.R. 2005. Biodiversity conservation and the extinction of experience. TREE 20(8):430-434.

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Mistry, J., and Berardi, A. 2005. Assessing fire potential in a Brazilian savanna nature reserve. Biotropica 37(3):439-451.

Moilanen, A., and Cabeza, M. 2005. Variance and uncertainty in the expected number of occurrences in reserve selection. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1663-1667.

Morghan, K.J.R., and Rice, K.J. 2005. Centaurea solstitialis invasion success is influenced by Nassella pulchra size. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):524-528.

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Mykrä, S., Vuorisalo, T., and Pohja-Mykrä, M. 2005. A history of organized persecution and conservation of wildlife: species categorizations in Finnish legislation from medieval times to 1923. Oryx 39(3):275-283.

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Noon, B.R., Parenteau, P., and Trombulak, S.C. 2005. Conservation science, biodiversity, and the 2005 US Forest Service regulations. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1359-1361.

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Piazza, B.P., Banks, P.D., and La Peyre, M.K. 2005. The potential for created oyster shell reefs as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):499-506.

Pikitch, E.K., Doukakis, P., Lauck, L., Chakrabarty, P., and Erickson, D.L. 2005. Status, trends and management of sturgeon and paddlefish fisheries. Fish Fish. 6(3):233-265.

Pinder, A.M., Halse, S.A., McRae, J.M., and Shiel, R.J. 2005. Occurrence of aquatic invertebrates of the wheatbelt region of Western Australia in relation to salinity. Hydrobiologia 543:1-24.

Pinto, L., Chandrasena, N., Pera, J., Hawkins, P., Eccles, D., and Sim, R. 2005. Managing invasive carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for habitat enhancement at Botany Wetlands, Australia. Aquat. Conserv. 15(5):447-462.

Pohja-Mykrä, M., Vuorisalo, T., and Mykrä, S. 2005. Hunting bounties as a key measure of historical wildlife management and game conservation: Finnish bounty schemes 1647-1975. Oryx 39(3):284-291.

Pokorny, M.L., Sheley, R.L., Zabinski, C.A., Engel, R.E., Svejcar, T.J., and Borkowski, J.J. 2005. Plant functional group diversity as a mechanism for invasion resistance. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):448-459.

Polley, H.W., Derner, J.D., and Wilsey, B.J. 2005. Patterns of plant species diversity in remnant and restored tallgrass prairies. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):480-487.

Poulin, B., Lefebvre, G., and Mathevet, R. 2005. Habitat selection by booming bitterns Botaurus stellaris in French Mediterranean reed-beds. Oryx 39(3):265-274.

Puth, L.M., and Allen, T.F.H. 2005. Potential corridors for the rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, in northern Wisconsin (USA) lakes: lessons for exotic invasions. Landscape Ecol. 20(5):567-577.

Pyke, C.R., and Marty, J. 2005. Cattle grazing mediates climate change impacts on ephemeral wetlands. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1619-1625.

Pyšek, N. 2005. Survival rates in the Czech Republic of introduced plants known as wool aliens. Biol. Invasions 7(4):567-576.

Rabemananjara, F., Bora, P., Cadle, J.E., Andreone, F., Rajeriarison, E., Talata, P., Glaw, F., Vences, M., and Vieites, D.R. 2005. New records, distribution and conservation of Mantella bernhardi, an Endangered frog species from south-eastern Madagascar. Oryx 39(3):339-342.

Rachowicz, L.J., Hero, J.M., Alford, R.A., Taylor, J.W., Morgan, J.A.T., Vredenburg, V.T., Collins, J.P., and Briggs, C.J. 2005. The novel and endemic pathogen hypotheses: competing explanations for the origin of emerging infectious diseases of wildlife. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1441-1448.

Rader, R.B., Belk, M.C., Shiozawa, D.K., and Crandall, K.A. 2005. Empirical tests for ecological exchangeability. Anim. Conserv. 8:239-247.

Ramey, R.R., Liu, H.P., Epps, C.W., Carpenter, L.M., and Wehausen, J.D. 2005. Genetic relatedness of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) to nearby subspecies of Z. hudsonius as inferred from variation in cranial morphology, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite DNA: implications for taxonomy and conservation. Anim. Conserv. 8:329-346.

Ranasinghe, J.A., Mikel, T.K., Velarde, R.G., Weisberg, S.B., Montagne, D.E., Cadien, D.B., and Dalkey, A. 2005. The prevalence of non-indigenous species in southern California embayments and their effects on benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Biol. Invasions 7(4):679-686.

Rao, M.H., Myint, T., Zaw, T., and Htun, S. 2005. Hunting patterns in tropical forests adjoining the Hkakaborazi National Park, north Myanmar. Oryx 39(3):292-300.

Ratcliffe, N., Schmitt, S., and Whiffin, M. 2005. Sink or swim? Viability of a black-tailed godwit population in relation to flooding. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(5):834-843.

Reid, W.V. 2005. Science: who needs it? Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1341-1343.

Reinhart, K.O., Greene, E., and Callaway, R.M. 2005. Effects of Acer platanoides invasion on understory plant communities and tree regeneration in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ecography 28(5):573-582.

Rice, B., and Brittnacher, J. 2005. The ICPS Sarracenia distribution program: satisfying the hunger of poachers? Acta Bot. Gallica 152(2):235-237.

Robinson, C.J., Smyth, D., and Whitehead, P.J. 2005. Bush tucker, bush pets, and bush threats: cooperative management of feral animals in Australia's Kakadu National Park. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1385-1391.

Rodríguez, J.P. 2005. Threatened species initiative funds conservation projects on behalf of Venezuelan animals and plants. Oryx 39(3):246-247.

Rodríguez, J.P., Good, T., and Dirzo, R. 2005. Diversitas and the challenge of Latin American biodiversity conservation. Interciencia 30(8):450.

Rohlf, D.J., and Dobkin, D.S. 2005. Legal ecology: ecosystem function and the law. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1344-1348.

Romanuk, T.N., and Kolasa, J. 2005. Resource limitation, biodiversity, and competitive effects interact to determine the invasibility of rock pool microcosms. Biol. Invasions 7(4):711-722.

Rondinini, C., Stuart, S., and Boitani, L. 2005. Habitat suitability models and the shortfall in conservation planning for African vertebrates. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1488-1497.

Ruiz-Jaen, M.C., and Aide, T.M. 2005. Restoration success: how is it being measured? Restor. Ecol. 13(3):569-577.

Sabo, J.L. 2005. Stochasticity, predator-prey dynamics, and trigger harvest of nonnative predators. Ecology 86(9):2329-2343.

Sadovy, Y. 2005. Trouble on the reef: the imperative for managing vulnerable and valuable fisheries. Fish Fish. 6(3):167-185.

Salafsky, N., and Salzer, D. 2005. The unglamorous essential foundation of conservation science. Oryx 39(3):235-236.

Schaffelke, B., and Deane, D. 2005. Desiccation tolerance of the introduced marine green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides - clues for likely transport vectors? Biol. Invasions 7(4):557-565.

Schwartz, T.S., Jenkins, F., and Beheregaray, L.B. 2005. Microsatellite DNA markers developed for the Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) and their cross-amplification in estuary perch (Macquaria colonorum). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(3):519-520.

Scott, J.M., Goble, D.D., Wiens, J.A., Wilcove, D.S., Bean, M., and Male, T. 2005. Recovery of imperiled species under the Endangered Species Act: the need for a new approach. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(7):383-389.

Scott, R.J., Poos, M.S., Noakes, D.L.G., and Beamish, F.W.H. 2005. Effects of exotic salmonids on juvenile Atlantic salmon behaviour. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 14(3):283-288.

Selbo, S.M., and Snow, A.A. 2005. Flowering phenology and genetic similarity among local and recently introduced populations of Andropogon gerardii in Ohio. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):441-447.

Shepherd, T.D., and Myers, R.A. 2005. Direct and indirect fishery effects on small coastal elasmobranchs in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Ecol. Lett. 8(10):1095-1104.

Shoo, L.P., Williams, S.E., and Hero, J.M. 2005. Potential decoupling of trends in distribution area and population size of species with climate change. Global Change Biol. 11(9):1469-1476.

Smith, R.J., and Walpole, M.J. 2005. Should conservationists pay more attention to corruption? Oryx 39(3):251-256.

Smith, S.A., and Bermingham, E. 2005. The biogeography of lower Mesoamerican freshwater fishes. J. Biogeogr. 32(10):1835-1854.

Soutullo, A., Dodsworth, S., Heard, S.B., and Mooers, A.Ø. 2005. Distribution and correlates of carnivore phylogenetic diversity across the Americas. Anim. Conserv. 8:249-258.

Sparks, D.W., Ritzi, C.M., Duchamp, J.E., and Whitaker, J.O. 2005. Foraging habitat of the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) at an urban-rural interface. J. Mammal. 86(4):713-718.

Stephen, C.L., Devos, J.C., Lee, T.E., Bickham, J.W., Heffelfinger, J.R., and Rhodes, O.E. 2005. Population genetic analysis of Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis). J. Mammal. 86(4):782-792.

Stevenson, P.R., Link, A., and Ramírez, B.H. 2005. Frugivory and seed fate in Bursera inversa (Burseraceae) at Tinigua Park, Colombia: implications for primate conservation. Biotropica 37(3):431-438.

Stohlgren, T.J., Barnett, D., Flather, C., Kartesz, J., and Peterjohn, B. 2005. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States. Ecology 86(9):2298-2309.

Stokstad, E. 2005. What's wrong with the Endangered Species Act? Science 309(5744):2150-2152.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M., and Knight, T.M. 2005. Response to Mathevet and Mauchamp: evidence-based conservation: dealing with social issues. TREE 20(8):424-425.

Thieltges, D.W. 2005. Benefit from an invader: American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata reduces star fish predation on basibiont European mussels. Hydrobiologia 541:241-244.

Thomson, D. 2005. Measuring the effects of invasive species on the demography of a rare endemic plant. Biol. Invasions 7(4):615-624.

Torchin, M.E., Hechinger, R.F., Huspeni, T.C., Whitney, K.L., and Lafferty, K.D. 2005. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa. Biol. Invasions 7(4):607-614.

van der Putten, W.H., Yeates, G.W., Duyts, H., Reis, C.S., and Karssen, G. 2005. Invasive plants and their escape from root herbivory: a worldwide comparison of the root-feeding nematode communities of the dune grass Ammophila arenaria in natural and introduced ranges. Biol. Invasions 7(4):733-746.

van der Ree, R., and McCarthy, M.A. 2005. Inferring persistence of indigenous mammals in response to urbanisation. Anim. Conserv. 8:309-319.

van Wyngaarden, W., and Fandiño-Lozano, M. 2005. Mapping the actual and original distribution of the ecosystems and the chorological types for conservation planning in Colombia. Divers. Distrib. 11(5):461-473.

Varner, J.M., Gordon, D.R., Putz, E., and Hiers, J.K. 2005. Restoring fire to long-unburned Pinus palustris ecosystems: novel fire effects and consequences for long-unburned ecosystems. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):536-544.

Vázquez-García, J.A., Cházaro B., M.J., Nieves H., G., Vargas-Rodríquez, Y.L., Vázquez G., M., and Flores M., A. 2004. Flora del Norte de Jalisco y Etnobotánica Huichola. University de Guadalajara. Guadalajara.

Vázquez-García, J.A., Cházaro B., M.J., Vera, C.H., and Berrios, E.F. 2005. Los Agaves del Occidente de México: Sistemática, Ecología, Etnobotánica e Importancia Económica. Universidad de Guadalajara. Guadalajara.

Vijay, V., Biradar, R.S., Inamdar, A.B., Deshmukhe, G., Baji, S., and Pikle, M. 2005. Mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai (Bombay) using remotely sensed data. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 34(3):310-315.

Walker, B.G., Boersma, P.D., and Wingfield, J.C. 2005. Physiological and behavioral differences in Magellanic penguin chicks in undisturbed and tourist-visited locations of a colony. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1571-1577.

Walpole, M.J., and Smith, R.J. 2005. Focusing on corruption: a reply to Ferraro and Katzner. Oryx 39(3):263-264.

Walton, R.K., Brower, L.P., and Andrew, A.K. 2005. Long-term monitoring and fall migration patterns of the monarch butterfly in Cape May, New Jersey. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 98(5):682-689.

Ward, M.P. 2005. The role of immigration in the decline of an isolated migratory bird population. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1528-1536.

Wassen, M.J., Venterink, H.O., Lapshina, E.D., and Tanneberger, F. 2005. Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation. Nature 437(7058):547-550.

Wesolowski, T. 2005. Virtual conservation: how the European Union is turning a blind eye to its vanishing primeval forests. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1349-1358.

Williams, S.L., Ebert, T.A., and Allen, B.J. 2005. Does the recruitment of a non-native mussel in native eelgrass habitat explain their disjunct adult distributions? Divers. Distrib. 11(5):409-416.

Wisely, S.M., Santymire, R.M., Livieri, T.M., Marinari, P.E., Kreeger, J.S., Wildt, D.E., and Howard, J. 2005. Environment influences morphology and development for in situ and ex situ populations of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Anim. Conserv. 8:321-328.

Woodhams, D.C., and Alford, R.A. 2005. Ecology of chytridiomycosis in rainforest stream frog assemblages of tropical Queensland. Conserv. Biol. 19(5):1449-1459.

Yakimowski, S.B., Hager, H.A., and Eckert, C.G. 2005. Limits and effects of invasion by the nonindigenous wetland plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife): a seed bank analysis. Biol. Invasions 7(4):687-698.

Zahler, P., and Lhagvasuren, B. 2005. Conservation and management of the Gobi bear. Oryx 39(3):248-249.

Zanini, L., and Ganade, G. 2005. Restoration of Araucaria forest: the role of perches, pioneer vegetation, and soil fertility. Restor. Ecol. 13(3):507-514.

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