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Department ofBotany



No. 253
January 2006


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In This Issue


Tropical Forests in a Changing Environment


Tropical forest landscapes change rapidly as human populations and economies grow. Understanding and reducing the impact of an ever increasing population is a great challenge facing biologists, conservationists and policy makers. In his article "Tropical forests in a changing environment" (Trends in Ecology & Evolution) Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) staff scientist S. Joseph Wright addresses ongoing change in tropical forests and suggests how these forests might respond to increasing pressure. "The evidence for global effects suggests that a massive reorganization of the structure and dynamics of tropical forests is already underway," states Wright.

Wright also presents estimates of tropical forest cover, deforestation and reforestation, secondary forest succession, spatial variation in land-use change, and poaching and invasive species. He also discusses global effects on lowland tropical forests like the change in its structure and dynamics. For example on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in Panama, the old-growth forest has escaped fire and agriculture for at least 1,500 years. The aboveground biomass was almost constant between 1985 and 2000 in the 50-hectare Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) plot. However, lianas (plants that bridge the forest canopy) are increasing in importance on BCI, trees are reproducing more often in Kibale National Park in Uganda, while tree growth rates are declining at the Las Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica.

According to Wright, "The scientific community has an important role to play as the future of the tropics unfolds." Without the commitment of basic researchers, conservation scientists and other applied researchers, the tropics, supporting over half of all species and over two-thirds of all people, "are unlikely to continue to coexist."


Coffee and Conservation


The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center (SMBC) has expanded research to evaluate programs beyond its own shade-grown coffee program in an effort to fine-tune the model for global use. SMBC's Stacy Philpott and Peter Bichier traveled to Mexico and Indonesia to study how organic and fair trade sustainable coffee certification programs may be able to protect both biodiversity and financial interests of small farmers. Since almost all of the previous research on the role of coffee in conservation focused on Latin America, this work will provide important insights into the rapidly expanding coffee farms in Asia and their effect on that region's biodiversity.

The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center has shown that coffee farms with a high diversity and density of shade trees provide important habitat for migratory birds and other biodiversity - findings that lead to the development of the Bird-Friendly© certification to protect such farms. Other certification programs, such as organic and fair-trade coffee focus on eliminating chemical use and offering higher prices to farmers respectively, but little is known about how these programs directly affect biodiversity.

Working in the Chiapas highlands where shade-grown coffee plantations have operated for decades, and in Lampung, Sumatra, the Smithsonian researchers visited 15 coffee growing communities to collect data for the study. The team will evaluate the conservation value of organic, fair-trade, and non-certified farms measured in terms of vegetation characteristics and two indicator species: birds and ants. They will compare the species richness in the different coffee growing areas as well as the forest using all bird and ant species (i.e. migratory and resident birds, ground and arboreal ants) as indicator species. They will thus be able to determine if organic or fair trade certification indirectly benefit biodiversity as well as finding out how many forest specialists each of the coffee habitats protects. In addition, they will be able to compare farms with organic and fair trade certification to see if they live up to the standards of the SMBC's Bird Friendly© coffee program. Interviews carried out with more than 150 small farmers will assess their socioeconomic situations, shade management practices, and the influences of coffee prices on coffee growing lands, and the overall conservation efforts in the regions.

The results of these new studies in Chiapas will provide new insights into coffee certification by evaluating efforts already in progress. In Sumatra, where no research has previously been done, the results will provide important data for coffee certification work as well as improving incomes and contributing to biodiversity conservation efforts.


Current Literature


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Alonso, J.C., Martín, C.A., Palacín, C., Martín, B., and Magaña, M. 2005. The great bustard Otis tarda in Andalusia, southern Spain: status, distribution and trends. Ardeola 52(1):67-78.

Alonso, J.C., Palacín, C., Martín, C.A., Mouati, N., Arhzaf, Z.L., and Azizi, D. 2005. The great bustard Otis taiwa in Morocco: a re-evaluation of its status based on recent survey results. Ardeola 52(1):79-90.

Anderson, D.W., and King, D.T. 2005. Introduction: biology and conservation of the American white pelican. Waterbirds 28:1-8.

Andrianandrasana, H.T., Randriamahefasoa, J., Durbin, J., Lewis, R.E., and Ratsimbazafy, J.H. 2005. Participatory ecological monitoring of the Alaotra wetlands in Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2757-2774.

Arévalo, J.R., Naranjo-Cigala, A., and Pascual, M.S. 2005. Regeneration in a mixed stand of native Pinus canariensis and introduced Pinus pinea species. Acta Oecol. 28(2):87-94.

Armstrong, K.F., and Ball, S.L. 2005. DNA barcodes for biosecurity: invasive species identification. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1462):1813-1823.

Armstrong, T.T.J., and De Lange, A.P. 2005. Conservation genetics of Hebe speciosa (Plantaginaceae) an endangered New Zealand shrub. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 149(2):229-239.

Arvanitidis, C., Atzigeorgiou, G., Koutsoubas, D., Dounas, C., Eleftheriou, A., and Koulouri, P. 2005. Mediterranean lagoons revisited: weakness and efficiency of the rapid biodiversity assessment techniques in a severely fluctuating environment. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2347-2359.

Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Broadbent, E.N., Oliveira, P.J.C., Keller, M., and Silva, J.N. 2005. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 310(5747):480-482.

Baali-Cherif, D., and Besnard, G. 2005. High genetic diversity and clonal growth in relict populations of Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei (Oleaceae) from Hoggar, Algeria. Ann. Botany 96(5):823-830.

Bachmann, U., Hensen, I., and Partzsch, M. 2005. Is Campanula glomerata threatened by competition of expanding grasses? Plant Ecol. 180(2):257-265.

Badgery, W.B., Kemp, D.R., Michalk, D.L., and King, W.M.C.G. 2005. Competition for nitrogen between Australian native grasses and the introduced weed Nassella trichotoma. Ann. Botany 96(5):799-809.

Baldi, A., and Batary, P. 2005. Nest predation in European reedbeds: different losses in edges but similar losses in interiors. Folia Zoolog. 54(3):285-292.

Balmford, A., and Bond, W. 2005. Trends in the state of nature and their implications for human well-being. Ecol. Lett. 8(11):1218-1234.

Barrat-Segretain, M.H. 2005. Competition between invasive and indigenous species: impact of spatial pattern and developmental stage. Plant Ecol. 180(2):153-160.

Baum, J.K., Kehler, D., and Myers, R.A. 2005. Robust estimates of decline for pelagic shark populations in the northwest Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Fisheries 30(10):27-30.

Beatty, S., Morgan, D., and Gill, H. 2005. Role of life history strategy in the colonisation of Western Australian aquatic systems by the introduced crayfish Cherax destructor Clark, 1936. Hydrobiologia 549:219-237.

Becker, C.D., and Agreda, A. 2005. Bird community differences in mature and second growth garua forest in Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(3):297-319.

Becker, C.D., Agreda, A., Astudillo, E., Costantino, M., and Torres, P. 2005. Community-based monitoring of fog capture and biodiversity at Loma Alta, Ecuador enhance social capital and institutional cooperation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2695-2707.

Bellemare, J., Motzkin, G., and Foster, D.R. 2005. Rich mesic forests: edaphic and physiographic drivers of community variation in western Massachusetts. Rhodora 107(931):239-283.

Bennun, L., Matiku, P., Mulwa, R., Mwangi, S., and Buckley, P. 2005. Monitoring important bird areas in Africa: towards a sustainable and scaleable system. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2575-2590.

Bies, L.M. 2005. State comprehensive wildlife conservation strategies. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):739-743.

Binzenhöfer, B., Schröder, B., Strauss, B., Biedermann, R., and Settele, J. 2005. Habitat models and habitat connectivity analysis for butterflies and burnet moths - the example of Zygaena carniolica and Coenonympha arcania. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):247-259.

Bock, M., Rossner, G., Wissen, M., Remm, K., Langanke, T., Lang, S., Klug, H., Blaschke, T., and Vrscaj, B. 2005. Spatial indicators for nature conservation from European to local scale. Ecol. Indic. 5(4):322-338.

Bosire, J.O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Kairo, J.G., Kazungu, J., Dehairs, F., and Koedam, N. 2005. Litter degradation and CN dynamics in reforested mangrove plantations at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):287-295.

Boudreau, S., and Lawes, M.J. 2005. Small understorey gaps created by subsistence harvesters do not adversely affect the maintenance of tree diversity in a sub-tropical forest. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):279-286.

Bourg, N.A., McShea, W.J., and Gill, D.E. 2005. Putting a cart before the search: successful habitat prediction for a rare forest herb. Ecology 86(10):2793-2804.

Bowles, M., Zettler, L., Bell, T., and Kelsey, P. 2005. Relationships between soil characteristics, distribution and restoration potential of the Federal threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl. Am. Midl. Nat. 154(2):273-285.

Brashares, J.S., and Sam, M.K. 2005. How much is enough? Estimating the minimum sampling required for effective monitoring of African reserves. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2709-2722.

Brindley, J., Biktashev, V.H., and Tsyganov, M.A. 2005. Invasion waves in populations with excitable dynamics. Biol. Invasions 7(5):807-816.

Brito, D. 2005. The importance of sound biological information and theory for ecological economics studies valuing Brazilian biodiversity: a response to Mendonça et al. (2003). Ecol. Econ. 55(1):5-10.

Brown, K.J., and Pasternack, G.B. 2005. A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction to aid in the restoration of floodplain and wetland habitat on an upper deltaic plain, California, USA. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):103-116.

Bruggeman, D.J., Jones, M.L., Lupi, F., and Scribner, K.T. 2005. Landscape equivalency analysis: methodology for estimating spatially explicit biodiversity credits. Environ. Manage. 36(4):518-534.

Bryan, M.B., Zalinski, D., Filcek, K.B., Libants, S., Li, W., and Scribner, K.T. 2005. Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes. Mol. Ecol. 14(12):3757-3773.

Bulleri, F. 2005. The introduction of artificial structures on marine soft- and hard-bottoms: ecological implications of epibiota. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):101-102.

Burgess, G.H., Beerkircher, L.R., Cailliet, G.M., Carlson, J.K., Cortes, E., Goldman, K.J., Grubbs, R.D., Musick, J.A., Musyl, M.K., and Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2005. Is the collapse of shark populations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico real? Fisheries 30(10):19-26.

Butin, E., Porter, A.H., and Elkinton, J. 2005. Adaptation during biological invasions and the case of Adelges tsugae. Evol. Ecol. Res. 7(6):887-900.

Call, K.A., and Loughlin, T.R. 2005. An ecological classification of Alaskan steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) rookeries: a tool for conservation/management. Fish. Oceanogr. 14:212-222.

Candland, D.K. 2005. The animal mind and conservation of species: knowing what animals know. Curr. Sci. 89(7):1122-1127.

Chown, S.L., Hull, B., and Gaston, K.J. 2005. Human impacts, energy availability and invasion across Southern Ocean islands. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 14(6):521-528.

Clark, G.F., and Johnston, E.L. 2005. Manipulating larval supply in the field: a controlled study of marine invasibility. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 298:9-19.

Cohn, J.P. 2005. Joint ventures. A different approach to conservation. BioScience 55(10):824-827.

Cook, G.S., and Heinen, J.T. 2005. On the uncertain costs and tenuous benefits of marine reserves: a case study of the Tortugas Ecological Reserve, south Florida, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):390-396.

Cornelius, J.P., Navarro, C.M., Wightman, K.E., and Ward, S.E. 2005. Is mahogany dysgenically selected? Environ. Conserv. 32(2):129-139.

Cristol, D.A., and Rodewald, A.D. 2005. Introduction: can golf courses play a role in bird conservation? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):407-410.

Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., and Balmford, A. 2005. Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally-based approaches. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2507-2542.

Danielsen, F., Jensen, A.E., Alviola, P.A., Balete, D.S., Mendoza, M., Tagtag, A., Custodio, C., and Enghoff, M. 2005. Does monitoring matter? A quantitative assessment of management decisions from locally-based monitoring of protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2633-2652.

Davalos, L.M. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of funnel-eared bats (Chiroptera: Natalidae), with notes on biogeography and conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 37(1):91-103.

Davis, A.L.V., and Philips, T.K. 2005. Effect of deforestation on a southwest Ghana dung beetle assemblage (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at the periphery of Ankasa Conservation Area. Environ. Entomol. 34(5):1081-1088.

Dawson, P.A.C., Rapson, G.L., and Robertson, A.W. 2005. Limitations on recruitment of the rare sand daphne Pimelea arenaria (Thymelaeaceae), lower North Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 43(3):619-630.

de Lafontaine, Y. 2005. First record of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. J. Great Lakes Res. 31(3):367-370.

Donlan, C.J., Knowlton, J., Doak, D.F., and Biavaschi, N. 2005. Nested communities, invasive species and Holocene extinctions: evaluating the power of a potential conservation tool. Oecologia 145(3):475-485.

Drew, A.E., and Roderick, G.K. 2005. Insect biodiversity on plant hybrids within the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae: Heliantheae-Madiinae). Environ. Entomol. 34(5):1095-1108.

Durka, W., Babik, W., Ducroz, J.F., Heidecke, D., Rosell, F., Samjaa, R., Saveljev, A.P., Stubbe, A., Ulevicius, A., and Stubbe, M. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L. Mol. Ecol. 14(12):3843-3856.

Dutton, D.L., Dutton, P.H., Chaloupka, M., and Boulon, R.H. 2005. Increase of a Caribbean leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea nesting population linked to long-term nest protection. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):186-194.

East, T., Kümpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Rowcliffe, J.M. 2005. Determinants of urban bushmeat consumption in Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):206-215.

Ebenman, B., and Jonsson, T. 2005. Using community viability analysis to identify fragile systems and keystone species. TREE 20(10):568-575.

Eckstein, R.L., and Otte, A. 2005. Effects of cleistogamy and pollen source on seed production and offspring performance in three endangered violets. Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(4):339-350.

Evans, D.M., Redpath, S.M., Evans, S.A., Elston, D.A., and Dennis, P. 2005. Livestock grazing affects the egg size of an insectivorous passerine. Biol. Lett. 1(3):322-325.

Fernando, P., Wikramanayake, E., Weerakoon, D., Jayasinghe, L.K.A., Gunawardene, M., and Janaka, H.K. 2005. Perceptions and patterns of human-elephant conflict in old and new settlements in Sri Lanka: insights for mitigation and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2465-2481.

Fitzgibbon, W.E., Langlais, M., Marpeau, F., and Morgan, J.J. 2005. Modeling the circulation of a disease between two host populations on non coincident spatial domains. Biol. Invasions 7(5):863-875.

Flinders, C.A., and Magoulick, D.D. 2005. Distribution, habitat use and life history of stream-dwelling crayfish in the Spring River drainage of Arkansas and Missouri with a focus on the imperiled mammoth spring crayfish (Orconectes marchandi). Am. Midl. Nat. 154(2):358-374.

Franco, A.M.A., Marques, J.T., and Sutherland, W.J. 2005. Is nest-site availability limiting lesser kestrel populations? A multiple scale approach. Ibis 147(4):657-666.

Frankham, R. 2005. Genetics and extinction. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):131-140.

Fuchs, J.R., Fjeldså, J., and Pasquet, E. 2005. The use of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data in assessing the taxonomic status of the endangered Uluguru bush shrike Malaconotus alius. Ibis 147(4):717-724.

Garza, V., Suárez, F., Herranz, J., Traba, J., de la Morena, E.L.G., Morales, M.B., González, R., and Castañeda, M. 2005. Home range, territoriality and habitat selection by the Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti during the breeding and postbreeding periods. Ardeola 52(1):133-146.

Gaucel, S., and Pontier, D. 2005. How predator food preference can change the destiny of native prey in predator-prey systems. Biol. Invasions 7(5):795-806.

Gelbard, J.L., and Harrison, S. 2005. Invasibility of roadless grasslands: an experimental study of yellow starthistle. Ecol. Appl. 15(5):1570-1580.

Geleta, L.F., Labuschagne, M.T., and Viljoen, C.D. 2005. Genetic variability in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) estimated by morphological data and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2361-2375.

Gonzales, E., and Hamrick, J.L. 2005. Distribution of genetic diversity among disjunct populations of the rare forest understory herb, Trillium reliquum. Heredity 95(4):306-314.

Grant, T.A., and Murphy, R.K. 2005. Changes in woodland cover on prairie refuges in North Dakota, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):359-368.

Grau, H.R., Gasparri, N.I., and Aide, T.M. 2005. Agriculture expansion and deforestation in seasonally dry forests of north-west Argentina. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):140-148.

Gray, M., and Kalpers, J. 2005. Ranger based monitoring in the Virunga-Bwindi region of East-Central Africa: a simple data collection tool for park management. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2723-2741.

Greenbaum, E., and Komar, O. 2005. Threat assessment and conservation prioritization of the herpetofauna of El Salvador. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2377-2395.

Guadagnin, D.L., Peter, Â.S., Perello, L.F.C., and Maltchik, L. 2005. Spatial and temporal patterns of waterbird assemblages in fragmented wetlands of southern Brazil. Waterbirds 28(3):261-272.

Hahn, I., Romer, U., and Schlatter, R.P. 2005. Distribution, habitat use, and abundance patterns of landbird communities on the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(3):371-385.

Hartman, G.F., and Northcote, T.G. 2005. Economic growth and fish conservation: we need more emphasis on the population component. Fisheries 30(10):36-38.

Hausmann, F., Catterall, C.P., and Piper, S.D. 2005. Effects of edge habitat and nest characteristics on depredation of artificial nests in fragmented Australian tropical rainforest. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2331-2345.

Herrick, B.M., and Wolf, A.T. 2005. Invasive plant species in diked vs. undiked Great Lakes wetlands. J. Great Lakes Res. 31(3):277-287.

Hickerson, C.A.M., Anthony, C.D., and Walton, B.M. 2005. Edge effects and intraguild predation in native and introduced centipedes: evidence from the field and from laboratory microcosms. Oecologia 146(1):110-119.

Hilker, F.M., Lewis, M.A., Seno, H., Langlais, M., and Malchow, H. 2005. Pathogens can slow down or reverse invasion fronts of their hosts. Biol. Invasions 7(5):817-832.

Hill, S.J., Tung, P.J., and Leishman, M.R. 2005. Relationships between anthropogenic disturbance, soil properties and plant invasion in endangered Cumberland Plain Woodland, Australia. Austral Ecol. 30(7):775-788.

Hockley, N.J., Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Manica, A., Ranambitsoa, E.H., and Randriamboahary, J.A. 2005. When should communities and conservationists monitor exploited resources? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2795-2806.

Hoffmeister, T.S., Vet, L.E.M., Biere, A., Holsinger, K., and Filser, J. 2005. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of biological invasion and habitat fragmentation. Ecosystems 8(6):657-667.

Holden, C. 2005. Kenyan edict threatens famed park. Science 310(5746):215.

Houghton-Thompson, J., Prince, H.H., Smith, J.J., and Hancock, J.F. 2005. Evidence of hybridization between Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) and L. alatum (winged loosestrife) in North America. Ann. Botany 96(5):877-885.

Hughes, R.F., and Denslow, J.S. 2005. Invasion by a N2-fixing tree alters function and structure in wet lowland forests of Hawaii. Ecol. Appl. 15(5):1615-1628.

Islam, M.S. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Tor tor Hamilton 1822 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 74(1):66.

Jain, A., Roshnibala, S., Rajshree, K., Sharma, H.N., Kanjilal, P.B., and Singh, H.B. 2005. Matting rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris (Linn.) Palla): status, utility, threat, cultivation and conservation options in Manipur. Curr. Sci. 89(6):1018-1022.

Johnson, C.J., and Gillingham, M.P. 2005. An evaluation of mapped species distribution models used for conservation planning. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):117-128.

Jones, S.G., Gordon, D.H., Phillips, G.M., and Richardson, B.R.D. 2005. Avian community response to a golf-course landscape unit gradient. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):422-434.

Jusaitis, M., and Adams, M. 2005. Conservation implications of clonality and limited sexual reproduction in the endangered shrub Acanthocladium dockeri (Asteraceae). Aust. J. Bot. 53(6):535-544.

Keane, A., Brooke, M.D., and McGowan, P.J.K. 2005. Correlates of extinction risk and hunting pressure in gamebirds (Galliformes). Biol. Conserv. 126(2):216-233.

Keith, J.O. 2005. An overview of the American white pelican. Waterbirds 28:9-17.

Kelly, D.W., and Dick, J.T.A. 2005. Effects of environment and an introduced invertebrate species on the structure of benthic macroinvertebrate species at the catchment level. Arch. Hydrobiol. 164(1):69-88.

Kissling, W.D., Schnittler, M., Seddon, P.J., Dickinson, K.J.M., and Lord, J.M. 2005. Invasion ecology of the alien tussock grass Nardus stricta (Poaceae) at Lake Pukaki, Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 43(3):601-612.

Krueger, D.M., and Hrabik, T.R. 2005. Food web alterations that promote native species: the recovery of cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations through management of native piscivores. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62(10):2177-2188.

Küffer, N., and Senn-Irlet, B. 2005. Influence of forest management on the species richness and composition of wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in Swiss forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2419-2435.

Lara-Ruiz, P., and Chiarello, A.G. 2005. Life-history traits and sexual dimorphism of the Atlantic forest maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Xenarthra: Bradypodidae). J. Zool. 267:63-73.

Larsen, E.J., and Ripple, W.J. 2005. Aspen stand conditions on elk winter ranges in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):326-338.

Lawes, M.J., Lamb, B.C.C., and Boudreau, S. 2005. Area- but no edge-effect on woody seedling abundance and species richness in old Afromontane forest fragments. J. Veg. Sci. 16(4):363-372.

Le Cuziat, J., Vidal, E., Roche, P., and Lacroix, F. 2005. Human activities affect the potential distribution of the Houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata undulata. Ardeola 52(1):21-30.

LeClerc, J.E., Che, J.P.K., Swaddle, J.P., and Cristol, D.A. 2005. Reproductive success and developmental stability of eastern bluebirds on golf courses: evidence that golf courses can be productive. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):483-493.

LeClerc, J.E., and Cristol, D.A. 2005. Are golf courses providing habitat for birds of conservation concern in Virginia? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):463-470.

Lencinas, M.V., Pastur, G.M., Medina, M., and Busso, C. 2005. Richness and density of birds in timber Nothofagus pumilio forests and their unproductive associated environments. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2299-2320.

Leung, B., Finnoff, D., Shogren, J.F., and Lodge, D. 2005. Managing invasive species: rules of thumb for rapid assessment. Ecol. Econ. 55(1):24-36.

Lindholm, A.K., Breden, F., Alexander, H.J., Chan, W.K., Thakurta, S.G., and Brooks, R. 2005. Invasion success and genetic diversity of introduced populations of guppies Poecilia reticulata in Australia. Mol. Ecol. 14(12):3671-3682.

Llusia, D., and Oñate, J.J. 2005. Are the conservation requirements of pseudo-steppe birds adequately covered by Spanish agri-environmental schemes? An ex-ante assessment. Ardeola 52(1):31-42.

Lofflin, D.L., and Kephart, S.R. 2005. Outbreeding, seedling establishment, and maladaptation in natural and reintroduced populations of rare and common Silene douglasii (Caryophyllaceae). Am. J. Bot. 92(10):1691-1700.

Lozano, F.D., and Schwartz, M.W. 2005. Patterns of rarity and taxonomic group size in plants. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):146-154.

Maccarone, A.D., and Brzorad, J.N. 2005. Foraging microhabitat selection by wading birds in a tidal estuary, with implications for conservation. Waterbirds 28(3):383-391.

Machado, A.F.P., Vianna-Filho, M.D.M., de Lacerda, R.W., and Carrijo, T.T. 2005. Brosimum guianense (Moraceae), in the vicinities of the Tauá Reserve, Cabo Frio, RJ, Brazil. Albertoa 20:145-151.

Maddox, J.D., and Wiedenmann, R.N. 2005. Nesting of birds in wetlands containing purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and cattail (Typha spp.). Nat. Areas J. 25(4):369-373.

Maier, C.T. 2005. First records of alien insects in Connecticut (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae; Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Chrysomelidae; Diptera: Rhagionidae, Tephritidae; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107(4):947-959.

Marris, E. 2005. Invasive species: shoot to kill. Nature 438(7066):272-273.

Martins, M.M. 2005. Density of primates in four semi-deciduous forest fragments of São Paulo, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2321-2329.

Martínez-Avalos, J.G., and Jurado, E. 2005. Geographic distribution and conservation of Cactaceae from Tamaulipas Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2483-2506.

Mawdsley, J.R. 2005. Additional historic records of Cicindela dorsalis Say and Cicindela puritana Horn (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelini) from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107(4):808-811.

McMahon, S.M. 2005. Quantifying the community: using Bayesian Learning Networks to find structure and conduct inference in invasions biology. Biol. Invasions 7(5):833-844.

Medvinsky, A.B., Gonik, M.M., Berezovskaya, F.S., Li, B.L., and Malchow, H. 2005. Rotifer population dynamics in two coupled habitats: invasion of chaos. Biol. Invasions 7(5):877-883.

Mendoza, E., Fay, J., and Dirzo, R. 2005. A quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in Los Tuxtlas, southeast Mexico: patterns and implications for conservation. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 78(3):451-467.

Merola-Zwartjes, M., and DeLong, J.P. 2005. Avian species assemblages on on New Mexico golf courses: surrogate riparian habitat for birds? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):435-447.

Moir, M.L., Brennan, K.E.C., Koch, J.M., Majer, J.D., and Fletcher, M.J. 2005. Restoration of a forest ecosystem: the effects of vegetation and dispersal capabilities on the reassembly of plant-dwelling arthropods. Forest Ecol. Manag. 217(2-3):294-306.

Molinari, C., Bradshaw, R.H.W., Risbøl, O., Lie, M., and Ohlson, M. 2005. Long-term vegetational history of a Picea abies stand in south-eastern Norway: implications for the conservation of biological values. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):155-165.

Morozov, A.Y., Nezlin, N.P., and Petrovskii, S.V. 2005. Invasion of a top predator into an epipelagic ecosystem can bring a paradoxical top-down trophic control. Biol. Invasions 7(5):845-861.

Morrison, J.L., and Chapman, W.C. 2005. Can urban parks provide habitat for woodpeckers? Northeastern Nat. 12(3):253-262.

Mouquet, N., Thomas, J.A., Elmes, G.W., Clarke, R.T., and Hochberg, M.E. 2005. Population dynamics and conservation of a specialized predator: a case study of Maculinea arion. Ecol. Monogr. 75(4):525-542.

Murphy, E.C. 2005. Biology and conservation of the American white pelican: current status and future challenges. Waterbirds 28:107-112.

Murphy, R.K., and Grant, T.A. 2005. Land management history and floristics in mixed-grass prairie, North Dakota, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):351-358.

Napier, V.R., Branch, G.M., and Harris, J.M. 2005. Evaluating conditions for successful co-managernent of subsistence fisheries in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):165-177.

Ninan, K.N., and Sathyapalan, J. 2005. The economics of biodiversity conservation: a study of a coffee growing region in the Western Ghats of India. Ecol. Econ. 55(1):61-72.

Noonburg, E.G., and Byers, J.E. 2005. More harm than good: when invader vulnerability to predators enhances impact on native species. Ecology 86(10):2555-2560.

Noss, A.J., Oetting, I., and Cuéllar, R. 2005. Hunter self-monitoring by the Isoseño-Guaraní in the Bolivian Chaco. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2679-2693.

O'Brien, S., Robert, B., and Tiandray, H. 2005. Hatch size, somatic growth rate and size-dependent survival in the endangered ploughshare tortoise. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):141-145.

Oertli, S., Müller, A., Steiner, D., Breitenstein, A., and Dorn, S. 2005. Cross-taxon congruence of species diversity and community similarity among three insect taxa in a mosaic landscape. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):195-205.

Ormsby, A., and Kaplin, B.A. 2005. A framework for understanding community resident perceptions of Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):156-164.

Ostlund, L., Keane, B., Arno, S., and Andersson, R. 2005. Culturally scarred trees in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA - interpreting Native American historical forest use in a wilderness area. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):315-325.

Paciencia, M.L.B., and Prado, J. 2005. Effects of forest fragmentation on pteridophyte diversity in a tropical rain forest in Brazil. Plant Ecol. 180(1):87-104.

Pala, C. 2005. Ban on beluga caviar points to sturgeon's worldwide decline. Science 310(5745):37.

Pedlowski, M.A., Matricardi, E.A.T., Skole, D., Cameron, S.R., Chomentowski, W., Fernandes, C., and Lisboa, A. 2005. Conservation units: a new deforestation frontier in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):149-155.

Penas, J., Perez-Garcia, F.J., and Mota, J.F. 2005. Patterns of endemic plants and biogeography of the Baetic High Mountains (south Spain). Acta Bot. Gallica 152(3):347-360.

Petrovskii, S.V., Malchow, H., Hilker, F.M., and Venturino, E. 2005. Patterns of patchy spread in deterministic and stochastic models of biological invasion and biological control. Biol. Invasions 7(5):771-793.

Planes, S., Galzin, R., Bablet, J.P., and Sale, P.F. 2005. Stability of coral reef fish assemblages impacted by nuclear tests. Ecology 86(10):2578-2585.

Pons, P., and Bas, J.M. 2005. Open-habitat birds in recently burned areas: the role of the fire extent and species' habitat breadth. Ardeola 52(1):119-131.

Porter, E.E., Bulluck, J., and Blair, R.B. 2005. Multiple spatial-scale assessment of the conservation value of golf courses for breeding birds southwestern Ohio. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):494-506.

Poulsen, M.K., and Luanglath, K. 2005. Projects come, projects go: lessons from participatory monitoring in southern Laos. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2591-2610.

Pryde, M.A., O'Donnell, C.F.J., and Barker, R.J. 2005. Factors influencing survival and long-term population viability of New Zealand long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus): implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):175-185.

Quader, S. 2005. Mate choice and its implications for conservation and management. Curr. Sci. 89(7):1220-1229.

Radford, J.Q., and Bennett, A.F. 2005. Terrestrial avifauna of the Gippsland Plain and Strzelecki Ranges, Victoria, Australia: insights from atlas data. Wildlife Res. 32(6):531-555.

Ramos, F.M. 2005. Internet forest-watchers a new force for conservation. Nature 437(7063):1232.

Ravenel, R.M., and Redford, K.H. 2005. Understanding IUCN protected area categories. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):381-389.

Rawat, G.S. 2005. Terrestrial vegetation and ecosystem coverage within Indian protected areas. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 28(7-8):241-250.

Reed, H.E., Seastedt, T.R., and Blair, J.M. 2005. Ecological consequences of C4 grass invasion of a C4 grassland: a dilemma for management. Ecol. Appl. 15(5):1560-1569.

Renner, S.C. 2005. The mountain guan (Penelopina nigra) in the Sierra Yalijux, Guatemala. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(3):419-426.

Roberts, R.L., Donald, P.F., and Fisher, I.J. 2005. Wordbirds: developing a web-based data collection system for the global monitoring of bird distribution and abundance. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2807-2820.

Rodewald, P.G., Santiago, M.J., and Rodewald, A.D. 2005. Habitat use of breeding red-headed woodpeckers on golf courses in Ohio. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(2):448-453.

Rosenberg, A.A., and McLeod, K.L. 2005. Implementing ecosystem-based approaches to management for the conservation of ecosystem services. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 300:270-274.

Rowley, J.J.L., Rayner, T.S., and Pyke, G.H. 2005. New records and invasive potential of the poeciliid fish Phalloceros caudimaculatus. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 39(5):1013-1022.

Russello, M.A., Glaberman, S., Gibbs, J.P., Marquez, C., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2005. A cryptic taxon of Galápagos tortoise in conservation peril. Biol. Lett. 1(3):287-290.

Sandercock, B.K., Martin, K., and Hannon, S.J. 2005. Demographic consequences of age-structure in extreme environments: population models for arctic and alpine ptarmigan. Oecologia 146(1):13-24.

Santiago-Valentin, E. 2005. Amos Arthur Heller's Puerto Rico plant collecting itineraries of 1900 and 1902-1903 and their utility for the historical study of endangered plants. Brittonia 57(3):292-294.

Sarasola, J.H., Bragagnolo, L.A., and Sosa, R.A. 2005. Changes in woody plant structure in fire-disturbed calden forest of the Parque Luro Reserve Argentina. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):374-380.

Sárospataki, M., Novák, J., and Molnár, V. 2005. Assessing the threatened status of bumble bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Hungary, Central Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2437-2446.

Savolainen, V., Cowan, R.S., Vogler, A.P., Roderick, G.K., and Lane, R. 2005. Towards writing the encyclopaedia of life: an introduction to DNA barcoding. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 360(1462):1805-1811.

Schumacher, J.D., and Kruse, G.H. 2005. Toward sustainable ecosystem services from the Aleutian Archipelago. Fish. Oceanogr. 14:277-291.

Sekura, L.S., Mal, T.K., and Dvorak, D.F. 2005. A long-term study of seedling regeneration for an oak forest restoration in Cleveland Metroparks Brecksville Reservation, Ohio. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2397-2418.

Seno, H., and Koshiba, S. 2005. A mathematical model for invasion range of population dispersion through a patchy environment. Biol. Invasions 7(5):757-770.

Serna, A.E., Lopez-Ferrari, A.R., Machorro, R.J., and Saldana, L.S. 2005. Orchids from coffee-plantations in Mexico: an alternative for the sustainable use of tropical ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2):73-84.

Short, J., and Turner, B. 2005. Control of feral cats for nature conservation. IV. Population dynamics and morphological attributes of feral cats at Shark Bay, Western Australia. Wildlife Res. 32(6):489-501.

Shuford, W.D. 2005. Historic and current status of the American white pelican breeding in California. Waterbirds 28:35-47.

Simpson, S.R., Gross, C.L., and Silberbauer, L.X. 2005. Broom and honeybees in Australia: an alien liaison. Plant Biol. 7(5):541-548.

Singh, M., and Kaumanns, W. 2005. Behavioural studies: a necessity for wildlife management. Curr. Sci. 89(7):1230-1236.

Sippola, A.L., Mönkkönen, M., and Renvall, P. 2005. Polypore diversity in the herb-rich woodland key habitats of Koli National Park in eastern Finland. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):260-269.

Six, D.L., de Beer, Z.W., Beaver, R.A., Visser, L., and Wingfield, M.J. 2005. Exotic invasive elm bark beetle, Scolytus kirschii, detected in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 101(5-6):229-232.

Smith, R.G.B., Nichols, J.D., and Vanclay, J.K. 2005. Dynamics of tree diversity in undisturbed and logged subtropical rainforest in Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2447-2463.

Stefanescu, C., Peñuelas, J., and Filella, I. 2005. Butterflies highlight the conservation value of hay meadows highly threatened by land-use changes in a protected Mediterranean area. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):234-246.

Stewart, G.B., Coles, C.F., and Pullin, A.S. 2005. Applying evidence-based practice in conservation management: lessons from the first systematic review and dissemination projects. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):270-278.

Stokstad, E. 2005. House revises Endangered Species Act. Science 310(5745):32.

Stoms, D.M., Davis, F.W., Andelman, S.J., Carr, M.H., Gaines, S.D., Halpern, B.S., Hoenicke, R., Leibowitz, S.G., Leydecker, A., Madin, E.M.P., Tallis, H., and Warner, R.R. 2005. Integrated coastal reserve planning: making the land-sea connection. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(8):429-436.

Streiff, R., Veyrier, R., Audiot, P., Meusnier, S., and Brouat, C. 2005. Introgression in natural populations of bioindicators: a case study of Carabus splendens and Carabus punctatoauratus. Mol. Ecol. 14(12):3775-3786.

Stuart-Hill, G., Diggle, R., Munali, B., Tagg, J., and Ward, D. 2005. The event book system: a community-based natural resource monitoring system from Namibia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2611-2631.

Swanson, C., Young, P.S., and Cech, J.J. 2005. Close encounters with a fish screen: integrating physiological and behavioral results to protect endangered species in exploited ecosystems. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 134(5):1111-1123.

Tear, T.H., Kareiva, P., Angermeier, P.L., Comer, P., Czech, B., Kautz, R., Landon, L., Mehlman, D., Murphy, K., Ruckelshaus, M., Scott, J.M., and Wilhere, G. 2005. How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservation. BioScience 55(10):835-849.

Topp-Jørgensen, E., Poulsen, M.K., Lund, J.F., and Massao, J.F. 2005. Community-based monitoring of natural resource use and forest quality in montane forests and Miombo woodlands of Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2653-2677.

Totland, Ø., Nyeko, P., Bjerknes, A.L., Hegland, S.J., and Nielsen, A. 2005. Does forest gap size affect population size, plant size, reproductive success and pollinator visitation in Lantana camara, a tropical invasive shrub? Forest Ecol. Manag. 215(1-3):329-338.

Townsend, W.R., Borman, R., Yiyoguaje, E., and Mendua, L. 2005. Cofan Indians' monitoring of freshwater turtles in Zabalo, Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2743-2755.

Tripathi, G., Ram, S., Sharma, B.M., and Singh, G. 2005. Soil faunal biodiversity and nutrient status in silvopastoral systems of Indian desert. Environ. Conserv. 32(2):178-188.

Türkmen, N., Aslan, M., and Düzenli, A. 2005. Floristic characteristics of the Karkamis Dam reservoir area and its surroundings (Gaziantep-Sanliurfa: Turkey). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2291-2297.

Ujvari, B., Madsen, T., and Olsson, M. 2005. Discrepancy in mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphism in meadow vipers (Vipera ursinii) questions the unambiguous use of mtDNA in conservation studies. Amphibia-Reptilia 26(3):287-292.

Upreti, D.K., Divakar, P.K., and Nayaka, S. 2005. Commercial and ethnic use of lichens in India. Econ. Bot. 59(3):269-273.

Uychiaoco, A.J., Arceo, H.O., Green, S.J., De la Cruz, M.T., Gaite, P.A., and Aliño, P.M. 2005. Monitoring and evaluation of reef protected areas by local fishers in the Philippines: tightening the adaptive management cycle. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2775-2794.

van der Heide, C.M., van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., and van Ierland, E.C. 2005. Extending Weitzman's economic ranking of biodiversity protection: combining ecological and genetic considerations. Ecol. Econ. 55(2):218-223.

van Gemerden, B.S., Etienne, R.S., Olff, H., Hommel, P.W.F.M., and van Langevelde, F. 2005. Reconciling methodologically different biodiversity assessments. Ecol. Appl. 15(5):1747-1760.

van Manen, F.T., Young, J.A., Thatcher, C.A., Cass, W.B., and Ulrey, C. 2005. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(4):339-350.

van Rijsoort, J., and Zhang, J.F. 2005. Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(11):2543-2573.

VanSpall, K., Steciw, J., and Young, J.A. 2005. Fifty years of American white pelican breeding at Stum Lake, British Columbia. Waterbirds 28:18-22.

Wald, E.J., Kronberg, S.L., Larson, G.E., and Johnson, W.C. 2005. Dispersal of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) seeds in the feces of wildlife. Am. Midl. Nat. 154(2):342-357.

Watters, G.T., Menker, T., and O'Dee, S.H. 2005. A comparison of terrestrial snail faunas between strip-mined land and relatively undisturbed land in Ohio, USA - an evaluation of recovery potential and changing faunal assemblages. Biol. Conserv. 126(2):166-174.

Watts, P.C., Kemp, S.J., Saccheri, I.J., and Thompson, D.J. 2005. Conservation implications of genetic variation between spatially and temporally distinct colonies of the endangered damselfly Coenagrion mercuriale. Ecol. Entomol. 30(5):541-547.

Widyatmoko, D., Burgman, M.A., Guhardja, E., Mogea, J.P., Walujo, E.B., and Setiadi, D. 2005. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra. Acta Oecol. 28(2):107-118.

Wilcove, D.S., and Master, L.L. 2005. How many endangered species are there in the United States? Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(8):414-420.

Wilke, A.L., Watts, B.D., Truitt, B.R., and Boettcher, R. 2005. Breeding season Status of the American oystercatcher in Virginia, USA. Waterbirds 28(3):308-315.

Williams, D.A., Overholt, W.A., Cuda, J.P., and Hughes, C.R. 2005. Chloroplast and microsatellite DNA diversities reveal the introduction history of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida. Mol. Ecol. 14(12):3643-3656.

Wilson, R.J., Gutierrez, D., Gutierrez, J., Martinez, D., Agudo, R., and Monserrat, V.J. 2005. Changes to the elevational limits and extent of species ranges associated with climate change. Ecol. Lett. 8(11):1138-1146.

Wintle, B.A., Elith, J., and Potts, J.M. 2005. Fauna habitat modelling and mapping: a review and case study in the Lower Hunter Central Coast region of NSW. Austral Ecol. 30(7):719-738.

Witt, A.M., Dettmers, J.M., and Caceres, C.E. 2005. Cercopagis pengoi in southwestern Lake Michigan in four years following invasion. J. Great Lakes Res. 31(3):245-252.

Wright, S.J. 2005. Tropical forests in a changing environment. TREE 20(10):553-560.

Xu, H.G., Zhu, G.Q., Wang, L.L., and Bao, H.S. 2005. Design of nature reserve system for red-crowned crane in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(10):2275-2289.

Zeng, Z.G., Song, Y.L., Li, J.S., Teng, L.W., Zhang, Q., and Guo, F. 2005. Distribution, status and conservation of Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi hainanus) in China. Folia Zoolog. 54(3):249-257.


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