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Department ofBotany

No. 254
February 2006

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In This Issue

New Bird Species Discovered in Sub-Himalayan

The National Zoo's John Rappole, along with scientists Swen Renner from the University of Goettingen, Germany, Nay Myo Shwe from the Myanmar Wildlife Division and Paul Sweet from the American Museum of Natural History, discovered a new species of scimitar-babbler (Family Timaliidae) during an expedition to sub-Himalayan Myanmar.

Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler (Jabouilleia naungmungensis). Credit: The Auk.

Sponsored by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Bird Division (Alexander Wetmore Fund), the Smithsonian Research Opportunities Fund, and the Myanmar Wildlife Division, members of the expedition trekked into the remote and roadless area along the Myanmar border with Tibet to the village of Naung Mung, where they established a base camp for inventorying the poorly-known bird species of the region during February of 2004.

The first specimen of the new species, a female, was captured in a mist net in temperate rainforest habitat on 6 February 2004. Two additional specimens, also females, were captured on 6 and 8 February, respectively. A description of the species appears in the October 2005 issue of The Auk, Journal of the America Ornithologists' Union, where the new bird is designated as the Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler (Jabouilleia naungmungensis) after the locality where it was captured. The only known relative of this new species is the Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Jabouilleia danjoui) from Vietnam and Laos.

This discovery further documents the region's remarkable biodiversity, and has powerful implications for the conservation value of the area, which is presently unprotected. "Within the past decade, scientists have discovered a new species of deer, a new monkey, and several new species of plants, amphibians, and reptiles in this region" says Rappole. "No other part of the world of which I am aware presents this combination of extraordinary richness and relative lack of scientific knowledge."

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Smithsonian Institution's North American Mammals <> is a rather dynamic and lively Web-based searchable database of the approximately 400 living mammals of North America. Much of the material on the site is based on The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals by Don E. Wilson and Sue Ruff. New visitors will definitely want to begin by perusing the "About the Site" area as it provides some basic information about how to best utilize the ways to search the database. In brief, the database may be searched by species, geographic location, conservation status, and family tree. For each mammal, visitors can view several renderings and photographs and also read a short scientific and narrative description. A particularly novel feature is that for many of the mammals visitors can listen to a sound clip of each in its natural habitat. Another feature that is quite helpful is that visitors can create their own printable field guides by merely clicking a box next to each mammal's scientific name, and then proceed to print these materials out as they wish.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2005.

In keeping with its interest in wildlife conservation, the World Wildlife Fund has created the WildFinder database <>, which allows users to find out where various species live around the world. The information in the database is based on WWF's 825 terrestrial ecoregions and currently includes information for four large taxa: birds, reptiles, mammals, and amphibians. The appeal of such a database is rather broad, and extends to groups such as teachers, conservationists, and the general public. Visitors can begin by searching by country, US ZIP code, or city. They can also use the various interactive tools (such as the pan or zoom features) to take a closer look at any given area. Users of the site's database can also search by species name and also view a map gallery that contains some pre-selected themes, such as the richness of mammal species or reptiles species as distributed across the world.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

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Maeda-Martinez, A.M., Obregón-Barboza, H., Prieto-Salazar, M.A., and García-Velazco, H. 2005. Two new fairy shrimp of the genus Streptocephalus (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from North America. J. Crustacean Biol. 25(4):537-546.

Maeda-Martinez, A.M., Rogers, D.C., and Worthington, R.D. 2005. First records of the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus moorei (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the United States. J. Crustacean Biol. 25(4):547-550.

Maerz, J.C., Blossey, B., and Nuzzo, V. 2005. Green frogs show reduced foraging success in habitats invaded by Japanese knotweed. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(12):2901-2911.

Maheu-Giroux, M., and de Blois, S. 2005. Mapping the invasive species Phragmites australis in linear wetland corridors. Aquat. Bot. 83(4):310-320.

Manton, M.G., Angelstam, P., and Mikusinski, G. 2005. Modelling habitat suitability for deciduous forest focal species - a sensitivity analysis using different satellite land cover data. Landscape Ecol. 20(7):827-839.

Manu, S., Peach, W., Bowden, C., and Cresswell, W. 2005. The effects of forest fragmentation on the population density and distribution of the globally endangered Ibadan malimbe Malimbus ibadanensis and other malimbe species. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(3):275-285.

Marage, D., Garraud, L., and Rameau, J.C. 2005. A basic and applied approach to evaluate natural heritage conservation and management: example based on wild flora heritage in the Petit-Buech watershed (Hautes-Alpes, France). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(3):193-209.

Marsden, S.J., Whiffin, M., Galetti, M., and Fielding, A.H. 2005. How well will Brazil's system of Atlantic forest reserves maintain viable bird populations? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(12):2835-2853.

Marsh, D.M., Milam, G.S., Gorham, N.R., and Beckman, N.G. 2005. Forest roads as partial barriers to terrestrial salamander movement. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):2004-2008.

Martin, R.A. 2005. Conservation of freshwater and euryhaline elasmobranchs: a review. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 85(5):1049-1073.

Mattison, E.H.A., and Norris, K. 2005. Bridging the gaps between agricultural policy, land-use and biodiversity. TREE 20(11):610-616.

Meffe, G.K. 2005. Conservation in context. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1685.

Mehlman, D.W., Mabey, S.E., Ewert, D.N., Duncan, C., Abel, B., Cimprich, D., Sutter, R.D., and Woodrey, M. 2005. Conserving stopover sites for forest-dwelling migratory landbirds. Auk 122(4):1281-1290.

Menetrey, N., Sager, L., Oertli, B., and Lachavanne, J.B. 2005. Looking for metrics to assess the trophic state of ponds. Macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Aquat. Conserv. 15(6):653-664.

Minteer, B.A., and Collins, J.P. 2005. Ecological ethics: building a new tool kit for ecologists and biodiversity managers. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1803-1812.

Morales, M.B., Bretagnolle, V., and Arroyo, B. 2005. Viability of the endangered little bustard Tetrax tetrax population of western France. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(13):3135-3150.

Moritz, R.F.A., Härtel, S., and Neumann, P. 2005. Global invasions of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the consequences for biodiversity. Ecoscience 12(3):289-301.

Moyes, A.B., Witter, M.S., and Gamon, J.A. 2005. Restoration of native perennials in a California annual grassland after prescribed spring burning and solarization. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):659-666.

Murphy, S.D. 2005. Concurrent management of an exotic species and initial restoration efforts in forests. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):584-593.

Muthusamy, J., Staines, H.J., Benson, E.E., Mansor, M., and Krishnapillay, B. 2005. Investigating the use of fractional replication and Taguchi techniques in cryopreservation: a case study using orthodox seeds of a tropical rainforest tree species. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(13):3169-3185.

Nagler, P.L., Hinojosa-Huerta, O., Glenn, E.P., Garcia-Hernandez, J., Romo, R., Curtis, C., Huete, A.R., and Nelson, S.G. 2005. Regeneration of native trees in the presence of invasive saltcedar in the Colorado River delta, Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1842-1852.

Nichols, R.K., Woolaver, L.G., and Jones, C.G. 2005. Low productivity in the critically endangered Mauritius olive white-eye Zosterops chloronothos. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(3):297-302.

Oertli, B., Biggs, J., Céréghino, R., Grillas, P., Joly, P., and Lachavanne, J.B. 2005. Conservation and monitoring of pond biodiversity: introduction. Aquat. Conserv. 15(6):535-540.

Oertli, B., Joye, D.A., Castella, E., Juge, R., Lehmann, A., and Lachavanne, J.B. 2005. PLOCH: a standardized method for sampling and assessing the biodiversity in ponds. Aquat. Conserv. 15(6):665-679.

Olden, J.D., Douglas, M.E., and Douglas, M.R. 2005. The human dimensions of biotic homogenization. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):2036-2038.

Orr, D.W. 2005. Between Heaven and Earth - evangelical engagement in conservation - a response. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1697-1698.

Page, H.N., and Bork, E.W. 2005. Effect of planting season, bunchgrass species, and neighbor control on the success of transplants for grassland restoration. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):651-658.

Pakeman, R.J., Small, J.L., Le Duc, M.G., and Marrs, R.H. 2005. Recovery of moorland vegetation after aerial spraying of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) with asulam. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):718-724.

Palmer, M.W. 2005. Temporal trends of exotic species richness in North American floras: an overview. Ecoscience 12(3):386-390.

Patil, J.G., Gunasekera, R.M., Deagle, B.E., Bax, N.J., and Blackburn, S.I. 2005. Development and evaluation of a PCR based assay for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham) in ballast water and environmental samples. Biol. Invasions 7(6):983-994.

Patla, S.M. 2005. Monitoring results of northern goshawk nesting areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: is decline in occupancy related to habitat change? J. Raptor Res. 39(3):324-334.

Pe'er, G., Saltz, D., and Frank, K. 2005. Virtual corridors for conservation management. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1997-2003.

Pearce, J.L., Venier, L.A., Eccles, G., Pedlar, J., and McKenney, D. 2005. Habitat islands, forest edge and spring-active invertebrate assemblages. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(12):2949-2969.

Pérez, H.E. 2005. What students can do to improve graduate education in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):2033-2035.

Perrin, M.R. 2005. A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape parrot Poicephalus robustus, with reference to the brown-necked parrot P. fusciollis fusciollis and the grey-headed parrot P. f. suahelicus. Ostrich 76(3-4):195-205.

Perry, L.G., Johnson, C., Alford, É.R., Vivanco, J.M., and Paschke, M.W. 2005. Screening of grassland plants for restoration after spotted knapweed invasion. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):725-735.

Price, S.J., Marks, D.R., Howe, R.W., Hanowski, J.M., and Niemi, G.J. 2005. The importance of spatial scale for conservation and assessment of anuran populations in coastal wetlands of the western Great Lakes, USA. Landscape Ecol. 20(4):441-454.

Puky, M., Reynolds, J.D., and Schad, P. 2005. Native and alien decapoda species in hungary: distribution, status, conservation importance. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:553-568.

Pullin, A.S., and Knight, T.M. 2005. Assessing conservation management's evidence base: a survey of management-plan compilers in the United Kingdom and Australia. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1989-1996.

Purdy, B.G., MacDonald, S.E., and Lieffers, V.J. 2005. Naturally saline boreal communities as models for reclamation of saline oil sand tailings. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):667-677.

Pyšek, P., and Hulme, P.E. 2005. Spatio-temporal dynamics of plant invasions: linking pattern to process. Ecoscience 12(3):302-315.

Rappole, J.H., Renner, S.C., Shwe, N.M., and Sweet, P.R. 2005. A new species of scimitar-babbler (Timaliidae: Jabouilleia) from the sub-Himalayan region of Myanmar. Auk 122(4):1064-1069.

Rayfield, B., Anand, M., and Laurence, S. 2005. Assessing simple versus complex restoration strategies for industrially disturbed forests. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):639-650.

Regan, T.J., Burgman, M.A., McCarthy, M.A., Master, L.L., Keith, D.A., Mace, G.M., and Andelman, S.J. 2005. The consistency of extinction risk classification protocols. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1969-1977.

Reid, N.B., and Naeth, M.A. 2005. Establishment of a vegetation cover on tundra kimberlite mine tailings: 1. A greenhouse study. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):594-601.

Reid, N.B., and Naeth, M.A. 2005. Establishment of a vegetation cover on tundra kimberlite mine tailings: 2. A field study. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):602-608.

Reynolds, J.D., and Puky, M. 2005. Roundtable Session 4 - The importance of public education for the effective conservation of European native crayfish. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:837-845.

Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M., Ralston, S.J., Cowling, R.M., Van Rensburg, B.J., and Thuiller, W. 2005. Species richness of alien plants in South Africa: environmental correlates and the relationship with indigenous plant species richness. Ecoscience 12(3):391-402.

Riley, S.P.D., Busteed, G.T., Kats, L.B., Vandergon, T.L., Lee, L.F.S., Dagit, R.G., Kerby, J.L., Fisher, R.N., and Sauvajot, R.M. 2005. Effects of urbanization on the distribution and abundance of amphibians and invasive species in southern California streams. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1894-1907.

Ruesink, J.L. 2005. Global analysis of factors affecting the outcome of freshwater fish introductions. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1883-1893.

Ruggiero, A., Solimini, A.G., and Carchini, G. 2005. The alternative stable state concept and the management of Apennine mountain ponds. Aquat. Conserv. 15(6):625-634.

Saarinen, K., and Jantunen, J. 2005. Grassland butterfly fauna under traditional animal husbandry: contrasts in diversity in mown meadows and grazed pastures. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(13):3201-3213.

Schmidt, A.L., and Scheibling, R.E. 2005. Population dynamics of an invasive green alga, Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides, in tidepools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia, Canada. Ecoscience 12(3):403-411.

Schmidt, B.R. 2005. Monitoring the distribution of pond-breeding amphibians when species are detected imperfectly. Aquat. Conserv. 15(6):681-692.

Schulte, L.A., Pidgeon, A.M., and Mladenoff, D.J. 2005. One hundred fifty years of change in forest bird breeding habitat: estimates of species distributions. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1944-1956.

Schulz, H.K., and Grandjean, F. 2005. Roundtable Session 3 - Phylogeny of European crayfish - improving the taxonomy of European crayfish for a better conservation. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:829-836.

Schumacher, B.D., and Parrish, J.D. 2005. Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs. Biol. Invasions 7(6):925-933.

Segarra-Moragues, J.G., Iriondo, J.M., and Catalán, P. 2005. Genetic fingerprinting of germplasm accessions as an aid for species conservation: a case study with Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae), one of the most critically endangered Iberian plants. Ann. Botany 96(7):1283-1292.

Sekercioglu, C.H., and Riley, A. 2005. A brief survey of the birds in Kumbira Forest, Gabela, Angola. Ostrich 76(3-4):111-117.

Simmons, M.T. 2005. Bullying the bullies: the selective control of an exotic, invasive annual (Rapistrum rugosum) by oversowing with a competitive native species (Gaillardia pulchella). Restor. Ecol. 13(4):609-615.

Simmons, R.E. 2005. Declining coastal avifauna at a diamond-mining site in Namibia: comparisons and causes. Ostrich 76(3-4):97-103.

Sleeman, J.C., Boggs, G.S., Radford, B.C., and Kendrick, G.A. 2005. Using agent-based models to aid reef restoration: enhancing coral cover and topographic complexity through the spatial arrangement of coral transplants. Restor. Ecol. 13(4):685-694.

Song, Z.P., Li, B., Chen, J.K., and Lu, B.R. 2005. Genetic diversity and conservation of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) in China. Plant Species Biol. 20(2):83-92.

Souty-Grosset, C. 2005. Introduction: the EU-network craynet-impacts on fundamental questions. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:495-503.

Souty-Grosset, C., Schulz, R., and Madec, J. 2005. Roundtable 1 - Crayfish protection programmes in Europe. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:797-807.

Staples, D.F., Taper, M.L., and Shepard, B.B. 2005. Risk-based viable population monitoring. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1908-1916.

Steinitz, O., Heller, J., Tsoar, A., Rotem, D., and Kadmon, R. 2005. Predicting regional patterns of similarity in species composition for conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1978-1988.

Stewart, B.S., and Wilson, S.G. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Rhincodon typus (Smith 1828) (Rhincodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 74(2):184-185.

Strasberg, D., Rouget, M., Richardson, D.M., Baret, S., Dupont, J., and Cowling, R.M. 2005. An assessment of habitat diversity and transformation on La Réunion Island (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean) as a basis for identifying broad-scale conservation priorities. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(12):3015-3032.

Stuart, S.N., Archibald, G.W., Berry, R.J., Emmerich, S.D., Evans, D.M., Flenley, J.R., Gaston, K.J., Given, D.R., Gosler, A.G., Harris, P., Houghton, J., Lindquist, E.D., Mahan, D.C., Morecroft, M.D., Moyer, D.C., Murdiyarso, D., Musiti, B.W.W., Nicolson, C., Oteng-Yeboah, A., Plumptre, A.J., Prance, G., Ramachandra, V., Sale, J.B., Sheldon, J.K., Simiyu, S., Underhill, L.G., Vickery, J., and Whitten, T. 2005. Conservation theology for conservation biologists - a reply to David Orr. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1689-1692.

Svancara, L.K., Brannon, R., Scott, J.M., Groves, C.R., Noss, R.F., and Pressey, R.L. 2005. Policy-driven versus evidence-based conservation: a review of political targets and biological needs. BioScience 55(11):989-995.

Svensson, M., Johansson, P., and Thor, G. 2005. Lichens of wooden barns and Pinus sylvestris snags in Dalarna, Sweden. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 42(5):351-363.

Tabacchi, E., and Planty-Tabacchi, A.M. 2005. Exotic and native plant community distributions within complex riparian landscapes: a positive correlation. Ecoscience 12(3):412-423.

Takagawa, S., Nishihiro, J., and Washitani, I. 2005. Safe sites for establishment of Nymphoides peltata seedlings for recovering the population from the soil seed bank. Ecol. Res. 20(6):661-667.

Tognelli, M.F., Silva-García, C., Labra, F.A., and Marquet, P.A. 2005. Priority areas for the conservation of coastal marine vertebrates in Chile. Biol. Conserv. 126(3):420-428.

Torchin, M.E., Byers, J.E., and Huspeni, T.C. 2005. Differential parasitism of native and introduced snails: replacement of a parasite fauna. Biol. Invasions 7(6):885-894.

Valdez-Moreno, M.E., Pool-Canul, J., and Contreras-Balderas, S. 2005. A checklist of the freshwater ichthyofauna from El Petén and Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, with notes for its conservation and management. Zootaxa 1072:43-60.

Van Dyke, F. 2005. Between Heaven and Earth - evangelical engagement in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1693-1696.

Vanden Broeck, A., Villar, M., Van Bockstaele, E., and Van Slycken, J. 2005. Natural hybridization between cultivated poplars and their wild relatives: evidence and consequences for native poplar populations. Ann. Forest Sci. 62(7):601-613.

Vellak, K., and Ingerpuu, N. 2005. Management effects on bryophytes in Estonian forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(13):3255-3263.

Waltert, M., Mardiastuti, A., and Muhlenberg, M. 2005. Effects of deforestation and forest modification on understorey birds in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(3):257-273.

Wang, G.H. 2005. The western Ordos plateau as a biodiversity center of relic shrubs in arid areas of China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(13):3187-3200.

Washitani, I., Ishihama, F., Matsumura, C., Nagai, M., Nishihiro, J., and Nishihiro, M.A. 2005. Conservation ecology of Primula sieboldii: synthesis of information toward the prediction of the genetic/demographic fate of a population. Plant Species Biol. 20(1):3-15.

Wasson, K., Fenn, K., and Pearse, J.S. 2005. Habitat differences in marine invasions of central California. Biol. Invasions 7(6):935-948.

Wei, X., Wei, J.Q., Cao, H.L., Li, F., and Ye, W.H. 2005. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Camellia euphlebia (Theaceae) in Guangxi, China. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 42(5):365-370.

Weiss, S. 2005. Keynote address: conservation genetics of freshwater organisms. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:571-583.

Willi, J.C., Mountford, J.O., and Sparks, T.H. 2005. The modification of ancient woodland ground flora at arable edges. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(13):3215-3233.

Williams, V.L., Witkowski, E.T.F., and Balkwill, K. 2005. Application of diversity indices to appraise plant availability in the traditional medicinal markets of Johannesburg, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(12):2971-3001.

Williamson, M., Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., and Prach, K. 2005. On the rates and patterns of spread of alien plants in the Czech Republic, Britain, and Ireland. Ecoscience 12(3):424-433.

Wilsey, B.J., Martin, L.M., and Polley, H.W. 2005. Predicting plant extinction based on species-area curves in prairie fragments with high beta richness. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1835-1841.

Wilson, C., and Tisdell, C. 2005. Knowledge of birds and willingness to support their conservation: an Australian case study. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(3):225-235.

Winter, S.J., Esler, K.J., and Kidd, M. 2005. An index to measure the conservation attitudes of landowners towards Overberg Coastal Renosterveld, a critically endangered vegetation type in the Cape Floral Kingdom, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 126(3):383-394.

Wintle, B.A., Bekessy, S.A., Venier, L.A., Pearce, J.L., and Chisholm, R.A. 2005. Utility of dynamic-landscape metapopulation models for sustainable forest management. Conserv. Biol. 19(6):1930-1943.

Wootton, L.S., Halsey, S.D., Bevaart, K., McGough, A., Ondreicka, J., and Patel, P. 2005. When invasive species have benefits as well as costs: managing Carex kobomugi (Asiatic sand sedge) in New Jersey's coastal dunes. Biol. Invasions 7(6):1017-1027.

Zhu, H., Shi, J.P., and Zhao, C.J. 2005. Species composition, physiognomy and plant diversity of the tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Yunnan. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(12):2855-2870.

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