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Department ofBotany

No. 255
March 2006

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In This Issue

Expedition Discovers Marine Treasures

An underwater mountain that forms the world's third-largest atoll has some of the richest diversity of marine life ever found in the Caribbean, according to scientists who recently explored the area. The two-week expedition in January encountered new species of fish, seaweed and other ocean life at little-studied Saba Bank Atoll, a coral-crowned seamount 250 kilometers southeast of Puerto Rico in the Dutch Windward Islands.

Smithsonian scientists Barrett Brooks and Mark Littler encounter a giant barrel sponge (Xestospongia muta) in Saba Bank Atoll

In a series of dives buffeted by high winds and strong currents, scientists from Conservation International (CI), the Netherlands Antilles government and Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History found scores more fish species than previously known in the region and vast beds of diverse seaweed, including a dozen or more possible new species.

"We discovered a new species literally every day we were there," said Michael Smith, director of CI's Caribbean Biodiversity Initiative. Among the apparent new fish species found were two types of goby, while the total number of fish species recorded reached 200, compared to fewer than 35 before the expedition.

The unprecedented richness of marine life and vulnerable status of the atoll's coral beds make Saba Bank a prime candidate for designation as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Mark Littler, marine botanist of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, declared Saba Bank the richest area for seaweeds in the Caribbean basin, including as many as a dozen new species along with commercially valuable species that will facilitate the creation of economic activity zones under PSSA designation.

Paul Hoetjes, marine biologist with the Ministry of Nature Affairs for the Netherlands Antilles (MINA), called the expedition crucial to getting the area protected to benefit local populations. "The community of about 1,500 people on nearby Saba Island derives a large part of its economy from the atoll, and the atoll is being damaged," Hoetjes said.

A petroleum trans-shipment depot on neighboring St. Eustatius Island causes significant marine traffic, including oil supertankers in the area around the submerged atoll. The fragile ecosystems of Saba Bank get damaged by anchors and chains of ships that wait at the atoll to avoid anchoring fees in territorial waters of St. Eustatius. The large ships also endanger local fishermen of Saba in their small boats, forcing them away from traditional fishing grounds and causing the loss of fish pots that become so-called "ghost traps" that harm fish stocks.

Leroy Peterson, a Saba fisherman, called the expedition crucial for protecting Saba Bank's unique marine life. "Some of the scientists actually found new species not located anywhere else," Peterson said. "There should be no-anchor zones. For things to survive there must be stricter controls."

- from Conservation International


The Denver Botanic Gardens and the United States Botanic Gardens are pleased to announce the second annual International Applied Plant Conservation (APC) internship. In this highly competitive internship, participants will interact with leaders in the field of applied plant conservation while attending a two-week intensive seminar in plant conservation techniques and program development in June 2006 at Denver Botanic Gardens, followed by a seven-week internship with an independent research project component. Participants will work with Denver Botanic Gardens conservation and research staff to gain extensive hands-on experience in plant conservation research and application. Potential foci include rare plant monitoring, noxious week control, ex-situ plant conservation, and habitat restoration methods. For application materials and more information, visit <> or contact Carol Winther, Program Coordinator, at (303) 370-8087 or

Current Literature

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Glennon, M.J., and Porter, W.F. 2005. Effects of land use management on biotic integrity: an investigation of bird communities. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):499-511.

González-Ruíz, N., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., and Álvarez, T. 2005. Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation status of the Perote mouse Peromyscus bullatus (Rodentia: Muridae) in México. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3423-3436.

Goodrich, J.M., and Miquelle, D.G. 2005. Translocation of problem Amur tigers Panthera tigris altaica to alleviate tiger-human conflicts. Oryx 39(4):454-457.

Gorog, A.J., Pamungkas, B., and Lee, R.J. 2005. Nesting ground abandonment by the maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) in North Sulawesi: identifying conservation priorities for Indonesia's endemic megapode. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):548-555.

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Gray, A., Pelembe, T., and Stroud, S. 2005. The conservation of the endemic vascular flora of Ascension Island and threats from alien species. Oryx 39(4):449-453.

Grey, M., Blais, A.M., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Magnitude and trends of marine fish curio imports to the USA. Oryx 39(4):413-420.

Groenendijk, J.P., Duivenvoorden, J.F., Rietman, N., and Cleef, A.M. 2005. Successional position of dry Andean dwarf forest species as a basis for restoration trials. Plant Ecol. 181(2):243-253.

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Hagan, J.M., Irland, L.C., and Whitman, A.A. 2005. Changing timberland ownership in the Northern Forest and implications for biodiversity. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Report # MCCS-FCP-2005-1, Brunswick, Maine, 25 p.

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Hatakeyama, M., Watanabe, T., Ikeda, M., Nakajima, M., Kawamula, H., and Taniguchi, N. 2005. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci for endangered fish, Japanese huchen (Hucho perryi). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(4):893-895.

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Irvine, J.R., Gross, M.R., Wood, C.C., Holtby, L.B., Schubert, N.D., and Amiro, P.G. 2005. Canada's Species at Risk Act: an opportunity to protect "endangered" salmon. Fisheries 30(12):11-19.

Jenkins, M.A., and Sherrod, S.K. 2005. Growth and recovery of the bald eagle population in Oklahoma. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(3):810-813.

Jensen, A.B., Palmer, K.A., Chaline, N., Raine, N.E., Tofilski, A., Martin, S.J., Pedersen, B.V., Boomsma, J.J., and Ratnieks, F.L.W. 2005. Quantifying honey bee mating range and isolation in semi-isolated valleys by DNA microsatellite paternity analysis. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):527-537.

Jensen, L.F., Hansen, M.M., Carlsson, J., Loeschcke, V., and Mensberg, K.L.D. 2005. Spatial and temporal genetic differentiation and effective population size of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in small Danish rivers. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):615-621.

Jepson, P., and Ladle, R.J. 2005. Bird-keeping in Indonesia: conservation impacts and the potential for substitution-based conservation responses. Oryx 39(4):442-448.

Kikuchi, S., Suzuki, W., Ban, N., Kanazashi, A., and Yoshimaru, H. 2005. Characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites in endangered willow Salix hukaoana. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(4):869-870.

Koivula, M.J., Kotze, D.J., and Salokannel, J. 2005. Beetles (Coleoptera) in central reservations of three highway roads around the city of Helsinki, Finland. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 42(6):615-626.

Konvicka, M., Cízek, O., Filipová, L., Fric, Z., Benes, J., Krupka, M., Zámecník, J., and Dockalová, Z. 2005. For whom the bells toll: demography of the last population of the butterfly Euphydryas maturna in the Czech Republic. Biologia 60(5):551-557.

Koprowski, J.L., Alanen, M.I., and Lynch, A.M. 2005. Nowhere to run and nowhere to hide: response of endemic Mt. Graham red squirrels to catastrophic forest damage. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):491-498.

Kozlowski, G., and Eggenberg, S. 2005. Distribution of the least water-lily (Nuphar pumila) and the hybrid N. x intermedia in Switzerland. Bot. Helvetica 115(2):125-136.

Ladd, D., and Cappuccino, N. 2005. A field study of seed dispersal and seedling performance in the invasive exotic vine Vincetoxicum rossicum. Can. J. Bot. 83(9):1181-1188.

Laffaille, P., Petillon, J., Parlier, E., Valery, L., Ysnel, F., Radureau, A., Feunteun, E., and Lefeuvre, J.C. 2005. Does the invasive plant Elymus athericus modify fish diet in tidal salt marshes? Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 65(4):739-746.

Lagueux, C.J., and Campbell, C.L. 2005. Marine turtle nesting and conservation needs on the south-east coast of Nicaragua. Oryx 39(4):398-405.

Lal, S., Tuvou, L., Prasad, S., Gravelle, G., Cagitoba, A., Farley, L., and Olson, D. 2005. Fiji's Xixuthrus longhorn beetles Vulnerable, not extinct. Oryx 39(4):371-372.

Larsen, H.O., Smith, P.D., and Olsen, C.S. 2005. Nepal's conservation policy options for commercial medicinal plant harvesting: stakeholder views. Oryx 39(4):435-441.

Lau, J.A., and Strauss, S.Y. 2005. Insect herbivores drive important indirect effects of exotic plants on native communities. Ecology 86(11):2990-2997.

Leao, Z.M.A.N., and Kikuchi, R.K.P. 2005. A relic coral fauna threatened by global changes and human activities, Eastern Brazil. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 51(5-7):599-611.

Lessard, R.B., Martell, S.J.D., Walters, C.J., Essington, T.E., and Kitchell, J.F. 2005. Should ecosystem management involve active control of species abundances? Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(2):1.

Lester, P.J., and Keall, J.B. 2005. The apparent establishment and subsequent eradication of the Australian giant bulldog ant Myrmecia brevinoda Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 32(4):353-357.

Leveau, C.M., and Leveau, L.M. 2005. Avian community response to urbanization in the Pampean region, Argentina. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 16(4):503-510.

Liu, B., Xu, C.G., Yan, F.M., and Gong, R.Z. 2005. The impacts of the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic cotton on honeybees. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3487-3496.

Loew, S.S., Williams, D.F., Ralls, K., Pilgrim, K., and Fleischer, R.C. 2005. Population structure and genetic variation in the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). Conserv. Genet. 6(4):495-510.

Lund, H.G., and Singh, A. 2005. Reining in on rainforest destruction. The New Renaissance 37(XII No. 2):14-28.

MacDougall, A.S. 2005. Responses of diversity and invasibility to burning in a northern oak savanna. Ecology 86(12):3354-3363.

Manning, P., Putwain, P.D., and Webb, N.R. 2005. Formulating a general statistical model for Betula spp. invasion of lowland heath ecosystems. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(6):1031-1041.

Manzelli, M., Benedettelli, S., and Vecchio, V. 2005. Agricultural biodiversity in Northwest Somalia - an assessment among selected Somali sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) germplasm. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3381-3392.

Martin, E., and Vigne, L. 2005. Soaring sales of ivory items in Sudan. Oryx 39(4):371.

Martínez-Ballesté, A., Martorell, C., Martínez-Ramos, M., and Caballero, J. 2005. Applying retrospective demographic models to assess sustainable use: the Maya management of xa'an palms. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(2):17.

McDougall, K.L., Morgan, J.W., Walsh, N.G., and Williams, R.J. 2005. Plant invasions in treeless vegetation of the Australian Alps. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 7(3):159-171.

Measey, G.J., and Royero, R. 2005. An examination of Pipa parva (Anura: Pipidae) from native and invasive populations in Venezuela. Herp. J. 15(4):291-294.

Mendonça, F.P., Magnusson, W.E., and Zuanon, J. 2005. Relationships between habitat characteristics and fish assemblages in small streams of central Amazonia. Copeia 2005(4):751-764.

Mijnsbrugge, K.V., Cox, K., and Van Slycken, J. 2005. Conservation approaches for autochthonous woody plants in Flanders. Silvae Genet. 54(4-5):197-206.

Montesinos, D., García-Fayos, P., and Mateu, I. 2006. Conflicting selective forces underlying seed dispersal in the endangered plant Silene diclinis. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167(1):103-110.

Mouquet, N., Belrose, V., Thomas, J.A., Elmes, G.W., Clarke, R.T., and Hochberg, M.E. 2005. Conserving community modules: a case study of the endangered lycaenid butterfly Maculinea alcon. Ecology 86(12):3160-3173.

Müllerová, J., Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., and Pergl, J. 2005. Aerial photographs as a tool for assessing the regional dynamics of the invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(6):1042-1053.

Muñoz, A.R., Real, R., Barbosa, A.M., and Vargas, J.M. 2005. Modelling the distribution of Bonelli's eagle in Spain: implications for conservation planning. Divers. Distrib. 11(6):477-486.

Naito, Y., Konuma, A., Iwata, H., Suyama, Y., Seiwa, K., Okuda, T., Lee, S.L., Muhammad, N., and Tsumura, Y. 2005. Selfing and inbreeding depression in seeds and seedlings of Neobalanocarpus heimii (Dipterocarpaceae). J. Plant Res. 118(6):423-430.

Nalle, D.J., and Arthur, J.L. 2005. A comparison of fixed-site and non-fixed-site approaches for species protection. Environ. Model Assess. 10(3):229-238.

Noel, F., Boisselier-Dubayle, M.C., Lambourdiere, J., Machon, N., Moret, J., and Samadi, S. 2005. Characterization of seven polymorphic microsatellites for the study of two Ranunculaceae: Ranunculus nodiflorus L., a rare endangered species and Ranunculus flammula L., a common closely related species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5(4):827-829.

Noel, F., Porcher, E., Moret, J., and Machon, N. 2006. Connectivity, habitat heterogeneity, and population persistence in Ranunculus nodiflorus, an endangered species in France. New Phytol. 169(1):71-83.

Ogden, J.C., Davis, S.M., Jacobs, K.J., Barnes, T., and Fling, H.E. 2005. The use of conceptual ecological models to guide ecosystem restoration in South Florida. Wetlands 25(4):795-809.

Ogden, R., Shuttleworth, C., McEwing, R., and Cesarini, S. 2005. Genetic management of the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris: a practical approach to regional conservation. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):511-525.

Ohtani, M., Terauchi, H., Nishihiro, J., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2005. Population and genetic status of Primula kisoana var. kisoana, a local endemic of the northern Kanto region, Japan. Plant Species Biol. 20(3):209-218.

Önal, H., and Briers, R.A. 2005. Designing a conservation reserve network with minimal fragmentation: a linear integer programming approach. Environ. Model Assess. 10(3):193-202.

Oppel, S. 2005. Long-term changes of a coastal bird breeding community on a small island - does natural succession compromise conservation values? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3407-3422.

Orr, S.P., Rudgers, J.A., and Clay, K. 2005. Invasive plants can inhibit native tree seedlings: testing potential allelopathic mechanisms. Plant Ecol. 181(2):153-165.

Orrock, J.L. 2005. Conservation corridors affect the fixation of novel alleles. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):623-630.

Parks, C.G., Radosevich, S.R., Endress, B.A., Naylor, B.J., Anzinger, D., Rew, L.J., Maxwell, B.D., and Dwire, K.A. 2005. Natural and land-use history of the Northwest mountain ecoregions (USA) in relation to patterns of plant invasions. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 7(3):137-158.

Pernetta, A.P., Bell, D.J., and Jones, C.G. 2005. Macro- and microhabitat use of Telfair's skink (Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius: implications for their translocation. Acta Oecol. 28(3):313-323.

Pétillon, J., Ysnel, F., Lefeuvre, J.C., and Canard, A. 2005. Are salt marsh invasions by the grass Elymus athericus a threat for two dominant halophilic wolf spiders? J. Archnol. 33(2):236-242.

Pottie, S.A., Lane, D.J.W., Kingston, T., and Lee, B.P.Y.H. 2005. The microchiropteran bat fauna of Singapore. Acta Chiropterol. 7(2):237-247.

Preatoni, D., Mustoni, A., Martinoli, A., Carlini, E., Chiarenzi, B., Chiozzini, S., Van Dongen, S., Wauters, L.A., and Tosi, G. 2005. Conservation of brown bear in the Alps: space use and settlement behavior of reintroduced bears. Acta Oecol. 28(3):189-197.

Prober, S.M., Thiele, K.R., Lunt, I.D., and Koen, T.B. 2005. Restoring ecological function in temperate grassy woodlands: manipulating soil nutrients, exotic annuals and native perennial grasses through carbon supplements and spring burns. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(6):1073-1085.

Puky, M., Reynolds, J.D., and Schad, P. 2005. Native and alien decapoda species in hungary: distribution, status, conservation importance. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:553-568.

Quintero, I., and Roslin, T. 2005. Rapid recovery of dung beetle communities following habitat fragmentation in Central Amazonia. Ecology 86(12):3303-3311.

Rabet, N., Cart, J.F., Montero, D., and Boulekbache, H. 2005. First record of Lynceus brachyurus Muller, 1776 (Branchiopoda, Laevicaudata, Lynceidae) in France. Crustaceana 78:931-940.

Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D., and Croft, D.B. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the Snowy Mountain Highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):474-490.

Reynolds, J.D., and Puky, M. 2005. Roundtable Session 4 - The importance of public education for the effective conservation of European native crayfish. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:837-845.

Rinkevich, B. 2005. What do we know about Eilat (Red Sea) reef degradation? A critical examination of the published literature. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 327(2):183-200.

Rosell, F., Bozser, O., Collen, P., and Parker, H. 2005. Ecological impact of beavers Castor fiber and Castor canadensis and their ability to modify ecosystems. Mammal Rev. 35(3-4):248-276.

Russello, M.A., Lin, K., Amato, G., and Caccone, A. 2005. Additional microsatellite loci for the endangered St. Vincent parrot, Amazona guildingii. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):643-645.

Rylands, A.B., and Brandon, K. 2005. Brazilian Amazon - The race is on. Oryx 39(4):359-360.

Sánchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel, P., Linaje, M., Sarkar, S., and Peterson, A.T. 2005. Deforestation and extant distributions of Mexican endemic mammals. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):465-473.

Sawchik, J., Dufrene, M., and Lebrun, P. 2005. Distribution patterns and indicator species of butterfly assemblages of wet meadows in southern Belgium. Belgian J. Zool. 135(1):43-52.

Schtickzelle, N., Choutt, J., Goffart, P., Fichefet, V., and Baguette, M. 2005. Metapopulation dynamics and conservation of the marsh fritillary butterfly: population viability analysis and management options for a critically endangered species in Western Europe. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):569-581.

Schulz, H.K., and Grandjean, F. 2005. Roundtable Session 3 - Phylogeny of European crayfish - improving the taxonomy of European crayfish for a better conservation. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:829-836.

Scott-Morales, L.M., Gottschalk, E., and Mühlenberg, M. 2005. Decline in the endemic Mexican prairie dog Cynomys mexicanus: what do we know about extinction risk? Oryx 39(4):389-397.

Shepard, B.B., May, B.E., and Urie, W. 2005. Status and conservation of westslope cutthroat trout within the western United States. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 25(4):1426-1440.

Silva, M., Hartling, L., and Opps, S.B. 2005. Small mammals in agricultural landscapes of Prince Edward Island (Canada): effects of habitat characteristics at three different spatial scales. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):556-568.

Simpson, D.A., Muasya, A.M., Chayamarit, K., Parnell, J.A.N., Suddee, S., Wilde, B.D.E., Jones, M.B., Bruhl, J.J., and Pooma, R. 2005. Khaosokia caricoides, a new genus and species of Cyperaceae from Thailand. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 149(3):357-364.

Sinclair, L., McCartney, J., Godfrey, J., Pledger, S., Wakelin, M., and Sherley, G. 2005. How did invertebrates respond to eradication of rats from Kapiti Island, New Zealand? New Zeal. J. Zool. 32(4):293-315.

Sinha, A., and Brault, S. 2005. Assessing sustainability of nontimber forest product extractions: how fire affects sustainability. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3537-3563.

Smith, D.A., Ralls, K., Cypher, B.L., and Maldonado, J.E. 2005. Assessment of scat-detection dog surveys to determine kit fox distribution. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(3):897-904.

Smith, S.D.A. 2005. Rapid assessment of invertebrate biodiversity on rocky shores: where there's a whelk there's a way. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3565-3576.

Souty-Grosset, C. 2005. Introduction: the EU-network craynet-impacts on fundamental questions. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:495-503.

Souty-Grosset, C., Schulz, R., and Madec, J. 2005. Roundtable 1 - Crayfish protection programmes in Europe. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:797-807.

Sporek, M., and Rombel-Bryzek, A. 2005. Wetland restoration enhances the development of protected species (Iris siberica L.) - a case study. Pol. J. Ecol. 53(4):591-595.

Steffens, K.E., Seddon, P.J., Mathieu, R., and Jamieson, I.G. 2005. Habitat selection by South Island saddlebacks and Stewart Island robins reintroduced to Ulva Island. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(2):221-229.

Stewart, R.R., and Possingham, H.P. 2005. Efficiency, costs and trade-offs in marine reserve system design. Environ. Model Assess. 10(3):203-213.

Stohlgren, T.J., Crosier, C., Chong, G.W., Guenther, D., and Evangelista, P. 2005. Life-history habitat matching in invading non-native plant species. Plant Soil 277(1-2):7-18.

Stoskopf, M.K., Beck, K., Fazio, B.B., Fuller, T.K., Gese, E.M., Kelly, B.T., Knowlton, F.F., Murray, D.L., Waddell, W., and Waits, L. 2005. From the field: implementing recovery of the red wolf - integrating research scientists and managers. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(3):1145-1152.

Summerville, K.S., and Crist, T.O. 2005. Temporal patterns of species accumulation in a survey of Lepidoptera in a beech-maple forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3393-3406.

Takamura, K., and Mori, S. 2005. Heterozygosity and phylogenetic relationship of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations revealed by microsatellite analysis. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):485-494.

Thuiller, W., Richardson, D.M., Pyšek, P., Midgley, G.F., Hughes, G.O., and Rouget, M. 2005. Niche-based modelling as a tool for predicting the risk of alien plant invasions at a global scale. Global Change Biol. 11(12):2234-2250.

Tobin, P.C., and Whitmire, S.L. 2005. Spread of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and its relationship to defoliation. Environ. Entomol. 34(6):1448-1455.

Ueno, S., Setsuko, S., Kawahara, T., and Yoshimaru, H. 2005. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the endangered Japanese endemic tree Magnolia stellata using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):563-574.

Ulrich, W. 2005. Predicting species numbers using species-area and endemics-area relations. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3351-3362.

Urfi, A.J., Sen, M., Kalam, A., and Meganathan, T. 2005. Counting birds in India: methodologies and trends. Curr. Sci. 89(12):1997-2003.

Veddeler, D., Schulze, C.H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Buchori, D., and Tscharntke, T. 2005. The contribution of tropical secondary forest fragments to the conservation of fruit-feeding butterflies: effects of isolation and age. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3577-3592.

Virgós, E., and Travaini, A. 2005. Relationship between small-game hunting and carnivore diversity in central Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3475-3486.

Vittor, A.Y., Gilman, R.H., Tielsch, J., Glass, G.E., Shields, T.M., Sánchez-Lozano, W., Pinedo-Cancino, V., and Patz, J.A. 2006. The effects of deforestation on the human-biting rate of Anopheles darlingi, the primary vector of falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 74(1):3-11.

Von Holle, B., and Simberloff, D. 2005. Ecological resistance to biological invasion overwhelmed by propagule pressure. Ecology 86(12):3212-3218.

von Konrat, M.J., and Braggins, J.E. 2005. Frullania wairua, a new and seemingly rare liverwort species from Northland, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 43(4):885-893.

Wahbe, T.R., Ritland, C., Bunnell, F.L., and Ritland, K. 2005. Population genetic structure of tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei) in clearcut and old-growth stream habitats in south coastal British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 83(11):1460-1468.

Walker, M.P., Dover, J.W., Hinsley, S.A., and Sparks, T.H. 2005. Birds and green lanes: breeding season bird abundance, territories and species richness. Biol. Conserv. 126(4):540-547.

Wang, Y.Q., Williams, D.A., and Gaines, M.S. 2005. Evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck in the endangered Florida Keys silver rice rat (Oryzomys argentatus) revealed by microsatellite DNA analyses. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):575-585.

Ward, D.F., and Harris, R.J. 2005. Invasibility of native habitats by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29(2):215-219.

Webb, J.K., Shine, R., and Pringle, R.M. 2005. Canopy removal restores habitat quality for an endangered snake in a fire suppressed landscape. Copeia 2005(4):894-900.

Weiss, S. 2005. Keynote address: conservation genetics of freshwater organisms. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 376-377:571-583.

Weston, L.A., Barney, J.N., and DiTommaso, A. 2005. A review of the biology and ecology of three invasive perennials in New York State: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum). Plant Soil 277(1-2):53-69.

Weyandt, S.E., Van den Bussche, R.A., Hamilton, M.J., and Leslie, D.M. 2005. Unraveling the effects of sex and dispersal: Ozark big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii ingens) conservation genetics. J. Mammal. 86(6):1136-1143.

Whittaker, D.J. 2005. New population estimates for the endemic Kloss's gibbon Hylobates klossii on the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. Oryx 39(4):458-461.

Williams, J.C., ReVelle, C.S., and Levin, S.A. 2005. Spatial attributes and reserve design models: a review. Environ. Model Assess. 10(3):163-181.

Williams, J.C., ReVelle, C.S., and Levin, S.A. 2005. Special issue on eco-informatics: modeling biological conservation decisions - introduction to the special issue. Environ. Model Assess. 10(3):161-162.

Williams, J.C., and Snyder, S.A. 2005. Restoring habitat corridors in fragmented landscapes using optimization and percolation models. Environ. Model Assess. 10(3):239-250.

Williamson-Natesan, E.G. 2005. Comparison of methods for detecting bottlenecks from microsatellite loci. Conserv. Genet. 6(4):551-562.

Xu, J.C., Ma, E.T., Tashi, D., Fu, Y.S., Lu, Z., and Melick, D. 2005. Integrating sacred knowledge for conservation: cultures and landscapes in southwest China. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 10(2):7.

Xu, M.X., Wang, P., Wang, F.P., and Xiao, X. 2005. Microbial diversity at a deep-sea station of the Pacific nodule province. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3363-3380.

Zenetos, A., Koutsoubas, D., and Vardala-Theodorou, E. 2005. Origin and vectors of introduction of exotic molluscs in Greek waters. Belgian J. Zool. 135(2):279-286.

Zhou, Z.H., and Jiang, Z.G. 2005. Identifying snake species threatened by economic exploitation and international trade in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(14):3525-3536.

Zimmerman, T.G., and Reichard, S.H. 2005. Factors affecting persistence of Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow: an exploratory look at a rare endemic. Northwest Sci. 79(2-3):172-178.

Zimmermann, A., Walpole, M.J., and Leader-Williams, N. 2005. Cattle ranchers' attitudes to conflicts with jaguar Panthera onca in the Pantanal of Brazil. Oryx 39(4):406-412.

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