Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 256
April 2006

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In This Issue

Natural Selection Favors Diversity in Tropical Forests

An analysis of seven tropical forests around the world has found that locally rare tree species tend to live longer and out-compete their more common neighbors. This finding, and its potential underlying mechanisms, suggests that diversity may be favored by evolutionary processes. In other words, being different is adaptive.

The landmark study was conducted by 33 ecologists from 12 countries and published in Science. Christopher Wills with colleagues from Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) and around the world conducted the study on seven undisturbed forest plots maintained and studied by research institutions in India, Puerto Rico, Panama, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, under the coordination of STRI's Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS).

Researchers sampled the forests at five or ten year intervals, counting every tree over 1 cm in diameter at chest height. They also noted dead trees and tracked the number of trees that had grown big enough to be counted since the previous census. Because of the central coordination by the Smithsonian, the same protocols were used at each location and the data can be compared accurately.

The scientists found that regardless of the forest, or the size of the plot sampled, more trees of the locally common species died over time than did members of the rarer species, increasing the relative representation of rare species. In an article featuring this study, in the 27 January 2006 issue of Science, ecologist Theodore Fleming (University of Miami, Florida) noted that around the globe, "One would not expect to find such congruence unless similar processes are operating."

This success of the rare species is being attributed to the possibility that, with fewer relatives around, there is lower competition for the specific resources like light and nutrients on which that species thrives. This isolation also lessens the possibilities for the less abundant trees to share potentially fatal diseases.

This new finding is at odds with the "neutral theory" of forest diversity which holds that plant species are gained and lost randomly. The new result suggests a mechanism that drives an ecosystem toward increased diversity.

"The great scientific value of these tropical forest observatories is that each of them has undergone a complete census more than once, so that the researchers know what has happened to hundreds of thousands of trees from one census to the next," says Stuart Davies, director of CTFS. "These tropical forest observatories, along with others in our network, represent some of the most important, detailed and long-running ecological studies in the world today."

If this process can be seen to repeat with other plant and animal species in other ecosystems, it could represent a more universal feature of evolution, providing further evidence that increasing diversity is an adaptive and self-perpetuating feature of life.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The trade in wild species is difficult to regulate, despite the presence of numerous international organizations dedicated to this cause. One such organization is TRAFFIC <> which is a wildlife trade monitoring network primarily concerned with making sure that this trade does not pose a threat to the conservation of nature. Since its founding in 1976, the group has been concerned with monitoring wildlife trade activities, and their website provides detailed information on their work. First-time visitors may want to first look at the "What is TRAFFIC?" section, then proceed to the "Priority" area, which give specific material on the species and eco-regions that are of the greatest concern to the organization. As one might imagine, there are also a number of fine publications available here, including their annual reports and their journal, Traffic Bulletin.

-from the Scout Report
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2006.

Current Literature

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Allen, C.R., Garmestani, A.S., LaBram, J.A., Peck, A.E., and Prevost, L.B. 2006. When landscaping goes bad: the incipient invasion of Mahonia bealei in the southeastern United States. Biol. Invasions 8(2):169-176.

Allison, M., and Ausden, M. 2006. Effects of removing the litter and humic layers on heathland establishment following plantation removal. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):177-182.

Allphin, L., Brian, N., and Matheson, T. 2005. Reproductive success and genetic divergence among varieties of the rare and endangered Astragalus cremnophylax (Fabaceae) from Arizona, USA. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):803-821.

Arthofer, W., Schlick-Steiner, B.C., Steiner, F.M., Konrad, H., Espadaler, X., and Stauffer, C. 2005. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the study of habitat fragmentation in the harvester ant Messor structor. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):859-861.

Bacchetta, G., and Pontecorvo, C. 2005. Contribution to the knowledge of the endemic vascular flora of Iglesiente (SW Sardinia-Italy). Candollea 60(2):481-501.

Bajracharya, S.B., Furley, P.A., and Newton, A.C. 2005. Effectiveness of community involvement in delivering conservation benefits to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):239-247.

Baret, S., and Strasberg, D. 2005. The effects of opening trails on exotic plant invasion in protected areas on La Reunion Island (Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 60(4):325-332.

Batten, K.M., Scow, K.M., Davies, K.F., and Harrison, S.P. 2006. Two invasive plants alter soil microbial community composition in serpentine grasslands. Biol. Invasions 8(2):217-230.

Bhat, A., and Magurran, A.E. 2006. Taxonomic distinctness in a linear system: a test using a tropical freshwater fish assemblage. Ecography 29(1):104-110.

Borges, P.A.V., Lobo, J.M., de Azevedo, E.B., Gaspar, C.S., Melo, C., and Nunes, L.V. 2006. Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species. J. Biogeogr. 33(1):169-187.

Bortolus, A. 2006. The austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora Brong.: its taxonomy, biogeography and natural history. J. Biogeogr. 33(1):158-168.

Botes, A., McGeoch, M.A., Robertson, H.G., van Niekerk, A., Davids, H.P., and Chown, S.L. 2006. Ants, altitude and change in the northern Cape Floristic Region. J. Biogeogr. 33(1):71-90.

Bouton, S.N., Frederick, P.C., Rocha, C.D., Dos Santos, A.T.B., and Bouton, T.C. 2005. Effects of tourist disturbance on wood stork nesting success and breeding behavior in the Brazilian Pantanal. Waterbirds 28(4):487-497.

Bowles, M., and Jones, M. 2006. Testing the efficacy of species richness and floristic quality assessment of quality, temporal change, and fire effects in tallgrass prairie natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):17-30.

Brisson, J., Cogliastro, A., and Robert, M. 2006. Controlling speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) invasion in a wetland reserve of southern Quebec. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):78-83.

Bromberg, K.D., and Bertness, M.D. 2005. Reconstructing New England salt marsh losses using historical maps. Estuaries 28(6):823-832.

Brown, C.J., Blossey, B., Maerz, J.C., and Joule, S.J. 2006. Invasive plant and experimental venue affect tadpole performance. Biol. Invasions 8(2):327-338.

Brye, K.R., and Moreno, L. 2006. Vegetation removal effects on soil quality in a native tallgrass prairie fragment in east-central Arkansas. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):94-100.

Buonaccorsi, V.P., Kimbrell, C.A., Lynn, E.A., and Vetter, R.D. 2005. Limited realized dispersal and introgressive hybridization influence genetic structure and conservation strategies for brown rockfish, Sebastes auriculatus. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):697-713.

Burchfield, P.M. 2005. Texans, turtles, and the early Kemp's ridley population restoration project, 1963-67. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):835-837.

Burke, A. 2005. Status of succulent shrubs in the southern Namib Desert, Succulent Karoo Biome. Afr. J. Ecol. 43(4):325-331.

Bush, K.L., Vinsky, M.D., Aldridge, C.L., and Paszkowski, C.A. 2005. A comparison of sample types varying in invasiveness for use in DNA sex determination in an endangered population of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus uropihasianus). Conserv. Genet. 6(5):867-870.

Caley, P., Lonsdale, W.M., and Pheloung, P.C. 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in predictions of invasiveness. Biol. Invasions 8(2):277-286.

Callmander, K.W., Schatz, G.E., and Lowry, P.P. 2005. IUCN Red List assessment and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: taxonomists must act now. Taxon 54(4):1047-1050.

Canova, L. 2006. Protected areas and landscape conservation in the Lombardy Plain (northern Italy): an appraisal. Landscape Urban Plan. 74(2):102-109.

Cao, T., Zhu, R.L., Tan, B.C., Guo, S.L., Gao, C., Wu, P.C., and Li, X.J. 2006. A report of the first national red list of Chinese endangered bryophytes. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 99:275-295.

Carter, G.M., Stolen, E.D., and Breininger, D.R. 2006. A rapid approach to modeling species-habitat relationships. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):237-244.

Carter, R., Boyer, T., McCoy, H., and Londo, A. 2006. Classification of green pitcher plant (Sarracenia oreophila (Kearney) Wherry) communities in the Little River Canyon National Preserve, Alabama. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):84-93.

Casal, C.M.V. 2006. Global documentation of fish introductions: the growing crisis and recommendations for action. Biol. Invasions 8(1):3-11.

Causton, C.E., Peck, S.B., Sinclair, B.J., Roque-Albelo, L., Hodgson, C.J., and Landry, B. 2006. Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 99(1):121-143.

Chytrý, M., Pyšek, P., Tichý, L., Knollová, I., and Danihelka, J. 2005. Invasions by alien plants in the Czech Republic: a quantitative assessment across habitats. Preslia 77(4):339-354.

Clarke, M.M., Reichard, S.H., and Hamilton, C.W. 2006. Prevalence of different horticultural taxa of ivy (Hedera spp., Araliaceae) in invading populations. Biol. Invasions 8(2):149-157.

Claudi, R., and Ravishankar, T.J. 2006. Quantification of risks of alien species introductions associated with ballast water discharge in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Biol. Invasions 8(1):25-44.

Cleavitt, N.L. 2005. Patterns, hypotheses and processes in the biology of rare bryophytes. Bryologist 108(4):554-566.

Clergeau, P., Croci, S., Jokimäki, J., Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, M.L., and Dinetti, M. 2006. Avifauna homogenisation by urbanisation: analysis at different European latitudes. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):336-344.

Colautti, R.I., Bailey, S.A., van Overdijk, C.D.A., Amundsen, K., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2006. Characterised and projected costs of nonindigenous species in Canada. Biol. Invasions 8(1):45-59.

Consuegra, S., Verspoor, E., Knox, D., and de Leániz, C.G. 2005. Asymmetric gene flow and the evolutionary maintenance of genetic diversity in small, peripheral Atlantic salmon populations. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):823-842.

Corkum, L.D., Arbuckle, W.J., Belanger, A.J., Gammon, D.B., Li, W.M., Scott, A.P., and Zielinski, B. 2006. Evidence of a male sex pheromone in the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Biol. Invasions 8(1):105-112.

Corlett, R.T. 2006. Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) in urban Hong Kong, South China. Biotropica 38(1):116-121.

Crispo, E., and Hendry, A.P. 2005. Does time since colonization influence isolation by distance? A meta-analysis. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):665-682.

Czech, B., Alam, S.K., Angermeier, P.A., Coghlan, S.M., Hartman, G.F., Krall, L., Mead, J.V., Northcote, T.G., Pister, P., Reed, K.M., Rose, C.A., Thompson, J.A., and Thompson, P.F. 2006. Economic growth, fish conservation, and the AFS: conclusion to a forum, beginning of a movement? Fisheries 31(1):40-43.

Dabrowski, A., Fraser, R., Confer, J.L., and Lovette, I.J. 2005. Geographic variability in mitochondrial introgression among hybridizing populations of golden-winged (Vermivora chrysoptera) and blue-winged (V. pinus) warblers. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):843-853.

Davies, Z.G., Wilson, R.J., Coles, S., and Thomas, C.D. 2006. Changing habitat associations of a thermally constrained species, the silver-spotted skipper butterfly, in response to climate warming. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(1):247-256.

De Barro, P.J., Bourne, A., Khan, S.A., and Brancatini, V.A.L. 2006. Host plant and biotype density interactions - their role in the establishment of the invasive B biotype of Bemisia tabaci. Biol. Invasions 8(2):287-294.

de Oliveira, M.D., Takeda, A.M., de Barros, L.F., Barbosa, D.S., and de Resende, E.K. 2006. Invasion by Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Biol. Invasions 8(1):97-104.

Dextrase, A.J., and Mandrak, N.E. 2006. Impacts of alien invasive species on freshwater fauna at risk in Canada. Biol. Invasions 8(1):13-24.

Díaz, I.A., Armesto, J.J., and Willson, M.F. 2006. Mating success of the endemic Des Murs' wiretail (Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii, Furnariidae) in fragmented Chilean rainforests. Austral Ecol. 31(1):13-21.

DiGirolamo, L.A., and Fox, L.R. 2006. The influence of abiotic factors and temporal variation on local invasion patterns of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Biol. Invasions 8(2):125-135.

Donadio, E., and Buskirk, S.W. 2006. Flight behavior in guanacos and vicuñas in areas with and without poaching in western Argentina. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):139-145.

Dong, M., Lu, J.Z., Zhang, W.J., Chen, J.K., and Li, B. 2006. Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis): an invasive alien weed rapidly spreading in China. Acta Phytotaxon. Sin. 44(1):72-85.

Drake, J.M., and Lodge, D.M. 2006. Allee effects, propagule pressure and the probability of establishment: risk analysis for biological invasions. Biol. Invasions 8(2):365-375.

Duggan, I.C., Rixon, C.A.M., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2006. Popularity and propagule pressure: determinants of introduction and establishment of aquarium fish. Biol. Invasions 8(2):377-382.

Eastwood, R., Boyce, S.L., and Farrell, B.D. 2006. The provenance of Old World swallowtail butterflies, Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), recently discovered in the New World. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 99(1):164-168.

Eriksson, O., Wikström, S., Eriksson, Å., and Lindborg, R. 2006. Species-rich Scandinavian grasslands are inherently open to invasion. Biol. Invasions 8(2):355-363.

Espinosa, F., and Ozawa, T. 2006. Population genetics of the endangered limpet Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda: Patellidae): taxonomic, conservation and evolutionary considerations. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 44(1):8-16.

Figuerola, J., Mateo, R., Green, A.J., Mondain-Monval, J.Y., Lefranc, H., and Mentaberre, G. 2005. Grit selection in waterfowl and how it determines exposure to ingested lead shot in Mediterranean wetlands. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):226-234.

Fleischmann, K., Edwards, P.J., Ramseier, D., and Kollmann, J. 2005. Stand structure, species diversity and regeneration of an endemic palm forest on the Seychelles. Afr. J. Ecol. 43(4):291-301.

Folino-Rorem, N., Stoeckel, J., Thorn, E., and Page, L. 2006. Effects of artificial filamentous substrate on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) settlement. Biol. Invasions 8(1):89-96.

Fontaine, C., and Shaver, D. 2005. Head-starting the Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii, at the NMFS Galveston Laboratory, 1978-1992: a review. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):838-845.

Foster, S.E., and Soluk, D.A. 2006. Protecting more than the wetland: the importance of biased sex ratios and habitat segregation for conservation of the Hine's emerald dragonfly, Somatochloya hineana Williamson. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):158-166.

Frederick, K.H., and Gering, J.C. 2006. A field study of host tree associations of an exotic species, the Asiatic oak weevil [Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs 1873), Coleoptera: Curculionidae]. Am. Midl. Nat. 155(1):11-18.

Garner, A., Rachlow, J.L., and Waits, L.P. 2005. Genetic diversity and population divergence in fragmented habitats: conservation of Idaho ground squirrels. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):759-774.

Geddes, N.A., and Mopper, S. 2006. Effects of environmental salinity on vertebrate florivory and wetland communities. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):31-37.

Geissmann, T., and Nijman, V. 2006. Calling in wild silvery gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in Java (Indonesia): behavior, phylogeny, and conservation. Am. J. Primatol. 68(1):1-19.

Gengarelly, L.M., and Lee, T.D. 2006. Dynamics of Atlantic white-cedar populations at a northern New England coastal wetland. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):5-16.

Glavich, D.A., Geiser, L.H., and Mikulin, A.G. 2005. Rare epiphytic coastal lichen habitats, modeling, and management in the Pacific northwest. Bryologist 108(3):377-390.

Glenn, E.P., Nagler, P.L., Brusca, R.C., and Hinojosa-Huerta, O. 2006. Coastal wetlands of the northern Gulf of California: inventory and conservation status. Aquat. Conserv. 16(1):5-28.

Goolsby, J.A., De Barro, P.J., Makinson, J.R., Pemberton, R.W., Hartley, D.M., and Frohlich, D.R. 2006. Matching the origin of an invasive weed for selection of a herbivore haplotype for a biological control programme. Mol. Ecol. 15(1):287-297.

Goslee, S.C., Peters, D.P.C., and Beck, K.G. 2006. Spatial prediction of invasion success across heterogeneous landscapes using an individual-based model. Biol. Invasions 8(2):193-200.

Gritti, E.S., Smith, B., and Sykes, M.T. 2006. Vulnerability of Mediterranean Basin ecosystems to climate change and invasion by exotic plant species. J. Biogeogr. 33(1):145-157.

Gross, P., Hawkins, B.A., Cornell, H.V., and Hosmane, B. 2005. Using lower trophic level factors to predict outcomes in classical biological control of insect pests. Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(6):571-584.

Gusset, M., and Burgener, N. 2005. Estimating larger carnivore numbers from track counts and measurements. Afr. J. Ecol. 43(4):320-324.

Gust, N., and Inglis, G.J. 2006. Adaptive multi-scale sampling to determine an invasive crab's habitat usage and range in New Zealand. Biol. Invasions 8(2):339-353.

Hagen, C., and Ching, I.Y.S. 2005. Distribution, natural history, and exploitation of Leucocephalon yuwonoi in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):948-951.

Haitao, S. 2005. Distribution of the black-breasted leaf turtle (Geoemyda spengleri) on Hainan Island, China. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):954-956.

Hamann, A., Smets, P., Yanchuk, A.D., and Aitken, S.N. 2005. An ecogeographic framework for in situ conservation of forest trees in British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 35(11):2553-2561.

Hansen, K.A., Jones, B.K., Laha, M., and Mattingly, H.T. 2006. Population status and nesting biology of the rare Barrens darter, Etheostoma forbesi. Am. Midl. Nat. 155(1):63-69.

Hardig, T.M., Allison, J.R., and Schilling, E.E. 2005. Molecular evidence of hybridization between Liatris oligocephala (Asteraceae) and more-widespread congener: a preliminary assessment of the potential for extinction. Castanea 70(4):246-254.

Hawley, D.M., Hanley, D., Dhondt, A.A., and Lovette, I.J. 2006. Molecular evidence for a founder effect in invasive house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) populations experiencing an emergent disease epidemic. Mol. Ecol. 15(1):263-275.

Heppell, S.S., Crouse, D.T., Crowder, L.B., Epperly, S.P., Gabriel, W., Henwood, T., Márquez, R., and Thompson, N.B. 2005. A population model to estimate recovery time, population size, and management impacts on Kemp's ridley sea turtles. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):767-773.

Higgins, P.A.T. 2005. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):197-202.

Hiscock, K., and Tyler-Walters, H. 2006. Assessing the sensitivity of seabed species and biotopes - The Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN). Hydrobiologia 555:309-320.

Holland, O.J., and Gleeson, D.M. 2005. Genetic characterisation of blastocysts and the identification of an instance of multiple parternity in the stoat (Mustela erminea). Conserv. Genet. 6(5):855-858.

Holway, D.A., and Suarez, A.V. 2006. Homogenization of ant communities in Mediterranean California: the effects of urbanization and invasion. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):319-326.

Homoya, M.A., and Abrell, D.B. 2005. A natural occurrence of the federally endangered Short's goldenrod (Solidago shortii T. & G.) [Asteraceae] in Indiana: its discovery, habitat, and associated flora. Castanea 70(4):255-262.

Hopkins-Murphy, S.R., and Seithel, J.S. 2005. Documenting the value of volunteer effort for sea turtle conservation in South Carolina. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):930-934.

Hyatt, L.A., and Araki, S. 2006. Comparative population dynamics of an invading species in its native and novel ranges. Biol. Invasions 8(2):261-275.

Ingram, K.K., Bernardello, G., Cover, S., and Wilson, E.O. 2006. The ants of the Juan Fernández Islands: genesis of an invasive fauna. Biol. Invasions 8(2):383-387.

Jewett, E.B., Hines, A.H., and Ruiz, G.M. 2005. Epifaunal disturbance by periodic low levels of dissolved oxygen: native vs. invasive species response. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 304:31-44.

Johnson, D.R., Perry, H.M., and Graham, W.M. 2005. Using nowcast model currents to explore transport of non-indigenous jellyfish into the Gulf of Mexico. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 305:139-146.

Kelly, M.W., and Rhymer, J.M. 2005. Population genetic structure of a rare unionid (Lampsilis cariosa) in a recently glaciated landscape. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):789-802.

Koh, L.P., and Menge, D.N.L. 2006. Rapid assessment of lepidoptera predation rates in neotropical forest fragments. Biotropica 38(1):132-134.

Kotiranta, H., Mukhin, V.A., Ushakova, N., and Dai, Y.C. 2005. Polypore (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycetes) studies in Russia. 1. South Ural. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 42(6):427-451.

Kreivi, M., Rautiainen, P., Aspi, J., and Hyvärinen, M. 2005. Genetic structure and gene flow in an endangered perennial grass, Arctophila fulva var. pendulina. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):683-696.

Kühn, I., and Klotz, S. 2006. Urbanization and homogenization - comparing the floras of urban and rural areas in Germany. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):292-300.

Kumar, R., and Shahabuddin, G. 2005. Effects of biomass extraction on vegetation structure, diversity and composition of forests in Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):248-259.

Lages, B.G., Fleury, B.G., Ferreira, C.E.L., and Pereira, R.C. 2006. Chemical defense of an exotic coral as invasion strategy. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 328(1):127-135.

Legg, C.J., and Nagy, L. 2006. Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. J. Environ. Manage. 78(2):194-199.

Leonard, D.R.P., Clarke, K.R., Somerfield, P.J., and Warwick, R.M. 2006. The application of an indicator based on taxonomic distinctness for UK marine biodiversity assessments. J. Environ. Manage. 78(1):52-62.

Leung, B., Bossenbroek, J.M., and Lodge, D.M. 2006. Boats, pathways, and aquatic biological invasions: estimating dispersal potential with gravity models. Biol. Invasions 8(2):241-254.

Lewis, O.T. 2006. Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 361(1465):163-171.

Liden, M., and Hilmo, O. 2005. Population characteristics of the suboceanic lichen Platismatia norvegica in core and fringe habitats: relations to macroclimate, substrate, and proximity to streams. Bryologist 108(4):506-517.

Lindsay, E.A., and French, K. 2006. The impact of the weed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata on coastal leaf litter invertebrates. Biol. Invasions 8(2):177-192.

Liu, Z.M., Zhao, A.M., Kang, X.Y., Zhou, S.L., and Lopez-Pujol, J. 2006. Genetic diversity, population structure, and conservation of Sophora moorcroftiana (Fabaceae), a shrub endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Plant Biol. 8(1):81-92.

López-López, P., García-Ripollés, C., Aguilar, J., Garcia-López, F., and Verdejo, J. 2006. Modelling breeding habitat preferences of Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in relation to topography, disturbance, climate and land use at different spatial scales. J. Ornithol. 147(1):97-106.

Lynam, A.J., Khaing, S.T., and Zaw, K.M. 2006. Developing a national tiger action plan for the Union of Myanmar. Environ. Manage. 37(1):30-39.

Madulid, D.A., and Agoo, E.M.G. 2005. A new species of Cycas (Cycadaceae) from the Philippines. Blumea 50(3):519-522.

Maffucci, F., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., and Bentiveyna, F. 2006. Natal origin of loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, in the neritic habitat off the Italian coasts, Central Mediterranean. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):183-189.

Marchetti, M.P., Lockwood, J.L., and Light, T. 2006. Effects of urbanization on California's fish diversity: differentiation, homogenization and the influence of spatial scale. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):310-318.

Maret, T.J., Snyder, J.D., and Collins, J.P. 2006. Altered drying regime controls distribution of endangered salamanders and introduced predators. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):129-138.

Margaritoulis, D. 2005. Nesting activity and reproductive output of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, over 19 seasons (1984-2002) at Laganas Bay, Zakynthos, Greece: the largest rookery in the Mediterranean. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):916-929.

Márquez, R., Burchfield, P.M., Díaz, J., Sánchez, M., Carrasco, M., Jiménez, C., Leo, A., Bravo, R., and Peña, J. 2005. Status of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):761-766.

Martin, K., and James, M.C. 2005. Conserving sea turtles in Canada: successful community-based collaboration between fishers and scientists. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):899-907.

Martin, T.G., McIntyre, S., Catterall, C.P., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Is landscape context important for riparian conservation? Birds in grassy woodland. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):201-214.

Martino, D. 2005. Unleashing the wild: response to Locke and Dearden's 'rethinking protected area categories.' Environ. Conserv. 32(3):195-196.

Masters, J.E.G., Jang, M.H., Ha, K., Bird, P.D., Frear, P.A., and Lucas, M.C. 2006. The commercial exploitation of a protected anadromous species, the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis (L.)), in the tidal River Ouse, north-east England. Aquat. Conserv. 16(1):77-92.

McCleery, R.A., Lopez, R.R., Silvy, N.J., Frank, P.A., and Klett, S.B. 2006. Population status and habitat selection of the endangered Key Largo woodrat. Am. Midl. Nat. 155(1):197-209.

McKinney, M.L. 2006. Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):247-260.

Miller, J.R. 2006. Restoration, reconciliation, and reconnecting with nature nearby. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):356-361.

Monahan, W.B., and Koenig, W.D. 2006. Estimating the potential effects of sudden oak death on oak-dependent birds. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):146-157.

Morgan, J.W. 2006. Bryophyte mats inhibit germination of non-native species in burnt temperate native grassland remnants. Biol. Invasions 8(2):159-168.

Morreale, S.J., and Standora, E.A. 2005. Western North Atlantic waters: crucial developmental habitat for Kemp's ridley and loggerhead sea turtles. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):872-882.

Muckle-Jeffs, E. 2006. Selected papers from the 12th International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 9-12 June 2003 - introduction. Biol. Invasions 8(1):1.

Nagata, J., Aramilev, V.V., Belozor, A., Sugimoto, T., and McCullough, D.R. 2005. Fecal genetic analysis using PCR-RFLP of cytochrome b to identify sympatric carnivores, the tiger Panthera tigris and the leopard Panthera pardus, in far eastern Russia. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):863-866.

Nehrbass, N., Winkler, E., Pergl, J., Perglová, I., and Pyšek, P. 2006. Empirical and virtual investigation of the population dynamics of an alien plant under the constraints of local carrying capacity: Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 7(4):253-262.

Nomura, T. 2005. Methods for minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in conserved populations with overlapping generations. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):655-663.

Oates, J.F. 2006. Is the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes an endangered species? It depends on what "endangered" means. Primates 47(1):102-112.

Olden, J.D., Poff, N.L., and McKinney, M.L. 2006. Forecasting faunal and floral homogenization associated with human population geography in North America. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):261-271.

Oliver, I., Pearce, S., Greenslade, P.J.M., and Britton, D.R. 2006. Contribution of paddock trees to the conservation of terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity within grazed native pastures. Austral Ecol. 31(1):1-12.

Ollivier, L., Alderson, L., Gandini, G.C., Foulley, J.L., Haley, C.S., Joosten, R., Rattink, A.P., Harlizius, B., Groenen, M.A.M., Amigues, Y., Boscher, M.Y., Russell, G., Law, A., Davoli, R., Russo, V., Matassino, D., Désautés, C., Fimland, E., Bagga, M., Delgado, J.V., Vega-Pla, J.L., Martinez, A.M., Ramos, A.M., Glodek, P., Meyer, J.N., Plastow, G.S., Siggens, K.W., Archibald, A.L., Milan, D., San Cristobal, M., Laval, G., Hammond, K., Cardellino, R., and Chevalet, C. 2005. An assessment of European pig diversity using molecular markers: partitioning of diversity among breeds. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):729-741.

Overton, C.T., Schmitz, R.A., and Casazza, M.L. 2006. Linking landscape characteristics to mineral site use by band-tailed pigeons in western Oregon: coarse-filter conservation with fine-filter tuning. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):38-46.

Pauchard, A., Aguayo, M., Peña, E., and Urrutia, R. 2006. Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: the case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile). Biol. Conserv. 127(3):272-281.

Pearce, J.M., Talbot, S.L., Petersen, M.R., and Rearick, J.R. 2005. Limited genetic differentiation among breeding, molting, and wintering groups of the threatened Steller's eider: the role of historic and contemporary factors. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):743-757.

Perälä, J. 2005. Assessment of the threatened status of Testudo kleinmanni Lortet, 1883 (Testudines: Testudinidae) for the IUCN Red List. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):891-898.

Perotti, M.G., Dieguez, M.C., and Jara, F.G. 2005. State of the knowledge of north Patagonian wetlands (Argentina): major aspects and importance for regional biodiversity conservation. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 78(4):723-737.

Petit, R.J., Hampe, A., and Cheddadi, R. 2005. Climate changes and tree phylogeography in the Mediterranean. Taxon 54(4):877-885.

Pichancourt, J.B., Burel, F., and Auger, P. 2006. A hierarchical matrix model to assess the impact of habitat fragmentation on population dynamics: an elasticity analysis. C.R. Biologies 329(1):31-39.

Piggott, M.P., Banks, S.C., Stone, N., Banffy, C., and Taylor, A.C. 2006. Estimating population size of endangered brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) colonies using faecal DNA. Mol. Ecol. 15(1):81-91.

Piggott, M.P., Banks, S.C., and Taylor, A.C. 2006. Population structure of brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) colonies inferred from analysis of faecal DNA. Mol. Ecol. 15(1):93-105.

Platt, S.G., Ko, W.K., Khaing, L.L., Myo, K.M., Lwin, T., Swe, T., Kalyar, and Rainwater, T.R. 2005. Noteworthy records and exploitation of chelonians from the Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, and Dokhtawady rivers, Myanmar. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):942-948.

Plumptre, A.J., and Cox, D. 2006. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates 47(1):65-73.

Ponzio, K.J., Miller, S.J., Underwood, E., Rowe, S.P., Voltolina, D.J., and Miller, T.D. 2006. Responses of a willow (Salix caroliniana Michx.) community to roller-chopping. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):53-60.

Provenzano, F., and Milani, N. 2006. Cordylancistrus nephelion (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), a new and endangered species of suckermouth armored catfish from the Tuy River, north-central Venezuela. Zootaxa 1116:29-41.

Quevedo, M., Bañuelos, M.J., and Obeso, J.R. 2006. The decline of Cantabrian capercaillie: how much does habitat configuration matter? Biol. Conserv. 127(2):190-200.

Rabitsch, W., and Essl, F. 2006. Biological invasions in Austria: patterns and case studies. Biol. Invasions 8(2):295-308.

Reed, C.C., Larson, D.L., and Larson, J.L. 2006. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):47-52.

Reinhart, K.O., Maestre, F.T., and Callaway, R.M. 2006. Facilitation and inhibition of seedlings of an invasive tree (Acer platanoides) by different tree species in a mountain ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 8(2):231-240.

Renaud, M.L., and Williams, J.A. 2005. Kemp's ridley sea turtle movements and migrations. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):808-816.

Richardson, E.A., Kaiser, M.J., and Edwards-Jones, G. 2005. Variation in fishers' attitudes within an inshore fishery: implications for management. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):213-225.

Rieman, B.E., Peterson, J.T., and Myers, D.L. 2006. Have brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) displaced bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) along longitudinal gradients in central Idaho streams? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(1):63-78.

Rivers, N.M., Butlin, R.K., and Altringham, J.D. 2006. Autumn swarming behaviour of Natterer's bats in the UK: population size, catchment area and dispersal. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):215-226.

Roberts, M.E., Burr, B.M., Whiles, M.R., and Santucci, V.J. 2006. Reproductive ecology and food habits of the blacknose shiner, Notropis heterolepis, in northern Illinois. Am. Midl. Nat. 155(1):70-83.

Robertson, B.C., Chilvers, B.L., Duignan, P.J., Wilkinson, I.S., and Gemmell, N.J. 2006. Dispersal of breeding, adult male Phocarctos hookeri: implications for disease transmission, population management and species recovery. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):227-236.

Rogowski, D.L., and Stockwell, C.A. 2006. Assessment of potential impacts of exotic species on populations of a threatened species, white sands pupfish, Cyprinodon tularosa. Biol. Invasions 8(1):79-87.

Rogowski, D.L., and Stockwell, C.A. 2006. Parasites and salinity: costly tradeoffs in a threatened species. Oecologia 146(4):615-622.

Ruesink, J.L., and Collado-Vides, L. 2006. Modeling the increase and control of Caulerpa taxifolia, an invasive marine macroalga. Biol. Invasions 8(2):309-325.

Rull, V., and Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T. 2006. Unexpected biodiversity loss under global warming in the neotropical Guayana Highlands: a preliminary appraisal. Global Change Biol. 12(1):1-9.

Saavedra, B., and Simonetti, J.A. 2005. Small mammals of Maulino forest remnants, a vanishing ecosystem of south-central Chile. Mammalia 69(3-4):337-348.

Scandura, M. 2005. Individual sexing and genotyping from blood spots on the snow: a reliable source of DNA for non-invasive genetic surveys. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):871-874.

Schmid, J.R., and Barichivich, W.J. 2005. Developmental biology and ecology of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii, in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):828-834.

Schwartz, M.W., Thorne, J.H., and Viers, J.H. 2006. Biotic homogenization of the California flora in urban and urbanizing regions. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):282-291.

Scott, M.C. 2006. Inners and losers among stream fishes in relation to land use legacies and urban development in the southeastern US. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):301-309.

Sellas, A.B., Wells, R.S., and Rosel, P.E. 2005. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses reveal fine scale geographic structure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Gulf of Mexico. Conserv. Genet. 6(5):715-728.

Shanks, S.S. 2005. Arthropod conservation and the role of the California Natural Diversity Database. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 81(3-4):186-188.

Shaver, D.J. 2005. Analysis of the Kemp's ridley imprinting and headstart project at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 1978-88, with subsequent nesting and stranding records on the Texas coast. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):846-859.

Shaver, D.J., Schroeder, B.A., Byles, R.A., Burchfield, P.M., Peña, J., Márquez, R., and Martinez, H.J. 2005. Movements and home ranges of adult male Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico investigated by satellite telemetry. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):817-827.

Shoo, L.P., Williams, S.E., and Hero, J.M. 2006. Detecting climate change induced range shifts: where and how should we be looking? Austral Ecol. 31(1):22-29.

Siebert, S.J., and Smith, G.F. 2005. Plant Red Data List assessments in Southern Africa: financial costs of a collaborative regional project. Taxon 54(4):1051-1055.

Simon, M.F., and Garagorry, F.L. 2005. The expansion of agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):203-212.

Sinclair, A.R.E., and Byrom, A.E. 2006. Understanding ecosystem dynamics for conservation of biota. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(1):64-79.

Smith, K.G. 2006. Patterns of nonindigenous herpetofaunal richness and biotic homogenization among Florida counties. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):327-335.

Snep, R.P.H., Opdam, P.F.M., Baveco, J.M., WallisDeVries, M.F., Timmermans, W., Kwak, R.G.M., and Kuypers, V. 2006. How peri-urban areas can strengthen animal populations within cities: a modeling approach. Biol. Conserv. 127(3):345-355.

Sorice, M.G., Shafer, C.S., and Ditton, R.B. 2006. Managing endangered species within the use preservation paradox: the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a tourism attraction. Environ. Manage. 37(1):69-83.

Spector, T., and Putz, F.E. 2006. Biomechanical plasticity facilitates invasion of maritime forests in the southern USA by Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius). Biol. Invasions 8(2):255-260.

Spiteri, A., and Nepal, S.K. 2006. Incentive-based conservation programs in developing countries: a review of some key issues and suggestions for improvements. Environ. Manage. 37(1):1-14.

Spitzer, K., and Danks, H.V. 2006. Insect biodiversity of boreal peat bogs. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 51:137-161.

Srivastava, D.S., and Vellend, M. 2005. Biodiversity-ecosystem function research: is it relevant to conservation? Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 36:267-294.

Steiner, F.M., Schlick-Steiner, B.C., Trager, J.C., Moder, K., Sanetra, M., Christian, E., and Stauffer, C. 2006. Tetramorium tsushimae, a new invasive ant in North America. Biol. Invasions 8(2):117-123.

Stepien, C.A., and Tumeo, M.A. 2006. Invasion genetics of Ponto-Caspian gobies in the Great Lakes: a 'cryptic' species, absence of founder effects, and comparative risk analysis. Biol. Invasions 8(1):61-78.

Sun, H.Q., Luo, Y.B., Alexandersson, R., and Ge, S. 2006. Pollination biology of the deceptive orchid Changnienia amoena. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 150(2):165-175.

Sundar, K.S.G., and Choudhury, B.C. 2005. Mortality of sarus cranes (Grus antigone) due to electricity wires in Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):260-269.

Thompson, I.D., Simard, J.H., and Titman, R.D. 2006. Historical changes in white pine (Pinus strobus L.) density in Algonquin Park, Ontario, during the 19th century. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):61-71.

Tuberville, T.D., Buhlmann, K.A., Bjorkland, R.K., and Booher, D. 2005. Ecology of the Jamaican slider turtle (Trachemys terrapen), with implications for conservation and management. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):908-915.

Tunnell, S.J., Stubbendieck, J., Palazzolo, S., and Masters, R.A. 2006. Forb response to herbicides in a degraded tallgrass prairie. Nat. Areas J. 26(1):72-77.

Tye, A. 2006. Can we infer island introduction and naturalization rates from inventory data? Evidence from introduced plants in Galapagos. Biol. Invasions 8(2):201-215.

Urios, G., and Martínez-Abraín, A. 2006. The study of nest-site preferences in Eleonora's falcon Falco eleonorae through digital terrain models on a western Mediterranean island. J. Ornithol. 147(1):13-23.

Valverde, P.L., and Zavala-Hurtado, J.A. 2006. Assessing the ecological status of Mammillaria pectinifera Weber (Cactaceae), a rare and threatened species endemic of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán region in central Mexico. J. Arid Environ. 64(2):193-208.

Van Dyck, H., and Baguette, M. 2005. Dispersal behaviour in fragmented landscapes: routine or special movements? Basic Appl. Ecol. 6(6):535-545.

von Hippel, W., von Hippel, F.A., Chan, N., and Cheng, C. 2005. Exploring the use of Viagra in place of animal and plant potency products in traditional Chinese medicine. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):235-238.

Wassie, A., and Teketay, D. 2006. Soil seed banks in church forests of northern Ethiopia: implications for the conservation of woody plants. Flora 201(1):32-43.

Wei, A.H., and Chow-Fraser, P. 2006. Synergistic impact of water level fluctuation and invasion of Glyceria on Typha in a freshwater marsh of Lake Ontario. Aquat. Bot. 84(1):63-69.

Wetterer, J.K., and Moore, J.A. 2005. Red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at gopher tortoise (Testudines: Testudinidae) burrows. Fl. Entomol. 88(4):349-354.

Wiens, J.J., and Graham, C.H. 2005. Niche conservatism: integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 36:519-539.

Wikelski, M., and Cooke, S.J. 2006. Conservation physiology. TREE 21(1):38-46.

Wills, C., Harms, K.E., Condit, R., King, D., Thompson, J., He, F.L., Muller-Landau, H.C., Ashton, P., Losos, E., Comita, L., Hubbell, S., LaFrankie, J., Bunyavejchewin, S., Dattaraja, H.S., Davies, S., Esufali, S., Foster, R., Gunatilleke, N., Gunatilleke, S., Hall, P., Itoh, A., John, R., Kiratiprayoon, S., de Lao, S.L., Massa, M., Nath, C., Noor, M.N.S., Kassim, A.R., Sukumar, R., Suresh, H.S., Sun, I.F., Tan, S., Yamakura, T., and Zimmerman, E. 2006. Nonrandom processes maintain diversity in tropical forests. Science 311(5760):527-531.

Winter, C., and Lockwood, M. 2005. A model for measuring natural area values and park preferences. Environ. Conserv. 32(3):270-278.

Witzell, W.N., Salgado-Quintero, A., and Garduño-Dionte, M. 2005. Reproductive parameters of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) at Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4(4):781-787.

Wulff, J.L. 2006. Rapid diversity and abundance decline in a Caribbean coral reef sponge community. Biol. Conserv. 127(2):167-176.

Yip, J.Y., Corlett, R.T., and Dudgeon, D. 2006. Selecting small reserves in a human-dominated landscape: a case study of Hong Kong, China. J. Environ. Manage. 78(1):86-96.

Yusa, Y., Sugiura, N., and Wada, T. 2006. Predatory potential of freshwater animals on an invasive agricultural pest, the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), in southern Japan. Biol. Invasions 8(2):137-147.

Zhou, S.R., and Wang, G. 2006. One large, several medium, or many small? Ecol. Model. 191(3-4):513-520.

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