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Department ofBotany

No. 257
May 2006

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In This Issue

Mosquito Introductions Worldwide Elucidated

As the threat of invasive species to our economy, environment, human health and even our security unfolds, the importance of understanding emerging disease organisms and their vectors is increasingly clear. In a study reported in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Dina Fonseca, Julie Smith and Robert Fleischer from the National Museum of Natural History Genetics Program, along with Rick Wilkerson of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, are shedding light on one pervasive vector, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

The team focused on one of the best-known mosquito introductions: that of Cx. quinquefasciatus in 1826 to the Hawaiian Islands, where it is the sole vector of deadly avian malaria and a major vector of avian poxvirus. In 1823, when American naturalist T.R. Peale visited Hawaii, there were no mosquitoes. This species has spread with human expansion across the globe and is now everywhere in the world tropics and subtropics. The earliest records indicate that this mosquito was introduced to Hawaii from Mexico in 1826 by whaling ships replenishing their water barrels in freshwater streams on Maui.

The team performed a worldwide genetic survey using genetic markers in order to identify the source of the Hawaiian populations. Using DNA analyses on field-collected mosquitoes and five dried museum specimens from the Bishop Museum in Hawaii (collected between 1919 and 1944), they discovered divergent Old World and New World genetic signatures in Cx. quinquefasciatus with further distinctions between east and west African, Asian, and Pacific/Australian populations. These divisions correlate with the epidemiology of human filariasis, suggesting variation in vector-parasite compatibility.

This research revealed that the colder adapted South Pacific/Australian mosquitoes have largely replaced the original Mexican introduction of Cx. quinquefasciatus, which could explain in part the recent increases in elevational range in Hawaii. This replacement may not have occurred until around World War II, as no Pacific/Australian genes were found in museums specimens before 1944. The authors also found that in Hawaii there was evidence of multiple introductions and that most of the dozens of Cx. quinquefasciatus arriving monthly in Oahu via aircrafts appear not to reproduce-an important observation in the fight against invasive pest species.


The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences has announced that Professor Stuart L. Pimm has been awarded the Dr. A.H. Heineken Prize for Environmental Sciences 2006 for "his research on species extinction and conservation." This prize is a part of five international scientific Heineken Prizes of US$150,000 each that award outstanding international scientists and scholars. The other four scientific prizes are in the fields of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Medicine, History and Cognitive Science.

Pimm introduced the concept of the 'food chain' into research on the extinction of plant and animal species in the early 1980s. The extinction of a particular species within an ecological system may have an enormous impact on other species, but introducing a new species into a particular ecological system can also have far-reaching consequences. A recurring theme in his work, including his book The World According to Pimm, is the impact of human beings on the natural environment. The rapid extinction of plant and animal species is closely associated with such human activity as deforestation, overfishing and overhunting, and water pollution. It is therefore also up to the human race to call a halt to species extinction.

Pimm currently holds the Doris Duke Chair of Conservation Ecology at Duke University in Durham and Extraordinary Professor with the Conservation Ecology Research Unit at the University of Pretoria in South Africa.

The Heineken Prizes for science, scholarship and art are presented every other year during a special session of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (see This year the presentation will take place on 28 September in Amsterdam.

Current Literature

Acharya, K.P. 2006. Linking trees on farms with biodiversity conservation in subsistence farming systems in Nepal. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):631-646.

Andreone, F., Guarino, F.M., and Randrianirina, J.E. 2005. Life history traits, age profile, and conservation of the panther chameleon, Furcifer pardalis (Cuvier 1829), at Nosy Be, NW Madagascar. Trop. Zool. 18(2):209-225.

Aprahamian, M.W., Wyatt, R.J., and Shields, B.A. 2006. Use of biological reference points for the conservation of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the River Lune, north west England. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 13(1):21-30.

Aranishi, F. 2006. Single fish egg DNA extraction for PCR amplification. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):153-156.

Aschenbach, T.A. 2006. Variation in growth rates under saline conditions of Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass) and Distichlis spicata (inland saltgrass) from different source populations in Kansas and Nebraska: implications for the restoration of salt-affected plant communities. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):21-27.

Ashley, R., Russell, D., and Swallow, B. 2006. The policy terrain in protected area landscapes: challenges for agroforestry in integrated landscape conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):663-689.

Augusseau, X., Nikiéma, P., and Torquebiau, E. 2006. Tree biodiversity, land dynamics and farmers' strategies on the agricultural frontier of southwestern Burkina Faso. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):613-630.

Bagchi, S., Namgail, T., and Ritchie, M.E. 2006. Small mammalian herbivores as mediators of plant community dynamics in the high-altitude arid rangelands of Trans-Himalaya. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):438-442.

Baird, I.G. 2006. Strength in diversity: fish sanctuaries and deep-water pools in Lao PDR. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 13(1):1-8.

Bean, M.J. 2006. The Endangered Species Act under threat. BioScience 56(2):98.

Bearzi, G., Politi, E., Agazzi, S., and Azzellino, A. 2006. Prey depletion caused by overfishing and the decline of marine megafauna in eastern Ionian Sea coastal waters (central Mediterranean). Biol. Conserv. 127(4):373-382.

Bosch, J., Rincón, P.A., Boyero, L., and Martínez-Solano, I. 2006. Effects of introduced salmonids on a montane population of Iberian frogs. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):180-189.

Broadhurst, L.M., Young, A.G., Thrall, P.H., and Murray, B.G. 2006. Sourcing seed for Acacia acinacea, a key revegetation species in south eastern Australia. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):49-63.

Brockington, D., Igoe, J., and Schmidt-Soltau, K. 2006. Conservation, human rights, and poverty reduction. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):250-252.

Brown, N., Bhagwat, S., and Watkinson, S. 2006. Macrofungal diversity in fragmented and disturbed forests of the Western Ghats of India. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(1):11-17.

Brown, R.M., and Laband, D.N. 2006. Species imperilment and spatial patterns of development in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):239-244.

Bruce, E.M., and Eliot, I.G. 2006. A spatial model for marine park zoning. Coast. Manage. 34(1):17-38.

Brunsfeld, S.J., and Sullivan, J. 2005. A multi-compartmented glacial refugium in the northern Rocky Mountains: evidence from the phylogeography of Cardamine constancei (Brassicaceae). Conserv. Genet. 6(6):895-904.

Burgess, N.D., Hales, J.D., Ricketts, T.H., and Dinerstein, E. 2006. Factoring species, non-species values and threats into biodiversity prioritisation across the ecoregions of Africa and its islands. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):383-401.

Cameron, M. 2006. Nesting habitat of the glossy black-cockatoo in central New South Wales. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):402-410.

Castellón, T.D., and Sieving, K.E. 2006. An experimental test of matrix permeability and corridor use by an endemic understory bird. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):135-145.

Chacoff, N.P., and Aizen, M.A. 2006. Edge effects on flower-visiting insects in grapefruit plantations bordering premontane subtropical forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(1):18-27.

Chiari, Y., Andreone, F., Vences, M., and Meyer, A. 2005. Genetic variation of an endangered Malagasy frog, Mantella cowani, and its phylogeographic relationship to the widespread M. baroni. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1041-1047.

Chong, G.W., Otsuki, Y., Stohlgren, T.J., Guenther, D., Evangelista, P., Villa, C., and Waters, A. 2006. Evaluating plant invasions from both habitat and species perspectives. West. N. Am. Naturalist 66(1):92-105.

Clarke, S.C., Magnussen, J.E., Abercrombie, D.L., McAllister, M.K., and Shivji, M.S. 2006. Identification of shark species composition and proportion in the Hong Kong shark fin market based on molecular genetics and trade records. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):201-211.

Clements, R., Koh, L.P., Lee, T.M., Meier, R., and Li, D.Q. 2006. Importance of reservoirs for the conservation of freshwater molluscs in a tropical urban landscape. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):136-146.

Clergeau, P., and Nuñez, M.A. 2006. The language of fighting invasive species. Science 311(5763):951.

Cooke, S.J., and Cowx, I.G. 2006. Contrasting recreational and commercial fishing: searching for common issues to promote unified conservation of fisheries resources and aquatic environments. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):93-108.

Corlett, M.T., and Primack, R.B. 2006. Tropical rainforests and the need for cross-continental comparisons. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(2):104-110.

Cousins, S.A.O. 2006. Plant species richness in midfield islets and road verges - the effect of landscape fragmentation. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):500-509.

Crawford, B., Kasmidi, M., Korompis, F., and Pollnac, R.B. 2006. Factors influencing progress in establishing community-based marine protected areas in Indonesia. Coast. Manage. 34(1):39-64.

Davidson-Watts, I., and Jones, G. 2006. Differences in foraging behaviour between Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber, 1774) and Pipistrellus pygmaeus (Leach,1825). J. Zool. 268(1):55-62.

de Grammont, P.C., and Cuarón, A.D. 2006. An evaluation of threatened species categorization systems used on the American continent. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):14-27.

Deguise, I.E., and Kerr, J.T. 2006. Protected areas and prospects for endangered species conservation in Canada. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):48-55.

Delong, M.K., Jog, S.K., Johansen, J.R., and Wilder, G.J. 2005. Floristic survey of a highly disturbed wetland within Shaker Median Park, Beachwood (Cuyahoga County), Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 105(5):102-115.

Di Fiore, A. 2005. A rapid genetic method for sex assignment in non-human primates. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1053-1058.

Diniz, J.A.F., Bini, L.M., Pinto, M.P., Rangel, T.F.L.V.B., Carvalho, P., and Bastos, R.P. 2006. Anuran species richness, complementarity and conservation conflicts in Brazilian cerrado. Acta Oecol. 29(1):9-15.

Dixon, J.D., Oli, M.K., Wooten, M.C., Eason, T.H., McCown, J.W., and Paetkau, D. 2006. Effectiveness of a regional corridor in connecting two Florida black bear populations. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):155-162.

Drovetski, S.V., Pearson, S.F., and Rohwer, S. 2005. Streaked horned lark Eremophila alpestris strigata has distinct mitochondrial DNA. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):875-883.

Eastham, C.P., and Nicholls, M.K. 2005. Morphometric analysis of large Falco species and their hybrids with implications for conservation. J. Raptor Res. 39(4):386-393.

Eldridge, D.J., Costantinides, C., and Vine, A. 2006. Short-term vegetation and soil responses to mechanical destruction of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) warrens in an Australian box woodland. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):50-59.

Eränen, J.K., and Kozlov, M.V. 2006. Physical sheltering and liming improve survival and performance of mountain birch seedlings: a 5-year study in a heavily polluted industrial barren. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):77-86.

Faria, D., Laps, R.R., Baumgarten, J., and Cetra, M. 2006. Bat and bird assemblages from forests and shade cacao plantations in two contrasting landscapes in the Atlantic forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):587-612.

Farnsworth, E.J., Klionsky, S., Brumback, W.E., and Havens, K. 2006. A set of simple decision matrices for prioritizing collection of rare plant species for ex situ conservation. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):1-12.

Fattorini, S. 2006. A new method to identify important conservation areas applied to the butterflies of the Aegean Islands (Greece). Anim. Conserv. 9(1):75-83.

Feest, A. 2006. Establishing baseline indices for the quality of the biodiversity of restored habitats using a standardized sampling process. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):112-122.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2006. Beyond fragmentation: the continuum model for fauna research and conservation in human-modified landscapes. Oikos 112(2):473-480.

Fischman, R.L. 2006. The perils of defensive conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(1):3.

Flanders, A.A., Kuvlesky, W.P., Ruthven, D.C., Zaiglin, R.E., Bingham, R.L., Fulbright, T.E., Hernández, F., and Brennan, L.A. 2006. Effects of invasive exotic grasses on south Texas rangeland breeding birds. Auk 123(1):171-182.

Friesen, V.L., González, J.A., and Cruz-Delgado, F. 2006. Population genetic structure and conservation of the Galápagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia). Conserv. Genet. 7(1):105-115.

Gaidet-Drapier, N., Fritz, H., Bourgarel, M., Renaud, P.C., Poilecot, P., Chardonnet, P., Coid, C., Poulet, D., and Le Bel, S. 2006. Cost and efficiency of large mammal census techniques: comparison of methods for p Participatory approach in a communal area, Zimbabwe. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):735-754.

Gawlik, D.E. 2006. The role of wildlife science in wetland ecosystem restoration: lessons from the Everglades. Ecol. Eng. 26(1):70-83.

Gebeyehu, S., and Samways, M.J. 2006. Conservation refugium value of a large mesa for grasshoppers in South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):717-734.

Githiru, M., and Lens, L. 2006. Demography of an Afrotropical passerine in a highly fragmented landscape. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):21-27.

González, L.M., Arroyo, B.E., Margalida, A., Sánchez, R., and Oria, J. 2006. Effect of human activities on the behaviour of breeding Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti): management implications for the conservation of a threatened species. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):85-93.

Grant, C.D. 2006. State-and-transition successional model for bauxite mining rehabilitation in the jarrah forest of Western Australia. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):28-37.

Gratiot, N., Gratiot, J., Kelle, L., and de Thoisy, B. 2006. Estimation of the nesting season of marine turtles from incomplete data: statistical adjustment of a sinusoidal function. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):95-102.

Gruenthal, K.M., and Burton, R.S. 2005. Genetic diversity and species identification in the endangered white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni). Conserv. Genet. 6(6):929-939.

Halpern, B.S., Pyke, C.R., Fox, H.E., Haney, J.C., Schlaepfer, M.A., and Zaradic, P. 2006. Gaps and mismatches between global conservation priorities and spending. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):56-64.

Halpern, B.S., Regan, H.M., Possingham, H.P., and McCarthy, M.A. 2006. Accounting for uncertainty in marine reserve design. Ecol. Lett. 9(1):2-11.

Harvey, C.A., Gonzalez, J., and Somarriba, E. 2006. Dung beetle and terrestrial mammal diversity in forests, indigenous agroforestry systems and plantain monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):555-585.

Hawkins, J.P., Roberts, C.M., Dytham, C., Schelten, C., and Nugues, M.M. 2006. Effects of habitat characteristics and sedimentation on performance of marine reserves in St. Lucia. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):487-499.

He, L.P., Wan, Q.H., Fang, S.G., and Xi, Y.M. 2006. Development of novel microsatellite loci and assessment of genetic diversity in the endangered crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):157-160.

Hedrick, P.W., Gadau, J., and Page, R.E. 2006. Genetic sex determination and extinction. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(2):55-57.

Helm, A., Hanski, L., and Patel, M. 2006. Slow response of plant species richness to habitat loss and fragmentation. Ecol. Lett. 9(1):72-77.

Hepburn, R.I., Mottillo, E.P., Bentzen, P., and Heath, D.D. 2005. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the masked goby, Coryphopterus personatus (Gobiidae). Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1059-1062.

Herrmann, T.M. 2006. Indigenous knowledge and management of Araucaria araucana forest in the Chilean Andes: implications for native forest Conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):647-662.

Honnay, O., Coart, E., Butaye, J., Adriaens, D., Van Glabeke, S., and Roldán-Ruiz, I. 2006. Low impact of present and historical landscape configuration on the genetics of fragmented Anthyllis vulneraria populations. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):411-419.

Howorth, R.T., and Pendry, C.A. 2006. Post-cultivation secondary succession in a Venezuelan lower montane rain forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):693-715.

Hsu, Y.C., Li, S.H., Lin, Y.S., and Severinghaus, L.L. 2006. Microsatellite loci from Lanyu scops owl (Otus elegans botelensis) and their cross-species application in four species of strigidae. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):161-165.

Huisinga, K.D., Laughlin, D.C., Fulé, P.Z., Springer, J.D., and McGlone, C.M. 2005. Effects of an intense prescribed fire on understory vegetation in a mixed conifer forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(4):590-601.

Hulme, P.E., and Bremner, E.T. 2006. Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(1):43-50.

Igual, J.M., Forero, M.G., Gomez, T., Orueta, J.F., and Oro, D. 2006. Rat control and breeding performance in Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea): effects of poisoning effort and habitat features. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):59-65.

Islam, M.A., Kloppstech, K., and Esch, E. 2005. Population genetic diversity of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe - a conservation prioritised medicinal plant in Bangladesh. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1027-1033.

Jackson, J.A. 2006. Ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis): hope, and the interfaces of science, conservation, and politics. Auk 123(1):1-15.

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Jamieson, I.G., Wallis, G.P., and Briskie, J.V. 2006. Inbreeding and endangered species management: is New Zealand out of step with the rest of the world? Conserv. Biol. 20(1):38-47.

Johnson, J.A., and Dunn, P.O. 2006. Low genetic variation in the heath hen prior to extinction and implications for the conservation of prairie-chicken populations. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):37-48.

Jonsson, M., Ranius, T., Ekvall, H., Bostedt, G., Dahlberg, A., Ehnström, B., Nordén, B., and Stokland, J.N. 2006. Cost-effectiveness of silvicultural measures to increase substrate availability for red-listed wood-living organisms in Norway spruce forests. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):443-462.

Junninen, K., and Kouki, J. 2006. Are woodland key habitats in Finland hotspots for polypores (Basidiomycota)? Scand. J. Forest Res. 21(1):32-40.

Juutinen, A., Mönkkönen, M., and Sippola, A.L. 2006. Cost-efficiency of decaying wood as a surrogate for overall species richness in boreal forests. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):74-84.

Kainer, K.A., Schmink, M., Covert, H., Stepp, J.R., Bruna, E.M., Dain, J.L., Espinosa, S., and Humphries, S. 2006. A graduate education framework for tropical conservation and development. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):3-13.

Kanowski, J.J., Reis, T.M., Catterall, C.P., and Piper, S.D. 2006. Factors affecting the use of reforested sites by reptiles in cleared rainforest landscapes in tropical and subtropical Australia. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):67-76.

Kattan, G.H., Correa, D., Escobar, F., and Medina, C. 2006. Leaf-litter arthropods in restored forests in the Colombian Andes: a comparison between secondary forest and tree plantations. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):95-102.

Kiehl, K., Thormann, A., and Pfadenhauer, J. 2006. Evaluation of initial restoration measures during the restoration of calcareous grasslands on former arable fields. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):148-156.

Kiehl, K., and Wagner, C. 2006. Effect of hay transfer on long-term establishment of vegetation and grasshoppers on former arable fields. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):157-166.

Kreyer, D., and Zerbe, S. 2006. Short-lived tree species and their role as indicators for plant diversity in the restoration of natural forests. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):137-147.

Lage, C., and Kornfield, I. 2006. Reduced genetic diversity and effective population size in an endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population from Maine, USA. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):91-104.

Lamoreux, J.F., Morrison, J.C., Ricketts, T.H., Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., McKnight, M.W., and Shugart, H.H. 2006. Global tests of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Nature 440(7081):212-214.

Latch, E.K., and Rhodes, O.E. 2005. The effects of gene flow and population isolation on the genetic structure of reintroduced wild turkey populations: are genetic signatures of source populations retained? Conserv. Genet. 6(6):981-997.

Lau, J.A. 2006. Evolutionary responses of native plants to novel community members. Evolution 60(1):56-63.

Lawes, M.J., Fly, S., and Piper, S.E. 2006. Gamebird vulnerability to forest fragmentation: patch occupancy of the crested guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) in Afromontane forests. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):67-74.

Leicht, S.A., Silander, J.A., and Greenwood, K. 2005. Assessing the competitive ability of Japanese stilt grass, Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(4):573-580.

Lemon, M., Lynch, T.P., Cato, D.H., and Harcourt, R.G. 2006. Response of travelling bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) to experimental approaches by a powerboat in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):363-372.

Liu, Y.F., Wang, Y., and Huang, H.W. 2006. High interpopulation genetic differentiation and unidirectional linear migration patterns in Myricaria laxiflora (Tamaricaceae), an endemic riparian plant in the Three Gorges Valley of the Yangtze River. Am. J. Bot. 93(2):206-215.

López-Pujol, J., Zhang, F.M., and Ge, S. 2005. Population genetics and conservation of the critically endangered Clematis acerifolia (Ranunculaceae). Can. J. Bot. 83(10):1248-1256.

Ma, Y.H., Rao, S.Q., Lu, S.J., Hou, G.Y., Guan, W.J., Li, H.B., Li, X., Zhao, Q.J., and Guo, J. 2006. Phylogeography and origin of sheep breeds in northern China. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):117-127.

MacDougall, A.S., Boucher, J., Turkington, R., and Bradfield, G.E. 2006. Patterns of plant invasion along an environmental stress gradient. J. Veg. Sci. 17(1):47-56.

MacMillan, D.C., and Marshall, K. 2006. The Delphi process - an expert-based approach to ecological modelling in data-poor environments. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):11-19.

Marino, J., Sillero-Zubiri, C., and Macdonald, D.W. 2006. Trends, dynamics and resilience of an Ethiopian wolf population. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):49-58.

Maschinski, J., Baggs, J.E., Quintana-Ascencio, P.E., and Menges, E.S. 2006. Using population viability analysis to predict the effects of climate change on the extinction risk of an endangered limestone endemic shrub, Arizona cliffrose. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):218-228.

Mayer, P. 2006. Biodiversity - the appreciation of different thought styles and values helps to clarify the term. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):105-111.

McCarthy, J.M., Hein, C.L., Olden, J.D., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2006. Coupling long-term studies with meta-analysis to investigate impacts of non-native crayfish on zoobenthic communities. Freshwater Biol. 51(2):224-235.

McCoy, E.D., Mushinsky, H.R., and Lindzey, J. 2006. Declines of the gopher tortoise on protected lands. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):120-127.

McDougall, P.T., Réale, D., Sol, D., and Reader, S.M. 2006. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):39-48.

McEwan, R.W., Paratley, R.D., Muller, R.N., and Riccardi, C.L. 2005. The vascular flora of an old-growth mixed mesophytic forest in southeastern Kentucky. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(4):618-627.

McNeely, J.A., and Schroth, G. 2006. Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation - traditional practices, present dynamics, and lessons for the future. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):549-554.

Meretsky, V.J., Fischman, R.L., Karr, J.R., Ashe, D.M., Scott, J.M., Noss, R.F., and Schroeder, R.L. 2006. New directions in conservation for the National Wildlife Refuge System. BioScience 56(2):135-143.

Merker, S. 2006. Habitat-specific ranging patterns of Dian's tarsiers (Tarsius dianae) as revealed by radiotracking. Am. J. Primatol. 68(2):111-125.

Michalski, S., Gautschi, B., Burkart, M., and Durka, W. 2006. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the rush Juncus atratus (Juncaceae). Conserv. Genet. 7(1):149-151.

Mills, A.J., and Cowling, R.M. 2006. Rate of carbon sequestration at two thicket restoration sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):38-49.

Miraldo, A., Pinto, I., Pinheiro, J., Rosario, I., Maymone, M., and Paulo, O.S. 2005. Distribution and conservation of the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, in Algarve, southern Portugal. Israel J. Zool. 51(2):157-164.

Monterrubio-Rico, T.C., and Escalante-Pliego, P. 2006. Richness, distribution and conservation status of cavity nesting birds in Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):67-78.

Moodley, Y., and Harley, E.H. 2005. Population structuring in mountain zebras (Equus zebra): the molecular consequences of divergent demographic histories. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):953-968.

Morán-López, R., Guzmán, J.M.S., Borrego, E.C., and Sánchez, A.V. 2006. Nest-site selection of endangered cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) populations affected by anthropogenic disturbance: present and future conservation implications. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):29-37.

Morden, C.W., and Gregoritza, M. 2005. Population variation and phylogeny in the endangered Chamaesyce skottsbergii (Euphorbiaceae) based on RAPD and its analyses. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):969-979.

Morisette, J.T., Jarnevich, C.S., Ullah, A., Cai, W.J., Pedelty, J.A., Gentle, J.E., Stohlgren, T.J., and Schnase, J.L. 2006. A tamarisk habitat suitability map for the continental United States. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(1):11-17.

Morrison, C.L., Lemarié, D.P., Wood, R.M., and King, T.L. 2006. Phylogeographic analyses suggest multiple lineages of Crystallaria asprella (Percidae: Etheostominae). Conserv. Genet. 7(1):129-147.

Moseby, K.E., and Read, J.L. 2006. The efficacy of feral cat, fox and rabbit exclusion fence designs for threatened species protection. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):429-437.

Muñoz, D., Estrada, A., Naranjo, E., and Ochoa, S. 2006. Foraging ecology of howler monkeys in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation in Comalcalco, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 68(2):127-142.

Muñoz-Fuentes, V., Green, A.J., Negro, J.J., and Sorenson, M.D. 2005. Population structure and loss of genetic diversity in the endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):999-1015.

Muntifering, J.R., Dickman, A.J., Perlow, L.M., Hruska, T., Ryan, P.G., Marker, L.L., and Jeo, R.M. 2006. Managing the matrix for large carnivores: a novel approach and perspective from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) habitat suitability modelling. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):103-112.

Muth, N.Z., and Pigliucci, M. 2006. Traits of invasives reconsidered: phenotypic comparisons of introduced invasive and introduced noninvasive plant species within two closely related clades. Am. J. Bot. 93(2):188-196.

Nams, V.O., Mowat, G., and Panian, M.A. 2006. Determining the spatial scale for conservation purposes - an example with grizzly bears. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):109-119.

Nepstad, D., Schwartzman, S., Bamberger, B., Santilli, M., Ray, D., Schlesinger, P., Lefebvre, P., Alencar, A., Prinz, E., Fiske, G., and Rolla, A. 2006. Inhibition of Amazon deforestation and fire by parks and indigenous lands. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):65-73.

Newmark, W.D. 2006. A 16-year study of forest disturbance and understory bird community structure and composition in Tanzania. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):122-134.

Norén, K., Dalén, L., Kvaløy, K., and Angerbjörn, A. 2005. Detection of farm fox and hybrid genotypes among wild Arctic foxes in Scandinavia. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):885-894.

Noss, R.F., Beier, P., Covington, W.W., Grumbine, R.E., Lindenmayer, D.B., Prather, J.W., Schmiegelow, F., Sisk, T.D., and Vosick, D.J. 2006. Recommendations for integrating restoration ecology and conservation biology in ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):4-10.

Oetting, J.B., Knight, A.L., and Knight, G.R. 2006. Systematic reserve design as a dynamic process: F-TRAC and the Florida Forever program. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):37-46.

Ohler, A., and Delorme, M. 2006. Well known does not mean well studied: morphological and molecular support for existence of sibling species in the Javanese gliding frog Rhacophorus reinwardtii (Amphibia, Anura). C.R. Biologies 329(2):86-97.

Ottonetti, L., Tucci, L., and Santini, G. 2006. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):60-66.

Paquin, M.M., Wylie, G.D., and Routman, E.J. 2006. Population structure of the giant garter snake, Thamnophis gigas. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):25-36.

Paterson, B. 2006. Ethics for wildlife conservation: overcoming the human-nature dualism. BioScience 56(2):144-150.

Pausas, J.G., Lloret, F., and Vilà, M. 2006. Simulating the effects of different disturbance regimes on Cortaderia selloana invasion. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):128-135.

Pellegrino, G., Noce, M.E., Bellusci, F., and Musacchio, A. 2006. Reproductive biology and conservation genetics of Serapias vomeracea (Ochidaceae). Folia Geobot. 41(1):21-32.

Pertoldi, C., García-Perea, R., Godoy, J.A., Delibes, M., and Loeschcke, V. 2006. Morphological consequences of range fragmentation and population decline on the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). J. Zool. 268(1):73-86.

Peruzzi, L., Passalacqua, N.G., and Gargano, D. 2005. Re-evaluation of Polygala apiculata (Polygalaceaee), a rare endemic of S Italy. Willdenowia 35(1):65-68.

Pfeifer, M., and Jetschke, G. 2006. Influence of geographical isolation on genetic diversity of Himantoglossum hircinum (Orchidaceae). Folia Geobot. 41(1):3-20.

Poulin, M., Bélisle, M., and Cabeza, M. 2006. Within-site habitat configuration in reserve design: a case study with a peatland bird. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):55-66.

Proudfoot, G.A., Honeycutt, R.L., and Slack, R.D. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA variation and phylogeography of the ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). Conserv. Genet. 7(1):1-12.

Quist, M.C., Hubert, W.A., and Rahel, F.J. 2006. Concurrent assessment of fish and habitat in warmwater streams in Wyoming. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 13(1):9-20.

Ramos, F.N., and Santos, F.A.M. 2005. Phenology of Psychotria tenuinervis (Rubiaceae) in Atlantic forest fragments: fragment and habitat scales. Can. J. Bot. 83(10):1305-1316.

Read, A.J., Drinker, P., and Northridge, S. 2006. Bycatch of marine mammals in US and global fisheries. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):163-169.

Read, J.L., and Moseby, K. 2006. Vertebrates of Tetepare Island, Solomon Islands. Pacific Sci. 60(1):69-79.

Redford, K.H., Robinson, J.G., and Adams, W.M. 2006. Parks as shibboleths. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):1-2.

Robbins, P., McSweeney, K., Waite, T., and Rice, J. 2006. Even conservation rules are made to be broken: implications for biodiversity. Environ. Manage. 37(2):162-169.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Pilgrim, J.D., Lamoreux, J.F., Hoffmann, M., and Brooks, T.M. 2006. The value of the IUCN Red List for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(2):71-76.

Rogers, D.L., Matheson, A.C., Vargas-Hernández, J.J., and Guerra-Santos, J.J. 2006. Genetic conservation of insular populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):779-798.

Rondinini, C., and Boitani, L. 2006. Differences in the umbrella effects of African amphibians and mammals based on two estimators of the area of occupancy. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):170-179.

Rudis, V.A. 2005. A knowledge base for FIA data uses. In: McRoberts, R. and others (eds.). Proceedings of the 5th Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium: 2003 November 18-20, New Orleans, LA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-69. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. pp 209-214. <>

Rudis, V.A., Gray, A., McWilliams, W., O'Brien, R., Olson, C., Oswalt, S., and Schulz, B. 2005. Regional monitoring of nonnative plant invasions with the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program. In: McRoberts, R.E. and others (eds.). Proceedings of the 6th Annual FIA Symposium: 2004 September 21-24, Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-70. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. pp 49-64. <>

Salomon, A.K., Ruesink, J.L., and DeWreede, R.E. 2006. Population viability, ecological processes and biodiversity: valuing sites for reserve selection. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):79-92.

Samways, M.J. 2006. Insect extinctions and insect survival. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):245-246.

Sanders, S., and McGraw, J.B. 2005. Population differentiation of a threatened plant: variation in response to local environment and implications for restoration. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(4):561-572.

Sanford, M.P. 2006. Extirpating the agriculture versus conservation dichotomy. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):253-254.

Sanz-Elorza, M., Dana, E.D., and Sobrino, E. 2006. Invasibility of an inland area in NE Spain by alien plants. Acta Oecol. 29(1):114-122.

Schaefer, V. 2006. Science, stewardship, and spirituality: the human body as a model for ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):1-3.

Schlossberg, S. 2006. Abundance and habitat preferences of gray vireos (Vireo vicinior) on the Colorado Plateau. Auk 123(1):33-44.

Schmidt, I., Zerbe, S., Betzin, J., and Weckesser, M. 2006. An approach to the identification of indicators for forest biodiversity - the Solling mountains (NW Germany) as an example. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):123-136.

Schnoor, J.L. 2006. Endangered Species Act revisited. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(3):631.

Schwartz, T.S., and Karl, S.A. 2005. Population and conservation genetics of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Conserv. Genet. 6(6):917-928.

Schwarzbach, S.E., Albertson, J.D., and Thomas, C.M. 2006. Effects of predation, flooding, and contamination on reproductive success of California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay. Auk 123(1):45-60.

Scott, A.G., Oxford, G.S., and Selden, P.A. 2006. Epigeic spiders as ecological indicators of conservation value for peat. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):420-428.

Sereno, M.L., Albuquerque, P.S.B., Vencovsky, R., and Figueira, A. 2006. Genetic diversity and natural population structure of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from the Brazilian Amazon evaluated by microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):13-24.

Shivji, M.S., Chapman, D.D., Pikitch, E.K., and Raymond, P.W. 2005. Genetic profiling reveals illegal international trade in fins of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1035-1039.

Sigel, B.J., Sherry, T.W., and Young, B.E. 2006. Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):111-121.

Sjostrom, A., and Gross, C.L. 2006. Life-history characters and phylogeny are correlated with extinction risk in the Australian angiosperms. J. Biogeogr. 33(2):271-290.

Sloop, C.M., McGray, H.G., Blum, M.J., and Strong, D.R. 2005. Characterization of 24 additional microsatellite loci in Spartina species (Poaceae). Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1049-1052.

Small, M.P., Frye, A.E., Von Bargen, J.F., and Young, S.F. 2006. Genetic structure of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations in the lower Columbia River: are chum salmon in Cascade tributaries remnant populations? Conserv. Genet. 7(1):65-78.

Sodhi, N.S., and Brook, B.W. 2006. Southeast Asian birds in peril. Auk 123(1):275-277.

Stankey, G.H., and Shindler, B. 2006. Formation of social acceptability judgments and their implications for management of rare and little-known species. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):28-37.

Stout, J.C., Parnell, J.A.N., Arroyo, J., and Crowe, T.P. 2006. Pollination ecology and seed production of Rhododendron ponticum in native and exotic habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(2):755-777.

Swindell, W.R., and Bouzat, J.L. 2006. Gene flow and adaptive potential in Drosophila melanogaster. Conserv. Genet. 7(1):79-89.

Taylor, E.B., Boughman, J.W., Groenenboom, M., Sniatynski, M., Schluter, D., and Gow, J.L. 2006. Speciation in reverse: morphological and genetic evidence of the collapse of a three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) species pair. Mol. Ecol. 15(2):343-355.

Thogmartin, W.E., Knutson, M.G., and Sauer, J.R. 2006. Predicting regional abundance of rare grassland birds with a hierarchical spatial count model. Condor 108(1):25-46.

Thorbjarnarson, J., Mazzotti, F., Sanderson, E., Buitrago, F., Lazcano, M., Minkowski, K., Muñiz, M., Ponce, P., Sigler, L., Soberon, R., Trelancia, A.M., and Velasco, A. 2006. Regional habitat conservation priorities for the American crocodile. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):25-36.

Turner, D., and Patterson, M. 2006. The language of fighting invasive species. Science 311(5763):951.

Tushabe, H., Kalema, J., Byaruhanga, A., Asasira, J., Ssegawa, P., Balmford, A., Davenport, T., Fjeldså, J., Friis, I., Pain, D., Pomeroy, D., Williams, P., and Williams, C. 2006. A nationwide assessment of the biodiversity value of Uganda's Important Bird Areas network. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):85-99.

Tuya, F., Sanchez-Jerez, P., and Haroun, RJ. 2006. Populations of inshore serranids across the Canarian Archipelago: relationships with human pressure and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):13-24.

Twedt, D.J., Uihlein, W.B., and Elliott, A.B. 2006. A spatially explicit decision support model for restoration of forest bird habitat. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):100-110.

Ueno, S., Kitamoto, N., Ohsawa, R., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2005. Nine additional microsatellite markers for Primula sieboldii E. Morren. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1063-1064.

Valladares, G., Salvo, A., and Cagnolo, L. 2006. Habitat fragmentation effects on trophic processes of insect-plant food webs. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):212-217.

Veloso, V.G., Silva, E.S., Caetano, C.H.S., and Cardoso, R.S. 2006. Comparison between the macroinfauna of urbanized and protected beaches in Rio De Janeiro State, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):510-515.

Vianna, J.A., Bonde, R.K., Caballero, S., Giraldo, J.P., Lima, R.P., Clark, A., Marmontel, M., Morales-Vela, B., De Souza, M.J., Parr, L., Rodríguez-Lopez, M.A., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Powell, J.A., and Santos, F.R. 2006. Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in Trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation. Mol. Ecol. 15(2):433-447.

Vieira, D.L.M., and Scariot, A. 2006. Principles of natural regeneration of tropical dry forests for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):11-20.

Vilas, C., San Miguel, E., Amaro, R., and Garcia, C. 2006. Relative contribution of inbreeding depression and eroded adaptive diversify to extinction risk in small populations of shore campion. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):229-238.

Vitz, A.C., and Rodewald, A.D. 2006. Can regenerating clearcuts benefit mature-forest songbirds? An examination of post-breeding ecology. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):477-486.

Walker, B.G., Boersma, P.D., and Wingfield, J.C. 2006. Habituation of adult magellanic penguins to human visitation as expressed through behavior and corticosterone secretion. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):146-154.

Walker, J.L., and Silletti, A.M. 2005. A three-year demographic study of Harper's beauty (Harperocallis flava McDaniel), an endangered Florida endemic. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132(4):551-560.

Watts, P.C., Saccheri, I.J., Kemp, S.J., and Thompson, D.J. 2006. Population structure and the impact of regional and local habitat isolation upon levels of genetic diversity of the endangered damselfly Coenagrion mercuriale (Odonata: Zygoptera). Freshwater Biol. 51(2):193-205.

Wayne, A.F., Cowling, A., Lindenmayer, D.B., Ward, C.G., Vellios, C.V., Donnelly, C.F., and Calvey, M.C. 2006. The abundance of a threatened arboreal marsupial in relation to anthropogenic disturbances at local and landscape scales in Mediterranean-type forests in south-western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 127(4):463-476.

Weimerskirch, H., Akesson, S., and Pinaud, D. 2006. Postnatal dispersal of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans: implications for the conservation of the species. J. Avian Biol. 37(1):23-28.

Wilkie, D.S., Morelli, G.A., Demmer, J., Starkey, M., Telfer, P., and Steil, M. 2006. Parks and people: assessing the human welfare effects of establishing protected areas for biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):247-249.

Williams, P.J., Floyd, T.A., and Rossong, M.A. 2006. Agonistic interactions between invasive green crabs, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus), and sub-adult American lobsters, Homarus americanus (Milne Edwards). J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 329(1):66-74.

Wilson, G.A., Nishi, J.S., Elkin, B.T., and Strobeck, C. 2005. Effects of a recent founding event and intrinsic population dynamics on genetic diversity in an ungulate population. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):905-916.

Wolin, J.A., and MacKeigan, P. 2005. Human influence past and present - relationship of nutrient and hydrologic conditions to urban wetland macrophyte distribution. Ohio J. Sci. 105(5):125-132.

Xu, Q.H., Fang, S.G., Wang, Z.P., and Wang, Z.W. 2005. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) Changxing captive population. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):941-951.

Yasué, M. 2006. Environmental factors and spatial scale influence shorebirds' responses to human disturbance. Biol. Conserv. 128(1):47-54.

Yeung, C.K.L., Yao, C.T., Hsu, Y.C., Wang, J.P., and Li, S.H. 2006. Assessment of the historical population size of an endangered bird, the black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) by analysis of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Anim. Conserv. 9(1):1-10.

Zabel, R.W., Scheuerell, M.D., McClure, M.M., and Williams, J.G. 2006. The interplay between climate variability and density dependence in the population viability of Chinook salmon. Conserv. Biol. 20(1):190-200.

Zaghloul, M.S., Hamrick, J.L., Moustafa, A.A., Kamel, W.M., and El-Ghareeb, R. 2006. Genetic diversity within and among Sinai populations of three Ballota species (Lamiaceae). J. Heredity 97(1):45-54.

Zamith, L.R., and Scarano, F.R. 2006. Restoration of a restinga sandy coastal plain in Brazil: survival and growth of planted woody species. Restor. Ecol. 14(1):87-94.

Zayed, A., Packer, L., Grixti, J.C., Ruz, L., Owen, R.E., and Toro, H. 2005. Increased genetic differentiation in a specialist versus a generalist bee: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 6(6):1017-1026.

Zerbe, S., and Kreyer, D. 2006. Introduction to special section on "Ecosystem restoration and biodiversity: How to assess and measure biological diversity?" Restor. Ecol. 14(1):103-104.

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