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Department ofBotany

No. 258
June 2006

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In This Issue

Tracking Plant Diversity over Time

The tropical rain forests of South America have extremely high plant diversity. Tracking the evolution of Neotropical plant diversity has been difficult due to the limited fossil record. In order to further understanding of the plant diversity, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute scientist Carlos Jaramillo and his colleagues compiled data of the fossil pollen record from 65 to 20 million years ago (the Paleocene to the early Miocene). The pollen record was then correlated with global temperature estimates.

Using samples from central Colombia and western Venezuela, the study analyzed pollen and spore content to determine floral diversity over time. The Paleocene had low diversity, which greatly increased through the middle Eocene and then decreased again through the early Oligocene. This was followed by another spike in diversity and decline from the middle Oligocene to the early Miocene. This overall pattern corresponds well to the trends in global temperatures over the same time period.

Species diversity tends to increase with warmer global temperatures and decrease as the planet cools. This affects the tropics even though the average temperature in the tropics does not change much. Episodes of global warming have correlated with an increase in the area of tropical climates and global cooling has led to shrinkage of tropical area, thereby decreasing species diversity. The results are published in the 31 March issue of Science.

These findings suggest that the size of the forested areas strongly influences plant biodiversity in the Neotropics. Conservation efforts which provide isolated pockets of rain forest to be protected while allowing continued destruction and fragmentation may not be enough to prevent long term declines in biodiversity.

Field Stations

The Central Caribbean Marine Institute is proud to announce that the Caribbean's newest field station, the Little Cayman Research Centre (LCRC) is open to researchers who are interested in studying a wide variety of tropical flora and fauna. The island is one of the least developed in the Caribbean and is home to the endemic Little Cayman iguana, Little Cayman boa, has the largest population of red footed boobies in the Western Hemisphere, and has one of the last spawning aggregations of Nassau grouper. Shallow lagoon, wall, and deep ocean (several thousand meters) habitats are all within swimming distance of the LCRC field station. The coral reefs of Little Cayman are among the best in the Caribbean for research due to the fact that they are isolated from continental and anthropogenic influences and water quality is excellent. The facility is fully equipped for groups with room for 24 students, has 3 laboratories, a large classroom, library, office, and kitchen pavilion. For more information on the research centre, please visit or e-mail

Information Highway Hi-Lites

A recent endeavor, AmphibiaWeb <>, presented by the Digital Library Project at Berkeley and a host of supporting organizations, aims to provide the general public and scientists with a place to retrieve information related to amphibian biology and conservation. Currently, AmphibiaWeb contains material on 1,265 species, along with 1,173 distribution maps, 3,449 literature references, 140 sound files, and 7,188 photographs. With all this information, it helps to have a well thought out search engine, and a finding aid is available here as well. The database can be searched by genus, species, vernacular name, family, order, country, reason for population decline, and so on. The more casual visitor will also want to visit the more general "About Amphibians" section, then glide on over to the "Calls and Video" area. Here, one can listen to a number of creatures, including the call of Aplastodiscus leucopygius, a Brazilian tree frog which sounds a bit like the warning signal emitted by a service vehicle backing into a dock.

-from the Scout Report
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2006.

Current Literature

Acosta, R., Mesones, R.V., and Núñez, A. 2005. Anuran fauna from Salta City, Argentina. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4):569-575.

Addison, P., and Samways, M. 2006. Surrogate habitats demonstrate the invasion potential of the African pugnacious ant. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):411-428.

Araujo, V.A., Antonini, Y., and Araujo, A.P.A. 2006. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaco Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 35(1):30-40.

Arroyo, B., and Razin, M. 2006. Effect of human activities on bearded vulture behaviour and breeding success in the French Pyrenees. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):276-284.

Attum, O., Eason, P., and Wakefield, S. 2006. Conservation implications of midden selection and use in an endangered gazelle (Gazella gazella). J. Zool. 268(3):255-260.

Azlan, J.M., and Sharma, D.S.K. 2006. The diversity and activity patterns of wild felids in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 40(1):36-41.

Bagchi, S., and Mishra, C. 2006. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). J. Zool. 268(3):217-224.

Bani, L., Massimino, D., Bottoni, L., and Massa, R. 2006. A multiscale method for selecting indicator species and priority conservation areas: a case study for broadleaved forests in Lombardy, Italy. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):512-526.

Barlow, J., Peres, C.A., Henriques, L.M.P., Stouffer, P.C., and Wunderle, J.M. 2006. The responses of understorey birds to forest fragmentation, logging and wildfires: an Amazonian synthesis. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):182-192.

Baselga, A., and Novoa, F. 2006. Diversity of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in Galicia, northwest Spain: estimating the completeness of the regional inventory. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):205-230.

Beck, J., Kitching, I.J., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2006. Effects of habitat disturbance can be subtle yet significant: biodiversity of hawkmoth-assemblages (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in Southeast-Asia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):465-486.

Becker, B.H., and Beissinger, S.R. 2006. Centennial decline in the trophic level of an endangered seabird after fisheries decline. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):470-479.

Beissinger, S.R., Walters, J.R., Catanzaro, D.G., Smith, K.G., Dunning, J.B., Haig, S.M., Noon, B.R., and Stith, B.M. 2006. Modeling approaches in avian conservation and the role of field biologists. Auk 123(1 Suppl.):1-56.

Bernardos, S., Amado, A., Aguiar, C., Santos, C., Fernández-Diez, J., González-Talaván, A., and Amich, F. 2006. Conservation status of the threatened Iberian Peninsula narrow endemic Antirrhinum lopesianum Rotham. (Scrophulariaceae). Plant Biosyst. 140(1):2-9.

Bezdek, A., Jaroš, J., and Spitzer, K. 2006. Spatial distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and moths (Lepidoptera) in the Mrtvý luh bog, Šumava Mts. (Central Europe): a test of habitat island community. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):395-409.

Bickel, T.O., Bruhl, C.A., Gadau, J.R., Hölldobler, B., and Linsenmair, K. 2006. Influence of habitat fragmentation on the genetic variability in leaf litter ant populations in tropical rainforests of Sabah, Borneo. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):157-175.

Bilton, D.T., McAbendroth, L., Bedford, A., and Ramsay, P.M. 2006. How wide to cast the net? Cross-taxon congruence of species richness, community similarity and indicator taxa in ponds. Freshwater Biol. 51(3):578-590.

Bollen, A., and Donati, G. 2006. Conservation status of the littoral forest of south-eastern Madagascar: a review. Oryx 40(1):57-66.

Bosch, J., and Martínez-Solano, I. 2006. Chytrid fungus infection related to unusual mortalities of Salamandra salamandra and Bufo bufo in the Peñalara Natural Park, Spain. Oryx 40(1):84-89.

Bossart, J.L., Opuni-Frimpong, E., Kuudaar, S., and Nkrumah, E. 2006. Richness, abundance, and complementarity of fruit-feeding butterfly species in relict sacred forests and forest reserves of Ghana. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):333-359.

Boulton, A.M., and Amberman, K.D. 2006. How ant nests increase soil biota richness and abundance: a field experiment. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):69-82.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., Evans, K., and Hindell, M.A. 2006. Mass cetacean strandings - a plea for empiricism. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):584-586.

Brawn, J.D. 2006. Effects of restoring oak savannas on bird communities and populations. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):460-469.

Breininger, D.R., Toland, B., Oddy, D.M., and Legare, M.L. 2006. Landcover characterizations and Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) population dynamics. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):169-181.

Bucheli, S.R., Horn, D.J., and Wenzel, J.W. 2006. Sampling to assess a re-established Appalachian forest in Ohio based on gelechioid moths (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):503-516.

Buddle, C.M., Langor, D.W., Pohl, G.R., and Spence, J.R. 2006. Arthropod responses to harvesting and wildfire: implications for emulation of natural disturbance in forest management. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):346-357.

Butchart, S.H.M., Akcakaya, H.R., Kennedy, E., and Hilton-Taylor, C. 2006. Biodiversity indicators based on trends in conservation status: strengths of the IUCN Red List index. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):579-581.

Cao, P.J., Yao, Q.F., Ding, B.Y., Zeng, H.Y., Zhong, Y.X., Fu, C.X., and Jin, X.F. 2006. Genetic diversity of Sinojackia dolichocarpa (Styracaceae), a species endangered and endemic to China, detected by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 34(3):231-239.

Cárdenas, A.M., and Hidalgo, J.M. 2006. Ecological impact assessment of the Aznalcollar mine toxic spill on edaphic coleopteran communities in the Guadiamar River basin (Southern Iberian Peninsula). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):361-383.

Casula, P. 2006. Evaluating hypotheses about dispersal in a vulnerable butterfly. Ecol. Res. 21(2):263-270.

Charnley, S. 2006. The Northwest Forest Plan as a model for broad-scale ecosystem management: a social perspective. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):330-340.

Chizinski, C.J., Higgins, C.L., Shavlik, C.E., and Pope, K.L. 2006. Multiple hypotheses testing of fish incidence patterns in an urbanized ecosystem. Aquat. Ecol. 40(1):97-109.

Choquenot, D. 2006. Bioeconomic modeling in conservation pest management: effect of stoat control on extinction risk of an indigenous New Zealand passerine, Mohua ochrocephala. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):480-489.

Christen, D., and Matlack, G. 2006. The role of roadsides in plant invasions: a demographic approach. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):385-391.

Cleary, D.F.R., and Genner, M.J. 2006. Diversity patterns of Bornean butterfly assemblages. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):517-538.

Clewell, A.F., and Aronson, J. 2006. Motivations for the restoration of ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):420-428.

Comtois, A., Chapleau, F., Renaud, C.B., Fournier, H., Campbell, B., and Pariseau, R. 2004. The spring survey of a multi-specific spawning ground: the ichtyofauna of the rapids of the Gatineau River, Quebec. Can. Field-Natural. 118(4):521-529.

Cooney, R., and Jepson, P. 2006. The international wild bird trade: what's wrong with blanket bans? Oryx 40(1):18-23.

Crain, C.M., and Bertness, M.D. 2006. Ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients: implications for conservation and management. BioScience 56(3):211-218.

Crisci, J.V., Sala, O.E., Katinas, L., and Posadas, P. 2006. Bridging historical and ecological approaches in biogeography. Aust. Syst. Bot. 19(1):1-10.

Crossman, N.D., and Bryan, B.A. 2006. Systematic landscape restoration using integer programming. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):369-383.

Cushman, S.A. 2006. Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: a review and prospectus. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):231-240.

Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Fjeldså, J., Andrianandrasana, H.T., Becker, C.D., Bennun, L., Brashares, J.S., Christiansen, S., Donald, P.F., Eguino, S., Enghoff, M., Funder, M., Gray, M., Hübertz, H., Jones, J.P.G., Oetting, I., Poulsen, M.K., von Rijsoort, J., Stuart-Hill, G., Topp-Jørgensen, E., Townsend, W.R., Uychiaoco, A.J., Whitten, T., and Yonten, D. 2006. Monitoring matters: evaluating locally-based biodiversity monitoring in developing countries. Oryx 40(1):14-15.

Darvill, B., Ellis, J.S., Lye, G.C., and Goulson, D. 2006. Population structure and inbreeding in a rare and declining bumblebee, Bombus muscorum (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Mol. Ecol. 15(3):601-611.

DellaSala, D.A., and Williams, J.E. 2006. Special section: The Northwest Forest Plan: a global model of forest management in contentious times. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):274-276.

Díaz, J.A., Monasterio, C., and Salvador, A. 2006. Abundance, microhabitat selection and conservation of eyed lizards (Lacerta lepida): a radiotelemetric study. J. Zool. 268(3):295-301.

Diekötter, T., Walther-Hellwig, K., Conradi, M., Suter, M., and Frankl, R. 2006. Effects of landscape elements on the distribution of the rare bumblebee species Bombus muscorum in an agricultural landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):57-68.

Dietz, H., Kueffer, C., and Parks, C.G. 2006. MIREN: a new research network concerned with plant invasion into mountain areas. Mtn. Res. Dev. 26(1):80-81.

Dobbs, T.T., and Boyd, D.W. 2006. Status and distribution of Montandoniola moraguesi (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in the continental United States. Fl. Entomol. 89(1):41-46.

Domingo-Roura, X., Marmi, J., Ferrando, A., López-Giráldez, F., Macdonald, D.W., and Jansman, H.A.H. 2006. Badger hair in shaving brushes comes from protected Eurasian badgers. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):425-430.

dos Anjos, L. 2006. Bird species sensitivity in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic forest in southern Brazil. Biotropica 38(2):229-234.

Durska, E. 2006. Diversity of the scuttle fly (Diptera: Phoridae) communities in the plantations of moist pine forests of the Bialowieza Primeval Forest and the Tuchola Forest (Poland). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):385-393.

Eisermann, K., and Schulz, U. 2005. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4):577-594.

Engeman, R., Whisson, D., Quinn, J., Cano, F., Quiñones, P., and White, T.H. 2006. Monitoring invasive mammalian predator populations sharing habitat with the Critically Endangered Puerto Rican parrot Amazona vittata. Oryx 40(1):95-102.

Field, R.G., Gardiner, T., Mason, C.F., and Hill, J. 2006. Countryside stewardship scheme and butterflies: a study of plant and butterfly species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):443-452.

Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Manning, A.D. 2006. Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and resilience: ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(2):80-86.

Fisher, M. 2006. Don't desert drylands. Oryx 40(1):1-2.

Flaquer, C., Torre, I., and Ruiz-Jarillo, R. 2006. The value of bat-boxes in the conservation of Pipistrellus pygmaeus in wetland rice paddies. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):223-230.

Floeter, S.R., Halpern, B.S., and Ferreira, C.E.L. 2006. Effects of fishing and protection on Brazilian reef fishes. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):391-402.

Forkner, R.E., Marquis, R.J., Lill, J.T., and Le Corff, J. 2006. Impacts of alternative timber harvest practices on leaf-chewing herbivores of oak. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):429-440.

Freemark, K.E., Meyers, M., White, D., Warman, L.D., Kiester, A.R., and Lumban-Tobing, P. 2006. Species richness and biodiversity conservation priorities in British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 84(1):20-31.

Gavashelishvili, A., McGrady, M.J., and Javakhishvili, Z. 2006. Planning the conservation of the breeding population of cinereous vultures Aegypius monachus in the Republic of Georgia. Oryx 40(1):76-83.

Gebeyehu, S., and Samways, M.J. 2006. Topographic heterogeneity plays a crucial role for grasshopper diversity in a southern African megabiodiversity hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):231-244.

Gerwein, J.B., and Kesseli, R.V. 2006. Genetic diversity and population structure of Quercus rubra (Fagaceae) in old-growth and secondary forests in southern New England. Rhodora 108(933):1-18.

Gil-Sánchez, J., and Alba-Tercedor, J. 2006. The decline of the endangered populations of the native freshwater crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) in southern Spain: it is possible to avoid extinction? Hydrobiologia 559:113-122.

Gilardi, J.D. 2006. Captured for conservation: will cages save wild birds? A response to Cooney & Jepson. Oryx 40(1):24-26.

Gillespie, T.R., and Chapman, C.A. 2006. Prediction of parasite infection dynamics in primate metapopulations based on attributes of forest fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):441-448.

Goossens, B., Chikhi, L., Ancrenaz, M., Lackman-Ancrenaz, I., Andau, P., and Bruford, M.W. 2006. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans. PLoS Biol. 4(2):285-291.

Griebeler, E.M., and Seitz, A. 2006. The use of Markovian metapopulation models: reducing the dimensionality of transition matrices by self-organizing Kohonen networks. Ecol. Model. 192(1-2):271-285.

Grobler, P.J., Jones, J.W., Johnson, N.A., Beaty, B., Struthers, J., Neves, R.J., and Hallerman, E.M. 2006. Patterns of genetic differentiation and conservation of the slabside pearlymussel, Lexingtonia dolabelloides (Lea, 1840) in the Tennessee River drainage. J. Molluscan Stud. 72:65-75.

Grogan, J., and Galvão, J. 2006. Factors limiting post-logging seedling regeneration by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in southeastern Amazonia, Brazil, and implications for sustainable management. Biotropica 38(2):219-228.

Guisan, A., Broennimann, O., Engler, R., Vust, M., Yoccoz, N.G., Lehmann, A., and Zimmermann, N.E. 2006. Using niche-based models to improve the sampling of rare species. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):501-511.

Gunn, A., Miller, F.L., Barry, S.J., and Buchan, A. 2006. A near-total decline in caribou on Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands, Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59(1):1-13.

Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Appleton, G.F., Gíslason, H., Gardarsson, A., Watkinson, A.R., and Sutherland, W.J. 2006. Large-scale habitat associations of birds in lowland Iceland: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):265-275.

Hagen, A.N., and Hodges, K.E. 2006. Resolving critical habitat designation failures: reconciling law, policy, and biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):399-407.

Haines, A.M., Janecka, J.E., Tewes, M.E., Grassman, L.I., and Morton, P. 2006. The importance of private lands for ocelot Leopardus pardalis conservation in the United States. Oryx 40(1):90-94.

Han, M.H., and Kim, J.G. 2006. Water-holding capacity of a floating peat mat determines the survival and growth of Menyanthes trifoliata L. (bog bean) in an oligotrophic lake. J. Plant Biol. 49(1):102-105.

Hardman, B., and Moro, D. 2006. Optimising reintroduction success by delayed dispersal: is the release protocol important for hare-wallabies? Biol. Conserv. 128(3):403-411.

Harrison, S., Grace, J.B., Davies, K.F., Safford, H.D., and Viers, J.H. 2006. Invasion in a diversity hotspot: exotic cover and native richness in the Californian serpentine flora. Ecology 87(3):695-703.

Herrmann, N., Weiss, G., and Durka, W. 2006. Biological flora of Central Europe: Muscari tenuiflorum Tausch. Flora 201(2):81-101.

Hess, G.R., Koch, F.H., Rubino, M.J., Eschelbach, K.A., Drew, C.A., and Favreau, J.M. 2006. Comparing the potential effectiveness of conservation planning approaches in central North Carolina, USA. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):358-368.

Hill, J.P., Germino, M.J., Wraith, J.M., Olson, B.E., and Swan, M.B. 2006. Advantages in water relations contribute to greater photosynthesis in Centaurea maculosa compared with established grasses. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167(2):269-277.

Jackson, D.B. 2006. The breeding biology of introduced hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) on a Scottish island: lessons for population control and bird conservation. J. Zool. 268(3):303-314.

Jaramillo, C., Rueda, M.J., and Mora, G. 2006. Cenozoic plant diversity in the Neotropics. Science 311(5769):1893-1896.

Jiménez-Valverde, A., Mendoza, S.J., Cano, J.M., and Munguira, M.L. 2006. Comparing relative model fit of several species-accumulation functions to local Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea butterfly inventories of Mediterranean habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):177-190.

Jones, A. 2006. Invertebrate conservation in the Falkland Islands. Oryx 40(1):12-13.

Jonsson, M., and Nordlander, G. 2006. Insect colonisation of fruiting bodies of the wood-decaying fungus Fomitopsis pinicola at different distances from an old-growth forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):295-309.

Jordan, F., Liu, W.C., and Davis, A.J. 2006. Topological keystone species: measures of positional importance in food webs. Oikos 112(3):535-546.

Kaiser, M.J., and Edwards-Jones, G. 2006. The role of ecolabeling in fisheries management and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):392-398.

Karanth, K.K., Curran, L.M., and Reuning-Scherer, J.D. 2006. Village size and forest disturbance in Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):147-157.

Kawamura, K., Yonekura, R., Katano, O., Taniguchi, Y., and Saitoh, K. 2006. Origin and dispersal of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in Japan and Korea. Mol. Ecol. 15(3):613-621.

Keeley, J.E. 2006. Fire management impacts on invasive plants in the western United States. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):375-384.

Kholodova, M.V., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Easton, A.J., Amgalan, L., Arylov, I.A., Bekenov, A., Grachev, I.A., Lushchekina, A.A., and Ryder, O. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA variation and population structure of the Critically Endangered saiga antelope Saiga tatarica. Oryx 40(1):103-107.

King, R.B., Ray, J.M., and Stanford, K.M. 2006. Gorging on gobies: beneficial effects of alien prey on a threatened vertebrate. Can. J. Zool. 84(1):108-115.

Kleijn, D., Baquero, R.A., Clough, Y., Díaz, M., De Esteban, J., Fernández, F., Gabriel, D., Herzog, F., Holzschuh, A., Johl, R., Knop, E., Kruess, A., Marshall, E.J.P., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Tscharntke, T., Verhulst, J., West, T.M., and Yela, J.L. 2006. Mixed biodiversity benefits of agri-environment schemes in five European countries. Ecol. Lett. 9(3):243-254.

Knight, A.T., Cowling, R.M., and Campbell, B.M. 2006. An operational model for implementing conservation action. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):408-419.

Koch, V., Nichols, W.J., Peckham, H., and de la Toba, V. 2006. Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching and bycatch in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):327-334.

Krajick, K. 2006. The lost world of the Kihansi toad. Science 311(5765):1230-1232.

Kuper, W., Sommer, J.H., Lovett, J.C., and Barthlott, W. 2006. Deficiency in African plant distribution data - missing pieces of the puzzle. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 150(3):355-368.

Lachat, T., Attignon, S., Djego, J., Goergen, G., Nagel, P., Sinsin, B., and Peveling, R. 2006. Arthropod diversity in Lama forest reserve (South Benin), a mosaic of natural, degraded and plantation forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):3-23.

Lambrinos, J.G. 2006. Spatially variable propagule pressure and herbivory influence invasion of chaparral shrubland by an exotic grass. Oecologia 147(2):327-334.

Lamm, R.D. 2006. The culture of growth and the culture of limits. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):269-271.

Leach, W.D. 2006. Theories about consensus-based conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):573-575.

Lehman, S.M., Ratsimbazafy, J., Rajaonson, A., and Day, S. 2006. Decline of Propithecus diadema edwardsi and Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae) in south-east Madagascar. Oryx 40(1):108-111.

Liebherr, J.K. 2005. New species of Mecyclothorax (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Psydrini) from Polipoli, Maui define an area of endemism on Halacakala Volcano, Hawaii. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 113(3-4):97-128.

Littlewood, N.A., Pakeman, R.J., and Woodin, S.J. 2006. The response of plant and insect assemblages to the loss of Calluna vulgayis from upland vegetation. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):335-345.

Loyola, R.D., Brito, S.L., and Ferreira, R.L. 2006. Ecosystem disturbances and diversity increase: implications for invertebrate conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):25-42.

Ludwig, A. 2006. A sturgeon view on conservation genetics. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 52(1):3-8.

Maa, C.J.W., Wang, H.J., and Lin, H.J. 2006. Impacts of catastrophic earthquakes on the insect communities in estuarine mangroves, northern Taiwan. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):429-441.

Magagula, C.N. 2006. Habitat specificity and variation of coleopteran assemblages between habitats in a southern African (Swaziland) agricultural landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):453-463.

Malcolm, J.R., Liu, C.R., Neilson, R.P., Hansen, L., and Hannah, L. 2006. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):538-548.

Malmstrom, C.M., Stoner, C.J., Brandenburg, S., and Newton, L.A. 2006. Virus infection and grazing exert counteracting influences on survivorship of native bunchgrass seedlings competing with invasive exotics. J. Ecology 94(2):264-275.

Matola, S. 2006. The harpy eagle restored to former Central American range. Oryx 40(1):13.

McInerny, G.J., Roberts, D.L., Davy, A.J., and Cribb, P.J. 2006. Significance of sighting rate in inferring extinction and threat. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):562-567.

McPherson, J.M., Jetz, W., and Rogers, D.J. 2006. Using coarse-grained occurrence data to predict species distributions at finer spatial resolutions-possibilities and limitations. Ecol. Model. 192(3-4):499-522.

Meine, C. 2006. For whom the roll calls. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):272-273.

Miles, L., Newton, A.C., DeFries, R.S., Ravilious, C., May, I., Blyth, S., Kapos, V., and Gordon, J.E. 2006. A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forests. J. Biogeogr. 33(3):491-505.

Minchinton, T.E., Simpson, J.C., and Bertness, M.D. 2006. Mechanisms of exclusion of native coastal marsh plants by an invasive grass. J. Ecology 94(2):342-354.

Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M.D., and Datta, A. 2006. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation Needs. Oryx 40(1):29-35.

Molina, R., Marcot, B.G., and Lesher, R. 2006. Protecting rare, old-growth, forest-associated species under the survey and manage program guidelines of the Northwest Forest Plan. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):306-318.

Molleman, F., Kop, A., Brakefield, P.M., De Vries, P.J., and Zwaan, B.J. 2006. Vertical and temporal patterns of biodiversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):107-121.

Mumby, P.J. 2006. Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: algorithms for the design of marine reserves at seascape scales. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):215-222.

Murray, T.J., Dickinson, K.J.M., and Barratt, B.I.P. 2006. Associations between weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidea) and plants, and conservation values in two tussock grasslands, Otago, New Zealand. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):123-137.

Muthuramkumar, S., Ayyappan, N., Parthasarathy, N., Mudappa, D., Raman, T.R.S., Selwyn, M.A., and Pragasan, L.A. 2006. Plant community structure in tropical rain forest fragments of the Western Ghats, India. Biotropica 38(2):143-160.

Naidoo, R., and Adamowicz, W.L. 2006. Modeling opportunity costs of conservation in transitional landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):490-500.

Nascimbene, J., Caniglia, G., Nicli, M., and Vedove, M.D. 2006. Populations of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in the Cansiglio Regional Forest (Veneto, pre-Alps, north-east Italy): distribution, diversity and conservation issues. Plant Biosyst. 140(1):34-42.

Neckel-Oliveira, S., and Gascon, C. 2006. Abundance, body size and movement patterns of a tropical treefrog in continuous and fragmented forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):308-315.

Neelakandan, V.N., Mohanan, C.N., and Sukumar, B. 2006. Development of a biogeographical information system for conservation monitoring of biodiversity. Curr. Sci. 90(3):444-450.

Noon, B.R., and Blakesley, J.A. 2006. Conservation of the northern spotted owl under the Northwest Forest Plan. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):288-296.

O'Malley, R., King, T., Turner, C.S., Tyler, S., Benares, J., Cummings, M., and Raines, P. 2006. The diversity and distribution of the fruit bat fauna (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Megachiroptera) of Danjugan Island, Cauayan, Negros Occidental, Philippines (with notes on the microchiroptera). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):43-56.

Ødegaard, F. 2006. Host specificity, alpha- and beta-diversity of phytophagous beetles in two tropical forests in Panama. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):83-105.

Ohlemuller, R., Walker, S., and Wilson, J.B. 2006. Local vs. regional factors as determinants of the invasibility of indigenous forest fragments by alien plant species. Oikos 112(3):493-501.

Olden, J.D., and Rooney, T.P. 2006. On defining and quantifying biotic homogenization. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 15(2):113-120.

Olson, D., Farley, L., Naisilisili, W., Raikabula, A., Prasad, O., Atherton, J., and Morley, C. 2006. Remote forest refugia for Fijian wildlife. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):568-572.

Orr, D.W. 2006. Framing sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):265-268.

Parker, J.D., Burkepile, D.E., and Hay, M.E. 2006. Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science 311(5766):1459-1461.

Parsons, K., and Hermanutz, L. 2006. Conservation of rare, endemic Braya species (Brassicaceae): breeding system variation, potential hybridization and human disturbance. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):201-214.

Pauchard, A., and Alaback, P.B. 2006. Edge type defines alien plant species invasions along Pinus contorta burned, highway and clearcut forest edges. Forest Ecol. Manag. 223(1-3):327-335.

Peck, J.E. 2006. Towards sustainable commercial moss harvest in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):289-297.

Pehlak, H., Lohmus, A., Kuresoo, A., and Luigujoe, L. 2006. Land-based census of wintering waterfowl: reliability and conservation implications. Waterbirds 29(1):76-80.

Pellerin, S., Huot, J., and Côté, S.D. 2006. Long term effects of deer browsing and trampling on the vegetation of peatlands. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):316-326.

Perkol-Finkel, S., Shashar, N., and Benayahu, Y. 2006. Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural features and age. Mar. Environ. Res. 61(2):121-135.

Perrings, C., Jackson, L., Bawa, K., Brussaard, L., Brush, S., Gavin, T., Papa, R., Pascual, U., and De Ruiter, P. 2006. Biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: saving natural capital without losing interest. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):263-264.

Petersen, S.D., and Stewart, D.T. 2006. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from Nova Scotia. J. Mammal. 87(1):153-160.

Peterson, M.N., Peterson, M.J., and Peterson, T.R. 2006. Why conservation needs dissent. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):576-578.

Philpott, S.M., Perfecto, I., and Vandermeer, J. 2006. Effects of management intensity and season on arboreal ant diversity and abundance in coffee agroecosystems. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):139-155.

Philpott, S.M., Uno, S., and Maldonado, J. 2006. The importance of ants and high-shade management to coffee pollination and fruit weight in Chiapas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):487-501.

Phoenix, G.K., Hicks, W.K., Cinderby, S., Kuylenstierna, J.C.I., Stock, W.D., Dentener, F.J., Giller, K.E., Austin, A.T., Lefroy, R.D.B., Gimeno, B.S., Ashmore, M.R., and Ineson, P. 2006. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in world biodiversity hotspots: the need for a greater global perspective in assessing N deposition impacts. Global Change Biol. 12(3):470-476.

Piola, R.F., and Johnston, E.L. 2006. Differential tolerance to metals among populations of the introduced bryozoan Bugula neritina. Mar. Biol. 148(5):997-1010.

Power, T.M. 2006. Public timber supply, market adjustments, and local economies: economic assumptions of the Northwest Forest Plan. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):341-350.

Priddel, D., Carlile, N., Fullagar, P., Hutton, I., and O'Neill, L. 2006. Decline in the distribution and abundance of flesh-footed shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes) on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):412-424.

Quayle, J.F., and Ramsay, L.R. 2006. Biodiversity indicators based on trends in conservation status: advancing the science. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):582-583.

Raphael, M.G. 2006. Conservation of the marbled murrelet under the Northwest Forest Plan. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):297-305.

Reeves, G.H., Williams, J.E., Burnett, K.M., and Gallo, K. 2006. The aquatic conservation strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):319-329.

Rew, M.B., Peery, M.Z., Beissinger, S.R., Bérubé, M., Lozier, J.D., Rubidge, E.M., and Palsbøll, P.J. 2006. Cloning and characterization of 29 tetranucleotide and two dinucleotide polymorphic microsatellite loci from the endangered marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(1):241-244.

Rhodes, J.R., Wiegand, T., McAlpine, C.A., Callaghan, J., Lunney, D., Bowen, M., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Modeling species' distributions to improve conservation in semiurban landscapes: koala case study. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):449-459.

Roberts, D.L., and Kitchener, A.C. 2006. Inferring extinction from biological records: were we too quick to write off Miss Waldron's red colobus monkey (Piliocolobus badius waldronae)? Biol. Conserv. 128(2):285-287.

Rodewald, A.D., and Bakermans, M.H. 2006. What is the appropriate paradigm for riparian forest conservation? Biol. Conserv. 128(2):193-200.

Roe, D. 2006. Blanket bans - conservation or imperialism? A response to Cooney & Jepson. Oryx 40(1):27-28.

Rossong, M.A., Williams, P.J., Comeau, M., Mitchell, S.C., and Apaloo, J. 2006. Agonistic interactions between the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and juvenile American lobster, Homarus americanus (Milne Edwards). J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 329(2):281-288.

Rouget, M., Cowling, R.M., Lombard, A.T., Knight, A.T., and Graham, I.H.K. 2006. Designing large-scale conservation corridors for pattern and process. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):549-561.

Ruiz-Carus, R., Matheson, R.E., Roberts, D.E., and Whitfield, P.E. 2006. The western Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae), in Florida: evidence for reproduction and parasitism in the first exotic marine fish established in state waters. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):384-390.

Saarinen, E.V., and Daniels, J.C. 2006. Miami blue butterfly larvae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and ants (Hymeoptera: Formicidae): new information on the symbionts of an endangered taxon. Fl. Entomol. 89(1):69-74.

Samways, M. 2006. Looking after the woof and weft of life: arthropod diversity and its conservation - introduction. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):1-2.

Sander, A.C., Purtauf, T., Holzhauer, S.I.J., and Wolters, V. 2006. Landscape effects on the genetic structure of the ground beetle Poecilus versicolor Sturm 1824. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):245-259.

Searcy, K.B., Pucko, C., and McClelland, D. 2006. The distribution and habitat preferences of introduced species in the Mount Holyoke Range, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Rhodora 108(933):43-61.

Semiadi, G., and Meijaard, E. 2006. Declining populations of the Javan warty pig Sus verrucosus. Oryx 40(1):50-56.

Seoane, J., Justribó, J.H., García, F., Retamar, J., Rabadán, C., and Atienza, J.C. 2006. Habitat-suitability modelling to assess the effects of land-use changes on Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti: a case study in the Layna Important Bird Area. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):241-252.

Sheil, D., Puri, R., Wan, M., Basuki, I., van Heist, M., Liswanti, N., Rukmiyati, Rachmatika, I., and Samsoedin, I. 2006. Recognizing local people's priorities for tropical forest biodiversity. Ambio 35(1):17-24.

Shepherd, L.D., and Lambert, D.M. 2006. Nuclear microsatellite DNA markers for New Zealand kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(1):227-229.

Shivik, J.A. 2006. Tools for the edge: what's new for conserving carnivores. BioScience 56(3):253-259.

Silva, J.F., Fariñas, M.R., Felfili, J.M., and Klink, C.A. 2006. Spatial heterogeneity, land use and conservation in the cerrado region of Brazil. J. Biogeogr. 33(3):536-548.

Simandle, E.T., Peacock, M.M., Zirelli, L., and Tracy, C.R. 2006. Sixteen microsatellite loci for the Bufo boreas group. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(1):116-119.

Sinha, S.P., and Chandola, S.S. 2006. Swamp deer sighting in Uttaranchal State, India. Oryx 40(1):14.

Soares, B.S., Nepstad, D.C., Curran, L.M., Cerqueira, G.C., Garcia, R.A., Ramos, C.A., Voll, E., McDonald, A., Lefebvre, P., and Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083):520-523.

Solberg, K.H., Bellemain, E., Drageset, O.M., Taberlet, P., and Swenson, J.E. 2006. An evaluation of field and non-invasive genetic methods to estimate brown bear (Ursus arctos) population size. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):158-168.

Soutullo, A., and Gudynas, E. 2006. How effective is the MERCOSUR's network of protected areas in representing South America's ecoregions? Oryx 40(1):112-116.

Spies, T.A., Hemstrom, M.A., Youngblood, A., and Hummel, S. 2006. Conserving old-growth forest diversity in disturbance-prone landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):351-362.

Squires, J.R., McKelvey, K.S., and Ruggiero, L.F. 2004. A snow-tracking protocol used to delineate local lynx, Lynx canadensis, distributions. Can. Field-Natural. 118(4):583-589.

Stark, S.C., Bunker, D.E., and Carson, W.P. 2006. A null model of exotic plant diversity tested with exotic and native species-area relationships. Ecol. Lett. 9(2):136-141.

Strauss, S.Y., Lau, J.A., and Carroll, S.P. 2006. Evolutionary responses of natives to introduced species: what do introductions tell us about natural communities? Ecol. Lett. 9(3):357-374.

Strittholt, J.R., DellaSala, D.A., and Jiang, H. 2006. Status of mature and old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):363-374.

Stuckas, H., and Tiedemann, R. 2006. Eight new microsatellite loci for the critically endangered fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina and their cross-species applicability among anurans. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(1):150-152.

Suarez, E.R., Tierney, G.L., Fahey, T.J., and Fahey, R. 2006. Exploring patterns of exotic earthworm distribution in a temperate hardwood forest in south-central New York, USA. Landscape Ecol. 21(2):297-306.

Suhling, F., Sahlén, G., Martens, A., Marais, E., and Schütte, C. 2006. Dragonfly assemblages in arid tropical environments: a case study from western Namibia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):311-332.

Taft, O.W., and Haig, S.M. 2006. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley. Biol. Conserv. 128(3):298-307.

Takeda, M., Amano, T., Katoh, K., and Higuchi, H. 2006. The habitat requirement of the Genji-firefly Luciola cruciata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), a representative endemic species of Japanese rural landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):191-203.

Taylor, M. 2006. Influence of mastic cultivation on the orchid diversity of Chios, Greece. Oryx 40(1):16.

Thomas, J.W., Franklin, J.F., Gordon, J., and Johnson, K.N. 2006. The Northwest Forest Plan: origins, components, implementation experience, and suggestions for change. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):277-287.

Thomsen, M.A., D'Antonio, C.M., Suttle, K.B., and Sousa, W.P. 2006. Ecological resistance, seed density and their interactions determine patterns of invasion in a California coastal grassland. Ecol. Lett. 9(2):160-170.

Thuiller, W., Broennimann, O., Hughes, G., Alkemade, J.R.M., Midgley, G.F., and Corsi, F. 2006. Vulnerability of African mammals to anthropogenic climate change under conservative land transformation assumptions. Global Change Biol. 12(3):424-440.

Tiwari, O.N., and Chauhan, U.K. 2006. Rhododendron conservation in Sikkim Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 90(4):532-541.

Toda, Y., and Sakuratani, Y. 2006. Expansion of the geographical distribution of an exotic ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and its interspecific relationships with native ladybird beetles in Japan. Ecol. Res. 21(2):292-300.

Turner, W.R., and Wilcove, D.S. 2006. Adaptive decision rules for the acquisition of nature reserves. Conserv. Biol. 20(2):527-537.

Ulyshen, M.D., Hanula, J.L., Horn, S., Kilgo, J.C., and Moorman, C.E. 2006. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):261-274.

Usio, N., Nakajima, H., Kamiyama, R., Wakana, I., Hiruta, S., and Takamura, N. 2006. Predicting the distribution of invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in a Kusiro Moor marsh (Japan) using classification and regression trees. Ecol. Res. 21(2):271-277.

Vellend, M., Verheyen, K., Jacquemyn, H., Kolb, A., Van Calster, H., Peterken, G., and Hermy, M. 2006. Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation. Ecology 87(3):542-548.

Veron, G., Gaubert, P., Franklin, N., Jennings, A.P., and Grassman, L.I. 2006. A reassessment of the distribution and taxonomy of the Endangered otter civet Cynogale bennettii (Carnivora: Viverridae) of South-east Asia. Oryx 40(1):42-49.

Vigne, L., and Martin, E. 2006. The Garamba-Yemen link and the near extinction of the northern white rhino. Oryx 40(1):13-14.

Walgren, M. 2006. Restoration efforts augment range extension of a federally-threatened plant, Suaeda californica (S. Watson 1874). Calif. Fish Game 92(1):39-46.

Walsh, M.R., Munch, S.B., Chiba, S., and Conover, D.O. 2006. Maladaptive changes in multiple traits caused by fishing: impediments to population recovery. Ecol. Lett. 9(2):142-148.

Wang, G.H. 2006. Can the restoration of natural vegetation be accelerated on the Chinese Loess Plateau? A study of the response of the leaf carbon isotope ratio of dominant species to changing soil carbon and nitrogen levels. Ecol. Res. 21(2):188-196.

Whitmire, S.L., and Tobin, P.C. 2006. Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States. Oecologia 147(2):230-237.

Williams, P., Faith, D., Manne, L., Sechrest, W., and Preston, C. 2006. Complementarity analysis: mapping the performance of surrogates for biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 128(2):253-264.

Wilson, K.A., McBride, M.F., Bode, M., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Prioritizing global conservation efforts. Nature 440(7082):337-340.

Wires, L.R., and Cuthbert, F.J. 2006. Historic populations of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus): implications for conservation and management in the 21st century. Waterbirds 29(1):9-37.

Woolaver, L., Nichols, R., Rakotombololona, W.F., Volahy, A.T., and Durbin, J. 2006. Population status, distribution and conservation needs of the narrow-striped mongoose Mungotictis decemlineata of Madagascar. Oryx 40(1):67-75.

Wunderle, J.M., Henriques, L.M.P., and Willig, M.R. 2006. Short-term responses of birds to forest gaps and understory: an assessment of reduced-impact logging in a lowland Amazon forest. Biotropica 38(2):235-255.

Yao, X.H., Ye, Q.G., Kang, M., Zhou, J.F., Xu, Y.Q., Wang, Y., and Huang, H.W. 2006. Characterization of microsatellite markers in the endangered Sinojackia xylocarpa (Styracaceae) and cross-species amplification in closely related taxa. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(1):133-136.

Zurbrügg, C., and Frank, T. 2006. Factors influencing bug diversity (Insecta: Heteroptera) in semi-natural habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(1):275-294.

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