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Department ofBotany



No. 259
July 2006


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In This Issue


The Future of Tropical Forests


Tropical rainforests are among the most species rich regions of the world. If current deforestation and habitat loss continues, a mass extinction of forest species is predicted in these areas. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute scientist S. Joseph Wright and Helene Muller-Landau from the University of Minnesota have recently conducted a survey of human population trends and forest cover.

Wright and Muller-Landau use present-day relationships between forest cover and population density and United Nations population projections to predict future forest cover for tropical African, American and Asian countries. United Nations population projections generally predict that human population growth rates will decline and that urbanization will intensify. Wright and Muller-Landau predict future forest cover using both an optimistic scenario based on rural populations alone and a pessimistic scenario based on total (rural plus urban) populations.

Continental trends suggest that deforestation will decrease and a larger area will remain forested in the Americas where population growth is slowing most rapidly and urbanization continues to increase. The outlook is not as optimistic in Asia and Africa. Asian forests are already quite diminished and populations are growing at a higher rate. In Africa, however, population growth overall and particularly in rural areas continues to increase, and net deforestation is expected to continue.

This research suggests that global deforestation will decrease, regeneration of forested areas will increase and a mass extinction of rainforest species can be avoided. Wright and Muller-Landau hope their research will stimulate more sophisticated predictions of future forest cover. In the meantime, further research is needed to establish the threat to individual species and determine which global, regional or local factors may influence these threats. This research will improve the ability to evaluate and manage human influences on forest species.


Halting Biological Hitchhikers


Today, destructive invasive alien species such as gypsy moths and brown tree snakes zip around the globe at the speed of commerce. They often hitch rides with unwitting people, animals or goods. The ultimate goal of a world-wide network of researchers, health care professionals and cargo inspectors is stopping these invasions before they start, on the organism's native soil. Now there is a revolutionary analytical weapon in their arsenal.

Greg Ruiz of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center and James Carlton of the Maritime Studies Program of Williams College, have developed an ingenious technique for assessing and prioritizing invasion threats. It focuses on the vector, or transportation mechanism of a given threat, rather than the threat itself.

Ruiz and Carlton share their methods in a chapter of the new book Invasive Alien Species, edited by H.A. Mooney, et al., and published by Island Press. The duo state that, "Clearly, the easiest way to prevent new invasions is vector interception or disruption, whereby the capacity of the vector to move species is greatly constrained."

Their approach focuses on evaluating a vector's threat profile by specific and universal criteria:

  1. Reason for transport. Is it accidental or deliberate?
  2. Geographic path over which a species is transported.
  3. Mechanism of transport, or the type of vector, such as stagnant water in recycled tires, or packing material.
  4. Vector tempo. The size, rate and speed over time that the vector transports organisms.
  5. Diversity, density and condition of organisms transferred.
  6. Vector strength or the relative number or rate of invasions that result from a given vector in a particular region.

Those battling invasives are faced daily with a massively complex matrix of environmental, social, economic and even political factors that affect the mechanisms which conspire to spread invasive species. The work of Ruiz and Carlton provides a vector analysis tool. Using this framework to rank and evaluate the risks of invasion, managers can now rationally prioritize and target the most important vectors.


Current Literature


Ali, M.M., and Soltan, M.A. 2006. Expansion of Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil) into Lake Nasser, Egypt: invasive capacity and habitat stability. Aquat. Bot. 84(3):239-244.

Allen, C.R. 2006. Predictors of introduction success in the South Florida avifauna. Biol. Invasions 8(3):491-500.

Allen, M.R., and Shea, K. 2006. Spatial segregation of congeneric invaders in central Pennsylvania, USA. Biol. Invasions 8(3):509-521.

Anderson, C.B., Griffith, C.R., Rosemond, A.D., Rozzi, R., and Dollenz, O. 2006. The effects of invasive North American beavers on riparian plant communities in Cape Horn, Chile - do exotic beavers engineer differently in sub-Antarctic ecosystems? Biol. Conserv. 128(4):467-474.

Angel, A., Branch, G.M., Wanless, R.M., and Siebert, T. 2006. Causes of rarity and range restriction of an endangered, endemic limpet, Siphonaria compressa. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 330(1):245-260.

Archawaranon, M. 2005. Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa breeding success: potential for bird conservation in Thailand? Bird Conserv. Int. 15(4):327-335.

Arnold, J.M., Brault, S., and Croxall, J.P. 2006. Albatross populations in peril: a population trajectory for black-browed albatrosses at South Georgia. Ecol. Appl. 16(1):419-432.

Avenetti, L.D., Robinson, A.T., and Cantrell, C.J. 2006. Short-term effectiveness of constructed barriers at protecting Apache trout. North Am. J. Fish. Manag. 26(1):213-216.

Azad, M.A.J.B.A. 2006. Mammal diversity and conservation in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):1013-1025.

Bales, S.L., Hellgren, E.C., Leslie, D.M., and Hemphill, J. 2005. Dynamics of a recolonizing population of black bears in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(4):1342-1351.

Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2006. Effects of single and recurrent wildfires on fruit production and large vertebrate abundance in a central Amazonian forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):985-1012.

Barrett, M.A., and Stiling, P. 2006. Effects of Key deer herbivory on forest communities in the lower Florida Keys. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):100-108.

Barrows, C.W., Swartz, M.B., Hodges, W.L., Allen, M.F., Rotenberry, J.T., Li, B.L., Scott, T.A., and Chen, X.W. 2005. A framework for monitoring multiple-species conservation plans. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1333-1345.

Bazin, E., Glémin, S., and Galtier, N. 2006. Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals. Science 312(5773):570-572.

Bielby, J., Cunningham, A.A., and Purvis, A. 2006. Taxonomic selectivity in amphibians: ignorance, geography or biology? Anim. Conserv. 9(2):135-143.

Bitariho, R., McNeilage, A., Babaasa, D., and Barigyira, R. 2006. Plant harvest impacts and sustainability in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, SW Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(1):14-21.

Boarman, W.I., and Sazaki, M. 2006. A highway's road-effect zone for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). J. Arid Environ. 65(1):94-101.

Bobo, K.S., Waltert, M., Fermon, H., Njokagbor, J., and Mühlenberg, M. 2006. From forest to farmland: butterfly diversity and habitat associations along a gradient of forest conversion in southwestern Cameroon. J. Insect Conserv. 10(1):29-42.

Bond, J.E., Beamer, D.A., Lamb, T., and Hedin, M. 2006. Combining genetic and geospatial analyses to infer population extinction in mygalomorph spiders endemic to the Los Angeles region. Anim. Conserv. 9(2):145-157.

Bonsdorff, E. 2006. Zoobenthic diversity-gradients in the Baltic Sea: continuous post-glacial succession in a stressed ecosystem. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 330(1):383-391.

Bouare, O. 2006. A policy tool for establishing a balance between wildlife habitat preservation and the use of natural resources by rural people in South Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(1):95-101.

Bradter, U., Gombobaatar, S., Uuganbayar, C., Grazia, T.E., and Exo, K.M. 2005. Reproductive performance and nest-site selection of white-naped cranes Grus vipio in the Ulz river valley, north-eastern Mongolia. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(4):313-326.

Brook, B.W., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Koh, L.P., and Sodhi, N.S. 2006. Momentum drives the crash: mass extinction in the tropics. Biotropica 38(3):302-305.

Brown, S.C., Schulte, S., Harrington, B., Winn, B., and Howe, M. 2005. Population size and winter distribution of eastern American oystercatchers. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1538-1545.

Bussell, J.D., Hood, P., Alacs, E.A., Dixon, K.W., Hobbs, R.J., and Krauss, S.L. 2006. Rapid genetic delineation of local provenance seed-collection zones for effective rehabilitation of an urban bushland remnant. Austral Ecol. 31(2):164-175.

Carlsson, N.O.L., and Bronmark, C. 2006. Size-dependent effects of an invasive herbivorous snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on macrophytes and periphyton in Asian wetlands. Freshwater Biol. 51(4):695-704.

Carman, S.M., Janssen, J., Jude, D.J., and Berg, M.B. 2006. Diel interactions between prey behaviour and feeding in an invasive fish, the round goby, in a North American river. Freshwater Biol. 51(4):742-755.

Carraro, R., and Gladstone, W. 2006. Habitat preferences and site fidelity of the ornate wobbegong shark (Orectolobus ornatus) on rocky reefs of New South Wales. Pacific Sci. 60(2):207-223.

Carroll, S.P., and Loye, J. 2006. Invasion, colonization, and disturbance; historical ecology of the endangered Miami blue butterfly. J. Insect Conserv. 10(1):13-27.

Casas, A., Cruse-Sanders, J., Morales, E., Otero-Arnaiz, A., and Valiente-Banuet, A. 2006. Maintenance of phenotypic and genotypic diversity in managed populations of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) by indigenous peoples in Central Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):879-898.

Caut, S., Hulin, V., and Girondot, M. 2006. Impact of density-dependent nest destruction on emergence success of Guianan leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Anim. Conserv. 9(2):189-197.

Chen, X.W., Barrows, C.W., and Li, B.L. 2006. Is the Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) on the edge of extinction at Thousand Palms Preserve in California? Southwest. Nat. 51(1):28-34.

Cimprich, D.A., and Kostecke, R.M. 2006. Distribution of the black capped vireo at Fort Hood, Texas. Southwest. Nat. 51(1):99-102.

Coates, F., Lunt, I.D., and Tremblay, R.L. 2006. Effects of disturbance on population dynamics of the threatened orchid Prasophyllum correctum D.L. Jones and implications for grassland management in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):59-69.

Colwell, M.A., Millett, C.B., Meyer, J.J., Hall, J.N., Hurley, S.J., McAllister, S.E., Transou, A.N., and LeValley, R.R. 2005. Snowy plover reproductive success in beach and river habitats. J. Field Ornithol. 76(4):373-382.

Cordeiro, N.J., Lovett, J.C., Mulungu, E., Maina, G.G., and Gerstle, J.H. 2006. Initial trends of bird assemblages before and after river diversion in an endemic-rich African forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):971-983.

Cowley, D.E. 2006. Strategies for ecological restoration of the middle Rio Grande in New Mexico and recovery of the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow. Rev. Fish. Sci. 14(1-2):169-186.

Cowley, D.E., and Sallenave, R. 2006. Preface: conservation and management of aquatic resources in arid lands. Rev. Fish. Sci. 14(1-2):25-27.

Cowlishaw, G., Crandall, K., Gittleman, J.L., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2006. The Florida panther: an editorial perspective. Anim. Conserv. 9(2):113.

Cozzolino, S., Nardella, A.M., Impagliazzo, S., Widmer, A., and Lexer, C. 2006. Hybridization and conservation of Mediterranean orchids: should we protect the orchid hybrids or the orchid hybrid zones? Biol. Conserv. 129(1):14-23.

Crall, A.W., Newman, G.J., Stohlgren, T.J., Jarnevich, C.S., Evangelista, P., and Geuenther, D. 2006. Evaluating dominance as a component of non-native species invasions. Divers. Distrib. 12(2):195-204.

Creel, S. 2006. Recovery of the Florida panther - genetic rescue, demographic rescue, or both? Response to Pimm et al. (2006). Anim. Conserv. 9(2):125-126.

Da Cunha, L.V.F.C., and De Albuquerque, U.P. 2006. Quantitative ethnobotany in an Atlantic forest fragment of northeastern Brazil - implications to conservation. Environ. Monit. Assess. 114(1-3):1-25.

de Segura, A.G., Tomás, J., Pedraza, S.N., Crespo, E.A., and Raga, J.A. 2006. Abundance and distribution of the endangered loggerhead turtle in Spanish Mediterranean waters and the conservation implications. Anim. Conserv. 9(2):199-206.

Dennis, R.L.H., Shreeve, T.G., Isaac, N.B., Roy, D.B., Hardy, P.B., Fox, R., and Asher, J. 2006. The effects of visual apparency on bias in butterfly recording and monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 128(4):486-492.

DeYoung, R.W., and Brennan, L.A. 2005. Molecular genetics in wildlife science, conservation, and management. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1360-1361.

DeYoung, R.W., and Honeycutt, R.L. 2005. The molecular toolbox: genetic techniques in wildlife ecology and management. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1362-1384.

Dogan, H.M., and Dogan, M. 2006. A new approach to diversity indices - modeling and mapping plant biodiversity of Nallihan (A3-Ankara/Turkey) forest ecosystem in frame of geographic information systems. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):855-878.

Dong, M., Lu, B.R., Zhang, H.B., Chen, J.K., and Li, B. 2006. Role of sexual reproduction in the spread of an invasive clonal plant Solidago canadensis revealed using intersimple sequence repeat markers. Plant Species Biol. 21(1):13-18.

Dorenbosch, M., Grol, M.G.G., Nagelkerken, I., and van der Velde, G. 2006. Seagrass beds and mangroves as potential nurseries for the threatened Indo-Pacific humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus and Caribbean rainbow parrotfish, Scarus quacamaia. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):277-282.

Dudgeon, D., and Smith, R.E.W. 2006. Exotic species, fisheries and conservation of freshwater biodiversity in tropical Asia: the case of the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea. Aquat. Conserv. 16(2):203-215.

Duyck, P.F., David, P., and Quilici, S. 2006. Climatic niche partitioning following successive invasions by fruit flies in La Reunion. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(2):518-526.

Dyer, J.M. 2006. Revisiting the deciduous forests of eastern North America. BioScience 56(4):341-352.

Egli, S., Peter, M., Buser, C., Stahel, W., and Ayer, F. 2006. Mushroom picking does not impair future harvests - results of a long-term study in Switzerland. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):271-276.

Ewen, J.G., Surai, P., Stradi, R., Møller, A.P., Vittorio, B., Griffiths, R., and Armstrong, D.P. 2006. Carotenoids, colour and conservation in an endangered passerine, the hihi or stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta). Anim. Conserv. 9(2):229-235.

Francis, C.M., Bart, J., Dunn, E.H., Burnham, K.P., and Ralph, C.J. 2005. Enhancing the value of the breeding bird survey: reply to Sauer et al. (2005). J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1327-1332.

Garden, J., McAlpine, C., Peterson, A., Jones, D., and Possingham, H. 2006. Review of the ecology of Australian urban fauna: a focus on spatially explicit processes. Austral Ecol. 31(2):126-148.

Garrott, R.A., Gude, J.A., Bergmann, E.J., Gower, C., White, P.J., and Hamlin, K.L. 2005. Generalizing wolf effects across the Greater Yellowstone Area: a cautionary note. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(4):1245-1255.

Gavashelishvili, A., and McGrady, M.J. 2006. Breeding site selection by bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus) in the Caucasus. Anim. Conserv. 9(2):159-170.

Gehring, T.M., and Potter, B.A. 2005. Wolf habitat analysis in Michigan: an example of the need for proactive land management for carnivore species. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 33(4):1237-1244.

Gerstner, C.L., Ortega, H., Sanchez, H., and Graham, D.L. 2006. Effects of the freshwater aquarium trade on wild fish populations in differentially-fished areas of the Peruvian Amazon. J. Fish Biol. 68(3):862-875.

Gonzalez-Ruiz, N., Ramirez-Pulido, J., and Genoways, H.H. 2006. Geographic distribution, taxonomy, and conservation status of Nelson's woodrat (Neotoma nelsoni) in Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 51(1):112-116.

Gonzalez-Suarez, M., McCluney, K.E., Aurioles, D., and Gerber, L.R. 2006. Incorporating uncertainty in spatial structure for viability predictions: a case study of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus). Anim. Conserv. 9(2):219-227.

Gotelli, N.J., and Ellison, A.M. 2006. Forecasting extinction risk with nonstationary matrix models. Ecol. Appl. 16(1):51-61.

Graening, G.O., Fenolio, D.B., Hobbs, H.H., Jones, S., Slay, M.E., McGinnis, S.R., and Stout, J.F. 2006. Range extension and status update for the Oklahoma cave crayfish, Cambarus tartarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae). Southwest. Nat. 51(1):94-99.

Gregg, K.B., and Kéry, M. 2006. Comparison of size vs. life-state classification demographic models for the terrestrial orchid Cleistes bifaria. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):50-58.

Gurd, D.B. 2006. Variation in species losses from islands: artifacts, extirpation rates, or pre-fragmentation diversity? Ecol. Appl. 16(1):176-185.

Hart, K.M., Mooreside, P., and Crowder, L.B. 2006. Interpreting the spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle strandings: going with the flow. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):283-290.

Havel, J.E., and Medley, K.A. 2006. Biological invasions across spatial scales: intercontinental, regional, and local dispersal of cladoceran zooplankton. Biol. Invasions 8(3):459-473.

Heller, N.E., Sanders, N.J., and Gordon, D.M. 2006. Linking temporal and spatial scales in the study of an Argentine ant invasion. Biol. Invasions 8(3):501-507.

Herb, W.R., and Stefan, H.G. 2006. Seasonal growth of submersed macrophytes in lakes: the effects of biomass density and light competition. Ecol. Model. 193(3-4):560-574.

Hertel, F., Martinez, D., Lemus, M., and Torres-Mura, J.C. 2005. Birds from Chungungo, Tilgo, and Pajaros Islands in north-central Chile. J. Field Ornithol. 76(2):197-203.

Janecková, P., Wotavová, K., Schödelbauerová, I., Jersáková, J., and Kindlmann, P. 2006. Relative effects of management and environmental conditions on performance and survival of populations of a terrestrial orchid, Dactylorhiza majalis. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):40-49.

Jiguet, F., and Julliard, R. 2006. Inferences from common species communities for selecting conservation areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):799-815.

Johnson, L.E., Bossenbroek, J.M., and Kraft, C.E. 2006. Patterns and pathways in the post-establishment spread of non-indigenous aquatic species: the slowing invasion of North American inland lakes by the zebra mussel. Biol. Invasions 8(3):475-489.

Kajita, Y., Takano, F., Yasuda, H., and Evans, E.W. 2006. Interactions between introduced and native predatory ladybirds (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae): factors influencing the success of species introductions. Ecol. Entomol. 31(1):58-67.

Karanth, K.K., Nichols, J.D., Sauer, J.R., and Hines, J.E. 2006. Comparative dynamics of avian communities across edges and interiors of North American ecoregions. J. Biogeogr. 33(4):674-682.

Kati, V., Mani, P., von Helversen, O., Willemse, F., Elsner, N., and Dirnopoulos, P. 2006. Human land use threatens endemic wetland species: the case of Chorthippus lacustris (La Greca and Messina 1975) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Epirus, Greece. J. Insect Conserv. 10(1):65-74.

Katzner, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, B., Klucsarits, J., McCarty, K., and Bildstein, K.L. 2005. Results from a long-term nest-box program for American kestrels: implications for improved population monitoring and conservation. J. Field Ornithol. 76(3):217-226.

Kauffman, M.J., and Jules, E.S. 2006. Heterogeneity shapes invasion: host size and environment influence susceptibility to a nonnative pathogen. Ecol. Appl. 16(1):166-175.

Kilpatrick, A.M. 2006. Facilitating the evolution of resistance to avian malaria in Hawaiian birds. Biol. Conserv. 128(4):475-485.

Kitchen, A.M., and Knowlton, F.F. 2006. Cross-fostering in coyotes: evaluation of a potential conservation and research tool for canids. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):221-225.

Klein, A.M., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2006. Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(2):315-323.

Klinger, R., Underwood, E.C., and Moore, P.E. 2006. The role of environmental gradients in non-native plant invasion into burnt areas of Yosemite National Park, California. Divers. Distrib. 12(2):139-156.

Kolowski, J.M., and Holekamp, K.E. 2006. Spatial, temporal, and physical characteristics of livestock depredations by large carnivores along a Kenyan reserve border. Biol. Conserv. 128(4):529-541.

Koprowski, J.L., Leonard, K.M., Zugmeyer, C.A., and Jolley, J.L. 2006. Direct effects of fire on endangered Mount Graham red squirrels. Southwest. Nat. 51(1):59-63.

Kull, T., and Hutchings, M.J. 2006. A comparative analysis of decline in the distribution ranges of orchid species in Estonia and the United Kingdom. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):31-39.

Kull, T., Kindlmann, P., Hutchings, M.J., and Primack, R.B. 2006. Conservation biology of orchids: introduction to the special issue. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):1-3.

Ladenburger, C.G., Hild, A.L., Kazmer, D.J., and Munn, L.C. 2006. Soil salinity patterns in Tamarix invasions in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. J. Arid Environ. 65(1):111-128.

Lehman, S.M., Rajaonson, A., and Day, S. 2006. Lemur responses to edge effects in the Vohibola III Classified Forest, Madagascar. Am. J. Primatol. 68(3):293-299.

León-de la Luz, J.L., and Breceda, A. 2006. Using endemic plant species to establish critical habitats in the Sierra de la Laguna Biosphere Reserve, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):1043-1055.

Lewu, F.B., Grierson, D.S., and Afolayan, A.J. 2006. The leaves of Pelargonium sidoides may substitute for its roots in the treatment of bacterial infections. Biol. Conserv. 128(4):582-584.

Lindborg, R. 2006. Recreating grasslands in Swedish rural landscapes - effects of seed sowing and management history. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):957-969.

Litvaitis, J.A., Tash, J.P., and Stevens, C.L. 2006. The rise and fall of bobcat populations in New Hampshire: relevance of historical harvests to understanding current patterns of abundance and distribution. Biol. Conserv. 128(4):517-528.

Lloyd, A., Law, B., and Goldingay, R. 2006. Bat activity on riparian zones and upper slopes in Australian timber production forests and the effectiveness of riparian buffers. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):207-220.

Lockwood, J.L. 2006. Life in a double-hotspot: the transformation of Hawaiian passerine bird diversity following invasion and extinction. Biol. Invasions 8(3):449-457.

Lopes, L.E., and Marini, M.Â. 2005. Low reproductive success of Campo Suiriri (Suiriri affinis) and Chapada flycatcher (S. islerorum) in the central Brazilian cerrado. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(4):337-346.

Lorenzo, C., Cervantes, F.A., Barragan, F., and Vargas, J. 2006. New records of the endangered Tehuantepec jackrabbit (Lepus flavigulairis) from Oaxaca, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 51(1):116-119.

Losey, J.E., and Vaughan, M. 2006. The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. BioScience 56(4):311-323.

Lunn, K.E., and Dearden, P. 2006. Fishers' needs in marine protected area zoning: a case study from Thailand. Coast. Manage. 34(2):183-198.

Macleod, R., Ewing, S.K., Herzog, S.K., Bryce, R., Evans, K.L., and Maccormick, A. 2005. First ornithological inventory and conservation assessment for the yungas forests of the Cordilleras Cocapata and Mosetenes, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(4):361-382.

Maehr, D.S., Crowley, P., Cox, J.J., Lacki, M.J., Larkin, J.L., Hoctor, T.S., Harris, L.D., and Hall, P.M. 2006. Of cats and Haruspices: genetic intervention in the Florida panther. Response to Pimm et al. (2006). Anim. Conserv. 9(2):127-132.

Majka, C.G., and McCorquodale, D.B. 2006. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: new records, biogeographic notes, and conservation concerns. Zootaxa 1154:49-68.

Mani, S., and Parthasarathy, N. 2005. Biodiversity assessment of trees in five inland tropical dry evergreen forests of peninsular India. Syst. Biodivers. 3(1):1-12.

Manor, R., and Saltz, D. 2005. Effects of human disturbance on use of space and flight distance of mountain gazelles. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1683-1690.

March, T.S., and Robson, B.J. 2006. Association between burrow densities of two Australian freshwater crayfish (Engaeus sericatus and Geocharax gracilis: Parastacidae) and four riparian land uses. Aquat. Conserv. 16(2):181-191.

Martin, J., Nichols, J.D., Kitchens, W.M., and Hines, J.E. 2006. Multiscale patterns of movement in fragmented landscapes and consequences on demography of the snail kite in Florida. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(2):527-539.

May, G.E., Gelembiuk, G.W., Panov, V.E., Orlova, M.I., and Lee, C.E. 2006. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions. Mol. Ecol. 15(4):1021-1031.

McClanahan, T.R., Verheij, E., and Maina, J. 2006. Comparing the management effectiveness of a marine park and a multiple-use collaborative fisheries management area in East Africa. Aquat. Conserv. 16(2):147-165.

McKinney, M.L. 2006. Correlated non-native species richness of birds, mammals, herptiles and plants: scale effects of area, human population and native plants. Biol. Invasions 8(3):415-425.

McLoughlin, P.D., Taylor, M.K., and Messier, F. 2005. Conservation risks of male-selective harvest for mammals with low reproductive potential. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(4):1592-1600.

Michalski, F., Boulhosa, R.L.P., Faria, A., and Peres, C.A. 2006. Human-wildlife conflicts in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape: determinants of large felid depredation on livestock. Anim. Conserv. 9(2):179-188.

Mills, M.G.L. 2006. Response to article: 'The genetic rescue of the Florida panther' by Pimm et al. (2006). Anim. Conserv. 9(2):123-124.

Moffett, A., Dyer, J.S., and Sarkar, S. 2006. Integrating biodiversity representation with multiple criteria in North-Central Namibia using non-dominated alternatives and a modified analytic hierarchy process. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):181-191.

Moffett, A., and Sarkar, S. 2006. Incorporating multiple criteria into the design of conservation area networks: a minireview with recommendations. Divers. Distrib. 12(2):125-137.

Mooney, H.A., Mack, R.N., McNeely, J.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P.J., and Waage, J.K. (eds.). 2005. Invasive Alien Species. Island Press. Washington. 368 pp.

Muller, S., Jerôme, C., and Mahevas, T. 2006. Habitat assessment, phytosociology and conservation of the Tunbridge Filmy-fern Hymenophyllum tunbrigense (L) Sm. in its isolated locations in the Vosges Mountains. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):1027-1041.

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Pywell, R.F., Warman, E.A., Hulmes, L., Hulmes, S., Nuttall, P., Sparks, T.H., Critchley, C.N.R., and Sherwood, A. 2006. Effectiveness of new agri-environment schemes in providing foraging resources for bumblebees in intensively farmed landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 129(2):192-206.

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Rodríguez-Clark, K.M., and Sánchez-Mercado, A. 2006. Population management of threatened taxa in captivity within their natural ranges: lessons from Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus) in Venezuela. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):134-148.

Rogers-Bennett, L., and Leaf, R.T. 2006. Elasticity analyses of size-based red and white abalone matrix models: management and conservation. Ecol. Appl. 16(1):213-224.

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Vilas, C., and García, C. 2006. The role of genetic mechanisms of sex determination in the survival of small populations of Silene littorea: a reintroduction experiment. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):124-133.

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Whelan, R.J., Roberts, D.G., England, P.R., and Ayre, D.J. 2006. The potential for genetic contamination vs. augmentation by native plants in urban gardens. Biol. Conserv. 128(4):493-500.

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Wiegmann, S.M., and Waller, D.M. 2006. Fifty years of change in northern upland forest understories: identity and traits of "winner" and "loser" plant species. Biol. Conserv. 129(1):109-123.

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Zhou, W., and Chen, B.K. 2006. Biodiversity of Bitahai Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(3):839-853.

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