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Department ofBotany

No. 260
August 2006

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In This Issue

Genetic Study of Endangered Woodpeckers

Ancient DNA was recently extracted and sequenced from museum specimens of endangered Ivory-billed Woodpeckers (collected between about 80 and 150 years ago in North America and Cuba) and compared to DNA sequences of the Imperial Woodpecker of Mexico. The project, recently published in Biology Letters by National Museum of Natural History scientists Robert Fleischer and Carla Dove, and their colleagues, began as a simple barcoding effort to add the Ivory-billed Woodpecker sequence to the Barcode of Life Database (BoLD), and to test whether a feather found in 1968 in Florida was really an Ivory-billed Woodpecker feather, but soon turned into a more interesting investigation about the evolutionary relationships of the woodpeckers themselves.

Analysis of the DNA sequences from all three woodpeckers revealed that they form a monophyletic group relative to other species of their genus. They are genetically equidistant, suggesting that each lineage is a separate species. Further, it was estimated that the three lineages split more than one million years ago in the mid-Pleistocene thus excluding previous notions that Native Americans introduced the North American Ivory-billed Woodpecker to Cuba.

The DNA sequences of all three woodpeckers also provide an important barcoding resource for identification of non-invasive samples or remains of these critically endangered and charismatic woodpeckers.

Honey and Wild Bee Populations are Threatened

By Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)

Domesticated honeybees and their native counterparts, which the nation depends on to pollinate billions of dollars worth of fruits, vegetable and other crops, are disappearing thanks to pesticide use on crops and gardens and the destruction of their habitats. The looming agricultural catastrophe that their demise portends, as well as potential solutions, is explored in the summer 2006 edition of OnEarth, published by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), available at <>.

Experts interviewed by author Sharon Levy for her OnEarth article "The Vanishing Bee" blame the widespread use of pesticides by farmers who unintentionally poison domesticated honeybee colonies. Non-native species of parasitic mites are also deadly to honeybees. For these reasons, native wild bees will become even more important as pollinators, but they too are threatened because their habitats - natural woodlands, shrubs and flowers - have been decimated by relentless sprawl and development and by modern agriculture's poor land-management practices.

One-third of the food Americans eat comes from crops that are pollinated by bees or other creatures, including butterflies, birds and bats. As they travel from plant to plant, bees transfer pollen that fertilizes blossoms and allows fruits and vegetables to develop. Without bees, many of the foods we enjoy - tomatoes, squash, peppers, apples and pears, for example - could disappear from our tables. Domesticated honeybees, in particular, are in steep decline. In the 1940s, American beekeepers had about 5 million colonies. Today, their colonies number about 2.3 million, while the demand for their services is increasing.

Without the support of migratory beekeepers, crops would fail across the country; therefore, the demise of many of the colonies is having a serious effect on America's farmers, Levy reports. When one-third of all commercial honeybee colonies died out in 2005, for example, the $1.2 billion California almond crop was threatened.

Experts interviewed by Levy believe we can still rescue honeybees and native wild bees by limiting our use of pesticides and by setting aside space for plants that nurture bees.

"Bees are the 'canary in the coal mine' for American agriculture. Their demise is a warning. But there are solutions that make environmental - and economic - good sense," said Doug Barasch, OnEarth's editor-in-chief. "Putting those solutions into practice depends on farmers, homeowners - all of us - realizing that protecting bees is in our own self interest."

Current Literature

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Adekunle, V.A.J. 2006. Conservation of tree species diversity in tropical rainforest ecosystem of south-west Nigeria. J. Trop. For. Sci. 18(2):91-101.

Aratrakorn, S., Thunhikorn, S., and Donald, P.F. 2006. Changes in bird communities following conversion of lowland forest to oil palm and rubber plantations in southern Thailand. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(1):71-82.

Assogbadjo, A.E., Kyndt, T., Sinsin, B., Gheysen, G., and Van Damme, P. 2006. Patterns of genetic and morphometric diversity in baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations across different climatic zones of Benin (West Africa). Ann. Botany 97(5):819-830.

Baker, A.C., Hose, G.C., and Murray, B.R. 2006. Vegetation responses to Pinus radiata (D. Don) invasion: a multivariate analysis using principal response curves. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 127:191-197.

Barbier, E.B. 2006. Natural barriers to natural disasters: replanting mangroves after the tsunami. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(3):124-131.

Bartholomew, C.S., and Prowell, D. 2006. Comparison of bee diversity in upland and wet flatwood longleaf pine savannas in Louisiana (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 79(2):199-206.

Bartholomew, C.S., Prowell, D., and Griswold, T. 2006. An annotated checklist of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in longleaf pine savannas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 79(2):184-198.

Bartuszevige, A.M., Gorchov, D.L., and Raab, L. 2006. The relative importance of landscape and community features in the invasion of an exotic shrub in a fragmented landscape. Ecography 29(2):213-222.

Beever, E.A., Huso, M., and Pyke, D.A. 2006. Multiscale responses of soil stability and invasive plants to removal of non-native grazers from an arid conservation reserve. Divers. Distrib. 12(3):258-268.

Beever, E.A., Swihart, R.K., and Bestelmeyer, B.T. 2006. Linking the concept of scale to studies of biological diversity: evolving approaches and tools. Divers. Distrib. 12(3):229-235.

Beier, P., Vaughan, M.R., Conroy, M.J., and Quigley, H. 2006. Evaluating scientific inferences about the Florida panther. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(1):236-245.

Belnap, J., Phillips, S.L., and Troxler, T. 2006. Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: the effects of invasion by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum, precipitation, and temperature on biological soil crusts in SE Utah. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):63-76.

Bernal, R., and Galeano, G. 2006. Endangerment of Colombian palms (Arecaceae): change over 18 years. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151(1):151-163.

Bishop, M.J., and Peterson, C.H. 2006. When r-selection may not predict introduced-species proliferation: predation of a nonnative oyster. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):718-730.

Bodin, Ö., Tengö, M., Norman, A., Lundberg, J., and Elmqvist, T. 2006. The value of small size: loss of forest patches and ecological thresholds in southern Madagascar. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):440-451.

Bohlen, P.J. 2006. Biological invasions: linking the aboveground and belowground consequences. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):1-5.

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Braby, C.E., and Somero, G.N. 2006. Ecological gradients and relative abundance of native (Mytilus trossulus) and invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) blue mussels in the California hybrid zone. Mar. Biol. 148(6):1249-1262.

Briggs, J.M., Spielmann, K.A., Schaafsma, H., Kintigh, K.W., Kruse, M., Morehouse, K., and Schollmeyer, K. 2006. Why ecology needs archaeologists and archaeology needs ecologists. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(4):180-188.

Brockerhoff, E.G., Liebhold, A.M., and Jactel, H. 2006. The ecology of forest insect invasions and advances in their management. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(2):263-268.

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Brown, K.A., Scatena, F.N., and Gurevitch, J. 2006. Effects of an invasive tree on community structure and diversity in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 226(1-3):145-152.

Caddy, H.A.R., and Gross, C.L. 2006. Population structure and fecundity in the putative sterile shrub, Grevillea rhizomatosa Olde & Marriott (Proteaceae). Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 127:11-18.

Cane, J.H., Minckley, R.L., Kervin, L.J., Roulston, T.H., and Williams, N.M. 2006. Complex responses within a desert bee guild (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) to urban habitat fragmentation. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):632-644.

Caruso, B.S. 2006. Project river recovery: restoration of braided gravel-bed river habitat in New Zealand's high country. Environ. Manage. 37(6):840-861.

Cayuela, L., Benayas, J.M.R., and Echeverria, C. 2006. Clearance and fragmentation of tropical montane forests in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico (1975-2000). Forest Ecol. Manag. 226(1-3):208-218.

Chapman, C.A., Speirs, M.L., Gillespie, T.R., Holland, T., and Austad, K.M. 2006. Life on the edge: gastrointestinal parasites from the forest edge and interior primate groups. Am. J. Primatol. 68(4):397-409.

Cole, D.N., and Spildie, D.R. 2006. Restoration of plant cover in subalpine rorests disturbed by camping: success of transplanting. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):168-178.

Collin, R., Wonham, M.J., and Barr, K.R. 2006. Crepidula convexa Say, 1822 (Caenogastropoda: Calyptraeidae) in Washington State, USA. Am. Malacol. Bull. 21(1-2):113-116.

Conroy, M.J., Beier, P., Quigley, H., and Vaughan, M.R. 2006. Improving the use of science in conservation: lessons from the Florida panther. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(1):1-7.

Conway, K.W., and Mayden, R.L. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Elassoma alabamae Mayden, 1993 (Elassomatidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 75(2):195-196.

Costall, J.A., Carter, R.J., Shimada, Y., Anthony, D., and Rapson, G.L. 2006. The endemic tree Corynocarpus laevigatus (karaka) as a weedy invader in forest remnants of southern North Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 44(1):5-22.

Cotterill, F.P.D. 2006. Taxonomic status and conservation importance of the avifauna of Katanga (south-east Congo Basin) and its environs. Ostrich 77(1-2):1-21.

Croft, P., Hofmeyer, D., and Hunter, J.T. 2006. Fire responses in four rare plant species at Gibraltar Range National Park, Northern Tablelands, NSW. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 127:57-62.

Czeszczewik, D., and Walankiewicz, W. 2006. Logging affects the white-backed woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos distribution in the Bialowieza Forest. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43(2):221-227.

Darrigran, G., and Damborenea, C. 2005. A South American bioinvasion case history: Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857), the golden mussel. Am. Malacol. Bull. 20(1-2):105-112.

Daunys, D., Zemlys, P., Olenin, S., Zaiko, A., and Ferrarin, C. 2006. Impact of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha invasion on the budget of suspended material in a shallow lagoon ecosystem. Helgoland Mar. Res. 60(2):113-120.

Davenport, T.R.B., Stanley, W.T., Sargis, E.J., De Luca, D.W., Mpunga, N.E., Machaga, S.J., and Olson, L.E. 2006. A new genus of African monkey, Rungwecebus: morphology, ecology, and molecular phylogenetics. Science 312(5778):1378-1381.

De Ita, A.O., and Rojas-Soto, O.R. 2006. A survey for the Sierra Madre sparrow (Xenospiza baileyi), with its rediscovery in the state of Durango, Mexico. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(1):25-32.

Dennis, R.L.H., and Sparks, T.H. 2006. When is a habitat not a habitat? Dramatic resource use changes under differing weather conditions for the butterfly Plebejus argus. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):291-301.

Denslow, J.S., Uowolo, A.L., and Hughes, R.F. 2006. Limitations to seedling establishment in a mesic Hawaiian forest. Oecologia 148(1):118-128.

Domenech, R., Vila, M., Gesti, J., and Serrasolses, I. 2006. Neighbourhood association of Cortaderia selloana invasion, soil properties and plant community structure in Mediterranean coastal grasslands. Acta Oecol. 29(2):171-177.

Donald, P.F., and Evans, A.D. 2006. Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):209-218.

Donoso, D.A., Vieira, J.M., and Wild, A.L. 2006. Three new species of Leptanilloides Mann from Andean Ecuador (Formicidae: Leptanilloidinae). Zootaxa 1201:47-62.

Dorazio, R.M., Royle, J.A., Soderstrom, B., and Glimskar, A. 2006. Estimating species richness and accumulation by modeling species occurrence and detectability. Ecology 87(4):842-854.

Elith, J., Graham, C.H., Anderson, R.P., Dudik, M., Ferrier, S., Guisan, A., Hijmans, R.J., Huettmann, F., Leathwick, J.R., Lehmann, A., Li, J., Lohmann, L.G., Loiselle, B.A., Manion, G., Moritz, C., Nakamura, M., Nakazawa, Y., Overton, J.M., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, S.J., Richardson, K., Scachetti-Pereira, R., Schapire, R.E., Soberón, J., Williams, S., Wisz, M.S., and Zimmermann, N.E. 2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29(2):129-151.

Espinosa, F., Guerra-García, J.M., Fa, D., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2006. Effects of competition on an endangered limpet Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda: Patellidae): implications for conservation. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 330(2):482-492.

Eyre, M.D. 2006. A strategic interpretation of beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages, biotopes, habitats and distribution, and the conservation implications. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):151-160.

Fagan, W.F., and Lutscher, F. 2006. Average dispersal success: linking home range, dispersal, and metapopulation dynamics to reserve design. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):820-828.

Fayt, P., Dufrêne, M., Branquart, E., Hastir, P., Pontégnie, C., Henin, J.M., and Versteirt, V. 2006. Contrasting responses of saproxylic insects to focal habitat resources: the example of longhorn beetles and hoverflies in Belgian deciduous forests. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):129-150.

Ferraro, P.J., and Pattanayak, S.K. 2006. Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments. PLoS Biol. 4(4):482-488.

Fickbohm, S.S., and Zhu, W.X. 2006. Exotic purple loosestrife invasion of native cattail freshwater wetlands: effects on organic matter distribution and soil nitrogen cycling. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):123-131.

Fleischer, R.C., Kirchamn, J.J., Dumbacher, J.P., Bevier, L., Dove, C., Rotzel, N.C., Edwards, S.V., Lammertink, M., Miglia, K.J., and Moore, W.S. 2006. Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers. Biol. Lett. <doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0490>.

Fletcher, R.J., Koford, R.R., and Seaman, D.A. 2006. Critical demographic parameters for declining songbirds breeding in restored grasslands. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(1):145-157.

Fouquet, A., and Measey, G.J. 2006. Plotting the course of an African clawed frog invasion in western France. Anim. Biol. 56(1):95-102.

Fowles, A.P., and Smith, R.G. 2006. Mapping the habitat quality of patch networks for the marsh fritillary Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in Wales. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):161-177.

Galanti, V., Preatoni, D., Martinoti, A., Wauters, L.A., and Tosi, G. 2006. Space and habitat use of the African elephant in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, Tanzania: implications for conservation. Mamm. Biol. 71(2):99-114.

Gale, G.A., and Thongaree, S. 2006. Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(1):57-69.

Gallucci, V.F., Taylor, I.G., and Erzini, K. 2006. Conservation and management of exploited shark populations based on reproductive value. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(4):931-942.

García, J.T., Morales, M.B., Martínez, J., Iglesias, L., De la Morena, E.G., Suárez, F., and Viñuela, J. 2006. Foraging activity and use of space by lesser kestrel Falco naumanni in relation to agrarian management in central Spain. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(1):83-95.

Garla, R.C., Chapman, D.D., Wetherbee, B.M., and Shivji, M. 2006. Movement patterns of young Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil: the potential of marine protected areas for conservation of a nursery ground. Mar. Biol. 149(2):189-199.

Gherardi, F., and Lazzara, L. 2006. Effects of the density of an invasive crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) on pelagic and surface microalgae in a Mediterranean wetland. Arch. Hydrobiol. 165(3):401-414.

Gherardi, F., Renai, B., Galeotti, P., and Rubolini, D. 2006. Nonrandom mating, mate choice, and male-male competition in the crayfish Austropotamobius italicus, a threatened species. Arch. Hydrobiol. 165(4):557-576.

Gibson, R.H., Nelson, I.L., Hopkins, G.W., Hamlett, B.J., and Memmott, J. 2006. Pollinator webs, plant communities and the conservation of rare plants: arable weeds as a case study. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):246-257.

Gido, K.B., Franssen, N.R., and Propst, D.L. 2006. Spatial variation in d15N and d13C supercript stopc isotopes in the San Juan River, New Mexico and Utah: implications for the conservation of native fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 75(2):197-207.

Gillespie, I.G., and Allen, E.B. 2006. Effects of soil and mycorrhizae from native and invaded vegetation on a rare California forb. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):6-12.

Gollasch, S. 2006. Overview on introduced aquatic species in European navigational and adjacent waters. Helgoland Mar. Res. 60(2):84-89.

Goulson, D., Hanley, M.E., Darvill, B., and Ellis, J.S. 2006. Biotope associations and the decline of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):95-103.

Griggs, J.A., Rock, J.H., Webster, C.R., and Jenkins, M.A. 2006. Vegetative legacy of a protected deer herd in Cades Cove, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):126-136.

Grim, T., and Sumbera, R. 2006. A new record of the endangered white-winged nightjar (Eleothreptus candicans) from Beni, Bolivia. Wilson J. Ornithol. 118(1):109-112.

Grixti, J.C., and Packer, L. 2006. Changes in the bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of an old field site in southern Ontario, revisited after 34 years. Can. Entomol. 138(2):147-164.

Hamaide, B., ReVelle, C.S., and Malcolm, S.A. 2006. Biological reserves, rare species and the trade-off between species abundance and species diversity. Ecol. Econ. 56(4):570-583.

Hansen, M.J., and Wilson, S.D. 2006. Is management of an invasive grass Agropyron cristatum contingent on environmental variation? J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):269-280.

Hansen, M.M., Nielsen, E.E., and Mensberg, K.L.D. 2006. Underwater but not out of sight: genetic monitoring of effective population size in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrhynchus). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(4):780-787.

Haupt, M., Menzler, S., and Schmidt, S. 2006. Flexibility of habitat use in Eptesicus nilssonii: does the species profit from anthropogenically altered habitats? J. Mammal. 87(2):351-361.

Hedenas, H., Lundin, K., and Ericson, L. 2006. Interaction between a lichen and a fungal parasite in a successional community: implications for conservation. J. Veg. Sci. 17(2):207-216.

Heenan, P.B., and de Lange, P.J. 2006. Pseudowintera insperata (Winteraceae), an overlooked and rare new species from northern New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 44(1):89-98.

Heenan, P.B., and Molloy, B.P.J. 2006. A new species of Oreomyrrhis (Apiaceae) from southern South Island, New Zealand, and comparison of its limestone and ultramafic habitats. New Zeal. J. Bot. 44(1):99-106.

Heino, J., and Mykrä, H. 2006. Assessing physical surrogates for biodiversity: do tributary and stream type classifications reflect macroinvertebrate assemblage diversity in running waters? Biol. Conserv. 129(3):418-426.

Heneghan, L., Fatemi, F., Umek, L., Grady, K., Fagen, K., and Workman, M. 2006. The invasive shrub European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica, L.) alters soil properties in Midwestern US woodlands. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):142-148.

Hennen, D. 2006. Associations between the Alaska steller sea lion decline and commercial fisheries. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):704-717.

Humble, L.M., and Allen, E.A. 2006. Forest biosecurity: alien invasive species and vectored organisms. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 28:S256-S269.

Hunt, B., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2006. Scale and sustainability of marine bioprospecting for pharmaceuticals. Ambio 35(2):57-64.

Jacobus, J., and Webb, P.W. 2005. Using fish distributions and behavior in patchy habitats to evaluate potential effects of fragmentation on small marsh fishes: a case study. J. Great Lakes Res. 31:197-211.

Jensen, J.M., and Six, D.L. 2006. Myrmecochory of the exotic plant, Centaurea maculosa: a potential mechanism enhancing invasiveness. Environ. Entomol. 35(2):326-331.

Jog, S., Kindscher, K., Questad, E., Foster, B., and Loring, H. 2006. Floristic quality as an indicator of native species diversity in managed grasslands. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):149-167.

Johst, K., Drechsler, M., Thomas, J., and Settele, J. 2006. Influence of mowing on the persistence of two endangered large blue butterfly species. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):333-342.

Jones, R.H., and Bruhl, J.J. 2006. Acacia beadleana (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae), a new, rare, localised species from Gibraltar Range National Park, New South Wales. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 127:5-10.

Joshi, J., Stoll, P., Rusterholz, H.P., Schmid, B., Dolt, C., and Baur, B. 2006. Small-scale experimental habitat fragmentation reduces colonization rates in species-rich grasslands. Oecologia 148(1):144-152.

Karnitz, H., and Asbjornsen, H. 2006. Composition and age structure of a degraded tallgrass oak savanna in central Iowa. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):179-186.

Kawamura, K. 2005. Low genetic variation and inbreeding depression in small isolated populations of the Japanese rosy bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus. Zool. Sci. 22(5):517-524.

Keller, G.S., and Avery, J.D. 2006. How teaching institutions can help conservation biology. BioScience 56(5):374-375.

Kerbiriou, C., Gourmelon, F., Jiguet, F., Le Viol, I., Bioret, F., and Julliard, R. 2006. Linking territory quality and reproductive success in the red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrochorax: implications for conservation management of an endangered population. Ibis 148(2):352-364.

Ketner-Oostra, R., van der Peijl, M.J., and Sykora, K.V. 2006. Restoration of lichen diversity in grass-dominated vegetation of coastal dunes after wildfire. J. Veg. Sci. 17(2):147-156.

Kittredge, D.B., Clark, K., Ohmann, M., Huckery, P., and French, T. 2006. Protection of habitat for state-listed rare flora and fauna in Massachusetts during timber harvesting. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):198-207.

Komar, O. 2006. Ecology and conservation of birds in coffee plantations: a critical review. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(1):1-23.

Kraaijeveld-Smit, F.J.L., Griffiths, R.A., Moore, R.D., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2006. Captive breeding and the fitness of reintroduced species: a test of the responses to predators in a threatened amphibian. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):360-365.

Krivánek, M., and Pyšek, P. 2006. Predicting invasions by woody species in a temperate zone: a test of three risk assessment schemes in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Divers. Distrib. 12(3):319-327.

Labonne, J., and Gaudin, P. 2006. Modelling population viability in fragmented environments: contribution to the conservation of an endangered percid (Zingel asper). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(3):650-659.

Lavergne, S., and Molofsky, J. 2006. Control strategies for the invasive reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in North American wetlands: the need for an integrated management plan. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):208-214.

Leadlay, E., and Jury, S. (eds.). 2006. Taxonomy and plant conservation: the cornerstone of the conservation and the sustainable use of plants. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 366 pp.

Lee, T., Siripattrawan, S., Ituarte, C.F., and Ó Foighil, D. 2005. Invasion of the clonal clams: Corbicula lineages in the New World. Am. Malacol. Bull. 20(1-2):113-122.

LeJeune, K.D., Suding, K.N., and Seastedt, T.R. 2006. Nutrient availability does not explain invasion and dominance of a mixed grass prairie by the exotic forb Centaurea diffusa Lam. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):98-110.

Leyva, C., Espejel, L., Escofet, A., and Bullock, S.H. 2006. Coastal landscape fragmentation by tourism development: impacts and conservation alternatives. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):117-125.

Linderman, M.A., An, L., Bearer, S., He, G.M., Ouyang, Z., and Liu, J.G. 2006. Interactive effects of natural and human disturbances on vegetation dynamics across landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):452-463.

Lopez, R.R., Hays, K.B., Wagner, M.W., Locke, S.L., McCleery, R.A., and Silvy, N.J. 2006. Integrating land conservation planning in the classroom. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(1):223-228.

Lovett, G.M., Canham, C.D., Arthur, M.A., Weathers, K.C., and Fitzhugh, R.D. 2006. Forest ecosystem responses to exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America. BioScience 56(5):395-405.

Maes, D., Ghesquiere, A., Logie, M., and Bonte, D. 2006. Habitat use and mobility of two threatened coastal dune insects: implications for conservation. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):105-115.

Maes, D., Shreeve, T.G., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2006. A special issue on insect habitats. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):89-93.

Maguire, G.S. 2006. Fine-scale habitat use by the southern emu-wren (Stipiturus malachurus). Wildlife Res. 33(2):137-148.

Mangel, M., Levin, P., and Patil, A. 2006. Using life history and persistence criteria to prioritize habitats for management and conservation. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):797-806.

Martin, K.W., Leslie, D.M., Payton, M.E., Puckette, W.L., and Hensley, S.L. 2006. Impacts of passage manipulation on cave climate: conservation implications for cave-dwelling bats. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(1):137-143.

Mayfield, M.M., Ackerly, D., and Daily, G.C. 2006. The diversity and conservation of plant reproductive and dispersal functional traits in human-dominated tropical landscapes. J. Ecology 94(3):522-536.

Mayor, P.A., Rogers, C.S., and Hillis-Starr, Z.M. 2006. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs 25(2):239-242.

McCarthy, M.A., Thompson, C.J., and Williams, N.S.G. 2006. Logic for designing nature reserves for multiple species. Am. Nat. 167(5):717-727.

McFrederick, Q.S., and LeBuhn, G. 2006. Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? Biol. Conserv. 129(3):372-382.

Meadows, G.A., Mackey, S.D., Goforth, R.R., Mickelson, D.M., Edil, T.B., Fuller, J., Guy, D.E., Meadows, L.A., and Brown, E. 2005. Cumulative habitat impacts of nearshore engineering. J. Great Lakes Res. 31:90-112.

Meijaard, E., van Balen, S.B., and Nijman, V. 2005. The former status of the white-shouldered ibis Pseudibis davisoni on the Barito and Teweh rivers, Indonesian Borneo. Raffles Bull. Zool. 53(2):277-279.

Meiman, P.J., Redente, E.F., and Paschke, M.W. 2006. The role of the native soil community in the invasion ecology of spotted (Centaurea maculosa auct. non Lam.) and diffuse (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) knapweed. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):77-88.

Meloche, C., and Murphy, S.D. 2006. Managing tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in parks and protected areas: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada). Environ. Manage. 37(6):764-772.

Messing, R.H., and Wright, M.G. 2006. Biological control of invasive species: solution or pollution? Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(3):132-140.

Mihara, M., Sakai, T., Nakao, K., Martins, L.D., Hosoya, K., and Miyazaki, J.I. 2005. Phylogeography of loaches of the genus Lefua (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Zool. Sci. 22(2):157-168.

Mikusinski, G. 2006. Woodpeckers: distribution, conservation, and research in a global perspective. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43(2):86-95.

Milazzo, M., Anastasi, I., and Willis, T.J. 2006. Recreational fish feeding affects coastal fish behavior and increases frequency of predation on damselfish Chromis chromis nests. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 310:165-172.

Milne-Laux, S., and Sweitzer, R.A. 2006. Experimentally induced colony expansion by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and implications for conservation. J. Mammal. 87(2):296-303.

Moilanen, A., and Wintle, B.A. 2006. Uncertainty analysis favours selection of spatially aggregated reserve networks. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):427-434.

Morgana, S.K., and Lourie, S.A. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus comes Cantor 1850 (Syngnathidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 75(3):311-313.

Morghan, K.J.R., and Rice, K.J. 2006. Variation in resource availability changes the impact of invasive thistles on native bunchgrasses. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):528-539.

Nakamura, K., Tockner, K., and Amano, K. 2006. River and wetland restoration: lessons from Japan. BioScience 56(5):419-429.

Nehls, G., Diederich, S., Thieltges, D.W., and Strasser, M. 2006. Wadden Sea mussel beds invaded by oysters and slipper limpets: competition or climate control? Helgoland Mar. Res. 60(2):135-143.

Neilan, W., Catterall, C.P., Kanowski, J., and McKenna, S. 2006. Do frugivorous birds assist rainforest succession in weed dominated oldfield regrowth of subtropical Australia? Biol. Conserv. 129(3):393-407.

Oakleaf, J.K., Murray, D.L., Oakleaf, J.R., Bangs, E.E., Mack, C.M., Smith, D.W., Fontaine, J.A., Jimenez, M.D., Meier, T.J., and Niemeyer, C.C. 2006. Habitat selection by recolonizing wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(2):554-563.

Oliva-Paterna, F.J., Torralva, M., and Fernández-Delgado, C. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Aphanius iberus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1846) (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 75(3):307-309.

Oltremari, J.V., and Jackson, R.G. 2006. Conflicts, perceptions, and expectations of indigenous communities associated with natural areas in Chile. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):215-220.

Orellana, C. 2006. Species conservation helps reduce poverty. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(4):172.

Padilla, D.K. 2005. The potential of zebra mussels as a model for invasion ecology. Am. Malacol. Bull. 20(1-2):123-131.

Pagliosa, P.R., and Barbosa, F.A.R. 2006. Assessing the environment-benthic fauna coupling in protected and urban areas of southern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):408-417.

Panwar, J., and Tarafdar, J.C. 2006. Distribution of three endangered medicinal plant species and their colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J. Arid Environ. 65(3):337-350.

Pasinelli, G. 2006. Population biology of European woodpecker species: a review. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43(2):96-111.

Patten, M.A., Shochat, E., Reinking, D.L., Wolfe, D.H., and Sherrod, S.K. 2006. Habitat edge, land management, and rates of brood parasitism in tallgrass prairie. Ecol. Appl. 16(2):687-695.

Perez, P.H., and Sanchez, M.I. 2006. Trematodon ambiguus (Hedw.) Hornsch. (Bryopsida) in the Spanish Pyrenees. Cryptogamie Bryol. 27(2):297-301.

Perry, N.D., Hanson, B., Hobgood, W., Lopez, R.L., Okraska, C.R., Karem, K., Damon, I.K., and Carroll, D.S. 2006. New invasive species in southern Florida: Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus). J. Mammal. 87(2):262-264.

Pfeifer, M., Wiegand, K., Heinrich, W., and Jetschke, G. 2006. Long-term demographic fluctuations in an orchid species driven by weather: implications for conservation planning. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):313-324.

Phillips, B.L., and Shine, R. 2006. Spatial and temporal variation in the morphology (and thus, predicted impact) of an invasive species in Australia. Ecography 29(2):205-212.

Phillips, R.A., Silk, J.R.D., Croxall, J.P., and Afanasyev, V. 2006. Year-round distribution of white-chinned petrels from South Georgia: relationships with oceanography and fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):336-347.

Piorecky, M.D., and Prescott, D.R.C. 2006. Multiple spatial scale logistic and autologistic habitat selection models for northern pygmy owls, along the eastern slopes of Alberta's Rocky Mountains. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):360-371.

Piper, S.D., and Catterall, C.P. 2006. Is the conservation value of small urban remnants of eucalypt forest limited by increased levels of nest predation? Emu 106(2):119-125.

Pontes, A.R.M., Malta, A., and Asfora, P.H. 2006. A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben (Cebidae, Primates): found at the very brink of extinction in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre. Zootaxa 1200:1-12.

Prasad, R.P., and Snyder, W.E. 2006. Polyphagy complicates conservation biological control that targets generalist predators. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(2):343-352.

Pritekel, C., Whittemore-Olson, A., Snow, N., and Moore, J.C. 2006. Impacts from invasive plant species and their control on the plant community and belowground ecosystem at Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):132-141.

Räikkönen, J., Bignert, A., Mortensen, P., and Fernholm, B. 2006. Congenital defects in a highly inbred wild wolf population (Canis lupus). Mamm. Biol. 71(2):65-73.

Raithel, C.J., and Hartenstine, R.H. 2006. The status of freshwater mussels in Rhode Island. Northeastern Nat. 13(1):103-116.

Ramade, F., and Roche, H. 2006. Pollutant effects on coral reefs ecosystems. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 61(1):3-33.

Ramp, D., Wilson, V.K., and Croft, D.B. 2006. Assessing the impacts of roads in peri-urban reserves: road-based fatalities and road usage by wildlife in the Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):348-359.

Reinhart, K.O., and Callaway, R.M. 2006. Soil biota and invasive plants. New Phytol. 170(3):445-457.

Reise, K., Olenin, S., and Thieltges, D.W. 2006. Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems? Helgoland Mar. Res. 60(2):77-83.

Rissler, L.J., Hijmans, R.J., Graham, C.H., Moritz, C., and Wake, D.B. 2006. Phylogeographic lineages and species comparisons in conservation analyses: a case study of California herpetofauna. Am. Nat. 167(5):655-666.

Ritiand, K., Meagher, L.D., Edwards, D.G.W., and El-Kassaby, Y.A. 2005. Isozyme variation and the conservation genetics of Garry oak. Can. J. Bot. 83(11):1478-1487.

Rosenfeld, J.S., and Hatfield, T. 2006. Information needs for assessing critical habitat of freshwater fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(3):683-698.

Rowland, M.M., Wisdom, M.J., Suring, L.H., and Meinke, C.W. 2006. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):323-335.

Ruesink, J.L., Feist, B.E., Harvey, C.J., Hong, J.S., Trimble, A.C., and Wisehart, L.M. 2006. Changes in productivity associated with four introduced species: ecosystem transformation of a 'pristine' estuary. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 311:203-215.

Schäffer, N., Walther, B.A., Gutteridge, K., and Rahbek, C. 2006. The African migration and wintering grounds of the aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(1):33-56.

Schloesser, D.W., Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Kovalak, W.P., Longton, G.D., and Smithee, R.D. 2006. Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Am. Midl. Nat. 155(2):307-320.

Schmuki, C., Vorburger, C., Runciman, D., Maceachern, S., and Sunnucks, P. 2006. When log-dwellers meet loggers: impacts of forest fragmentation on two endemic log-dwelling beetles in southeastern Australia. Mol. Ecol. 15(6):1481-1492.

Serio-Silva, J.C. 2006. Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands): the economic impact of ecotourism in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 68(5):499-506.

Shaw, M.R. 2006. Habitat considerations for parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera). J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):117-127.

Shochat, E., Warren, P.S., Faeth, S.H., McIntyre, N.E., and Hope, D. 2006. From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(4):186-191.

Sigüenza, C., Crowley, D.E., and Allen, E.B. 2006. Soil microorganisms of a native shrub and exotic grasses along a nitrogen deposition gradient in southern California. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):13-26.

Simons, T.R., Shriner, S.A., and Farnsworth, G.L. 2006. Comparison of breeding bird and vegetation communities in primary and secondary forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):302-311.

Skagen, S.K. 2006. Migration stopovers and the conservation of arctic-breeding Calidridine sandpipers. Auk 123(2):313-322.

Smith, R.M., Thompson, K., Hodgson, J.G., Warren, P.H., and Gaston, K.J. 2006. Urban domestic gardens (IX): composition and richness of the vascular plant flora, and implications for native biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):312-322.

Stachowicz, J.J., and Byrnes, J.E. 2006. Species diversity, invasion success, and ecosystem functioning: disentangling the influence of resource competition, facilitation, and extrinsic factors. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 311:251-262.

Stan, A.B., Rigg, L.S., and Jones, L.S. 2006. Dynamics of a managed oak woodland in northeastern Illinois. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):187-197.

Stewart, T.W. 2006. The freshwater gastropods of Iowa (1821-1998): species composition, geographic distributions, and conservation concerns. Am. Malacol. Bull. 21(1-2):59-75.

Stuebing, R.B., Bezuijen, M.R., Auliya, M., and Voris, H.K. 2006. The current and historic distribution of Tomistoma schlegelii (the false gharial) (Muller, 1838) (Crocodylia, Reptilia). Raffles Bull. Zool. 54(1):181-197.

Szlavecz, K., Placella, S.A., Pouyat, R.V., Groffman, P.M., Csuzdi, C., and Yesilonis, I. 2006. Invasive earthworm species and nitrogen cycling in remnant forest patches. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):54-62.

Tassin, J., Lavergne, C., Muller, S., Blanfort, V., Baret, S., Le Bourgeois, T., Triolo, J., and Rivière, J.N. 2006. Assessment of ecological consequences of plant invasions on Reunion Island (Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 61(1):35-52.

Tecco, P.A., Gurvich, D.E., Díaz, S., Pérez-Harguindeguy, N.P., and Cabido, M. 2006. Positive interaction between invasive plants: the influence of Pyracantha angustifolia on the recruitment of native and exotic woody species. Austral Ecol. 31(3):293-300.

Thompson, R.L., and McKinney, L.E. 2006. Vascular flora and plant habitats of an abandoned limestone quarry at Center Hill Dam, Dekalb County, Tennessee. Castanea 71(1):54-64.

Thorne, J.H., Cameron, D., and Quinn, J.F. 2006. A conservation design for the central coast of California and the evaluation of mountain lion as an umbrella species. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):137-148.

Tocher, M.D. 2006. Survival of grand and otago skinks following predator control. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(1):31-42.

Tole, L. 2006. Choosing reserve sites probabilistically: a Colombian Amazon case study. Ecol. Model. 194(4):344-356.

Tole, L. 2006. Measurement and management of human-induced patterns of forest fragmentation: a case study. Environ. Manage. 37(6):788-801.

Traveset, A., and Richardson, D.M. 2006. Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(4):208-216.

van der Ree, R., Bennett, A.F., and Soderquist, T.R. 2006. Nest-tree selection by the threatened brush-tailed phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa) (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in a highly fragmented agricultural landscape. Wildlife Res. 33(2):113-119.

van Swaay, C., Warren, M., and Loïs, G. 2006. Biotope use and trends of European butterflies. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):189-209.

VanderWerf, E.A., Groombridge, J.J., Fretz, J.S., and Swinnerton, K.J. 2006. Decision analysis to guide recovery of the po'ouli, a critically endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper. Biol. Conserv. 129(3):383-392.

Viard, F., Ellien, C., and Dupont, L. 2006. Dispersal ability and invasion success of Crepidula fornicata in a single gulf: insights from genetic markers and larval dispersal model. Helgoland Mar. Res. 60(2):144-152.

Vieites, D.R., Chiari, Y., Vences, M., Andreone, F., Rabemananjara, F., Bora, P., Nieto-Roman, S., and Meyer, A. 2006. Mitochondrial evidence for distinct phylogeographic units in the endangered Malagasy poison frog Mantella bernhardi. Mol. Ecol. 15(6):1617-1625.

Vilà, M., Tessier, M., Suehs, C.M., Brundu, G., Carta, L., Galanidis, A., Lambdon, P., Manca, M., Médail, F., Moragues, E., Traveset, A., Troumbis, A.Y., and Hulme, P.E. 2006. Local and regional assessments of the impacts of plant invaders on vegetation structure and soil properties of Mediterranean islands. J. Biogeogr. 33(5):853-861.

Vinkey, R.S., Schwartz, M.K., McKelvey, K.S., Foresman, K.R., Pilgrim, K.L., Giddings, B.J., and LoFroth, E.C. 2006. When reintroductions are augmentations: the genetic legacy of fishers (Martes pennanti) in Montana. J. Mammal. 87(2):265-271.

Virkkala, R. 2006. Why study woodpeckers? The significance of woodpeckers in forest ecosystems. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43(2):82-85.

Walling, S.Z., and Zabinski, C.A. 2006. Defoliation effects on arbuscular mycorrhizae and plant growth of two native bunchgrasses and an invasive forb. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):111-117.

Wang, J.Y., Gitura, R.W., and Wang, Q.F. 2005. Ecology and conservation of the endangered quillwort Isoetes sinensis in China. J. Nat. Hist. 39(48):4069-4079.

Webb, J.R., and Lott, D.A. 2006. The development of ISIS: a habitat-based invertebrate assemblage classification system for assessing conservation interest in England. J. Insect Conserv. 10(2):179-188.

Whittington, P.A., Martin, A.P., and Klages, N.T.W. 2006. Status, distribution and conservation implications of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus vetula) within the Eastern Cape region of South Africa. Emu 106(2):127-139.

Wilson, L.M., Fehrer, J., Bräutigam, S., and Grosskopf, G. 2006. A new invasive hawkweed, Hieracium glomeratum (Lactuceae, Asteraceae), in the Pacific Northwest. Can. J. Bot. 84(1):133-142.

Winsome, T., Epstein, L., Hendrix, P.F., and Horwath, W.R. 2006. Competitive interactions between native and exotic earthworm species as influenced by habitat quality in a California grassland. Appl. Soil Ecol. 32(1):38-53.

Wong, S.N.P., and Sicotte, P. 2006. Population size and density of Colobus vellerosus at the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary and surrounding forest fragments in Ghana. Am. J. Primatol. 68(5):465-476.

Worman, C.O., and Chapman, C.A. 2006. Densities of two frugivorous primates with respect to forest and fragment tree species composition and fruit availability. Int. J. Primatol. 27(1):203-225.

Xiao, L.Q., and Gong, X. 2006. Genetic differentiation and relationships of populations in the Cycas balansae complex (Cycadaceae) and its conservation implications. Ann. Botany 97(5):807-812.

Yahner, R.H. 2006. Wildlife habitat, herbicides, and rights-of-way maintenance - integrated vegetation management and the wire-border zone method. Nat. Areas J. 26(2):114-115.

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