Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 261
September 2006

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In This Issue

Partnering to Protect Pollinators

The partners of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) have organized a one-day symposium, "Pollinator Partnership: Protecting Plant-Pollinator Interactions Worldwide," hosted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Forest Service to be held on 18 October 2006 at the USDA South Building in Washington, D.C.

This first-ever symposium will showcase the interdisciplinary efforts of diverse stakeholder groups to conserve, monitor, and sustain populations of pollinators and their habitats throughout North America and beyond. Speakers will discuss the role of pollinating species in maintaining healthy agricultural and wild ecosystems, and actions that everyone can take to ensure the future of pollinators, and ourselves.

Highlights will include the unveiling of several federal-level actions to promote pollinator awareness. Invited speakers include U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns, USFWS Deputy Secretary Marshall Jones, May Berenbaum of the National Academy of Sciences Status of Pollinators Scientific Panel, Steve Buchmann of the Bee Works, and others.

For more information about the symposium and how to register, please visit <>.

Stresses Abound for Coral Ecosystems

Complex coral reef ecosystems around the globe are under such severe attack that scientists have a hard time simply figuring out which of the many threats is most fearsome. Reefs are extremely diverse ecosystems, and symbiotic relationships abound, confounding cause and effect relationships. While scientists have long suspected that phosphates, nitrates and ammonia, found in the agricultural runoff and sewage associated with coastal development, contribute to reef loss, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute marine biologist David Kline has uncovered a new menace; sugars.

Kline, a researcher at the Bocas del Toro Research Station in Panama, conducted a large-scale ecotoxicology study in Caribbean coral reefs, using a custom designed and built dosing system that allowed him to test the effects of 40 different chemicals on 400 replicate corals in each experiment. When he exposed the corals to nitrates and phosphates he found 7% mortality rate among the corals. However, when he presented carbon compounds in the form of simple sugar molecules to the corals, nearly 35% of them died. Kline has found that, unlike the other chemicals, sugar leads to an explosive growth of normally symbiotic bacteria, disrupting the balance between the healthy coral and its associated bacterial community, leading to disease and death in the coral.

The question now is whether these lab findings are applicable to real-life situations. According to Kline, corals are already under stress from warming waters and the loss of fish and urchins that eat the algae that competes with corals for space. With weakened defenses, simply boosting the growth rate of the symbiotic bacteria with the influx of sugar may be enough to push corals over the edge. If the findings hold, it will show that monitoring carbon levels in reef areas may be critical to slowing the loss of these invaluable ecosystems.

Current Literature

Albrechtsen, L., Fa, J.E., Barry, B., and Macdonald, D.W. 2005. Contrasts in availability and consumption of animal protein in Bioko Island, West Africa: the role of bushmeat. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):340-348.

Alonso, F., and Martinez, R. 2006. Shelter competition between two invasive crayfish species: a laboratory study. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:1121-1131.

Andrews, R.L., and Broome, S.W. 2006. Oak flat restoration on phosphate-mine spoils. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):210-219.

Armstrong, K.N. 2006. Phylogeographic structure in Rhinonicteris aurantia (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae): implications for conservation. Acta Chiropterol. 8(1):63-81.

Athy, E.R., Keiffer, C.H., and Stevens, M.H. 2006. Effects of mulch on seedlings and soil on a closed landfill. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):233-241.

Aubry, S., Labaune, C., Magnin, F., Roche, P., and Kiss, L. 2006. Active and passive dispersal of an invading land snail in Mediterranean France. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(3):802-813.

Babbitt, K.J., Baber, M.J., and Brandt, L.A. 2006. The effect of woodland proximity and wetland characteristics on larval anuran assemblages in an agricultural landscape. Can. J. Zool. 84(4):510-519.

Balint, P.J. 2006. Improving community-based conservation near protected areas: the importance of development variables. Environ. Manage. 38(1):137-148.

Bar-David, S., Lloyd-Smith, J.O., and Getz, W.M. 2006. Dynamics and management of infectious disease in colonizing populations. Ecology 87(5):1215-1224.

Baum, J.K., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):305-319.

Benayas, J.M.R., De La Montaña, E., Belliure, J., and Eekhout, X.R. 2006. Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain. J. Environ. Manage. 79(3):279-289.

Bergman, E., Ackerman, J.D., Thompson, J., and Zimmerman, J.K. 2006. Land-use history affects the distribution of the saprophytic orchid Wullschlaegelia calcarata in Puerto Rico's Tabonuco Forest. Biotropica 38(4):492-499.

Berry, O.F. 2006. Inbreeding and promiscuity in the endangered grand skink. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):427-437.

Bodrati, A., and Cockle, K. 2006. Habitat, distribution, and conservation of Atlantic forest birds in Argentina: notes on nine rare or threatened species. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 17(2):243-258.

Bonacic, C., Feber, R.E., and Macdonald, D.W. 2006. Capture of the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) for sustainable use: animal welfare implications. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):543-550.

Bonesi, L., Harrington, L.A., Maran, T., Sidorovich, V.E., and Macdonald, D.W. 2006. Demography of three populations of American mink Mustela vison in Europe. Mammal Rev. 36(1):98-106.

Borders, B.D., Pushnik, J.C., and Wood, D.M. 2006. Comparison of leaf litter decomposition rates in restored and mature riparian forests on the Sacramento River, California. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):308-315.

Boren, L.J., Morrissey, M., Muller, C.G., and Gemmell, N.J. 2006. Entanglement of New Zealand fur seals in man-made debris at Kaikoura, New Zealand. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52(4):442-446.

Borisova, E.A. 2006. Floristic contamination of suburban forests near the city of Ivanovo. Russian J. Ecol. 37(3):152-155.

Bradbury, R.B., and Kirby, W.B. 2006. Farmland birds and resource protection in the UK: cross-cutting solutions for multi-functional farming? Biol. Conserv. 129(4):530-542.

Braulik, G.T. 2006. Status assessment of the Indus River dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor, March-April 2001. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):579-590.

Brito, D., and da Fonseca, G.A.B. 2006. Evaluation of minimum viable population size and conservation status of the long-furred woolly mouse opossum Micoureus paraguayanus: an endemic marsupial of the Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1713-1728.

Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gerlach, J., Hoffmann, M., Lamoreux, J.F., Mittermeier, C.G., Pilgrim, J.D., and Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2006. Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313(5783):58-61.

Campbell, L.M., and Smith, C. 2006. What makes them pay? Values of volunteer tourists working for sea turtle conservation. Environ. Manage. 38(1):84-98.

Carolina, N., Cristina, D., and Mario, E.T. 2006. Two new Rhabdocoels (Platyhelminthes) from the Peruvian Amazon floodplain. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1609-1620.

Cataudella, R., Puillandre, N., and Grandjean, F. 2006. Genetic analysis for conservation of Austropotamobius italicus populations in Marches Region (Central Italy). B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:991-1000.

Cayuela, L., Golicher, D.J., and Rey-Benayas, J.M. 2006. The extent, distribution, and fragmentation of vanishing montane cloud forest in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica 38(4):544-554.

Cegelski, C.C., Waits, L.P., Anderson, N.J., Flagstad, O., Strobeck, C., and Kyle, C.J. 2006. Genetic diversity and population structure of wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations at the southern edge of their current distribution in North America with implications for genetic viability. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):197-211.

Chapman, C.A., Lawes, M.J., and Eeley, H.A.C. 2006. What hope for African primate diversity? Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):116-133.

Charles, D. 2006. A 'forever' seed bank takes root in the Arctic. Science 312(5781):1730-1731.

Chauchard, S., Pille, G., and Carcaillet, C. 2006. Large herbivores control the invasive potential of nonnative Austrian black pine in a mixed deciduous Mediterranean forest. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(4):1047-1053.

Colla, S.R., Otterstatter, M.C., Gegear, R.J., and Thomson, J.D. 2006. Plight of the bumble bee: pathogen spillover from commercial to wild populations. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):461-467.

Crandall, K.A. 2006. Applications of phylogenetics to issues in freshwater crayfish biology. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:953-963.

Crookes, D.J., Ankudey, N., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2005. The value of a long-term bushmeat market dataset as an indicator of system dynamics. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):333-339.

Cruz, M.J., Pascoal, S., Tejedo, M., and Rebelo, R. 2006. Predation by an exotic crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, on natterjack toad, Bufo calamita, embryos: its role on the exclusion of this amphibian from its breeding ponds. Copeia 2006(2):274-280.

Cuevas, J.G., and Le Quesne, C. 2006. Low vegetation recovery after short-term cattle exclusion on Robinson Crusoe Island. Plant Ecol. 183(1):105-124.

D'Antonio, C.M., and Mack, M.C. 2006. Nutrient limitation in a fire-derived, nitrogen-rich Hawaiian grassland. Biotropica 38(4):458-467.

Da Silva, A., Luikart, G., Yoccoz, N.G., Cohas, A., and Allainé, D. 2006. Genetic diversity-fitness correlation revealed by microsatellite analyses in European alpine marmots (Marmota marmota). Conserv. Genet. 7(3):371-382.

Dalbeck, L., and Heg, D. 2006. Reproductive success of a reintroduced population of eagle owls Bubo bubo in relation to habitat characteristics in the Eifel, Germany. Ardea 94(1):3-21.

Dalton, R. 2006. Doing conservation by numbers. Nature 442(7098):12.

Delang, C.O. 2005. Economic valuation of non-marketed wild edible plants in Thailand. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):285-287.

Diaz, A., Green, I., Benvenuto, M., and Tibbett, M. 2006. Are ericoid mycorrhizas a factor in the success of Calluna vulgaris heathland restoration? Restor. Ecol. 14(2):187-195.

Dieguez-Uribeondo, J. 2006. The dispersion of the Aphanomyces astaci-carrier Pacifastacus leniusculus by humans represents the main cause of disappearance of the indigenous crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes in Navarra. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:1303-1312.

Doggart, N., Perkin, A., Kiure, J., Fjeldså, J., Poynton, J., and Burgess, N. 2006. Changing places: how the results of new field work in the Rubeho Mountains influence conservation priorities in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):134-144.

Dudgeon, D., Arthington, A.H., Gessner, M.O., Kawabata, Z.I., Knowler, D.J., Leveque, C., Naiman, R.J., Prieur-Richard, A.H., Soto, D., Stiassny, M.L.J., and Sullivan, C.A. 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biol. Rev. 81(2):163-182.

Eggert, C., Cogalniceanu, D., Veith, M., Dzukic, G., and Taberlet, P. 2006. The declining spadefoot toad, Pelobates fuscus (Pelobatidae): paleo and recent environmental changes as a major influence on current population structure and status. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):185-195.

Ellis, J.S., Knight, M.E., Carvell, C., and Goulson, D. 2006. Cryptic species identification: a simple diagnostic tool for discriminating between two problematic bumblebee species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):540-542.

England, P.R., Cornuet, J.M., Berthier, P., Tallmon, D.A., and Luikart, G. 2006. Estimating effective population size from linkage disequilibrium: severe bias in small samples. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):303-308.

Esler, D., Iverson, S.A., and Rizzolo, D.J. 2006. Genetic and demographic criteria for defining population units for conservation: the value of clear messages. Condor 108(2):480-483.

Evans, D.M., Redpath, S.M., Elston, D.A., Evans, S.A., Mitchell, R.J., and Dennis, P. 2006. To graze or not to graze? Sheep, voles, forestry and nature conservation in the British uplands. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(3):499-505.

Fa, J.E., Seymour, S., Dupain, J., Amin, R., Albrechtsen, L., and Macdonald, D. 2006. Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: bushmeat in the Cross-Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):497-510.

Fachin-Teran, A., Vogt, R.C., and Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 2006. Seasonal movements of Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):18-24.

Feniova, I.Y., and Budaev, S.V. 2006. Estimation of the possibility of cladoceran invasion and survival under conditions of competition in mesotrophic Lake Glubokoe. Russian J. Ecol. 37(3):200-204.

Fernando, P., Polet, G., Foead, N., Ng, L.S., Pastorini, J., and Melnick, D.J. 2006. Genetic diversity, phylogeny and conservation of the Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus). Conserv. Genet. 7(3):439-448.

Filippi, E., and Luiselli, L. 2006. Changes in community composition, habitats and abundance of snakes over 10+ years in a protected area in Italy: conservation implications. Herp. J. 16(1):29-36.

Flueck, W.T., and Smith-Flueck, J.M. 2006. Predicaments of endangered huemul deer, Hippocamelus bisulcus, in Argentina: a review. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 52(2):69-80.

Foley, A.M., Peck, S.A., and Harman, G.R. 2006. Effects of sand characteristics and inundation on the hatching success of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) clutches on low-relief mangrove islands in southwest Florida. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):32-41.

Foody, G.M., and Cutler, M.E.J. 2006. Mapping the species richness and composition of tropical forests from remotely sensed data with neural networks. Ecol. Model. 195(1-2):37-42.

Formia, A., Godley, B.J., Dontaine, J.F., and Bruford, M.W. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and phylogeography of endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations in Africa. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):353-369.

Frantz, A.C., and Roper, T.J. 2006. Simulations to assess the performance of different rarefaction methods in estimating population size using small datasets. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):315-318.

Frid, A., Baker, G.G., and Dill, L.M. 2006. Do resource declines increase predation rates on North Pacific harbor seals? A behavior-based plausibility model. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 312:265-275.

Gallo, B.M.G., Macedo, S., Giffoni, B.D., Becker, J.H., and Barata, P.C.R. 2006. Sea turtle conservation in Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil, a feeding area with incidental capture in coastal fisheries. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):93-101.

Gaur, A., Reddy, A., Annapoorni, S., Satyarebala, B., and Shivaji, S. 2006. The origin of Indian star tortoises (Geochelone elegans) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis: a story of rescue and repatriation. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):231-240.

George, J.N., and Mattoni, R. 2006. Rhaphiomidas terminatus terminatus Cazier, 1985 (Diptera: Mydidae): notes on the rediscovery and conservation biology of a presumed extinct species. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 82(1):30-35.

Gerlach, J., and Taylor, M. 2006. Habitat use, roost characteristics and diet of the Seychelles sheath-tailed bat Coleura seychellensis. Acta Chiropterol. 8(1):129-139.

Gherardi, F., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2006. European crayfish as heritage species - linking research and management strategies to conservation and socio-economic development - Preface. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:851-852.

Gibb, H., Pettersson, R.B., Hjältén, J., Hilszczanski, J., Ball, J.P., Johansson, T., Atlegrim, O., and Danell, K. 2006. Conservation-oriented forestry and early successional saproxylic beetles: responses of functional groups to manipulated dead wood substrates. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):437-450.

Gippoliti, S., and Amori, G. 2006. Ancient introductions of mammals in the Mediterranean basin and their implications for conservation. Mammal Rev. 36(1):37-48.

Gleffe, J.D., Collazo, J.A., Groom, M.J., and Miranda-Castro, L. 2006. Avian reproduction and the conservation value of shaded coffee plantations. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 17(2):271-282.

Gompert, Z., Nice, C.C., Fordyce, J.A., Forister, M.L., and Shapiro, A.M. 2006. Identifying units for conservation using molecular systematics: the cautionary tale of the Karner blue butterfly. Mol. Ecol. 15(7):1759-1768.

Gondek, A., Verduijn, M., and Wolff, K. 2006. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for endangered spotted suslik, Spermophilus suslicus. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):359-361.

González, L., Margalida, A., Sánchez, R., and Oria, J. 2006. Supplementary feeding as an effective tool for improving breeding success in the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Biol. Conserv. 129(4):477-486.

Grant, P.R., and Grant, B.R. 2006. Species before speciation is complete. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 93(1):94-102.

Hacker, S.D., and Dethier, M.N. 2006. Community modification by a grass invader has differing impacts for marine habitats. Oikos 113(2):279-286.

Hardie, S.A., Jackson, J.E., Barmuta, L., and White, R.W.G. 2006. Status of galaxiid fishes in Tasmania, Australia: conservation listings, threats and management issues. Aquat. Conserv. 16(3):235-250.

Harris, J.A., Hobbs, R.J., Higgs, E., and Aronson, J. 2006. Ecological restoration and global climate change. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):170-176.

Havens, K., Vitt, P., Maunder, M., Guerrant, E.O., and Dixon, K. 2006. Ex situ plant conservation and beyond. BioScience 56(6):525-531.

Hedmark, E., and Ellegren, H. 2006. A test of the multiplex pre-amplification approach in microsatellite genotyping of wolverine faecal DNA. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):289-293.

Hefti, D., and Stucki, P. 2006. Crayfish management for Swiss waters. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:937-949.

Henderson, S.A., Billotte, N., and Pintaud, J.C. 2006. Genetic isolation of Cape Verde Island Phoenix atlantica (Arecaceae) revealed by microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):213-223.

Hovardas, T., and Stamou, G.P. 2006. Structural and narrative reconstruction of rural residents' representations of 'nature', 'wildlife', and 'landscape'. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1745-1770.

Hunter, C., and Shaw, J. 2005. Applying the ecological footprint to ecotourism scenarios. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):294-304.

Ishihama, F., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2006. Effects of density and floral morph on pollen flow and seed reproduction of an endangered heterostylous herb, Primula sieboldii. J. Ecology 94(4):846-855.

Iwata, H., Kamijo, T., and Tsumura, Y. 2006. Assessment of genetic diversity of native species in Izu Islands for a discriminate choice of source populations: implications for revegetation of volcanically devastated sites. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):399-413.

Jaramillo, M.A. 2006. Using Piper species diversity to identify conservation priorities in the Chocó region of Colombia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1695-1712.

Jayson, E.A., Sivaperuman, C., and Padmanabhan, P. 2006. Review of the reintroduction programme of the Mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris in Neyyar Reservoir, India. Herp. J. 16(1):69-76.

Jenkinson, R.G., Barnas, K.A., Braatne, J.H., Bernhardt, E.S., Palmer, M.A., Allan, J.D., and Natl River Restoration Sci Synthes. 2006. Stream restoration databases and case studies: a guide to information resources and their utility in advancing the science and practice of restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):177-186.

Jian, S.G., Zhong, Y., Liu, N., Gao, Z.Z., Wei, Q., Xie, Z.H., and Ren, H. 2006. Genetic variation in the endangered endemic species Cycas fairylakea (Cycadaceae) in China and implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1681-1694.

Jones, H.P., Williamhenry, R., Howald, G.R., Tershy, B.R., and Croll, D.A. 2005. Predation of artificial Xantus's murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus scrippsi) nests before and after black rat (Rattus rattus) eradication. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):320-325.

Jurado, E., Flores, J., Endress, A.G., Flores, M., Estrada, E., and Pando, M. 2006. Seed removal rates under isolated trees and continuous vegetation in semiarid thornscrub. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):204-209.

Kalinowski, S.T., Taper, M.L., and Creel, S. 2006. Using DNA from non-invasive samples to identify individuals and census populations: an evidential approach tolerant of genotyping errors. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):319-329.

Keeler, M.S., Chew, F.S., Goodale, B.C., and Reed, J.M. 2006. Modelling the impacts of two exotic invasive species on a native butterfly: top-down vs. bottom-up effects. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(3):777-788.

Kelatwang, S., and Garzuglia, M. 2006. Changes in forest area in Africa 1990-2005. Int. For. Rev. 8(1):21-30.

Kenfack, D., Sainge, M.N., and Thomas, D.W. 2006. A new species of Cassipourea (Rhizophoraceae) from western Cameroon. Novon 16(1):61-64.

Keyghobadi, N., Unger, K.P., Weintraub, J.D., and Fonseca, D.M. 2006. Remnant populations of the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) in Pennsylvania: local genetic structure in a high gene flow species. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):309-313.

Kline, D.I., Kuntz, N.M., Breitbart, M., Knowlton, N., and Rohwer, F. 2006. Role of elevated organic carbon levels and microbial activity in coral mortality. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 314:119-125.

Klinger, T., Padilla, D.K., and Britton-Simmons, K. 2006. Two invaders achieve higher densities in reserves. Aquat. Conserv. 16(3):301-311.

Kolehmainen, J.K., and Mutikainen, P. 2006. Reproductive ecology of three endangered African violet (Saintpaulia H. Wendl.) species in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):219-227.

Kulmatiski, A., and Beard, K.H. 2006. Activated carbon as a restoration tool: potential for control of invasive plants in abandoned agricultural fields. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):251-257.

Kyle, C.J., Johnson, A.R., Patterson, B.R., Wilson, P.J., Shami, K., Grewal, S.K., and White, B.N. 2006. Genetic nature of eastern wolves: past, present and future. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):273-287.

Lambdon, P.W., and Hulme, P.E. 2006. How strongly do interactions with closely-related native species influence plant invasions? Darwin's naturalization hypothesis assessed on Mediterranean islands. J. Biogeogr. 33(6):1116-1125.

Landeras, G., Alfonso, M., Pasiecznik, N.M., Harris, P.J.C., and Ramírez, L. 2006. Identification of Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis pallida accessions using molecular markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1829-1844.

Latch, E.K., Dharmarajan, G., Glaubitz, J.C., and Rhodes, O.E. 2006. Relative performance of Bayesian clustering software for inferring population substructure and individual assignment at low levels of population differentiation. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):295-302.

Ledig, F.T., Hodgskiss, P.D., and Johnson, D.R. 2006. Genetic diversity and seed production in Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata), a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen forest. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):383-398.

Lefèvre, G., and Labat, J.N. 2006. A new species of Mimosa (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) from Madagascar. Novon 16(1):74-77.

Leimgruber, P., Kelly, D.S., Steininger, M.K., Brunner, J., Müller, T., and Songer, M. 2005. Forest cover change patterns in Myanmar (Burma) 1990-2000. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):356-364.

Lerat, D., Paris, L., and Baran, P. 2006. Status of the White-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet, 1858) in Burgundy: assessment of 5 years of sampling. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:867-881.

Les, D.H., Capers, R.S., and Tippery, N.P. 2006. Introduction of Glossostigma (Phrymaceae) to North America: a taxonomic and ecological overview. Am. J. Bot. 93(6):927-939.

Lewis, K.C., Bazzaz, F.A., Liao, Q., and Orians, C.M. 2006. Geographic patterns of herbivory and resource allocation to defense, growth, and reproduction in an invasive biennial, Alliaria petiolata. Oecologia 148(3):384-395.

Lezberg, A.L., Buresch, K., Neill, C., and Chase, T. 2006. Mechanical land clearing to promote establishment of coastal sandplain grassland and shrubland communities. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):220-232.

Li, A., and Ge, S. 2006. Genetic variation and conservation of Changnienia amoena, an endangered orchid endemic to China. Plant Syst. Evol. 258(3-4):251-260.

Lindeman, P.V. 2006. Diet of the Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa): relationship to sexually dimorphic trophic morphology and changes over five decades as influenced by an invasive mollusk. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):25-31.

Linkie, M., Chapron, G., Martyr, D.J., Holden, J., and Leader-Williams, N. 2006. Assessing the viability of tiger subpopulations in a fragmented landscape. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(3):576-586.

Lippé, C., Dumont, P., and Bernatchez, L. 2006. High genetic diversity and no inbreeding in the endangered copper redhorse, Moxostoma hubbsi (Catostomidae, Pisces): the positive sides of a long generation time. Mol. Ecol. 15(7):1769-1780.

Lopez, C.B., Cloern, J.E., Schraga, T.S., Little, A.J., Lucas, L.V., Thompson, J.K., and Burau, J.R. 2006. Ecological values of shallow-water habitats: implications for the restoration of disturbed ecosystems. Ecosystems 9(3):422-440.

Lotze, H.K., Lenihan, H.S., Bourque, B.J., Bradbury, R.H., Cooke, R.G., Kay, M.C., Kidwell, S.M., Kirby, M.X., Peterson, C.H., and Jackson, J.B.C. 2006. Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312(5781):1806-1809.

Luiselli, L., Politano, E., and Lea, J. 2006. Assessment of the vulnerable status of Kinixys homeana (Testudines: Testudinidae) for the IUCN Red List. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):130-138.

Lunt, I.D., Jones, N., Spooner, P.G., and Petrow, M. 2006. Effects of European colonization on indigenous ecosystems: post-settlement changes in tree stand structures in Eucalyptus-Callitris woodlands in central New South Wales, Australia. J. Biogeogr. 33(6):1102-1115.

Lwanga, J.S. 2006. The influence of forest variation and possible effects of poaching on duiker abundance at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):209-218.

Lysne, S., and Koetsier, P. 2006. Growth rate and thermal tolerance of two endangered snake river snails. West. N. Am. Naturalist 66(2):230-238.

Lyver, P.O.B. 2005. Co-managing environmental research: lessons from two cross-cultural research partnerships in New Zealand. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):365-370.

Madoffe, S., Hertel, G.D., Rodgers, P., O'Connell, B., and Killenga, R. 2006. Monitoring the health of selected eastern arc forests in Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):171-177.

Maestre, F.T., Cortina, J., and Vallejo, R. 2006. Are ecosystem composition, structure, and functional status related to restoration success? A test from semiarid Mediterranean steppes. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):258-266.

Mahaney, W.M., Smemo, K.A., and Yavitt, J.B. 2006. Impacts of Lythrum salicaria invasion on plant community and soil properties in two wetlands in central New York, USA. Can. J. Bot. 84(3):477-484.

Maldonado, J.E., Leonard, J., Miranda, G.A., Ortega, J., Wayne, R.K., and Aguilera, R.J. 2006. Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Buena Vista Lake shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):349-352.

Marris, E. 2006. Should conservation biologists push policies? Nature 442(7098):13.

Marshall, A.J., Nardiyono, Engström, L.M., Pamungkas, B., Palapa, J., Meijaard, E., and Stanley, S.A. 2006. The blowgun is mightier than the chainsaw in determining population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the forests of East Kalimantan. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):566-578.

Martinoli, A., Preatoni, D., Galanti, V., Codipietro, P., Kilewo, M., Fernandes, C.A.R., Wauters, L.A., and Tosi, G. 2006. Species richness and habitat use of small carnivores in the Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1729-1744.

Matesanz, S., Valladares, F., Tena, D., Costa-Tenorio, M., and Bote, D. 2006. Early dynamics of plant communities on revegetated motorway slopes from southern Spain: is hydroseeding always needed? Restor. Ecol. 14(2):297-307.

Matson, T.K., Goldizen, A.W., Jarman, P.J., and Pople, A.R. 2006. Dispersal and seasonal distributions of black-faced impala in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):247-255.

McGee, B.K., Nicholson, K.L., Ballard, W.B., and Butler, M.J. 2006. Characteristics of swift fox dens in northwest Texas. West. N. Am. Naturalist 66(2):239-245.

McLaughlin, S.P., and Bowers, J.E. 2006. Plant species richness at different scales in native and exotic grasslands in southeastern Arizona. West. N. Am. Naturalist 66(2):209-221.

Mendez, M.A., Torres-Perez, F., Correa, C., Soto, E.R., Nunez, J.J., Veloso, A., and Armesto, J. 2006. Genetic divergence in the endangered frog Insuetophrynus acarpicus (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Herp. J. 16(1):93-96.

Méndez-Larios, I., Lira, R., Godínez-Alvarez, C., Dávila, P., and Ortiz, E. 2006. Proposal for the establishment of the core zones in the biosphere reserve of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1627-1659.

Messer, K.D. 2006. The conservation benefits of cost-effective land acquisition: a case study in Maryland. J. Environ. Manage. 79(3):305-315.

Moreno, L.L., Tuxill, J., Moo, E.Y., Reyes, L.A., Alejo, J.C., and Jarvis, D.I. 2006. Traditional maize storage methods of Mayan farmers in Yucatan, Mexico: implications for seed selection and crop diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1771-1795.

Moyle, P.B., and Marchetti, M.P. 2006. Predicting invasion success: freshwater fishes in California as a model. BioScience 56(6):515-524.

Mulcahy, D.G., Spaulding, A.W., Mendelson, J.R., and Brodie, E.D. 2006. Phylogeography of the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) and systematics of the P. mcallii-platyrhinos mtDNA complex. Mol. Ecol. 15(7):1807-1826.

Mullen, R.M., Springer, A.E., and Kolb, T.E. 2006. Complex effects of prescribed fire on restoring the soil water content in a high-elevation riparian meadow, Arizona. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):242-250.

Muller, F., Vaillant, A., Bâ, A., and Bouvet, J.M. 2006. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):462-464.

Namroud, M.C., Leduc, A., Tremblay, F., and Bergeron, Y. 2006. Simulations of clonal species genotypic diversity - trembling aspen (Populus tremuloïdes) as a case study. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):415-426.

Ngamsiri, T., Ohashi, Y., Sukumasavin, N., Nakajima, M., Na-Nakorn, U., and Taniguchi, N. 2006. Characterization of microsatellite DNA markers in a critically endangered species, Mekong giant catfish, Pangasianodon gigas. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):313-315.

Nicoll, M.A.C., Jones, C.G., and Norris, K. 2006. The impact of harvesting on a formerly endangered tropical bird: insights from life-history theory. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(3):567-575.

Nishihiro, J., Nishihiro, M.A., and Washitani, I. 2006. Assessing the potential for recovery of lakeshore vegetation: species richness of sediment propagule banks. Ecol. Res. 21(3):436-445.

Nogales, M., Rodriguez-Luengo, J.L., and Marrero, P. 2006. Ecological effects and distribution of invasive non-native mammals on the Canary Islands. Mammal Rev. 36(1):49-65.

Norman, M.A., Koch, J.M., Grant, C.D., Morald, T.K., and Ward, S.C. 2006. Vegetation succession after bauxite mining in Western Australia. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):278-288.

Nyahongo, J.W., East, M.L., Mturi, F.A., and Hofer, H. 2005. Benefits and costs of illegal grazing and hunting in the Serengeti ecosystem. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):326-332.

Orth, J.F., Gammon, M., Abdul-Basir, F., Stevenson, R.D., Tsirelson, D., Ebersole, J., Speak, S., and Kesseli, R. 2006. Natural history, distribution, and management of Lepidium latifolium (Brassicaceae) in New England. Rhodora 108(934):103-118.

Ouinsavi, C., Sokpon, N., Bousquet, J., Newton, C.H., and Khasa, D.P. 2006. Novel microsatellite DNA markers for the threatened African endemic tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae), and cross-species amplification in Milicia regia. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):480-483.

Paracuellos, M. 2006. Relationships of songbird occupation with habitat configuration and bird abundance in patchy reed beds. Ardea 94(1):87-98.

Pareliussen, I., Olsson, E.G.A., and Armbruster, W.S. 2006. Factors limiting the survival of native tree seedlings used in conservation efforts at the edges of forest fragments in upland Madagascar. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):196-203.

Perala, J. 2006. Assessment of the threatened status of Testudo werneri Perala, 2001 (Testudines: Testudinidae) for the IUCN Red List. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):57-66.

Petrusek, A., Filipova, L., Duris, Z., Horka, I., Kozak, P., Policar, T., Stambergova, M., and Kucera, Z. 2006. Distribution of the invasive spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) in the Czech Republic. Past and present. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:903-917.

Potts, S.G., Petanidou, T., Roberts, S., O'Toole, C., Hulbert, A., and Willmer, P. 2006. Plant-pollinator biodiversity and pollination services in a complex Mediterranean landscape. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):519-529.

Puky, M., and Schad, P. 2006. Orconectes limosus colonises new areas fast along the Danube in Hungary. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:919-925.

Reece, J.S., Ehrhart, L.M., and Parkinson, C.L. 2006. Mixed stock analysis of juvenile loggerheads (Caretta caretta) in Indian River Lagoon, Florida: implications for conservation planning. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):345-352.

Regnaut, S., Lucas, F.S., and Fumagalli, L. 2006. DNA degradation in avian faecal samples and feasibility of non-invasive genetic studies of threatened capercaillie populations. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):449-453.

Reichlin, T., Klansek, E., and Hackländer, K. 2006. Diet selection by hares (Lepus europaeus) in arable land and its implications for habitat management. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 52(2):109-118.

Remsberg, A.J., Lewis, T.L., Huber, P.W., and Asmus, K.A. 2006. Home ranges of wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) in northern Michigan. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):42-47.

Renai, B., Bertocchi, S., Brusconi, S., Gherardi, F., Grandjean, F., Lebboroni, M., Parinet, B., Grosset, C.S., and Trouilhe, M.C. 2006. Ecological characterisation of streams in Tuscany (Italy) for the management of the threatened crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:1095-1113.

Restrepo, C., and Alvarez, N. 2006. Landslides and their contribution to land-cover change in the mountains of Mexico and Central America. Biotropica 38(4):446-457.

Reynolds, J.D., and Demers, A. 2006. Comparison of white-clawed crayfish populations in Irish and French streams, with comments on its future survival in Europe. B. Fr. Peche. Piscic. 380-81:1115-1120.

Riley, S.P.D., Pollinger, J.P., Sauvajot, R.M., York, E.C., Bromley, C., Fuller, T.K., and Wayne, R.K. 2006. A southern California freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores. Mol. Ecol. 15(7):1733-1741.

Rivera-Ocasio, E., Aide, T.M., and McMillan, W.O. 2006. The influence of spatial scale on the genetic structure of a widespread tropical wetland tree, Pterocarpus officinalis (Fabaceae). Conserv. Genet. 7(2):251-266.

Robertson, B.C., and Gemmell, N.J. 2006. PCR-based sexing in conservation biology: wrong answers from an accurate methodology? Conserv. Genet. 7(2):267-271.

Robertson, M.P., and Barker, N.P. 2006. A technique for evaluating species richness maps generated from collections data. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(1-2):77-84.

Rodríguez-Estrella, R., Carmen, M., and Moreno, B. 2006. Rare, fragile species, small populations, and the dilemma of collections. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1621-1625.

Sadlier, R.A., Smith, S.A., and Bauer, A.M. 2006. A new genus for the New Caledonian scincid lizard Lyeosoma euryotis Werner, 1909, and the description of a new species. Rec. Aust. Mus. 58(1):19-28.

Sanecki, G.M., Green, K., Wood, H., and Lindenmayer, D. 2006. The implications of snow-based recreation for small mammals in the subnivean space in south-east Australia. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):511-518.

Sarasola, J.H., and Negro, J.J. 2006. Role of exotic tree stands on the current distribution and social behaviour of Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni in the Argentine Pampas. J. Biogeogr. 33(6):1096-1101.

Scholte, P., De Groot, W.T., Mayna, Z., and Talla. 2005. Protected area managers' perceptions of community conservation training in West and Central Africa. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):349-355.

Schulz, H.K., Smietana, P., and Schulz, R. 2006. Estimating the human impact on populations of the endangered noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.) in north-western Poland. Aquat. Conserv. 16(3):223-233.

Schwartz, J.D.M., Pallin, M.J., Michener, R.H., Mbabazi, D., and Kaufman, L. 2006. Effects of Nile perch, Lates niloticus, on functional and specific fish diversity in Uganda's Lake Kyoga system. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(2):145-156.

Seddon, J.M., Sundqvist, A.K., Björnerfeldt, S., and Ellegren, H. 2006. Genetic identification of immigrants to the Scandinavian wolf population. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):225-230.

Seip, K.L., Cobelas, M.A., Doledec, S., Fang, J.H., Smith, V.H., and Vorontsova, O.S. 2005. Preferences for environmental issues among environmentally-concerned citizens in six countries. Environ. Conserv. 32(4):288-293.

Sheil, D., and Liswanti, N. 2006. Scoring the importance of tropical forest landscapes with local people: patterns and insights. Environ. Manage. 38(1):126-136.

Silva, L., and Smith, C.W. 2006. A quantitative approach to the study of non-indigenous plants: an example from the Azores Archipelago. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1661-1679.

Smart, J., Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., and Watkinson, A.R. 2006. Grassland-breeding waders: identifying key habitat requirements for management. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(3):454-463.

Soisalo, M.K., and Cavalcanti, S.M.C. 2006. Estimating the density of a jaguar population in the Brazilian Pantanal using camera-traps and capture-recapture sampling in combination with GPS radio-telemetry. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):487-496.

Sommerville, K., Rossetto, M., and Pulkownik, A. 2006. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from Wilsonia backhousei (Convolvulaceae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(2):419-421.

Stinson, K.A., Campbell, S.A., Powell, J.R., Wolfe, B.E., Callaway, R.M., Thelen, G.C., Hallett, S.G., Prati, D., and Klironomos, J.N. 2006. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. PLoS Biol. 4(5):727-731.

Strayer, D.L. 2006. Challenges for freshwater invertebrate conservation. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 25(2):271-287.

Streiff, R., Audiot, P., Foucart, A., Lecoq, M., and Rasplus, J.Y. 2006. Genetic survey of two endangered grasshopper subspecies, Prionotropis hystrix rhodanica and Prionotropis hystrix azami (Orthoptera, Pamphagidae): within- and between-population dynamics at the regional scale. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):331-344.

Swaisgood, R.R., Dickman, D.M., and White, A.M. 2006. A captive population in crisis: testing hypotheses for reproductive failure in captive-born southern white rhinoceros females. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):468-476.

Thompson, L.M., van Manen, F.T., Schlarbaum, S.E., and Depoy, M. 2006. A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):289-296.

Totland, O., Nielsen, A., Bjerknes, A.L., and Ohlson, M. 2006. Effects of an exotic plant and habitat disturbance on pollinator visitation and reproduction in a boreal forest herb. Am. J. Bot. 93(6):868-873.

Trontti, K., Aron, S., and Sundström, L. 2006. The genetic population structure of the ant Plagiolepis xene-implications for genetic vulnerability of obligate social parasites. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):241-250.

Tuma, M.W. 2006. Range, habitat use, and seasonal activity of the yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens) in northwestern Illinois: implications for site-specific conservation and management. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5(1):108-120.

Turner, S.R., Pearce, B., Rokich, D.P., Dunn, R.R., Merritt, D.J., Majer, J.D., and Dixon, K.W. 2006. Influence of polymer seed coatings, soil raking, and time of sowing on seedling performance in post-mining restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):267-277.

Twedt, D.J. 2006. Small clusters of fast-growing trees enhance forest structure on restored bottomland sites. Restor. Ecol. 14(2):316-320.

Valdivia, C.E., Simonetti, J.A., and Henríquez, C.A. 2006. Depressed pollination of Lapageria rosea Ruiz et Pav. (Philesiaceae) in the fragmented temperate rainforest of southern South America. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1845-1856.

Vaxevanidou, Z., González-Martínez, S.C., Climent, J., and Gil, L. 2006. Tree populations bordering on extinction: a case study in the endemic Canary Island pine. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):451-460.

Vilà, M., and Gimeno, I. 2006. Potential for higher invasiveness of the alien Oxalis pes-caprae on islands than on the mainland. Plant Ecol. 183(1):47-53.

Villesen, P., and Fredsted, T. 2006. A new sex identification tool: one primer pair can reliably sex ape and monkey DNA samples. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):455-459.

Votier, S.C., Crane, J.E., Bearhop, S., de Leon, A., McSorley, C.A., Minguez, E., Mitchell, I.P., Parsons, M., Phillips, R.A., and Furness, R.W. 2006. Nocturnal foraging by great skuas Stercorarius skua: implications for conservation of storm-petrel populations. J. Ornithol. 147(3):405-413.

Wakefield, S., and Attum, O. 2006. The effects of human visits on the use of a waterhole by endangered ungulates. J. Arid Environ. 65(4):668-672.

Walker, L.R., Barnes, P.L., and Powell, E.A. 2006. Tamarix aphylla: a newly invasive tree in southern Nevada. West. N. Am. Naturalist 66(2):191-201.

Wan, Q.H., Yu, J.Q., Yong, Y.G., and Fang, S.G. 2006. Reliable genetic analyses based on formalin-fixed materials: a new noninvasive sampling perspective for the giant panda. Conserv. Genet. 7(3):467-471.

Wang, R.J., and Saunders, R.M.K. 2006. The genus Cyathocalyx (Annonaceae) in the Philippines. Syst. Bot. 31(2):285-297.

Wang, S.W., and Macdonald, D.W. 2006. Livestock predation by carnivores in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):558-565.

Wang, W.Y., Wang, Q.J., Li, S.X., and Wang, G. 2006. Distribution and species diversity of plant communities along transect on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1811-1828.

Wang, Z.S., An, S.Q., Liu, H., Feng, J., Zhang, F., and Leng, X. 2006. Effect of stand age and management regime on genetic diversity of Thuidium cymbifolium in western China. Biol. Conserv. 129(4):551-557.

Waples, R.S. 2006. A bias correction for estimates of effective population size based on linkage disequilibrium at unlinked gene loci. Conserv. Genet. 7(2):167-184.

Whittall, J.B., Carlson, M.L., Beardsley, P.M., Meinke, R.J., and Liston, A. 2006. The Mimulus moschatus alliance (Phrymaceae): molecular and morphological phylogenetics and their conservation implications. Syst. Bot. 31(2):380-397.

Wironen, M., and Moore, T.R. 2006. Exotic earthworm invasion increases soil carbon and nitrogen in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(4):845-854.

Wolf, J.B.W., Tautz, D., Caccone, A., and Steinfartz, S. 2006. Development of new microsatellite loci and evaluation of loci from other pinniped species for the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus californianus wollebaeki). Conserv. Genet. 7(3):461-465.

Wonham, M.J., and Pachepsky, E. 2006. A null model of temporal trends in biological invasion records. Ecol. Lett. 9(6):663-672.

Yoshimura, J., Tainaka, K., Suzuki, T., Sakisaka, Y., Nakagiri, N., Togashi, T., and Miyazaki, T. 2006. The role of rare species in the community stability of a model ecosystem. Evol. Ecol. Res. 8(4):629-642.

Znamenskiy, S., Helm, A., and Pärtel, M. 2006. Threatened alvar grasslands in NW Russia and their relationship to alvars in Estonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(5):1797-1809.

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