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Department ofBotany

No. 262
October 2006

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In This Issue

Smithsonian Scientists Provide Hi-Tech Method to Study Endangered Species

The conservation and management of endangered species is a primary focus for the National Zoo's research staff who have pioneered in research and veterinary science methods for decades. Now Zoo and National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) scientists and a former Smithsonian pre-doctoral fellowship student are credited with refining a noninvasive technique, faecal sampling followed by molecular analysis of faecal DNA, to obtain information on wild mammals without the need to capture, handle or observe them. This method has previously been criticized because, if conducted inappropriately, it yields too many scoring problems and genotyping errors making the results unreliable.

The endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) population in California, which has been studied by the Zoo for 17 years, was chosen as the research target. Researchers from the Conservation and Research Center and the Genetics Program joined forces with colleagues from the University of Washington and University of Montana along with trained locator dogs to collect hundreds of faecal samples (scats) in the Carrizo Plain National Monument. The location of each scat collected was geo-referenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit. The team's previous research had shown that the trained dogs were 100% accurate at distinguishing kit fox scats from those of other species. DNA was extracted from every scat sample and sex markers and six microsatellite loci were examined; then five previously recommended tests for reducing and tracking error as well as several new spatial tests developed by the investigators were applied. Results showed very low rates of genotyping error, and analyses of the individual scat genotypes provided information on kit foxes that was in good agreement with data gathered using more traditional, invasive techniques (trapping and radio collaring). Results on fox movement patterns, for instance, agreed with prior field observations.

An important conclusion of this study is that a systematic collection of "fresh" scats followed by molecular typing can provide reliable data on species, differentiate individuals and provide data on sex. Genetic data can further reveal relatedness, movements, and latrine use. The technique, with some further testing, may prove useful in deducing the probable diameter of a fox home range since it was found that 96% of foxes deposited scats within a distance no greater than 2,107 m. Finally, researchers foresee faecal sampling, when paired with appropriate steps to ensure genotype reliability, as being quite applicable to studies of other elusive or rare animal populations.

Rare Vulture Cited in India

By Raju Lal Gurjar, Wildlife Institute of India

Breeding and roosting sites of the critically endangered Indian Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus) have been discovered in the Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 48 vultures are living in a hill complex cliff. The site is quite inaccessible to humans and wild animals from both the ground level and from the top of the cliff.

Satpura Tiger Reserve, Hosangabad, Madhya Pradesh (22o15’ - 22o45’ N; 77o50’ - 78o30’ E) is in the Satpura range (Mahadeo Hills). Bori Wildlife Sancturay and Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary are a part of Satpura Tiger Reserve. The forests are tropical dry deciduous, tropical moist deciduous and sub-tropical. The biodiversity is rich with over 1,300 species of plants, including numerous rare bryophytes and pterdophytes, 50 mammal species, 30 reptile species and 254 species of birds, including the vultures.

Current Literature

Agoramoorthy, G., Sha, C.M., and Hsu, M.J. 2006. Population, diet and conservation of Malayan flying lemurs in altered and fragmented habitats in Singapore. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2177-2185.

Agrawal, A., and Ostrom, E. 2006. Political science and conservation biology: a dialog of the deaf. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):681-682.

Anadón, J.D., Giménez, A., Pérez, I., Martínez, M., and Esteve, M.A. 2006. Habitat selection by the spur-thighed tortoise Testudo graeca in a multisuccessional landscape: implications for habitat management. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2287-2299.

Andrianoelina, O., Rakotondraoelina, H., Ramamonjisoa, L., Maley, J., Danthu, P., and Bouvet, J.M. 2006. Genetic diversity of Dalbergia monticola (Fabaceae) an endangered tree species in the fragmented oriental forest of Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1109-1128.

Antworth, R.L., Pike, D.A., and Stiner, J.C. 2006. Nesting ecology, current status, and conservation of sea turtles on an uninhabited beach in Florida, USA. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):10-15.

Apps, C.D., and McLellan, B.N. 2006. Factors influencing the dispersion and fragmentation of endangered mountain caribou populations. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):84-97.

Arndt, E. 2006. Niche occupation by invasive ground-dwelling predator species in Canarian laurel forests. Biol. Invasions 8(4):893-902.

Arzamendia, Y., Cassini, M.H., and Vilá, B.L. 2006. Habitat use by vicuña Vicugna vicugna in Laguna Pozuelos Reserve, Jujuy, Argentina. Oryx 40(2):198-203.

Balaguru, B., Britto, S.J., Nagamurugan, N., Natarajan, D., and Soosairaj, S. 2006. Identifying conservation priority zones for effective management of tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1529-1543.

Balmford, A., and Cowling, R.M. 2006. Fusion or failure? The future of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):692-695.

Bando, K.J. 2006. The roles of competition and disturbance in a marine invasion. Biol. Invasions 8(4):755-763.

Bank, M.S., Crocker, J.B., Davis, S., Brotherton, D.K., Cook, R., Behler, J., and Connery, B. 2006. Population decline of northern dusky salamanders at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):230-238.

Barney, J.N. 2006. North American history of two invasive plant species: phytogeographic distribution, dispersal vectors, and multiple introductions. Biol. Invasions 8(4):703-717.

Bawa, K.S. 2006. Conservation requires multiple approaches. Nature 442(7104):744.

Bawa, K.S. 2006. Globally dispersed local challenges in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):696-699.

Baxter, P.W.J., McCarthy, M.A., Possingham, H.P., Menkhorst, P.W., and McLean, N. 2006. Accounting for management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population models. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):893-905.

Beardmore, T., Loo, J., McAfee, B., Malouin, C., and Simpson, D. 2006. A survey of tree species of concern in Canada: the role for genetic conservation. Forest Chron. 82(3):351-363.

Behera, S.K., and Misra, M.K. 2006. Floristic and structure of the herbaceous vegetation of four recovering forest stands in the Eastern Ghats of India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2263-2285.

Beisner, B.E., Hovius, J., Hayward, A., Kolasa, J., and Romanuk, T.N. 2006. Environmental productivity and biodiversity effects on invertebrate community invasibility. Biol. Invasions 8(4):655-664.

Berger, K.M. 2006. Carnivore-livestock conflicts: effects of subsidized predator control and economic correlates on the sheep industry. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):751-761.

Bertrand, Y., Pteijel, F., and Rouse, G.W. 2006. Taxonomic surrogacy in biodiversity assessments, and the meaning of Linnaean ranks. Syst. Biodivers. 4(2):149-159.

Bhatnagar, Y.V., Wangchuk, R., and Mishra, C. 2006. Decline of the Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata in Ladakh, India. Oryx 40(2):229-232.

Bleher, B., Uster, D., and Bergsdorf, T. 2006. Assessment of threat status and management effectiveness in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1159-1177.

Blundell, A.G., and Mascia, M.B. 2006. Data on wildlife trade. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):598-599.

Blyth-Skyrme, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Hiddink, J.G., Edwards-Jones, G., and Hart, P.J.B. 2006. Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: variation among fish species. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):811-820.

Bolton, T.F., and Graham, W.M. 2006. Jellyfish on the rocks: bioinvasion threat of the international trade in aquarium live rock. Biol. Invasions 8(4):651-653.

Boltovskoy, D., Correa, N., Cataldo, D., and Sylvester, F. 2006. Dispersion and ecological impact of the invasive freshwater bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the Rio de la Plata watershed and beyond. Biol. Invasions 8(4):947-963.

Bonesi, L., Strachan, R., and Macdonald, D.W. 2006. Why are there fewer signs of mink in England? Considering multiple hypotheses. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):268-277.

Borja, Á., Muxika, I., and Bald, J. 2006. Protection of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, Gmelin, 1790 population: the Gaztelugatxe Marine Reserve (Basque Country, northern Spain). Sci. Mar. 70(2):235-242.

Bowne, D.R., Bowers, M.A., and Hines, J.E. 2006. Connectivity in an agricultural landscape as reflected by interpond movements of a freshwater turtle. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):780-791.

Brewer, C. 2006. Translating data into meaning: education in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):689-691.

Britschgi, A., Spaar, R., and Arlettaz, R. 2006. Impact of grassland farming intensification on the breeding ecology of an indicator insectivorous passerine, the whinchat Saxicola rubetra: lessons for overall alpine meadowland management. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):193-205.

Britton-Simmons, K.H. 2006. Functional group diversity, resource preemption and the genesis of invasion resistance in a community of marine algae. Oikos 113(3):395-401.

Brosius, J.P. 2006. Common ground between anthropology and conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):683-685.

Brusati, E.D., and Grosholz, E.D. 2006. Native and introduced ecosystem engineers produce contrasting effects on estuarine infaunal communities. Biol. Invasions 8(4):683-695.

Burns, J.H., and Winn, A.A. 2006. A comparison of plastic responses to competition by invasive and non-invasive congeners in the commelinaceae. Biol. Invasions 8(4):797-807.

Burnside, N.G., Metcalfe, D.J., Smith, R.F., and Waite, S. 2006. Ghyll woodlands of the Weald: characterisation and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1319-1338.

Bushek, D., and Boyd, S. 2006. Seasonal abundance and occurrence of the Asian isopod Synidotea laevidorsalis in Delaware Bay, USA. Biol. Invasions 8(4):697-702.

Cabrera-García, L., Montes, J.A.V., and Weinmann, M.E.E. 2006. Identification of priority habitats for conservation of the Sierra Madre sparrow Xenospiza baileyi in Mexico. Oryx 40(2):211-217.

Cacho, O.J., Spring, D., Pheloung, P., and Hester, S. 2006. Evaluating the feasibility of eradicating an invasion. Biol. Invasions 8(4):903-917.

Cadotte, M.W., Murray, B.R., and Lovett-Doust, J. 2006. Ecological patterns and biological invasions: using regional species inventories in macroecology. Biol. Invasions 8(4):809-821.

Cahill, A.J., Walker, J.S., and Marsden, S.J. 2006. Recovery within a population of the Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control. Oryx 40(2):161-167.

Calvete, C. 2006. The use of immunization programs in wild populations: modelling effectiveness of vaccination campaigns against rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):290-300.

Cardona, L. 2006. Trophic cascades uncoupled in a coastal marsh ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 8(4):835-842.

Caton, B.P., Dobbs, T.T., and Brodel, C.F. 2006. Arrivals of hitchhiking insect pests on international cargo aircraft at Miami International Airport. Biol. Invasions 8(4):765-785.

Caudell, J.N., and Conover, M.R. 2006. Energy content and digestibility of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and other prey items of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) on the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):251-254.

Cegelski, C.C., Campbell, M.R., Meyer, K.A., and Powell, M.S. 2006. Multiscale genetic structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in the upper Snake River basin. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 135(3):711-726.

Chandra, B., Palni, L.M.S., and Nandi, S.K. 2006. Propagation and conservation of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.: an endangered Himalayan medicinal herb of high commercial value. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2325-2338.

Chapron, G., Veron, G., and Jennings, A. 2006. New carnivore species in Borneo may not be new. Oryx 40(2):138.

Choudhary, S.K., Smith, B.D., Dey, S., Dey, S., and Prakash, S. 2006. Conservation and biomonitoring in the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary, Bihar, India. Oryx 40(2):189-197.

Cleary, D. 2006. The questionable effectiveness of science spending by international conservation organizations in the tropics. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):733-738.

Cleveland, C.J., Betke, M., Federico, P., Frank, J.D., Hallam, T.G., Horn, J., López, J.D., McCracken, G.F., Medellín, R.A., Moreno-Valdez, A., Sansone, C.G., Westbrook, J.K., and Kunz, T.H. 2006. Economic value of the pest control service provided by Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(4):238-243.

Closset-Kopp, D., Schnitzler, A., and Aran, D. 2006. Dynamics in natural mixed-beech forest of the Upper Vosges. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1063-1093.

Collen, B., Bykova, E., Ling, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Purvis, A. 2006. Extinction risk: a comparative analysis of Central Asian vertebrates. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1859-1871.

Cook, W.M., and Holt, R.D. 2006. Fire frequency and mosaic burning effects on a tallgrass prairie ground beetle assemblage. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2301-2323.

Corkeron, P.J. 2006. Opposing views of the "Ecosystem approach" to fisheries management. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):617-619.

Corsini, M., Margies, P., Kondilatos, G., and Economidis, P.S. 2006. Three new exotic fish records from the SE Aegean Greek waters. Sci. Mar. 70(2):319-323.

Cruz, M.J., Rebelo, R., and Crespo, E.G. 2006. Effects of an introduced crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, on the distribution of south-western Iberian amphibians in their breeding habitats. Ecography 29(3):329-338.

Dennis, R.L.H., Shreeve, T.G., and Van Dyck, H. 2006. Habitats and resources: the need for a resource-based definition to conserve butterflies. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1943-1966.

Dietz, H., and Edwards, P.J. 2006. Recognition that causal processes change during plant invasion helps explain conflicts in evidence. Ecology 87(6):1359-1367.

Drake, J.M., Drury, K.L.S., Lodge, D.M., Blukacz, A., Yan, N.D., and Dwyer, G. 2006. Demographic stochasticity, environmental variability, and windows of invasion risk for Bythotrephes longimanus in North America. Biol. Invasions 8(4):843-861.

Dulvy, N.K., Jennings, S., Rogers, S.I., and Maxwell, D.L. 2006. Threat and decline in fishes: an indicator of marine biodiversity. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(6):1267-1275.

Ehrenfeld, D. 2006. Transgenics and vertebrate cloning as tools for species conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):723-732.

Filho, J.A.S., and Tabarelli, M. 2006. Bromeliad species of the Atlantic forest of north-east Brazil: losses of critical populations of endemic species. Oryx 40(2):218-224.

Fiorello, C.V., Noss, A.J., and Deem, S.L. 2006. Demography, hunting ecology, and pathogen exposure of domestic dogs in the Isoso of Bolivia. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):762-771.

Flory, S.L., and Clay, K. 2006. Invasive shrub distribution varies with distance to roads and stand age in eastern deciduous forests in Indiana, USA. Plant Ecol. 184(1):131-141.

Focardi, S., Aragno, P., Montanaro, P., and Riga, F. 2006. Inter-specific competition from fallow deer Dama dama reduces habitat quality for the Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus. Ecography 29(3):407-417.

Folke, C. 2006. The economic perspective: conservation against development versus conservation for development. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):686-688.

Fonseca, R.L., Guimaraes, P.R., Morbiolo, S.R., Scachetti-Pereira, R., and Peterson, A.T. 2006. Predicting invasive potential of smooth crotalaria (Crotalaria pallida) in Brazilian national parks based on African records. Weed Sci. 54(3):458-463.

France, K.E., and Duffy, J.E. 2006. Consumer diversity mediates invasion dynamics at multiple trophic levels. Oikos 113(3):515-529.

Fred, M.S., O'Hara, R.B., and Brommer, J.E. 2006. Consequences of the spatial configuration of resources for the distribution and dynamics of the endangered Parnassius apollo Butterfly. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):183-192.

Freshwater, D.W., Montgomery, F., Greene, J.K., Hamner, R.M., Williams, M., and Whitfield, P.E. 2006. Distribution and identification of an invasive Gracilaria species that is hampering commercial fishing operations in southeastern North Carolina, USA. Biol. Invasions 8(4):631-637.

Frey, J.K. 2006. Inferring species distributions in the absence of occurrence records: an example considering wolverine (Gulo gulo) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in New Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):16-24.

Freyfogle, E.T. 2006. Conservation biology and law: only a start. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):679-680.

Gangoso, L., Donázar, J.A., Scholz, S., Palacios, C.J., and Hiraldo, F. 2006. Contradiction in conservation of island ecosystems: plants, introduced herbivores and avian scavengers in the Canary Islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2231-2248.

García, A. 2006. Using ecological niche modelling to identify diversity hotspots for the herpetofauna of Pacific lowlands and adjacent interior valleys of Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):25-46.

Garmendia, A., Cárcamo, S., and Schwendtner, O. 2006. Forest management considerations for conservation of black woodpecker Dryocopus martius and white-backed woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos populations in Quinto Real (Spanish Western Pyrenees). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1399-1415.

Gaubert, P., Papes, M., and Peterson, A.T. 2006. Natural history collections and the conservation of poorly known taxa: ecological niche modeling in central African rainforest genets (Genetta spp.). Biol. Conserv. 130(1):106-117.

Gerhardinger, L.C., Freitas, M.O., Andrade, Á.B., and Rangel, C.A. 2006. Omobranchus punctatus (Teleostei: Blenniidae), an exotic blenny in the Southwestern Atlantic. Biol. Invasions 8(4):941-946.

Gibbs, J.P., and Karraker, N.E. 2006. Effects of warming conditions in eastern North American forests on red-backed salamander morphology. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):913-917.

Gleason, M.G., Merrifield, M.S., Cook, C., Davenport, A.L., and Shaw, R. 2006. Assessing gaps in marine conservation in California. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(4):249-258.

Gondard, H., Romane, F., Regina, I.S., and Leonardi, S. 2006. Forest management and plant species diversity in chestnut stands of three Mediterranean areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1129-1142.

González-Rivas, B., Tigabu, M., Gerhardt, K., Castro-Marín, G., and Odén, P.C. 2006. Species composition, diversity and local uses of tropical dry deciduous and gallery forests in Nicaragua. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1509-1527.

Goodman, S.M. 2006. Hunting of Microchiroptera in south-western Madagascar. Oryx 40(2):225-228.

Graz, F.P. 2006. Spatial diversity of dry savanna woodlands - assessing the spatial diversity of a dry savanna woodland stand in northern Namibia using neighbourhood-based measures. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1143-1157.

Greaves, R.K., Sanderson, R.A., and Rushton, S.P. 2006. Predicting species occurrence using information-theoretic approaches and significance testing: an example of dormouse distribution in Cumbria, UK. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):239-250.

Gubbi, S. 2006. India's tiger crisis. Oryx 40(2):135-136.

Harrison, A.L. 2006. Who's who in Conservation Biology - an authorship analysis. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):652-657.

Harvey, D.S., and Weatherhead, P.J. 2006. A test of the hierarchical model of habitat selection using eastern massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus c. catenatus). Biol. Conserv. 130(2):206-216.

Hawksworth, D.L. 2006. Forest diversity and management: safeguarding the Earth's biota - Introduction. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1061-1062.

Hemp, A. 2006. The banana forests of Kilimanjaro: biodiversity and conservation of the Chagga homegardens. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1193-1217.

Hensen, I., and Wesche, K. 2006. Relationships between population size, genetic diversity and fitness components in the rare plant Dictamnus albus in Central Germany. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2249-2261.

Herbert, J. 2006. Distribution, habitat and Red List status of the New Cledonian endemic tree Canacomyrica monticola (Myricaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1459-1466.

Hernandez-Stefanoni, J.L. 2006. The role of landscape patterns of habitat types on plant species diversity of a tropical forest in Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1441-1457.

Husheer, S.W., Allen, R.B., and Robertson, A.W. 2006. Suppression of regeneration in New Zealand mountain beech forests is dependent on species of introduced deer. Biol. Invasions 8(4):823-834.

Ineich, I. 2006. Bocourt's terrific skink of New Caledonia is not extinct! Oryx 40(2):136.

Jäkäläniemi, A., Tuomi, J., and Sikamkäki, P. 2006. Conservation of species in dynamic landscapes: divergent fates of Silene tatarica populations in riparian habitats. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):844-852.

Jha, S., and Bawa, K.S. 2006. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):906-912.

Johnsingh, A.J.T. 2006. Status and conservation of the tiger in Uttaranchal, northern India. Ambio 35(3):135-137.

Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Ranambinintsoa, E.H., Hockley, N.J., and Ravoahangimalala, O. 2006. The economic importance of freshwater crayfish harvesting in Madagascar and the potential of community-based conservation to improve management. Oryx 40(2):168-175.

Jones, M.J., Fielding, A., and Sullivan, M. 2006. Analysing extinction risk in parrots using decision trees. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1993-2007.

Kautz, R., Kawula, R., Hoctor, T., Comiskey, J., Jansen, D., Jennings, D., Kasbohm, J., Mazzotti, F., McBride, R., Richardson, L., and Root, K. 2006. How much is enough? Landscape-scale conservation for the Florida panther. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):118-133.

Kessler, W.B., and Thomas, J.W. 2006. Conservation biology from the perspective of natural resource management disciplines. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):670-673.

Kindt, R., Van Damme, P., and Simons, A.J. 2006. Tree diversity in western Kenya: using profiles to characterise richness and evenness. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1253-1270.

Kleiman, D.G. 2006. Conservation focus: baiji, freshwater dolphin - Introduction. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):620.

Knight, A.T., Driver, A., Cowling, R.M., Maze, K., Desmet, P.G., Lombard, A.T., Rouget, M., Botha, M.A., Boshoff, A.E., Castley, G., Goodman, P.S., MacKinnon, K., Pierce, S.M., Sims-Castley, R., Stewart, W.I., and Von Hase, A. 2006. Designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: best practice from South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):739-750.

Kolongo, T.S.D., Decocq, G., Yao, C.Y.A., Blom, E.C., and Van Rompaey, R.S.A.R. 2006. Plant species diversity in the southern part of the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2123-2142.

Krakau, M., Thieltges, D.W., and Reise, K. 2006. Native parasites adopt introduced bivalves of the North Sea. Biol. Invasions 8(4):919-925.

Kuchling, G., Ko, W.K., Min, S.A., Lwin, T., Myo, K.M., Khaing, T.T., Khaing, T.T., Mar, W.W., and Win, N.N. 2006. Two remnant populations of the roofed turtle Kachuga trivittata in the upper Ayeyarwady River system, Myanmar. Oryx 40(2):176-182.

Kuntz, K.L., and Larson, D.W. 2006. Influences of microhabitat constraints and rock-climbing disturbance on cliff-face vegetation communities. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):821-832.

Labrie, G., Lucas, É., and Coderre, D. 2006. Can developmental and behavioral characteristics of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis explain its invasive success? Biol. Invasions 8(4):743-754.

Lafferty, K.D., Goodman, D., and Sandoval, C.P. 2006. Restoration of breeding by snowy plovers following protection from disturbance. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2217-2230.

Laha, M., and Mattingly, H.T. 2006. Identifying environmental conditions to promote species coexistence: an example with the native Barrens topminnow and invasive western mosquitofish. Biol. Invasions 8(4):719-725.

Langen, T.A., and Welsh, R. 2006. Effects of a problem-based learning approach on attitude change and science and policy content knowledge. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):600-608.

Langenberger, G., Martin, K., and Sauerborn, J. 2006. Vascular plant species inventory of a Philippine lowland rain forest and its conservation value. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1271-1301.

Larson, D.L., Royer, R.A., and Royer, M.R. 2006. Insect visitation and pollen deposition in an invaded prairie plant community. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):148-159.

Lee, D.C., and Marsden, S.J. 2006. Accumulation of knowledge and changes in Red List classifications within the family Galliformes 1980-2004. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1887-1902.

Lehtilä, K., Syrjänen, K., Leimu, R., Garcia, M.B., and Ehrlén, J. 2006. Habitat change and demography of Primula veris: identification of management targets. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):833-843.

Lenhardt, M., Jaric, I., Kalauzi, A., and Cvijanovic, G. 2006. Assessment of extinction risk and reasons for decline in sturgeon. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1967-1976.

Lewis, J.A., Watson, C., and ten Hove, H.A. 2006. Establishment of the Caribbean serpulid tubeworm Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer [in] Mörch, 1863, in northern Australia. Biol. Invasions 8(4):665-671.

Lewis, P.N., Bergstrom, D.M., and Whinam, J. 2006. Barging in: a temperate marine community travels to the subantarctic. Biol. Invasions 8(4):787-795.

Lohmus, P., Rosenvald, R., and Lohmus, A. 2006. Effectiveness of solitary retention trees for conserving epiphytes: differential short-term responses of bryophytes and lichens. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(5):1319-1330.

López, R.P., and Zambrana-Torrelio, C. 2006. Representation of Andean dry ecoregions in the protected areas of Bolivia: the situation in relation to the new phytogeographical findings. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2163-2175.

Lovejoy, T.E. 2006. Glimpses of conservation biology, act II. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):711-712.

Lucherini, M., and Merino, M.J. 2006. Planning a common educational strategy for Andean cat conservation. Oryx 40(2):137-138.

Lund, H.G. 2006. Guide for classifying lands for greenhouse gas inventories. J. Forestry 104(4):211-216.

Makana, J.R., and Thomas, S.C. 2006. Impacts of selective logging and agricultural clearing on forest structure, floristic composition and diversity, and timber tree regeneration in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1375-1397.

Martin-Smith, K.M., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2006. Exploitation and trade of Australian seahorses, pipehorses, sea dragons and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae). Oryx 40(2):141-151.

Martinez, J.J., and Wool, D. 2006. Sampling bias in roadsides: the case of galling aphids on Pistacia trees. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2109-2121.

Marushia, R.G., and Holt, J.S. 2006. The effects of habitat on dispersal patterns of an invasive thistle, Cynara cardunculus. Biol. Invasions 8(4):577-593.

Marzluff, J.M., and Neatherlin, E. 2006. Corvid response to human settlements and campgrounds: causes, consequences, and challenges for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):301-314.

Matson, P.A., and Vitousek, P.M. 2006. Agricultural intensification: will land spared from farming be land spared for nature? Conserv. Biol. 20(3):709-710.

McAlpine, C.A., Bowen, M.E., Callaghan, J.G., Lunney, D., Rhodes, J.R., Mitchell, D.L., Pullar, D.V., and Poszingham, H.P. 2006. Testing alternative models for the conservation of koalas in fragmented rural-urban landscapes. Austral Ecol. 31(4):529-544.

McCullough, D.G., Work, T.T., Cavey, J.F., Liebhold, A.M., and Marshall, D. 2006. Interceptions of nonindigenous plant pests at US ports of entry and border crossings over a 17-year period. Biol. Invasions 8(4):611-630.

Meffe, G.K. 2006. Special section: 20th anniversary of Conservation Biology - Introduction. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):629-630.

Meffe, G.K., Ehrenfeld, D., and Noss, R.F. 2006. Conservation biology at twenty. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):595-596.

Meine, C., Soulé, M., and Noss, R.F. 2006. "A mission-driven discipline": the growth of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):631-651.

Melis, C., Buset, A., Aarrestad, P.A., Hanssen, O., Meisingset, E.L., Andersen, R., Moksnes, A., and Røskaft, E. 2006. Impact of red deer Cervus elaphus grazing on bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and composition of ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblage. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):2049-2059.

Menzel, J.M., Ford, W.M., Edwards, J.W., and Terry, T.M. 2006. Home range and habitat use of the Vulnerable Virginia northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus in the Central Appalachian Mountains, USA. Oryx 40(2):204-210.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kreuzberg-Mukhina, E., Grebot, B., Ling, S., Bykova, E., Abdusalamov, I., Bekenov, A., Gärdenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Salnikov, V., and Stogova, L. 2006. Application of IUCN red listing criteria at the regional and national levels: a case study from Central Asia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1873-1886.

Morán-lópez, R., Sánchez, J.M., Costillo, E., Corbacho, C., and Villegas, A. 2006. Spatial variation in anthropic and natural factors regulating the breeding success of the cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):169-182.

Moreau, M.A., and Coomes, O.T. 2006. Potential threat of the international aquarium fish trade to silver arawana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum in the Peruvian Amazon. Oryx 40(2):152-160.

Mortelliti, A., and Boitani, L. 2006. Patterns of rodent species diversity and abundance in a Kenyan relict tropical rainforest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1425-1440.

Nangendo, G., Ter Steege, H., and Bongers, F. 2006. Composition of woody species in a dynamic forest-woodland-savannah mosaic in Uganda: implications for conservation and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1467-1495.

Nascimento, H.E.M., Andrade, A.C.S., Camargo, J.L.C., Laurance, W.F., Laurance, S.G., and Ribeiro, J.E.L. 2006. Effects of the surrounding matrix on tree recruitment in Amazonian forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):853-860.

Nassauer, J.I. 2006. Landscape planning and conservation biology: systems thinking revisited. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):677-678.

Nicholson, E., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Objectives for multiple-species conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):871-881.

Nielsen, S.E., Stenhouse, G.B., and Boyce, M.S. 2006. A habitat-based framework for grizzly bear conservation in Alberta. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):217-229.

O'Brien, D., Manseau, M., Fall, A., and Fortin, M.J. 2006. Testing the importance of spatial configuration of winter habitat for woodland caribou: an application of graph theory. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):70-83.

Ohsawa, M., and Nagaike, T. 2006. Influence of forest types and effects of forestry activities on species richness and composition of Chrysomelidae in the central mountainous region of Japan. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1179-1191.

Olsson, K., Stenroth, P., Nyström, P., Holmqvist, N., McIntosh, A.R., and Winterbourn, M.J. 2006. Does natural acidity mediate interactions between introduced brown trout, native fish, crayfish and other invertebrates in West Coast New Zealand streams? Biol. Conserv. 130(2):255-267.

Parker, J.D., Burkepile, D.E., and Hay, M.E. 2006. Response to comment on "Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions". Science 313(5785):298b.

Pérez, J.M., Meneguz, P.G., Dematteis, A., Rossi, L., and Serrano, E. 2006. Parasites and conservation biology: the 'ibex-ecosystem'. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):2033-2047.

Petersen, C. 2006. Range expansion in the northeast Pacific by an estuary mud crab - a molecular study. Biol. Invasions 8(4):565-576.

Peterson, A.T., Papes, M., Reynolds, M.G., Perry, N.D., Hanson, B., Regnery, R.L., Hutson, C.L., Muizniek, B., Damon, I.K., and Carroll, D.S. 2006. Native-range ecology and invasive potential of Cricetomys in North America. J. Mammal. 87(3):427-432.

Pollock, J.F. 2006. Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):882-892.

Potter, J. 2006. Return of teal to Campbell Island. Oryx 40(2):137.

Pranovi, F., Franceschini, G., Casale, M., Zucchetta, M., Torricelli, P., and Giovanardi, O. 2006. An ecological imbalance induced by a non-native species: the Manila clam in the Venice Lagoon. Biol. Invasions 8(4):595-609.

Puric-Mladenovic, D., and Strobl, S. 2006. Delineating conservation areas on the Oak Ridges Moraine using a systematic conservation planning approach. Forest Chron. 82(3):395-402.

Pusey, B., Burrows, D., Arthington, A., and Kennard, M. 2006. Translocation and spread of piscivorous fishes in the Burdekin River, North-Eastern Australia. Biol. Invasions 8(4):965-977.

Raman, T.R.S. 2006. Effects of habitat structure and adjacent habitats on birds in tropical rainforest fragments and shaded plantations in the Western Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1577-1607.

Reeves, R.R., and Gales, N.J. 2006. Realities of baiji conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):626-628.

Reisinger, W.J., Stuart-Fox, D.M., and Erasmus, B.F.N. 2006. Habitat associations and conservation status of an endemic forest dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion sp.) from South Africa. Oryx 40(2):183-188.

Renner, S.C., Waltert, M., and Mühlenberg, M. 2006. Comparison of bird communities in primary vs. young secondary tropical montane cloud forest in Guatemala. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1545-1575.

Rhodes, M., Wardell-Johnson, G.W., Rhodes, M.P., and Raymond, B. 2006. Applying network analysis to the conservation of habitat trees in urban environments: a case study from Brisbane, Australia. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):861-870.

Ricciardi, A., and Ward, J.M. 2006. Comment on "Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions". Science 313(5785):298a.

Rivalan, P., Dutton, P.H., Baudry, E., Roden, S.E., and Girondot, M. 2006. Demographic scenario inferred from genetic data in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana and Suriname. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):1-9.

Robbirt, K.M., Roberts, D.L., and Hawkins, J.A. 2006. Comparing IUCN and probabilistic assessments of threat: do IUCN red list criteria conflate rarity and threat? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1903-1912.

Roberge, J.M., and Angelstam, P. 2006. Indicator species among resident forest birds - a cross-regional evaluation in northern Europe. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):134-147.

Robinson, J.G. 2006. Conservation biology and real-world conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):658-669.

Rodríguez, C., Torres, R., and Drummond, H. 2006. Eradicating introduced mammals from a forested tropical island. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):98-105.

Rodriguez, L.F. 2006. Can invasive species facilitate native species? Evidence of how, when, and why these impacts occur. Biol. Invasions 8(4):927-939.

Roe, J.H., Gibson, J., and Kingsbury, B.A. 2006. Beyond the wetland border: estimating the impact of roads for two species of water snakes. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):161-168.

Rogers-Bennett, L., and Rogers, D.W. 2006. A semi-empirical growth estimation method for matrix models of endangered species. Ecol. Model. 195(3-4):237-246.

Root, T.L., and Schneider, S.H. 2006. Conservation and climate change: the challenges ahead. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):706-708.

Rosenthal, S.K., Stevens, S.S., and Lodge, D.M. 2006. Whole-lake effects of invasive crayfish (Orconectes spp.) and the potential for restoration. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(6):1276-1285.

Rovero, F., Doggart, N., Bowkett, A., and Burgess, N. 2006. New records for Lowe's servaline genet from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Oryx 40(2):139.

Sachot, S., Perrin, N., and Neet, C. 2006. Viability and management of an endangered Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) metapopulation in the Jura Mountains, western Switzerland. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):2017-2032.

Sackmann, P., Ruggiero, A., Kun, M., and Farji-Brener, A.G. 2006. Efficiency of a rapid assessment of the diversity of ground beetles and ants, in natural and disturbed habitats of the Nahuel Huapi region (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):2061-2084.

Sanz, N., Cortey, M., Pla, C., and García-Marín, J.L. 2006. Hatchery introgression blurs ancient hybridization between brown trout (Salmo trutta) lineages as indicated by complementary allozymes and mtDNA markers. Biol. Conserv. 130(2):278-289.

Sarukhán, J. 2006. Conservation biology: views from the ecological sciences. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):674-676.

Saunders, C.D., Brook, A.T., and Myers, O.E. 2006. Using psychology to save biodiversity and human well-being. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):702-705.

Smith, K.G. 2006. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species. Oecologia 148(2):342-349.

Sodhi, N.S., Lee, T.M., Koh, L.P., and Prawiradilaga, D.M. 2006. Long-term avifaunal impoverishment in an isolated tropical woodlot. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):772-779.

Spivak, E.D., Boschi, E.E., and Martorelli, S.R. 2006. Presence of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun 1902 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in Mar del Plata harbor, Argentina: first record from southwestern Atlantic waters. Biol. Invasions 8(4):673-676.

Suárez, E.R., Fahey, T.J., Groffman, P.M., Yavitt, J.B., and Bohlen, P.J. 2006. Spatial and temporal dynamics of exotic earthworm communities along invasion fronts in a temperate hardwood forest in south-central New York (USA). Biol. Invasions 8(4):553-564.

Sullivan, M.S., Jones, M.J., Lee, D.C., Marsden, S.J., Fielding, A.H., and Young, E.V. 2006. A comparison of predictive methods in extinction risk studies: contrasts and decision trees. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1977-1991.

Sullivan, M.S., and Marsden, S.J. 2006. Extinction risk: predicting, assessing, prioritising and redressing - foreword. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1857-1858.

Sullivan, M.S., and Swingland, I.R. 2006. Extinction risk: predicting and redressing the threat. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):2009-2016.

Sun, W.B., Zhou, Y., Han, C.Y., Zeng, C.X., Shi, X.D., Xiang, Q.B., and Coombes, A. 2006. Status and conservation of Trigonobalanus doichangensis (Fagaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1303-1318.

Suttle, K.B., and Hoddle, M.S. 2006. Engineering enemy-free space: an invasive pest that kills its predators. Biol. Invasions 8(4):639-649.

Taylor, B.E., Scott, D.E., and Gibbons, J.W. 2006. Catastrophic reproductive failure, terrestrial survival, and persistence of the marbled salamander. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):792-801.

Tchouto, M.G.P., De Boer, W.F., De Wilde, J.J.F.E., and Van der Maesen, L.J.G. 2006. Diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma'an rain forest, Cameroon: do tree species tell it all? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1353-1374.

Tchouto, M.G.P., Yemefack, M., De Boer, W.F., De Wilde, J.J.F.E., Van der Maesen, L.J.G., and Cleef, A.M. 2006. Biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities in the Campo-Ma'an rain forests, Cameroon. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1219-1252.

Téllez-Valdés, O., Dávila-Aranda, P., and Lira-Saade, R. 2006. The effects of climate change on the long-term conservation of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana, an important species of the cloud forest in eastern Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1095-1107.

Tews, J., Esther, A., Milton, S.J., and Jeltsch, F. 2006. Linking a population model with an ecosystem model: assessing the impact of land use and climate change on savanna shrub cover dynamics. Ecol. Model. 195(3-4):219-228.

Thacker, J.I., Hopkins, G.W., and Dixon, A.F.G. 2006. Aphids and scale insects on threatened trees: co-extinction is a minor threat. Oryx 40(2):233-236.

Theuerkauf, J., and Rouys, S. 2006. Do Orthoptera need human land use in Central Europe? The role of habitat patch size and linear corridors in the Bialowieza Forest, Poland. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1497-1508.

Thiollay, J.M. 2006. Large bird declines with increasing human pressure in savanna woodlands (Burkina Faso). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2085-2108.

Thomas, P.O., and Albert, M.R. 2006. Data on wildlife trade. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):597-598.

Towns, D.R., Atkinson, I.A.E., and Daugherty, C.H. 2006. Have the harmful effects of introduced rats on islands been exaggerated? Biol. Invasions 8(4):863-891.

Turner, J.M. 2006. Conservation science and forest service policy for roadless areas. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):713-722.

Valera, F., Hoi, H., and Krištín, A. 2006. Parasite pressure and its effects on blood parameters in a stable and dense population of the endangered lesser grey shrike. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2187-2195.

Valladares-Padua, C. 2006. Importance of knowledge-intensive economic development to conservation of biodiversity in developing countries. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):700-701.

Vamosi, S.M. 2006. A reconsideration of the reproductive biology of the Atlantic forest in the Volta Velha Reserve. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1417-1424.

van Klinken, R.D., Graham, J., and Flack, L.K. 2006. Population ecology of hybrid mesquite (Prosopis species) in Western Australia: how does it differ from native range invasions and what are the implications for impacts and management? Biol. Invasions 8(4):727-741.

Virkkala, R., and Rajasärkkä, A. 2006. Spatial variation of bird species in landscapes dominated by old-growth forests in northern boreal Finland. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2143-2162.

Vitule, J.R.S., Umbria, S.C., and Aranha, J.M.R. 2006. Introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (BURCHELL, 1822) into Southern Brazil. Biol. Invasions 8(4):677-681.

Von Holle, B., Joseph, K.A., Largay, E.F., and Lohnes, R.G. 2006. Facilitations between the introduced nitrogen-fixing tree, Robinia pseudoacacia, and nonnative plant species in the glacial outwash upland ecosystem of Cape Cod, MA. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(7):2197-2215.

Walker, J.S. 2006. Resource use and rarity among frugivorous birds in a tropical rain forest on Sulawesi. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):60-69.

Walker, K.J., and Preston, C.D. 2006. Ecological predictors of extinction risk in the flora of lowland England, UK. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(6):1913-1942.

Wang, D., Zhang, X.F., Wang, K.X., Wei, Z., Würsig, B., Braulik, G.T., and Ellis, S. 2006. Conservation of the baiji: no simple solution. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):623-625.

Wells, S., and Kapos, V. 2006. Coral reefs and mangroves: implications from the tsunami one year on. Oryx 40(2):123-124.

West, P., and Brockington, D. 2006. An anthropological perspective on some unexpected consequences of protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):609-616.

Weyrauch, S.L., and Grubb, T.C. 2006. Effects of the interaction between genetic diversity and UV-B radiation on wood frog fitness. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):802-810.

Whitten, T. 2006. Cerulean paradise-flycatcher not extinct: subject of the first cover lives. Conserv. Biol. 20(3):918-920.

Wilson, S.M., Madel, M.J., Mattson, D.J., Graham, J.M., and Merrill, T. 2006. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA. Biol. Conserv. 130(1):47-59.

Yang, G., Bruford, M.W., Wei, F.W., and Zhou, K.Y. 2006. Conservation options for the baiji: time for realism? Conserv. Biol. 20(3):620-622.

Zhao, A.L., Chen, X.Y., Zhang, X., and Zhang, D. 2006. Effects of fragmentation of evergreen broad-leaved forests on genetic diversity of Ardisia crenata var. bicolor (Myrsinaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(4):1339-1351.

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