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Department ofBotany



No. 263
November 2006


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In This Issue


Ant Gardeners and that Morning Cup of Java


Coffee is traditionally cultivated below a very diverse and dense shade canopy that often resembles native forest. However, worldwide coffee production has been intensified from traditional diverse farms into a number of different types of systems. At the most extreme are sun coffee plantations with few or no shade trees. The intensification of coffee plantation has led to losses of mammal, bird, and arthropod species. Intensification may also be linked to the failure of important ecosystem services.

Scientists at the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center (SMBC) have long advocated the return to traditional shade-grown coffee for its importance as a habitat for migratory birds. In continuing studies of coffee ecosystems, they have found another benefit of retaining the natural forest system--ants. Extremely diverse and abundant predators in tropical ecosystems, ants are better able to perform services in shaded systems.

SMBC researcher Stacy Philpott, Inge Armbrecht (Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia) and Ivette Perfecto (University of Michigan) sampled ants in Costa Rica, Mexico, and Colombia to determine how intensification affects ant diversity. They found that ant richness declines with coffee intensification. Ant assemblages in sun coffee systems and other intensive coffee systems shared many fewer species with forests that traditional coffee farms. Species similarity also declined with coffee intensification. These were the result of three possible mechanisms: changes in the microclimatic conditions, loss of available nesting sites and lower quality nesting sites.

They then examined the functional importance of ants by looking at their relationship with the coffee berry borer, one of the more important coffee pests. The borers burrow into coffee fruits where they damage the coffee berries (seeds). More than 20 species of ants prey on the coffee berry in both shaded and sun plantations in Colombia. Ants also removed borers directly from coffee fruits and free-living borers from traps in both types of coffee plantations. Data indicated that they performed this service more in shade coffee systems. In addition, ants have a mutualistic or beneficial relationship with scale insects, which can be a pest in intensive coffee farms. Finally, when ants were absent from plants for 8 months, there was a higher incidence of two fungal diseases, coffee leaf rust and coffee leaf spot. Thus, ants are important in removing both insect pests and controlling fungal diseases in coffee ecosystems. Ants function better in the shaded plantations compared to the sun plantations.


Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests


The new book, Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests, edited by Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute scientist William Laurance and by Carlos Peres (University of East Anglia, UK), reveals the remarkably diverse panoply of perils to tropical forests and their biota, but with particular emphasis on emerging threats. These fall into four main categories:

  • threats that have only recently appeared, such as the virulent chytrid-fungus pathogen that is decimating rainforest amphibians throughout the tropical world;
  • threats that are growing rapidly in importance, such as destructive surface fires in tropical forests;
  • threats that are poorly understood, such as global warming and other climatic and atmospheric alterations;
  • environmental synergisms, whereby two or more simultaneous threats--such as habitat fragmentation and wildfires, or logging and hunting--can dramatically increase local extinctions of tropical species.

A key theme of the book is that many emerging threats to tropical forests are insidious, altering critical aspects of ecosystem functioning and biota, but in ways that can easily escape our attention because they are obscured from satellite imagery and aerial photos, or become apparent only after exhaustive, long-term field studies.

This timely and compelling book is intended for researchers, students, and conservation practitioners--for anyone interested in the fate of the world's direly threatened tropical ecosystems.


Current Literature


Abbott, K.L., Sarty, M., and Lester, P.J. 2006. The ants of Tokelau. New Zeal. J. Zool. 33(2):157-164.

Aguiar, F.C., Ferreira, M.T., and Albuquerque, A. 2006. Patterns of exotic and native plant species richness and cover along a semi-arid Iberian river and across its floodplain. Plant Ecol. 184(2):189-202.

Andrén, H., Linnell, J.D.C., Liberg, O., Andersen, R., Danell, A., Karlsson, J., Odden, J., Moa, P.F., Ahlqvist, P., Kvam, T., Franzén, R., and Segerström, P. 2006. Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):23-32.

Asai, S., Yamamoto, Y., and Yamagishi, S. 2006. Genetic diversity and extent of gene flow in the endangered Japanese population of Hodgson's hawk-eagle, Spizaetus nipalensis. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(2):113-129.

Atchison, K.A., and Rodewald, A.D. 2006. The value of urban forests to wintering birds. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):280-288.

Atienza, V., and Segarra-Moragues, JG. 2006. Evaluation of the conservation status of threatened lichens list from coastal areas of the Valencian Community (Eastern Spain). Cryptogamie Mycol. 27(2):167-183.

Atkinson, P.W., Austin, G.E., Rehfisch, M.M., Baker, H., Cranswick, P., Kershaw, M., Robinson, J., Langston, R.H.W., Stroud, D.A., Van Turnhout, C., and Maclean, I.M.D. 2006. Identifying declines in waterbirds: the effects of missing data, population variability and count period on the interpretation of long-term survey data. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):549-559.

Barrett, M.A., Stiling, P., and Lopez, R.R. 2006. Long-term changes in plant communities influenced by key deer herbivory. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):235-243.

Beechie, T., Buhle, E., Ruckelshaus, M., Fullerton, A., and Holsinger, L. 2006. Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):560-572.

Bias, M.A., and Morrison, M.L. 2006. Habitat selection of the salt marsh harvest mouse and sympatric rodent species. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(3):732-742.

Birken, A.S., and Cooper, D.J. 2006. Processes of Tamarix invasion and floodplain development along the lower Green River, Utah. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):1103-1120.

Blumenthal, D.M. 2006. Interactions between resource availability and enemy release in plant invasion. Ecol. Lett. 9(7):887-895.

Bock, C.E., Jones, Z.F., and Bock, J.H. 2006. Rodent communities in an exurbanizing southwestern landscape (USA). Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1242-1250.

Bohensky, E.L., Reyers, B., and Van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2006. Future ecosystem services in a Southern African river basin: a scenario planning approach to uncertainty. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1051-1061.

Boogert, N.J., Paterson, D.M., and Laland, K.N. 2006. The implications of niche construction and ecosystem engineering for conservation biology. BioScience 56(7):570-578.

Botes, A., McGeoch, M.A., and van Rensburg, B.J. 2006. Elephant- and human-induced changes to dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) assemblages in the Maputaland Centre of Endemism. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):573-583.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., Isagi, Y., Kaneko, S., Bowman, D.M.J.S., and Brook, B.W. 2006. Conservation value of non-native banteng in northern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1306-1311.

Breed, A.C., Field, H.E., Epstein, J.H., and Daszak, P. 2006. Emerging henipaviruses and flying foxes - Conservation and management perspectives. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):211-220.

Brewer, J.S. 2006. Long-term population changes of a fire-adapted plant subjected to different fire seasons. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):267-273.

Bubb, D.H., Thom, T.J., and Lucas, M.C. 2006. Movement, dispersal and refuge use of co-occurring introduced and native crayfish. Freshwater Biol. 51(7):1359-1368.

Buryova, B., and Hradilek, Z. 2006. Clonal structure, habitat age, and conservation value of the moss Philonotis marchica in Kotouc quarry (Czech Republic). Cryptogamie Bryol. 27(3):375-382.

Callaway, R.M., and Maron, J.L. 2006. What have exotic plant invasions taught us over the past 20 years? Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(7):369-374.

Calvete, C. 2006. Modeling the effect of population dynamics on the impact of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1232-1241.

Caplan, J.S., and Yeakley, J.A. 2006. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry) occurrence and growth in relation to soil and light conditions in western oregon. Northwest Sci. 80(1):9-17.

Cardillo, M. 2006. Disappearing forests and biodiversity loss: which areas should we protect? Int. For. Rev. 8(2):251-255.

Carranza, A., Domingo, A., and Estrades, A. 2006. Pelagic longlines: a threat to sea turtles in the Equatorial Eastern Atlantic. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):52-57.

Chung, J.M., Lee, B.C., Kim, J.S., Park, C.W., Chung, M.Y., and Chung, M.G. 2006. Fine-scale genetic structure among genetic individuals of the clone-forming monotypic genus Echinosophora koreensis (Fabaceae). Ann. Botany 98(1):165-173.

Claudet, J., Pelletier, D., Jouvenel, J.Y., Bachet, F., and Galzin, R. 2006. Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: identifying community-based indicators. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):349-369.

Clifford, D.L., Mazet, J.A.K., Dubovi, E.J., Garcelon, D.K., Coonan, T.J., Conrad, P.A., and Munson, L. 2006. Pathogen exposure in endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis) populations: implications for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):230-243.

Coffey, K.L., and Kirkman, L.K. 2006. Seed germination strategies of species with restoration potential in a fire-maintained pine savanna. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):289-299.

Copenheaver, C.A., Dorr, J.L., Flatley, W.T., and Garst, D.W. 2006. Temporal variability in the spatial distribution of an eastern red cedar-chinquapin oak woodland in Virginia. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):274-279.

Damschen, E.I., Haddad, N.M., Orrock, J.L., Tewksbury, J.J., and Levey, D.J. 2006. Corridors increase plant species richness at large scales. Science 313(5791):1284-1286.

Dauber, J., Bengtsson, J., and Lenoir, L. 2006. Evaluating effects of habitat loss and land-use continuity on ant species richness in seminatural grassland remnants. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1150-1160.

Davis, L.A., Roalson, E.H., Cornell, K.L., McClanahan, K.D., and Webster, M.S. 2006. Genetic divergence and migration patterns in a North American passerine bird: implications for evolution and conservation. Mol. Ecol. 15(8):2141-2152.

De Block, P., and Davis, A.P. 2006. A new Mantalania species (Rubiaceae) from Madagascar. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151(3):421-424.

de Merode, E., and Cowlishaw, G. 2006. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1262-1271.

DeBoer, T.S., and Diamond, D.D. 2006. Predicting presence-absence of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Southwest. Nat. 51(2):181-190.

Denoël, M., and Lehmann, A. 2006. Multi-scale effect of landscape processes and habitat quality on newt abundance: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):495-504.

Dirmenci, T., Satil, F., and Tümen, G. 2006. A new species of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) from Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151(3):431-435.

Donahue, C., Rogers, W.E., and Siemann, E. 2006. Restoring an invaded prairie by mulching live Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow trees): effects of mulch on sapium seed germination. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):244-253.

Donath, T.W., Hölzel, N., and Otte, A. 2006. Influence of competition by sown grass, disturbance and litter on recruitment of rare flood-meadow species. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):315-323.

Dorning, M., and Cipollini, D. 2006. Leaf and root extracts of the invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, inhibit seed germination of three herbs with no autotoxic effects. Plant Ecol. 184(2):287-296.

Dorrough, J., Moxham, C., Turner, V., and Sutter, G. 2006. Soil phosphorus and tree cover modify the effects of livestock grazing on plant species richness in Australian grassy woodland. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):394-405.

Duncan, J., Hoffman, T., Rohde, R., Powell, E., and Hendricks, H. 2006. Long-term population changes in the giant quiver tree, Aloe pillansii in the Richtersveld, South Africa. Plant Ecol. 185(1):73-84.

Dunk, J.R., Zielinski, W.J., and Welsh, H.H. 2006. Evaluating reserves for species richness and representation in northern California. Divers. Distrib. 12(4):434-442.

Duyck, P.F., David, P., Junod, G., Brunel, C., Dupont, R., and Quilici, S. 2006. Importance of competition mechanisms in successive invasions by polyphagous tephritids in La Reunion. Ecology 87(7):1770-1780.

Echeverria, C., Coomes, D., Salas, J., Rey-Benayas, J.M., Lara, A., and Newton, A. 2006. Rapid deforestation and fragmentation of Chilean temperate forests. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):481-494.

Engelman, R., Bremner, J., De Souza, R.M., and Mogelgaard, K. 2006. Indigenous population, fertility, and reproductive intention in the lowland Neotropics: response to McSweeney. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1315-1317.

Eppinga, M.B., Rietkerk, M., Dekker, S.C., De Ruiter, P.C., and Van der Putten, W.H. 2006. Accumulation of local pathogens: a new hypothesis to explain exotic plant invasions. Oikos 114(1):168-176.

Estes, R.D., Atwood, J.L., and Estes, A.B. 2006. Downward trends in Ngorongoro Crater ungulate populations 1986-2005: conservation concerns and the need for ecological research. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):106-120.

Fattorini, S. 2006. Detecting biodiversity hotspots by species-area relationships: a case study of Mediterranean beetles. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1169-1180.

Fefferman, N.H., and Reed, J.M. 2006. A vital rate sensitivity analysis for nonstable age distributions and short-term planning. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(3):649-656.

Fernández, N., Delibes, M., and Palomares, F. 2006. Landscape evaluation in conservation: molecular sampling and habitat modeling for the Iberian lynx. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):1037-1049.

Finney, S.T. 2006. Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) upstream of critical habitat in the Yampa River, Colorado. Southwest. Nat. 51(2):262-263.

Fleury, M., and Galetti, M. 2006. Forest fragment size and microhabitat effects on palm seed predation. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):1-13.

Forrester, N.L., Trout, R.C., Turner, S.L., Kelly, D., Boag, B., Moss, S., and Gould, E.A. 2006. Unravelling the paradox of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus emergence, using phylogenetic analysis; possible implications for rabbit conservation strategies. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):296-306.

Foster, D.R., and Orwig, D.A. 2006. Preemptive and salvage harvesting of New England forests: when doing nothing is a viable alternative. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):959-970.

Fredrickson, R.J., and Hedrick, P.W. 2006. Dynamics of hybridization and introgression in red wolves and coyotes. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1272-1283.

Freeman, A.S., and Byers, J.E. 2006. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations. Science 313(5788):831-833.

Fuentes, M. 2006. Privatization of parks. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):934.

Gamble, L.R., McGarigal, K., Jenkins, C.L., and Timm, B.C. 2006. Limitations of regulated "buffer zones" for the conservation of marbled salamanders. Wetlands 26(2):298-306.

Gedalof, Z., Pellatt, M., and Smith, D.J. 2006. From prairie to forest: three centuries of environmental change at Rocky Point, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Northwest Sci. 80(1):34-46.

Genzano, G., Mianzan, H., Acha, E.M., and Gaitan, E. 2006. First record of the invasive medusa Blackfordia virginica (Hydrozoa: Leptomedusae) in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina-Uruguay. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 79(2):257-261.

Good, T.C., Zjhra, M.L., and Kremen, C. 2006. Addressing data deficiency in classifying extinction risk: a case study of a radiation of Bignoniaceae from Madagascar. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1099-1110.

Gouin, N., Grandjean, F., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2006. Population genetic structure of the endangered crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes in France based on microsatellite variation: biogeographical inferences and conservation implications. Freshwater Biol. 51(7):1369-1387.

Grant, C.C., and Scholes, M.C. 2006. The importance of nutrient hot-spots in the conservation and management of large wild mammalian herbivores in semi-arid savannas. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):426-437.

Guo, Q.F., Qian, H., Ricklefs, R.E., and Xi, W.M. 2006. Distributions of exotic plants in eastern Asia and North America. Ecol. Lett. 9(7):827-834.

Gurnell, J., Rushton, S.P., Lurz, P.W.W., Sainsbury, A.W., Nettleton, P., Shirley, M.D.F., Bruemmer, C., and Geddes, N. 2006. Squirrel poxvirus: landscape scale strategies for managing disease threat. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):287-295.

Hale, C.M., Frelich, L.E., and Reich, P.B. 2006. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions. Ecology 87(7):1637-1649.

Hall, A.J., Jepson, P.D., Goodman, S.J., and Härkönen, T. 2006. Phocine distemper virus in the North and European Seas - Data and models, nature and nurture. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):221-229.

Hall, R.O., Dybdahl, M.F., and VanderLoop, M.C. 2006. Extremely high secondary production of introduced snails in rivers. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):1121-1131.

Hamer, D.J., and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2006. Seal-fishery operational interactions: identifying the environmental and operational aspects of a trawl fishery that contribute to by-catch and mortality of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Biol. Conserv. 130(4):517-529.

Harris, S.L., Brookes, S.M., Jones, G., Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A., Aegerter, J., Smith, G.C., McElhinney, L.M., and Fooks, A.R. 2006. European bat lyssaviruses: distribution, prevalence and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):193-210.

Hawbaker, T.J., Radeloff, V.C., Clayton, M.K., Hammer, R.B., and Gonzalez-Abraham, C.E. 2006. Road development, housing growth, and landscape fragmentation in northern Wisconsin: 1937-1999. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):1222-1237.

Hawkins, C.E., Baars, C., Hesterman, H., Hocking, G.J., Jones, M.E., Lazenby, B., Mann, D., Mooney, N., Pemberton, D., Pyecroft, S., Restani, M., and Wiersma, J. 2006. Emerging disease and population decline of an island endemic, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):307-324.

Henderson, D.C., and Chapman, R. 2006. Caragana arborescens invasion in Elk Island National Park, Canada. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):261-266.

Herbinger, C.M., O'Reilly, P.T., and Verspoor, E. 2006. Unravelling first-generation pedigrees in wild endangered salmon populations using molecular genetic markers. Mol. Ecol. 15(8):2261-2275.

Hernandez, F., Kuvlesky, W.P., DeYoung, R.W., Brennan, L.A., and Gall, S.A. 2006. Recovery of rare species: case study of the masked bobwhite. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(3):617-631.

Herrerías-Diego, Y., Quesada, M., Stoner, K.E., and Lobo, J.A. 2006. Effects of forest fragmentation on phenological patterns and reproductive success of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1111-1120.

Holl, K.D., and Hayes, G.F. 2006. Challenges to introducing and managing disturbance regimes for Holocarpha macradenia, an endangered annual grassland forb. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1121-1131.

Holland, D.S., and Schnier, K.E. 2006. Protecting marine biodiversity: a comparison of individual habitat quotas and marine protected areas. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(7):1481-1495.

Hutto, R.L. 2006. Toward meaningful snag-management guidelines for postfire salvage logging in North American conifer forests. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):984-993.

Inderjit, Chapman, D., Ranelletti, M., and Kaushik, S. 2006. Invasive marine algae: an ecological perspective. Bot. Rev. 72(2):153-178.

Jiang, X.L., Luo, Z.H., Zhao, S.Y., Li, R.Z., and Liu, C.M. 2006. Status and distribution pattern of black crested gibbon (Nomaseas concolor jingdongensis) in Wuliang Mountains, Yunnan, China: implication for conservation. Primates 47(3):264-271.

Johannesson, K., and André, C. 2006. Life on the margin: genetic isolation and diversity loss in a peripheral marine ecosystem, the Baltic Sea. Mol. Ecol. 15(8):2013-2029.

Kamel, S.J., and Mrosovsky, N. 2006. Deforestation: risk of sex ratio distortion in Hawksbill sea turtles. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):923-931.

Karraker, N.E., and Welsh, H.H. 2006. Long-term impacts of even-aged timber management on abundance and body condition of terrestrial amphibians in Northwestern California. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):132-140.

Kattan, G.H., Franco, P., Saavedra-Rodríguez, C.A., Valderrama, C., Rojas, V., Osorio, D., and Martínez, J. 2006. Spatial components of bird diversity in the Andes of Colombia: implications for designing a regional reserve system. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1203-1211.

Kelsey, K.W., Naugle, D.E., Higgins, K.F., and Bakker, K.K. 2006. Planting trees in prairie landscapes: do the ecological costs outweigh the benefits? Nat. Areas J. 26(3):254-260.

Kilpatrick, A.M., Daszak, P., Goodman, S.J., Rogg, H., Kramer, L.D., Cedeño, V., and Cunningham, A.A. 2006. Predicting pathogen introduction: West Nile virus spread to Galapagos. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1224-1231.

Knight, A.T. 2006. Failing but learning: writing the wrongs after Redford and Taber. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1312-1314.

Kokko, H., and López-Sepulcre, A. 2006. From individual dispersal to species ranges: perspectives for a changing world. Science 313(5788):789-791.

Kong, D.P., Cui, G.H., and Yang, J.X. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Pseudorasbora elongata Wu, 1939 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 76(1):69-70.

Kornaraki, E., Matossian, D.A., Mazaris, A.D., Matsinos, Y.G., and Margaritoulis, D. 2006. Effectiveness of different conservation measures for loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests at Zakynthos Island, Greece. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):324-330.

Kratochvíl, L. 2006. Captive breeding and a threatened gecko. Science 313(5789):915.

Lamas, I.R. 2006. Census of Brazilian Merganser Mergus octosetaceus in the region of Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil, with discussion of its threats and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(2):145-154.

Laurance, W.F., and C.A. Peres, C.A. (eds.). 2006. Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 520 pp.

Laurance, W.F., Croes, B.M., Tchignoumba, L., Lahm, S.A., Alonso, A., Lee, M.E., Campbell, P., and Ondzeano, C. 2006. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1251-1261.

Ledewitz, B. 2006. Protecting posterity: economics, abortion politics, and the law. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):940-941.

Lee, S.L., Ng, K.K.S., Saw, L.G., Lee, C.T., Muhammad, N., Tani, N., Tsumura, Y., and Koskela, J. 2006. Linking the gaps between conservation research and conservation management of rare dipterocarps: a case study of Shorea lumutensis. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):72-92.

Leendertz, F.H., Pauli, G., Maetz-Rensing, K., Boardman, W., Nunn, C., Ellerbrok, H., Jensen, S.A., Junglen, S., and Boesch, C. 2006. Pathogens as drivers of population declines: the importance of systematic monitoring in great apes and other threatened mammals. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):325-337.

Leicht, S.A., and Silander, J.A. 2006. Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality. Am. J. Bot. 93(7):972-977.

Levin, P.S., Holmes, E.E., Piner, K.R., and Harvey, C.J. 2006. Shifts in a Pacific ocean fish assemblage: the potential influence of exploitation. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1181-1190.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Noss, R.F. 2006. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):949-958.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Ough, K. 2006. Salvage logging in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and its potential impacts on biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1005-1015.

Ling, S., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2006. Assessment of the sustainability of bushmeat hunting based on dynamic bioeconomic models. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1294-1299.

Link, S.O. 2006. The value of natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):232-233.

Lovejoy, T.E. 2006. Protected areas: a prism for a changing world. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(6):329-333.

Lwanga, J.S. 2006. Spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Primates 47(3):230-238.

Macdonald, D.W., and Laurenson, M.K. 2006. Infectious disease: inextricable linkages between human and ecosystem health. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):143-150.

MacDonald, D.W., Riordan, P., and Mathews, F. 2006. Biological hurdles to the control of TB in cattle: a test of two hypotheses concerning wildlife to explain the failure of control. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):268-286.

Major, H.L., Jones, I.L., Byrd, G.V., and Williams, J.C. 2006. Assessing the effects of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on survival and productivity of least auklets (Aethia pusilla). Auk 123(3):681-694.

Mathews, F., Moro, D., Strachan, R., Gelling, M., and Buller, N. 2006. Health surveillance in wildlife reintroductions. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):338-347.

Mattila, N., Kaitala, V., Komonen, A., Kotiaho, J.S., and Päivinen, J. 2006. Ecological determinants of distribution decline and risk of extinction in moths. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1161-1168.

Maurer, K., Weyand, A., Fischer, M., and Stöcklin, J. 2006. Old cultural traditions, in addition to land use and topography, are shaping plant diversity of grasslands in the Alps. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):438-446.

McFarlane, B.L., Stumpf-Allen, R.C.G., and Watson, D.O. 2006. Public perceptions of natural disturbance in Canada's national parks: the case of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). Biol. Conserv. 130(3):340-348.

McMahon, C.R., and Hays, G.C. 2006. Thermal niche, large-scale movements and implications of climate change for a critically endangered marine vertebrate. Global Change Biol. 12(7):1330-1338.

McSweeney, K. 2006. Distinguishing the indigenous from the rural poor: reply to Engelman et al. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1318-1320.

Mealor, B.A., and Hild, A.L. 2006. Potential selection in native grass populations by exotic invasion. Mol. Ecol. 15(8):2291-2300.

Meffe, G.K. 2006. The success and challenges of Conservation Biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):931-933.

Miller, R.M., Rodríguez, JP., Aniskowicz-Fowler, T., Bambaradeniya, C., Boles, R., Eaton, M.A., Gärdenfors, U., Keller, V., Molur, S., Walker, S., and Pollock, C. 2006. Extinction risk and conservation priorities. Science 313(5786):441.

Milne, D.J., Fisher, A., and Pavey, C.R. 2006. Models of the habitat associations and distributions of insectivorous bats of the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):370-385.

Molony, S.E., Dowding, C.V., Baker, P.J., Cuthill, I.C., and Harris, S. 2006. The effect of translocation and temporary captivity on wildlife rehabilitation success: an experimental study using European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). Biol. Conserv. 130(4):530-537.

Moore, M.J.C., and Seigel, R.A. 2006. No place to nest or bask: effects of human disturbance on the nesting and basking habits of yellow-blotched map turtles (Graptemys flauimaculata). Biol. Conserv. 130(3):386-393.

Morgan, E.R., Lundervold, M., Medley, G.F., Shaikenov, B.S., Torgerson, P., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2006. Assessing risks of disease transmission between wildlife and livestock: the Saiga antelope as a case study. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):244-254.

Moulton, C.E., Brady, R.S., and Belthoff, J.R. 2006. Association between wildlife and agriculture: underlying mechanisms and implications in burrowing owls. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(3):708-716.

Mueller, G.A., Carpenter, J., and Thornbrugh, D. 2006. Bullfrog tadpole (Rana catesbeiana) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) predation on early life stages of endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). Southwest. Nat. 51(2):258-261.

Müller, A., Diener, S., Schnyder, S., Stutz, K., Sedivy, C., and Dorn, S. 2006. Quantitative pollen requirements of solitary bees: implications for bee conservation and the evolution of bee-flower relationships. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):604-615.

Nijman, V. 2006. The endemic Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis baweanus: habitat use, abundance and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(2):131-143.

Noss, R.F., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2006. The ecological effects of salvage logging after natural disturbance - introduction. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):946-948.

Nyström, V., Angerbjörn, A., and Dalén, L. 2006. Genetic consequences of a demographic bottleneck in the Scandinavian arctic fox. Oikos 114(1):84-94.

O'Brien, S.J., Troyer, J.L., Roelke, M., Marker, L., and Pecon-Slattery, J. 2006. Plagues and adaptation: lessons from the Felidae models for SARS and AIDS. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):255-267.

Ódor, P., Heilmann-Clausen, J., Christensen, M., Aude, E., van Dort, K.W., Piltaver, A., Siller, I., Veerkamp, M.T., Walleyn, R., Standovár, T., van Hees, A.F.M., Kosec, J., Matocec, N., Kraigher, H., and Grebenc, T. 2006. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungi and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):58-71.

Oliva-Paterna, F.J., Ignacio, D.B., and Fernández-Delgado, C. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Aphanius baeticus (Doadrio, Carmona & Fernández Delgado, 2002) (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 75(4):415-417.

Oliveira, P., Menezes, D., Jones, M., and Nogales, M. 2006. The influence of fruit abundance on the use of forest and cultivated field habitats by the endemic Madeira laurel pigeon Columba trocaz: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):538-548.

Orr, D.W. 2006. The right to life. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):935-939.

Palmer, G.C., and Bennett, A.F. 2006. Riparian zones provide for distinct bird assemblages in forest mosaics of south-east Australia. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):447-457.

Palsbøll, P.J., Bérubé, M., Skaug, H.J., and Raymakers, C. 2006. DNA registers of legally obtained wildlife and derived products as means to identify illegal takes. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1284-1293.

Pandit, M.K., Tan, H.T.W., and Bisht, M.S. 2006. Polyploidy in invasive plant species of Singapore. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151(3):395-403.

Parnell, P.E., Dayton, P.K., Lennert-Cody, C.E., Rasmussen, L.L., and Leichter, J.J. 2006. Marine reserve design: optimal size, habitats, species affinities, diversity, and ocean microclimate. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):945-962.

Pergams, O.R.W., and Norton, J.E. 2006. Treating a single stem can kill the whole shrub: a scientific assessment of buckthorn control methods. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):300-309.

Pergl, J., Perglová, I., Pyšek, P., and Dietz, H. 2006. Population age structure and reproductive behavior of the monocarpic perennial Heraueum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in its native and invaded distribution ranges. Am. J. Bot. 93(7):1018-1028.

Peterson, A.T. 2006. Taxonomy is important in conservation: a preliminary reassessment of Philippine species-level bird taxonomy. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(2):155-173.

Petit, E., and Valiere, N. 2006. Estimating population size with noninvasive capture-mark-recapture data. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1062-1073.

Pierre, J.P., and Norden, W.S. 2006. Reducing seabird bycatch in longline fisheries using a natural olfactory deterrent. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):406-415.

Pintor, L.M., and Soluk, D.A. 2006. Evaluating the non-consumptive, positive effects of a predator in the persistence of an endangered species. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):584-591.

Povilitis, A., Parsons, D.R., Robinson, M.J., and Becker, C.D. 2006. The bureaucratically imperiled Mexican wolf. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):942-945.

Pryde, M.A., Lettink, M., and O'Donnell, C.F.J. 2006. Survivorship in two populations of long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 33(2):85-95.

Rahn, M.E., Doremus, H., and Diffendorfer, J. 2006. Species coverage in multispecies habitat conservation plans: where's the science? BioScience 56(7):613-619.

Rand, T.A., and Louda, S.M. 2006. Invasive insect abundance varies across the biogeographic distribution of a native host plant. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):877-890.

Randall, D.A., Marino, J., Haydon, D.T., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Knobel, D.L., Tallents, L.A., Macdonald, D.W., and Laurenson, M.K. 2006. An integrated disease management strategy for the control of rabies in Ethiopian wolves. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):151-162.

Ranius, T. 2006. Measuring the dispersal of saproxylic insects: a key characteristic for their conservation. Pop. Ecol. 48(3):177-188.

Reeves, G.H., Bisson, P.A., Rieman, B.E., and Benda, L.E. 2006. Postfire logging in riparian areas. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):994-1004.

Regan, T.J., McCarthy, M.A., Baxter, P.W.J., Panetta, F.D., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Optimal eradication: when to stop looking for an invasive plant. Ecol. Lett. 9(7):759-766.

Ricciardi, A. 2006. Patterns of invasion in the Laurentian Great Lakes in relation to changes in vector activity. Divers. Distrib. 12(4):425-433.

Richard, J., Huet, M., Thouzeau, G., and Paulet, Y.M. 2006. Reproduction of the invasive slipper limpet, Crepidula fornicata, in the Bay of Brest, France. Mar. Biol. 149(4):789-801.

Richardson, E.A., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards-Jones, G., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Sensitivity of marine-reserve design to the spatial resolution of socioeconomic data. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1191-1202.

Rittenhouse, T.A.G., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2006. Grasslands as movement barriers for a forest-associated salamander: migration behavior of adult and juvenile salamanders at a distinct habitat edge. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):14-22.

Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2006. Are global conservation efforts successful? Science 313(5790):1051-1052.

Román-Cuesta, R.M., and Martínez-Vilalta, J. 2006. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1074-1086.

Rosales, J. 2006. Economic growth and biodiversity loss in an age of tradable permits. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1042-1050.

Roy, V., and de Blois, S. 2006. Using functional traits to assess the role of hedgerow corridors as environmental filters for forest herbs. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):592-603.

Rubinoff, D. 2006. Utility of mitochondrial DNA barcodes in species conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1026-1033.

Rushton, S.P., Wood, D.J.A., Lurz, P.W.W., and Koprowski, J.L. 2006. Modelling the population dynamics of the Mt. Graham red squirrel: can we predict its future in a changing environment with multiple threats? Biol. Conserv. 131(1):121-131.

Ryan, S.J. 2006. The role of culture in conservation planning for small or endangered populations. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1321-1324.

Salzer, D., and Salafsky, N. 2006. Allocating resources between taking action, assessing status, and measuring effectiveness of conservation actions. Nat. Areas J. 26(3):310-316.

Sanderson, F.J., Donald, P.F., Pain, D.J., Burfield, I.J., and van Bommel, F.P.J. 2006. Long-term population declines in Afro-Palearctic migrant birds. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):93-105.

Santos, X., Brito, J.C., Sillero, N., Pleguezuelos, J.M., Llorente, G.A., Fahd, S., and Parellada, X. 2006. Inferring habitat-suitability areas with ecological modelling techniques and GIS: a contribution to assess the conservation status of Vipera latastei. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):416-425.

Scheuerell, M.D., Hilborn, R., Ruckelshaus, M.H., Bartz, K.K., Lagueux, K.M., Haas, A.D., and Rawson, K. 2006. The Shiraz model: a tool for incorporating anthropogenic effects and fish-habitat relationships in conservation planning. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(7):1596-1607.

Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Stepnisky, D.P., Stambaugh, C.A., and Koivula, M. 2006. Reconciling salvage logging of boreal forests with a natural-disturbance management model. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):971-983.

Schooler, S.S., McEvoy, P.B., and Coombs, E.M. 2006. Negative per capita effects of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on plant diversity of wetland communities. Divers. Distrib. 12(4):351-363.

Schwartz, M.W., Iverson, L.R., Prasad, A.M., Matthews, S.N., and O'Connor, R.J. 2006. Predicting extinctions as a result of climate change. Ecology 87(7):1611-1615.

Seamon, J.O., Mann, S.S., Steele, O.C., and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 2006. Conservation value of remnant forest patches: tree composition, spatial patterns, and recruitment in the Ottoville Lowland Forest, American Samoa. Pacific Sci. 60(3):319-332.

Slotta, T.A.B., and Porter, D.M. 2006. Genetic variation within and between Iliamna corei and I. remota (Malvaceae): implications for species delimitation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151(3):345-354.

Smith, D.A., Ralls, K., Cypher, B.L., Clark, H.O., Kelly, P.A., Williams, D.F., and Maldonado, J.E. 2006. Relative abundance of endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) based on scat-detection dog surveys. Southwest. Nat. 51(2):210-219.

Sonké, B., Nguembou, K.C., and Davis, A.P. 2006. A new dwarf Coffea (Rubiaceae) from southern Cameroon. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151(3):425-430.

Sotiaux, A., Sotiaux, O., and Vanderpoorten, A. 2006. Discovery of the rare liverwort Haplomitrium hookeri in Belgium: relictualism or long-distance dispersal? Cryptogamie Bryol. 27(3):367-373.

Spiegel, C.S., Hart, P.J., Woodworth, B.L., Tweed, E.J., and LeBrun, J.J. 2006. Distribution and abundance of forest birds in low-altitude habitat on Hawai'i Island: evidence for range expansion of native species. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(2):175-185.

Stadler, B., Muller, T., and Orwig, D. 2006. The ecology of energy and nutrient fluxes in hemlock forests invaded by hemlock woolly adelgid. Ecology 87(7):1792-1804.

Sterner, R.T., and Smith, G.C. 2006. Modelling wildlife rabies: transmission, economics, and conservation. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):163-179.

Stone, R. 2006. A threatened nature reserve breaks down Asian borders. Science 313(5792):1379-1380.

Stouffer, P.C., Bierregaard, R.O., Strong, C., and Lovejoy, T.E. 2006. Long-term landscape change and bird abundance in Amazonian rainforest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1212-1223.

Strange, N., Thorsen, B.J., and Bladt, J. 2006. Optimal reserve selection in a dynamic world. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):33-41.

Stuart, B.L., and Grismer, L.L. 2006. Captive breeding and a threatened gecko - response. Science 313(5789):915.

Summerville, K.S., Conoan, C.J., and Steichen, R.M. 2006. Species traits as predictors of lepidopteran composition in restored and remnant tallgrass prairies. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):891-900.

Taft, J.B., Hauser, C., and Robertson, K.R. 2006. Estimating floristic integrity in tallgrass prairie. Biol. Conserv. 131(1):42-51.

Thatcher, C.A., Van Manen, F.T., and Clark, J.D. 2006. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(3):752-763.

Thomson, D.M., and Schwartz, M.W. 2006. Using population count data to assess the effects of changing river flow on an endangered riparian plant. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1132-1142.

Thuiller, W., Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M., Proches, S., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2006. Interactions between environment, species traits, and human uses describe patterns of plant invasions. Ecology 87(7):1755-1769.

Tomimatsu, H., and Ohara, M. 2006. Evaluating the consequences of habitat fragmentation: a case study in the common forest herb Trillium camschatcense. Pop. Ecol. 48(3):189-198.

Tompkins, D.M., and Veltman, C.J. 2006. Unexpected consequences of vertebrate pest control: predictions from a four-species community model. Ecol. Appl. 16(3):1050-1061.

Trakhtenbrot, A., and Kadmon, R. 2006. Effectiveness of environmental cluster analysis in representing regional species diversity. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1087-1098.

Tweed, E.J., Foster, J.T., Woodworth, B.L., Monahan, W.B., Kellerman, J.L., and Lieberman, A. 2006. Breeding biology and success of a reintroduced population of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri). Auk 123(3):753-763.

Tylianakis, J.M., Klein, A.M., Lozada, T., and Tscharntke, T. 2006. Spatial scale of observation affects α, β and γ diversity of cavity-nesting bees and wasps across a tropical land-use gradient. J. Biogeogr. 33(7):1295-1304.

Urban, M.C. 2006. Road facilitation of trematode infections in snails of northern Alaska. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1143-1149.

Usio, N., Suzuki, K., Konishi, M., and Nakano, S. 2006. Alien vs. endemic crayfish: roles of species identity in ecosystem functioning. Arch. Hydrobiol. 166(1):1-21.

Valdez, R., Guzman-Aranda, J.C., Abarca, F.J., Tarango-Arambula, L.A., and Sanchez, F.C. 2006. Wildlife conservation and management in Mexico. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(2):270-282.

Van der Voort, M.E., and McGraw, J.B. 2006. Effects of harvester behavior on population growth rate affects sustainability of ginseng trade. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):505-516.

Vial, F., Cleaveland, S., Rasmussen, G., and Haydon, D.T. 2006. Development of vaccination strategies for the management of rabies in African wild dogs. Biol. Conserv. 131(2):180-192.

Vonk, F.J., and Wüster, W. 2006. Roles of CITES in protecting new species. Science 313(5789):915-916.

Vulinec, K., Lambert, J.E., and Mellow, D.J. 2006. Primate and dung beetle communities in secondary growth rain forests: implications for conservation of seed dispersal systems. Int. J. Primatol. 27(3):855-879.

Wagner, D.M., Drickamer, L.C., Krpata, D.M., Allender, C.J., Van Pelt, W.E., and Keim, P. 2006. Persistence of Gunnison's prairie dog colonies in Arizona, USA. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):331-339.

Wang, Z.W., Zhou, J.F., Ye, Y.Z., Wei, Q.W., and Wu, Q.J. 2006. Genetic structure and low-genetic diversity suggesting the necessity for conservation of the Chinese Longsnout catfish, Leiocassis longirostris (Pisces: Bagriidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 75(4):455-463.

Watling, J.I., and Donnelly, M.A. 2006. Fragments as islands: a synthesis of faunal responses to habitat patchiness. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1016-1025.

Watson, M., Wilson, J.M., Koshkin, M., Sherbakov, B., Karpov, F., Gavrilov, A., Schielzeth, H., Brombacher, M., Collar, N.J., and Cresswell, W. 2006. Nest survival and productivity of the critically endangered Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius. Ibis 148(3):489-502.

Wätzold, F., Drechsler, M., Armstrong, C.W., Baumgärtner, S., Grimm, V., Huth, A., Perrings, C., Possingham, H.P., Shogren, J.F., Skonhoft, A., Verboom-Vasiljev, J., and Wissel, C. 2006. Ecological-economic modeling for biodiversity management: potential, pitfalls, and prospects. Conserv. Biol. 204(4):1034-1041.

Welch, S.M., and Eversole, A.G. 2006. The occurrence of primary burrowing crayfish in terrestrial habitat. Biol. Conserv. 130(3):458-464.

Weldon, A.J. 2006. How corridors reduce Indigo Bunting nest success. Conserv. Biol. 20(4):1300-1305.

Welsh, H.H., Dunk, J.R., and Zielinski, W.J. 2006. Developing and applying habitat models using forest inventory data: an example using a terrestrial salamander. J. Wildlife Manag. 70(3):671-681.

White, E.M., Wilson, J.C., and Clarke, A.R. 2006. Biotic indirect effects: a neglected concept in invasion biology. Divers. Distrib. 12(4):443-455.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., McLeod, D.R.A., Haworth, P.F., and Watson, J. 2006. A conservation framework for the golden eagle in Scotland: refining condition targets and assessment of constraint influences. Biol. Conserv. 130(4):465-480.

Whittier, J.B., Leslie, D.M., and Van den Bussche, R.A. 2006. Genetic variation among subspecies of Least Tern (Sterna antillarum): implications for conservation. Waterbirds 29(2):176-184.

Wright, J.T., and Davis, A.R. 2006. Demographic feedback between clonal growth and fragmentation in an invasive seaweed. Ecology 87(7):1744-1754.


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