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Department ofBotany

No. 264
December 2006

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In This Issue

A Great Day for Pollinators at Risk

In an unprecedented move to advance a vital conservation cause, three U.S. entities collaborated on October 18 to increase attention to the importance, and potential peril, of pollinating animals and the plants which depend on them for reproduction. At the Pollinator Symposium - jointly hosted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) - the National Academy of Sciences, USDA and U.S. Postal Service each made major announcements to focus public attention on often unseen and yet vitally important interactions between plants and the pollinating animals that help them reproduce.

The goal of the Pollinator Symposium was to raise awareness and to underscore the critical need for forethought and research to prevent a crisis in the pollinator world. As part of the NAPPC Pollinator Partnership, scientific, environmental and agricultural organizations are working together to avert a global calamity by focusing on sustaining and enhancing pollinators, who in turn play a vital role in a stable food supply and in natural ecosystems.

Chuck Conner, Deputy Secretary of Agriculture, announced at the Symposium that Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns signed a proclamation in recognition of pollinators and designated June 24-30, 2007, as National Pollinator Week. This action is part of a growing effort by USDA to address pollinator conservation challenges, and lays the groundwork for a national outreach campaign in 2007.

Status of Pollinators: Monitoring and Prevention of their Decline in North America, a nearly 400-page report completed by the Academies' National Research Council (NRC) was introduced by Gene Robinson, University of Illinois professor of entomology, Academy member and member of the NRC committee formed to conduct the pollinator study.

"This study is the foundation on which all our science and policy for pollinators can be built from now on," said Robinson. "This thorough compendium shows us not only what we know about pollinators, but also what we need to know." The report can be found at

In a third major development, the U.S. Postal Service unveiled the intricate design for a commemorative stamp series highlighting the interconnectedness of nature and the process of pollination.

"Farmers see the connection between plants and pollinators every day," said Conner. "Thanks to these beautiful stamps, that same point is illustrated for everyone." The pollination stamps will be issued during National Pollinator Week in 2007 as part of NAPPC's planned national pollinator awareness campaign.

The Pollinator Symposium was created by the partners of NAPPC, a tri-national, public-private collaboration of scientific researchers, state and federal agencies, private industry and environmental groups dedicated to ensuring sustainable populations of pollinating animals. More information can be found at

Current Literature

Abe, T. 2006. Threatened pollination systems in native flora of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. Ann. Botany 98(2):317-334.

Abella, S.R., and Covington, W.W. 2006. Forest ecosystems of an Arizona Pinus ponderosa landscape: multifactor classification and implications for ecological restoration. J. Biogeogr. 33(8):1368-1383.

Acosta, A., Izzi, C.F., and Stanisci, A. 2006. Comparison of native and alien plant traits in Mediterranean coastal dunes. Community Ecol. 7(1):35-41.

Adams, C.R., and Galatowitsch, S.M. 2006. Increasing the effectiveness of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) control in wet meadow restorations. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):441-451.

Adeney, J.M., Ginsberg, J.R., Russell, G.J., and Kinnaird, M.F. 2006. Effects of an ENSO-related fire on birds of a lowland tropical forest in Sumatra. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):292-301.

Aguilar, R., Ashworth, L., Galetto, L., and Aizen, M.A. 2006. Plant reproductive susceptibility to habitat fragmentation: review and synthesis through a meta-analysis. Ecol. Lett. 9(8):968-980.

Amo, L., López, P., and Martín, J. 2006. Nature-based tourism as a form of predation risk affects body condition and health state of Podarcis muralis lizards. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):402-409.

Amstrong, D.P., and Davidson, R.S. 2006. Developing population models for guiding reintroductions of extirpated bird species back to the New Zealand mainland. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 30(1):73-85.

Anderson, G.J., Martine, C.T., Prohens, J., and Nuez, F. 2006. Solanum perlongistylum and S. catilliflorum, new endemic Peruvian species of Solanum, section Basarthrum, are close relatives of the domesticated pepino, S. muricatum. Novon 16(2):161-167.

Ansley, R.J., and Castellano, M.J. 2006. Strategies for savanna restoration in the southern Great Plains: effects of fire and herbicides. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):420-428.

Arlinghaus, R. 2006. Overcoming human obstacles to conservation of recreational fishery resources, with emphasis on central Europe. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):46-59.

Aronson, R.B., and Precht, W.F. 2006. Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs 25(3):441-450.

Baird, I.G. 2006. Probarbus jullieni and Probarbus labeamajor: the management and conservation of two of the largest fish species in the Mekong River in southern Laos. Aquat. Conserv. 16(5):517-532.

Banerjee, M.J., Gerhart, V.J., and Glenn, E.P. 2006. Native plant regeneration on abandoned desert farmland: effects of irrigation, soil preparation, and amendments on seedling establishment. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):339-348.

Bartuszevige, A.M., and Gorchov, D.L. 2006. Avian seed dispersal of an invasive shrub. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1013-1022.

Basset, A., Sabetta, L., and Carrada, G.C. 2006. Conservation of transitional water ecosystems in the Mediterranean area: bridging basic ecological research and theories with requirements of application. Aquat. Conserv. 16(5):439-440.

Bastrop, R., and Blank, M. 2006. Multiple invasions - a polychaete genus enters the Baltic Sea. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1195-1200.

Bendell-Young, L.I. 2006. Contrasting the community structure and select geochemical characteristics of three intertidal regions in relation to shellfish farming. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):21-27.

BenDor, T.K., Metcalf, S.S., Fontenot, L.E., Sangunett, B., and Hannon, B. 2006. Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer. Ecol. Model. 197(1-2):221-236.

Bestelmeyer, B.T. 2006. Threshold concepts and their use in rangeland management and restoration: the good, the bad, and the insidious. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):325-329.

Bini, L.M., Diniz, J.A.F., Rangel, T.F.L.V.B., Bastos, R.P., and Pinto, M.P. 2006. Challenging Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls: knowledge gradients and conservation planning in a biodiversity hotspot. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):475-482.

Blumstein, D.T., Holland, B.D., and Daniel, J.C. 2006. Predator discrimination and 'personality' in captive Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis). Anim. Conserv. 9(3):274-282.

Bonte, D., Lens, L., and Maelfait, J.P. 2006. Sand dynamics in coastal dune landscapes constrain diversity and life-history characteristics of spiders. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):735-747.

Bowie, M.H., Hodge, S., Banks, J.C., and Vink, C.J. 2006. An appraisal of simple tree-mounted shelters for non-lethal monitoring of weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae and Rhaphidophoridae) in New Zealand nature reserves. J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):261-268.

Boyer, S., and Rivault, C. 2006. Impact of human activity on the distribution of native and non-native cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in La Reunion and Mayotte. Bull. Entomol. Res. 96(4):399-406.

Brainwood, M., Burgin, S., and Byrne, M. 2006. Is the decline of freshwater mussel populations in a regulated coastal river in south-eastern Australia linked with human modification of habitat? Aquat. Conserv. 16(5):501-516.

Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gerlach, J., Hoffmann, M., Lamoreux, J.F., Mittermeier, C.G., Pilgrim, J.D., and Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2006. On purpose in conservation - Response. Science 314(5796):53-54.

Brown, J.L., Collopy, M.W., Gott, E.J., Juergens, P.W., Montoya, A.B., and Hunt, W.G. 2006. Wild-reared aplomado falcons survive and recruit at higher rates than hacked falcons in a common environment. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):453-458.

Brudvig, L.A., and Evans, C.W. 2006. Competitive effects of native and exotic shrubs on Quercus alba seedlings. Northeastern Nat. 13(2):259-268.

Buisson, E., and Dutolt, T. 2006. Creation of the natural reserve of La Crau: implications for the creation and management of protected areas. J. Environ. Manage. 80(4):318-326.

Burns, J.H. 2006. Relatedness and environment affect traits associated with invasive and noninvasive introduced commelinaceae. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1367-1376.

Burton, C.M., Burton, P.J., Hebda, R., and Turner, N.J. 2006. Determining the optimal sowing density for a mixture of native plants used to revegetate degraded ecosystems. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):379-390.

Cadotte, M.W., McMahon, S.M., and Fukami, T. (eds.). 2006. Conceptual Ecology and Invasion Biology: Reciprocal Approaches to Nature. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology. Springer. Dordrecht. 505 pp.

Caesar, R.M., Sörensson, M., and Cognato, A.I. 2006. Integrating DNA data and traditional taxonomy to streamline biodiversity assessment: an example from edaphic beetles in the Klamath ecoregion, California, USA. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):483-489.

Casu, M., Casu, D., Lai, T., Cossu, P., and Curini-Galletti, M. 2006. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers reveal strong genetic differentiation among populations of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda: Patellidae) from two Sardinian marine protected areas. Mar. Biol. 149(5):1163-1174.

Celesti-Grapow, L., Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., and Blasi, C. 2006. Determinants of native and alien species richness in the urban flora of Rome. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):490-501.

Cinner, J.E., and McClanahan, T.R. 2006. Socioeconomic factors that lead to overfishing in small-scale coral reef fisheries of Papua New Guinea. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):73-80.

Colautti, R.I., Grigorovich, I.A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2006. Propagule pressure: a null model for biological invasions. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1023-1037.

Colling, G., and Matthies, D. 2006. Effects of habitat deterioration on population dynamics and extinction risk of an endangered, long-lived perennial herb (Scorzonera humilis). J. Ecology 94(5):959-972.

Crandall, K.A. 2006. Advocacy dressed up as scientific critique. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):250-251.

Cuthbert, R., Green, R.E., Ranade, S., Saravanan, S., Pain, D.J., Prakash, V., and Cunningham, A.A. 2006. Rapid population declines of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):349-354.

Davy, A.J., Bishop, G.F., Mossman, H., Redondo-Gómez, S., Castillo, J.M., Castellanos, E.M., Luque, T., and Figueroa, M.E. 2006. Biological flora of the British Isles: Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A.J. Scott. J. Ecology 94(5):1035-1048.

De la Montaña, E., Rey-Benayas, J.M., and Carrascal, L.M. 2006. Response of bird communities to silvicultural thinning of Mediterranean maquis. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):651-659.

De Steven, D., Sharitz, R.R., Singer, J.H., and Barton, C.D. 2006. Testing a passive revegetation approach for restoring coastal plain depression wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):452-460.

Degen, B., Blanc, L., Caron, H., Maggia, L., Kremer, A., and Gourlet-Fleury, S. 2006. Impact of selective logging on genetic composition and demographic structure of four tropical tree species. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):386-401.

Dempster, T., Sanchez-Jerez, P., Tuya, F., Fernandez-Jover, D., Bayle-Sempere, J., Boyra, A., and Haroun, R. 2006. Coastal aquaculture and conservation can work together. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 314:309-310.

DeVries, D.R., Wright, R.A., and DeVries, T.S. 2006. Daphnia lumholtzi in the mobile river drainage, USA: invasion of a habitat that experiences salinity. J. Freshwater Ecol. 21(3):527-530.

DeWalt, S.J. 2006. Population dynamics and potential for biological control of an exotic invasive shrub in Hawaiian rainforests. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1145-1158.

Dias, M.P., Granadeiro, J.P., Lecoq, M., Santos, C.D., and Palmeirim, J.M. 2006. Distance to high-tide roosts constrains the use of foraging areas by dunlins: implications for the management of estuarine wetlands. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):446-452.

Dobson, A., Lodge, D., Alder, J., Cumming, G.S., Keymer, J., McGlade, J., Mooney, H., Rusak, J.A., Sala, O., Wolters, V., Wall, D., Winfree, R., and Xenopoulos, M.A. 2006. Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 87(8):1915-1924.

Dudgeon, D. 2006. The impacts of human disturbance on stream benthic invertebrates and their drift in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Freshwater Biol. 51(9):1710-1729.

Durell, S.E.A.L.D., Stillman, R.A., Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S., West, A.D., and Humphreys, J. 2006. Modelling the effect of environmental change on shorebirds: a case study on Poole Harbour, UK. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):459-473.

Eckstein, R.L., O'Neill, R.A., Danihelka, J., Otte, A., and Kohler, W. 2006. Genetic structure among and within peripheral and central populations of three endangered floodplain violets. Mol. Ecol. 15(9):2367-2379.

Ellis, J.R., Pashley, C.H., Burke, J.M., and McCauley, D.E. 2006. High genetic diversity in a rare and endangered sunflower as compared to a common congener. Mol. Ecol. 15(9):2345-2355.

Elmore, A.J., Manning, S.J., Mustard, J.F., and Craine, J.M. 2006. Decline in alkali meadow vegetation cover in California: the effects of groundwater extraction and drought. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):770-779.

Etter, A., McAlpine, C., Phinn, S., Pullar, D., and Possingham, H. 2006. Characterizing a tropical deforestation wave: a dynamic spatial analysis of a deforestation hotspot in the Colombian Amazon. Global Change Biol. 12(8):1409-1420.

Etter, A., McAlpine, C., Phinn, S., Pullar, D., and Possingham, H. 2006. Unplanned land clearing of Colombian rainforests: spreading like disease? Landscape Urban Plan. 77(3):240-254.

Ezard, T.H.G., and Travis, J.M.J. 2006. The impact of habitat loss and fragmentation on genetic drift and fixation time. Oikos 114(2):367-375.

Faria, D. 2006. Phyllostomid bats of a fragmented landscape in the north-eastern Atlantic forest, Brazil. J. Trop. Ecol. 22:531-542.

Farnsworth, E.J., and Ogurcak, D.E. 2006. Biogeography and decline of rare plants in New England: historical evidence and contemporary monitoring. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1327-1337.

Fazey, I., Fazey, J.A., Salisbury, J.G., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Dovers, S. 2006. The nature and role of experiential knowledge for environmental conservation. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):1-10.

Fielding, A.H., Whitfield, D.P., and McLeod, D.R.A. 2006. Spatial association as an indicator of the potential for future interactions between wind energy developments and golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):359-369.

Fisher, I.J., Pain, D.J., and Thomas, V.G. 2006. A review of lead poisoning from ammunition sources in terrestrial birds. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):421-432.

Fleishman, E., Murphy, D.D., and Sada, D.W. 2006. Effects of environmental heterogeneity and disturbance on the native and non-native flora of desert springs. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1091-1101.

Fleishman, E., Noss, R.F., and Noon, B.R. 2006. Utility and limitations of species richness metrics for conservation planning. Ecol. Indic. 6(3):543-553.

Foxcroft, L.C., Lotter, W.D., Runyoro, V.A., and Mattay, P.M.C. 2006. A review of the importance of invasive alien plants in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and Serengeti National Park. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(3):404-406.

Franco, A.M.A., Hill, J.K., Kitschke, C., Collingham, Y.C., Roy, D.B., Fox, R., Huntley, B., and Thomas, C.D. 2006. Impacts of climate warming and habitat loss on extinctions at species' low-latitude range boundaries. Global Change Biol. 12(8):1545-1553.

Franzen, M. 2006. Evaluating the sustainability of hunting: a comparison of harvest profiles across three Huaorani communities. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):36-45.

Frisch, D., Rodríguez-Pérez, H., and Green, A.J. 2006. Invasion of artificial ponds in Doñana Natural Park, southwest Spain, by an exotic estuarine copepod. Aquat. Conserv. 16(5):483-492.

Fulé, P.Z., Covington, W.W., Stoddard, M.T., and Bertolette, D. 2006. "Minimal-impact" restoration treatments have limited effects on forest structure and fuels at Grand Canyon, USA. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):357-368.

Gallacher, D.J., and Hill, J.P. 2006. Effects of camel grazing on the ecology of small perennial plants in the Dubai (UAE) inland desert. J. Arid Environ. 66(4):738-750.

Gardali, T., Holmes, A.L., Small, S.L., Nur, N., Geupel, G.R., and Golet, G.H. 2006. Abundance patterns of landbirds in restored and remnant riparian forests on the Sacramento River, California, USA. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):391-403.

Gherardi, F. 2006. Crayfish invading Europe: the case study of Procambarus clarkii. Mar. Freshw. Behav. Phy. 39(3):175-191.

Godfree, R.C., Vivian, M., and Lepschi, B.J. 2006. Risk assessment of transgenic virus-resistant white clover: non-target plant community characterisation and implications for field trial design. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1159-1178.

Goudie, R.I. 2006. Multivariate behavioural response of harlequin ducks to aircraft disturbance in Labrador. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):28-35.

Greenberg, R., Maldonado, J.E., Droege, S., and Mcdonald, M.V. 2006. Tidal marshes: a global perspective on the evolution and conservation of their terrestrial vertebrates. BioScience 56(8):675-685.

Gribben, P.E., and Wright, J.T. 2006. Sublethal effects on reproduction in native fauna: are females more vulnerable to biological invasion? Oecologia 149(2):352-361.

Griffith, A.B., and Forseth, I.N. 2006. The role of a seed bank in establishment and persistence of Aeschynomene virginica, a rare wetland annual. Northeastern Nat. 13(2):235-246.

Grim, T. 2006. Avian foraging studies: an overlooked source of distribution data for macroecological and conservation studies. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):630-632.

Guesewell, S., Jakobs, G., and Weber, E. 2006. Native and introduced populations of Solidago gigantea differ in shoot production but not in leaf traits or litter decomposition. Funct. Ecol. 20(4):575-584.

Hagman, M., and Shine, R. 2006. Spawning site selection by feral cane toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia. Austral Ecol. 31(5):551-558.

Hansen, M.M., Bekkevold, D., Jensen, L.F., Mensberg, K.L.D., and Nielsen, E.E. 2006. Genetic restoration of a stocked brown trout Salmo trutta population using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):669-679.

Harms, R.S., and Hiebert, R.D. 2006. Vegetation response following invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) removal and implications for riparian restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):461-472.

Hartmann, K., and Steel, M. 2006. Maximizing phylogenetic diversity in biodiversity conservation: greedy solutions to the Noah's Ark Problem. Syst. Biol. 55(4):644-651.

Hawkins, C.P. 2006. Quantifying biological integrity by taxonomic completeness: its utility in regional and global assessments. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1277-1294.

Hawlena, D., and Bouskila, A. 2006. Land management practices for combating desertification cause species replacement of desert lizards. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):701-709.

Hernandez-Stefanoni, J.L., and Ponce-Hernandez, R. 2006. Mapping the spatial variability of plant diversity in a tropical forest: comparison of spatial interpolation methods. Environ. Monit. Assess. 117(1-3):307-334.

Hierro, J.L., Villarreal, D., Eren, O., Graham, J.M., and Callaway, R.M. 2006. Disturbance facilitates invasion: the effects are stronger abroad than at home. Am. Nat. 168(2):144-156.

Hingston, A.B. 2006. Is the exotic bumblebee Bombus terrestris really invading Tasmanian native vegetation? J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):289-293.

Hmwe, S.S., Zachos, F.E., Eckert, I., Lorenzini, R., Fico, R., and Hartl, G.B. 2006. Conservation genetics of the endangered red deer from Sardinia and Mesola with further remarks on the phylogeography of Cervus elaphus corsicanus. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 88(4):691-701.

Honu, Y.A.K., and Gibson, D.J. 2006. Microhabitat factors and the distribution of exotic species across forest edges in temperate deciduous forest of southern Illinois, USA. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(2):255-266.

Ibáñez, M., Siverio, F., Alonso, M.R., and Ponte-Lira, C.E. 2006. Two Canariella species (Gastropoda: Helicodea: Hygromiidae) endemic to the Northwest Tenerife (Canary islands). Zootaxa 1258:33-45.

Inglis, G.J., Hurren, H., Oldman, J., and Haskew, R. 2006. Using habitat suitability index and particle dispersion models for early detection of marine invaders. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1377-1390.

Jana, G., Misra, K.K., and Bhattacharya, T. 2006. Diversity of some insect fauna in industrial and non-industrial areas of West Bengal, India. J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):249-260.

Jarnevich, C.S., Stohlgren, T.J., Barnett, D., and Kartesz, J. 2006. Filling in the gaps: modelling native species richness and invasions using spatially incomplete data. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):511-520.

Kabii, T., and Horwitz, P. 2006. A review of landholder motivations and determinants for participation in conservation covenanting programmes. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):11-20.

Kati, V.I., and Sekercioglu, C.H. 2006. Diversity, ecological structure, and conservation of the landbird community of Dadia reserve, Greece. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):620-629.

King, E.G., and Hobbs, R.J. 2006. Identifying linkages among conceptual models of ecosystem degradation and restoration: towards an integrative framework. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):369-378.

Koch, R.L., Venette, R.C., and Hutchison, W.D. 2006. Predicted impact of an exotic generalist predator on monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) populations: a quantitative risk assessment. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1179-1193.

Koehler-Santos, P., Lorenz-Lemke, A.P., Muschner, V.C., Bonatto, S.L., Salzano, F.M., and Freitas, L.B. 2006. Molecular genetic variation in Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae), an invasive species in southern Brazil. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 88(4):611-630.

Koh, C.N., Lee, P.F., and Lin, R.S. 2006. Bird species richness patterns of northern Taiwan: primary productivity, human population density, and habitat heterogeneity. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):546-554.

Lanham, J.D., and Miller, S.M. 2006. Monotypic nest site selection by Swainson's Warbler in the mountains of South Carolina. Southeast. Nat. 5(2):289-294.

Larned, S.T., Suren, A.M., Flanagan, M., Biggs, B.J.F., and Riis, T. 2006. Macrophytes in urban stream rehabilitation: establishment, ecological effects, and public perception. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):429-440.

Latch, E.K., and Rhodes, E. 2006. Evidence for bias in estimates of local genetic structure due to sampling scheme. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):308-315.

Lavergne, S., Molina, J., and Debussche, M. 2006. Fingerprints of environmental change on the rare Mediterranean flora: a 115-year study. Global Change Biol. 12(8):1466-1478.

Lichter, J., Caron, H., Pasakarnis, T.S., Rodgers, S.L., Squiers, T.S., and Todd, C.S. 2006. The ecological collapse and partial recovery of a freshwater tidal ecosystem. Northeastern Nat. 13(2):153-178.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Franklin, J.F., and Fischer, J. 2006. General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):433-445.

Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R., Frank, L.G., Mathieson, A., and Romañach, S.S. 2006. Potential of trophy hunting to create incentives for wildlife conservation in Africa where alternative wildlife-based land uses may not be viable. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):283-291.

Liu, H., Pemberton, R.W., and Stiling, P. 2006. Native and introduced pollinators promote a self-incompatible invasive woody vine (Paederia foetida L) in Florida. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(2):304-311.

LoGiudice, K. 2006. Toward a synthetic view of extinction: a history lesson from a North American rodent. BioScience 56(8):687-693.

Lord, C., and Keith, P. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Protogobius attiti Watson & Pollabauer, 1998 (Rhyacichthyidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 77(1):101-102.

Lütolf, M., Kienast, F., and Guisan, A. 2006. The ghost of past species occurrence: improving species distribution models for presence-only data. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):802-815.

Maclean, I.M.D., Hassall, M., Boar, R.R., and Lake, I.R. 2006. Effects of disturbance and habitat loss on papyrus-dwelling passerines. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):349-358.

Martin, A. 2006. Advocacy dressed up as science: response to Ramey et al. (2005). Anim. Conserv. 9(3):248-249.

McCabe, D.J., Beekey, M.A., Mazloff, A., and Marsden, J.E. 2006. Negative effect of zebra mussels on foraging and hahitat use by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Aquat. Conserv. 16(5):493-500.

McClenachan, L., Jackson, J.B.C., and Newman, M.J.H. 2006. Conservation implications of historic sea turtle nesting beach loss. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(6):290-296.

McDonald, R.I., and Urban, D.L. 2006. Edge effects on species composition and exotic species abundance in the North Carolina Piedmont. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1049-1060.

Mercado-Silva, N., Lyons, J., Díaz-Pardo, E., Gutiérrez-Hernández, A., Ornelas-García, C.P., Pedraza-Lara, C., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2006. Long-term changes in the fish assemblage of the Laja River, Guanajuato, central Mexico. Aquat. Conserv. 16(5):533-546.

Meurk, C.D., and Hall, G.M.J. 2006. Options for enhancing forest biodiversity across New Zealand's managed landscapes based on ecosystem modelling and spatial design. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 30(1):131-146.

Midgley, G.F., Hughes, G.O., Thuiller, W., and Rebelo, A.G. 2006. Migration rate limitations on climate change-induced range shifts in Cape Proteaceae. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):555-562.

Minuto, L., Grassi, F., and Casazza, G. 2006. Ecogeographic and genetic evaluation of endemic species in the Maritime Alps: the case of Moehringia lebrunii and M. sedoides (Caryophyllaceae). Plant Biosyst. 140(2):146-155.

Mottl, L.M., Mabry, C.M., and Farrar, D.R. 2006. Seven-year survival of perennial herbaceous transplants in temperate woodland restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):330-338.

Nascimbene, J., Martellos, S., and Nimis, P.L. 2006. Epiphytic lichens of tree-line forests in the Central-Eastern Italian Alps and their importance for conservation. Lichenologist 38:373-382.

New, T.R. 2006. Does inventory of insect species in the tropics really help in their conservation? J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):211-213.

Nummi, P., Väänänen, V.M., and Malinen, J. 2006. Alien grazing: indirect effects of muskrats on invertebrates. Biol. Invasions 8(5):993-999.

Oleksa, A., Ulrich, W., and Gawronski, R. 2006. Occurrence of the marbled rose-chafer (Protaetia lugubris Herbst, Coleoptera, Cetoniidae) in rural avenues in northern Poland. J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):241-247.

Oliva-Tejera, F., Caujapé-Castells, J., Navarro-Déniz, J., Reyes-Betancort, A., Scholz, S., Baccarani-Rosas, M., and Cabrera-García, N. 2006. Patterns of genetic divergence of three Canarian endemic Lotus (Fabaceae): implications for the conservation of the endangered L. kunkelii. Am. J. Bot. 93(8):1116-1124.

Orel, G. 2006. A new species of Camellia section Piquetia (Theaceae) from Vietnam. Novon 16(2):244-247.

Ortega, Y.K., McKelvey, K.S., and Six, D.L. 2006. Invasion of an exotic forb impacts reproductive success and site fidelity of a migratory songbird. Oecologia 149(2):340-351.

Pain, D.J., Martins, T.L.F., Boussekey, M., Diaz, S.H., Downs, C.T., Ekstrom, J.M.M., Garnett, S., Gilardi, J.D., McNiven, D., Primot, P., Rouys, S., Saoumoe, M., Symes, C.T., Tamungang, S.A., Theuerkauf, J., Villafuerte, D., Verfailles, L., Widmann, P., and Widmann, I.D. 2006. Impact of protection on nest take and nesting success of parrots in Africa, Asia and Australasia. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):322-330.

Park, K.J., and Cristinacce, A. 2006. Use of sewage treatment works as foraging sites by insectivorous bats. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):259-268.

Parker, M.A., Malek, W., and Parker, I.M. 2006. Growth of an invasive legume is symbiont limited in newly occupied habitats. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):563-571.

Peh, K.S.H., Sodhi, N.S., de Jong, J., Sekercioglu, C.H., Yap, C.A.M., and Lim, S.L.H. 2006. Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):572-581.

Pemberton, R.W., and Wheeler, G.S. 2006. Orchid bees don't need orchids: evidence from the naturalization of an orchid bee in Florida. Ecology 87(8):1995-2001.

Penttila, R., Lindgren, M., Miettinen, O., Rita, H., and Hanski, I. 2006. Consequences of forest fragmentation for polyporous fungi at two spatial scales. Oikos 114(2):225-240.

Pereira, H.M., and Daily, G.C. 2006. Modeling biodiversity dynamics in countryside landscapes. Ecology 87(8):1877-1885.

Pérez, J.E., Alfonsi, C., Nirchio, M., and Barrios, J. 2006. The inbreeding paradox in invasive species. Interciencia 31(7):544-546.

Pérez, J.E., Nirchio, M., Alfonsi, C., and Muñoz, C. 2006. The biology of invasions: the genetic adaptation paradox. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1115-1121.

Pertoldi, C., Breyne, P., Cabria, M.T., Halfmaerten, D., Jansman, H.A.H., Van Den Berge, K., Madsen, A.B., and Loeschcke, V. 2006. Genetic structure of the European polecat (Mustela putorius) and its implication for conservation strategies. J. Zool. 270(1):102-115.

Petranka, J.W., and Holbrook, C.T. 2006. Wetland restoration for amphibians: should local sites be designed to support metapopulations or patchy populations? Restor. Ecol. 14(3):404-411.

Pilarczyk, M.M., Stewart, P.M., Shelton, D.N., Blalock-Herod, H.N., and Williams, J.D. 2006. Current and recent historical freshwater mussel assemblages in the gulf coastal plains. Southeast. Nat. 5(2):205-226.

Pipoly, J.J., and Ricketson, J.M. 2006. New species of Cybianthus Martins (Myrsinaceae) from the Hylaean/Andean interface of Peru. Novon 16(2):248-253.

Pitra, C., VazPinto, P., O'Keeffe, B.W.J., Willows-Munro, S., van Vuuren, B.J., and Robinson, T.J. 2006. DNA-led rediscovery of the giant sable antelope in Angola. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 52(3):145-152.

Pringle, A., and Vellinga, E.C. 2006. Last chance to know? Using literature to explore the biogeography and invasion biology of the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr. :Fr.) link. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1131-1144.

Rabalais, M.R., and Magoulick, D.D. 2006. Is competition with the invasive crayfish Orconectes neglectus chaenodactylus responsible for the displacement of the native crayfish Orconectes eupunctus? Biol. Invasions 8(5):1039-1048.

Rabin, L.A., Coss, R.G., and Owings, D.H. 2006. The effects of wind turbines on antipredator behavior in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi). Biol. Conserv. 131(3):410-420.

Raghu, S., Anderson, R.C., Daehler, C.C., Davis, A.S., Wiedenmann, R.N., Simberloff, D., and Mack, R.N. 2006. Adding biofuels to the invasive species fire? Science 313(5794):1742.

Raimondo, R.M., and Domina, G. 2006. Ptilostemon greuteri (Compositae), a new species from Sicily. Willdenowia 36(1):169-175.

Rainio, J., and Niemelä, J. 2006. Comparison of carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) occurrence in rain forest and human-modified sites in south-eastern Madagascar. J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):219-228.

Ramey, R.R., Wehausen, J.D., Liu, H.P., Epps, C.W., and Carpenter, L.M. 2006. Response to Vignieri et al. (2006): should hypothesis testing or selective post hoc interpretation of results guide the allocation of conservation effort? Anim. Conserv. 9(3):244-247.

Raus, T. 2006. Found and lost - Staphyleaceae in Greece. Willdenowia 36(1):311-315.

Recher, H.F. 2006. A hypothesis to explain why the south-western subspecies of the Crested Shrike-tit (Falcunculus frontatus leucogaster) is rare and declining. Emu 106(3):181-186.

Richards, C.L., Bossdorf, O., Muth, N.Z., Gurevitch, J., and Pigliucci, M. 2006. Jack of all trades, master of some? On the role of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasions. Ecol. Lett. 9(8):981-993.

Richardson, J.I., Hall, D.B., Mason, P.A., Andrews, K.M., Bjorkland, R., Cai, Y., and Bell, R. 2006. Eighteen years of saturation tagging data reveal a significant increase in nesting hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Long Island, Antigua. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):302-307.

Riedel, F., Audzijonyte, A., and Mugue, N. 2006. Aliens associating with Caspian Sea endemic bivalves. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1067-1071.

Rothley, K.D. 2006. Finding the tradeoffs between the reserve design and representation. Environ. Manage. 38(3):327-337.

Ruprecht, E. 2006. Successfully recovered grassland: a promising example from Romanian old-fields. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):473-480.

Samways, M.J., Ponel, P., and Andrieu-Ponel, V. 2006. Palaeobiodiversity emphasizes the importance of conserving landscape heterogeneity and connectivity. J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):215-218.

Sánchez, C., Caluff, M.G., Gabancho, L.R., and Morejón, R. 2006. A preliminary evaluation of the current conservation status of Cuban endemic true ferns. Willdenowia 36(1):491-505.

Sanchez, I., and Fernandez, C. 2006. Resource availability and invasibility in an intertidal macroalgal assemblage. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 313:85-94.

Sánchez-Alcántara, I., Aburto-Oropeza, O., Balart, E.F., Cupul-Magaña, A.L., Reyes-Bonilla, H., and Sánchez-Ortiz, C. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Holacanthus passer Valenciennes, 1846 (Pomacanthidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 77(1):97-99.

Sayadyan, H.Y., and Moreno-Sanchez, R. 2006. Forest policies, management and conservation in Soviet (1920-1991) and post-Soviet (1991-2005) Armenia. Environ. Conserv. 33(1):60-72.

Seabloom, E.W., Williams, J.W., Slayback, D., Stoms, D.M., Viers, J.H., and Dobson, A.P. 2006. Human impacts, plant invasion, and imperiled, plant species in California. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1338-1350.

Sheley, R.L., Mangold, J.M., and Anderson, J.L. 2006. Potential for successional theory to guide restoration of invasive-plant-dominated rangeland. Ecol. Monogr. 76(3):365-379.

Shirley, S.M., and Kark, S. 2006. Amassing efforts against alien invasive species in Europe. PLoS Biol. 4(8):1311-1313.

Siemann, E., and Rogers, W.E. 2006. Recruitment limitation, seedling performance and persistence of exotic tree monocultures. Biol. Invasions 8(5):979-991.

Simberloff, D. 2006. Invasional meltdown 6 years later: important phenomenon, unfortunate metaphor, or both? Ecol. Lett. 9(8):912-919.

Sinclair, A.R.E., Innes, J., and Bradfield, P. 2006. Making endangered species safe: the case of the kokako of North Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 30(1):121-130.

Singh, M., and Kumara, H.N. 2006. Distribution, status and conservation of Indian gray wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) in Karnataka, India. J. Zool. 270(1):164-169.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Jelks, H.L., and Rocha, L.A. 2006. Relevance of cryptic fishes in biodiversity assessments: a case study at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix. Bull. Mar. Sci. 79(1):17-48.

Søndergaard, P., and Egli, B.R. 2006. Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae) in Crete: floristics, ecology, propagation and threats. Willdenowia 36(1):317-322.

Sorrie, B.A., Gray, J.B., and Crutchfield, P.J. 2006. The vascular flora of the longleaf pine ecosystem of Fort Bragg and Weymouth Woods, North Carolina. Castanea 71(2):129-161.

Spanou, S., Verroios, G., Dimitrellos, G., Tiniakou, A., and Georgiadis, T. 2006. Notes on flora and vegetation of the sand dunes of western Greece. Willdenowia 36(1):235-246.

Spyreas, G., and Matthews, J.W. 2006. Floristic conservation value, nested understory floras, and the development of second-growth forest. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1351-1366.

Steen, D.A., Aresco, M.J., Beilke, S.G., Compton, B.W., Condon, E.P., Dodd, C.K., Forrester, H., Gibbons, J.W., Greene, J.L., Johnson, G., Langen, T.A., Oldham, M.J., Oxier, D.N., Saumure, R.A., Schueler, F.W., Sleeman, J.M., Smith, L.L., Tucker, J.K., and Gibbs, J.P. 2006. Relative vulnerability of female turtles to road mortality. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):269-273.

Stephens, P.A., Zaumyslova, O.Y., Miquelle, D.G., Myslenkov, A.I., and Hayward, G.D. 2006. Estimating population density from indirect sign: track counts and the Formozov-Malyshev-Pereleshin formula. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):339-348.

Stokes, K.E., Buckley, Y.M., and Sheppard, A.W. 2006. A modelling approach to estimate the effect of exotic pollinators on exotic weed population dynamics: bumblebees and broom in Australia. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):593-600.

Stone, R.D., Walters, G.M., and Ghogue, J.P. 2006. Memecylon batekeanum, a new species from southeastern Gabon, and a note on the circumscription of Memecylon sect. Mouririoidea (Melastomataceae). Novon 16(2):276-280.

Suding, K.N., and Gross, K.L. 2006. Modifying native and exotic species richness correlations: the influence of fire and seed addition. Ecol. Appl. 16(4):1319-1326.

Sugiura, S., Okochi, I., and Tamada, H. 2006. High predation pressure by an introduced flatworm on land snails on the oceanic Ogasawara Islands. Biotropica 38(5):700-703.

Sutherland, W.J. 2006. Predicting the ecological consequences of environmental change: a review of the methods. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(4):599-616.

Tenorio, R.C., and Drezner, T.D. 2006. Native and invasive vegetation of karst springs in Wisconsin's Driftless area. Hydrobiologia 568:499-505.

Terauds, A., Gales, R., Baker, G.B., and Alderman, R. 2006. Population and survival trends of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) breeding on Macquarie Island. Emu 106(3):211-218.

Thomas, G.H., Lanctot, R.B., and Székely, T. 2006. Can intrinsic factors explain population declines in North American breeding shorebirds? A comparative analysis. Anim. Conserv. 9(3):252-258.

Thomas, J.R., Middleton, B., and Gibson, D.J. 2006. A landscape perspective of the stream corridor invasion and habitat characteristics of an exotic (Dioscorea oppositifolia) in a pristine watershed in illinois. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1103-1113.

Thompson, J.N., Walck, J.L., and Hidayati, S.N. 2006. Microhabitat requirements of the federally endangered Dalea foliosa, with recommendations on establishment of new populations. Castanea 71(2):94-104.

Thum, R.A., and Lennon, J.T. 2006. Is hybridization responsible for invasive growth of non-indigenous water-milfoils? Biol. Invasions 8(5):1061-1066.

Tierney, T.A., and Cushman, J.H. 2006. Temporal changes in native and exotic vegetation and soil characteristics following disturbances by feral pigs in a California grassland. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1073-1089.

Topp, W., Kappes, H., Kulfan, J., and Zach, P. 2006. Litter-dwelling beetles in primeval forests of Central Europe: does deadwood matter? J. Insect Conserv. 10(3):229-239.

Travis, D.A., Hungerford, L., Engel, G.A., and Jones-Engel, L. 2006. Disease risk analysis: a tool for primate conservation planning and decision making. Am. J. Primatol. 68(9):855-867.

Tsounis, G., Rossi, S., Gili, J.M., and Arntz, W. 2006. Population structure of an exploited benthic cnidarian: the case study of red coral (Corallium rubrum L.). Mar. Biol. 149(5):1059-1070.

Ulloa, C.U., and Neill, D.A. 2006. Phainantha shuariorum (Melastomataceae), a new species of the Cordillera del Cóndor region, Ecuador. Crisis of a Guayanan genus. Novon 16(2):281-285.

Vandel, J.M., Stahl, P., Herrenschmidt, V., and Marboutin, E. 2006. Reintroduction of the lynx into the Vosges mountain massif: from animal survival and movements to population development. Biol. Conserv. 131(3):370-385.

Vasconcelos, H.L., Vieira-Neto, E.H.M., Mundim, F.M., and Bruna, E.M. 2006. Roads alter the colonization dynamics of a keystone herbivore in neotropical savannas. Biotropica 38(5):661-665.

Vasconcelos, H.L., Vilhena, J.M.S., Magnusson, W.E., and Albernaz, A.L.K.M. 2006. Long-term effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian ant communities. J. Biogeogr. 33(8):1348-1356.

Vaughn, C.C., and Spooner, D.E. 2006. Scale-dependent associations between native freshwater mussels and invasive Corbicula. Hydrobiologia 568:331-339.

Vignieri, S.N., Hallerman, E.M., Bergstrom, B.J., Hafner, D.J., Martin, A.P., Devers, P., Grobler, P., and Hitt, N. 2006. Mistaken view of taxonomic validity undermines conservation of an evolutionarily distinct mouse: a response to Ramey et al. (2005). Anim. Conserv. 9(3):237-243.

Walker, K.L. 2006. Impact of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, on native forest ants in Gabon. Biotropica 38(5):666-673.

Wang, W.M., Abbas, K., and Ma, X.F. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Macrura reevesi Richardson 1846 (Clupeidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 77(1):103-104.

Wangen, S.R., Webster, C.R., and Griggs, J.A. 2006. Spatial characteristics of the invasion of Acer platanoides on a temperate forested island. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1001-1012.

Ward, D.F., Beggs, J.R., Clout, M.N., Harris, R.J., and O'Connor, S. 2006. The diversity and origin of exotic ants arriving in New Zealand via human-mediated dispersal. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):601-609.

Watts, C.H., and Didham, R.K. 2006. Influences of habitat isolation on invertebrate colonization of Sporadanthus ferrugineus in a mined peat bog. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):412-419.

Wearne, L.J., and Morgan, J.W. 2006. Shrub invasion into subalpine vegetation: implications for restoration of the native ecosystem. Plant Ecol. 183(2):361-376.

Wetterer, J.K., Espadaler, X., Wetterer, A.L., Aguin-Pombo, D., and Franquinho-Aguiar, A.M. 2006. Long-term impact of exotic ants on the native ants of Madeira. Ecol. Entomol. 31(4):358-368.

Wetterer, J.K., and Wetterer, A.L. 2006. A disjunct Argentine ant metacolony in Macaronesia and southwestern Europe. Biol. Invasions 8(5):1123-1129.

Wilcox, J.L., and Martin, A.P. 2006. The devil's in the details: genetic and phenotypic divergence between artificial and native populations of the endangered pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). Anim. Conserv. 9(3):316-321.

Williams-Guillén, K., McCann, C., Sánchez, J.C.M., and Koontz, F. 2006. Resource availability and habitat use by mantled howling monkeys in a Nicaraguan coffee plantation: can agroforests serve as core habitat for a forest mammal? Anim. Conserv. 9(3):331-338.

Williams, P.A. 2006. The role of blackbirds (Turdus merula) in weed invasion in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 30(2):285-291.

Wilson, L.D., and Townsend, J.H. 2006. The herpetofauna of the rainforests of Honduras. Caribbean J. Sci. 42(1):88-113.

Woodwell, G.M. 2006. On purpose in conservation. Science 314(5796):52-53.

Xenopoulos, M.A., and Lodge, D.M. 2006. Going with the flow: using species-discharge relationships to forecast losses in fish biodiversity. Ecology 87(8):1907-1914.

Xu, W.H., Ouyang, Z., Viña, A., Zheng, H., Liu, J.G., and Xiao, Y. 2006. Designing a conservation plan for protecting the habitat for giant pandas in the Qionglai mountain range, China. Divers. Distrib. 12(5):610-619.

Yuan, J.G., Fang, W., Fan, L., Chen, Y., Wang, D.Q., and Yang, Z.Y. 2006. Soil formation and vegetation establishment on the cliff face of abandoned quarries in the early stages of natural colonization. Restor. Ecol. 14(3):349-356.

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