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Department ofBotany

No. 265
January 2007

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In This Issue

A Picture of Suburban Biodiversity

Have you ever wondered what animals walked through your backyard while you weren't looking? Worried about how far your cat strays from home? Researchers at the National Zoological Park's Conservation and Research Center (CRC) have partnered with High Knob area residents in Virginia to answer questions that will give them a picture of suburban biodiversity and the impacts of development on the natural environment. Community cooperation is key to the study and will hopefully shed light on reasons for increasing bear populations and higher-than-normal populations of deer. The project, led by Swen Renner, a post-doctoral fellow at CRC's Conservation Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Laboratory, also seeks to educate residents about wildlife and how they can conserve and avoid conflicts with it.

To set up the project, eight residents received camera traps along with detailed instructions. They set up the camera and leave it in place for about two weeks. The camera is then moved to a new location. The film is changed and batteries checked. Then the film is delivered to CRC for analysis. As expected, many pictures of bears and white-tailed deer have been taken. In addition, residents are monitoring the movements of their domestic cats with Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking devices.

Back on CRC grounds, research is being conducted with another ten cameras combined with extensive field surveys to describe the songbird communities in residential areas and adjacent forests. Peter Leimgruber, Director of CRC's Conservation GIS Laboratory, hopes that the project will become a multidisciplinary approach to citizen science, integrating diverse research and education programs at CRC. Already in the works are plans for expansion of the project to include aspects of migratory bird biology that make them vulnerable to residential developments. In addition, Leimgruber's team at the GIS lab will be modeling how future land use changes and development might affect Shenandoah wildlife communities.

Results from this effort will show whether and how residential areas in forests are influencing biodiversity in the area and what the conservation implications may be. It may provide new ideas for what local residents can do to protect their backyard biodiversity. Such strategies will be increasingly important as forest loss and residential development is rapidly increasing in Northern Virginia. Scientist and residents can work together to figure out how to save wildlife during such dramatic land use changes.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The USDA Forest Service Website, Celebrating Wildflowers <>, starts off with a list of seven reasons why visitors should be intrigued by the world of wildflowers. They include aesthetic, biological, and economic reasons, and after taking a look at the list, members of the web-browsing public will most likely find themselves considering the entire site for their own purposes. First-time visitors should start by consulting the regional map of the United States that will let them move around through the different wildflower recreation areas that are under the stewardship of the Forest Service. After learning about the different areas, visitors may want to look over the wildflower news updates and learn about the various creatures that help in the pollinating process. Additionally, the "Special Features" section includes information on the "Plant of the Week" and it also contains a number of images that visitors can download to use on their computer as backgrounds.

-from the Scout Report
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2006.

Representing the expertise of over 600 herpetologists, the Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) <> is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world's 5,918 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. This Website "presents results of the assessments, including IUCN Red List threat category, range map, ecology information, and other data for every amphibian species." The GAA database is searchable by name, taxonomy, status, habitat, country, and more. The site also contains information about GAA partners, methods, data types, and key findings.

-from the Scout Report

Current Literature

Abbott, C.L., Double, M.C., Gales, R., Baker, G.B., Lashko, A., Robertson, C.J.R., and Ryan, P.G. 2006. Molecular provenance analysis for shy and white-capped albatrosses killed by fisheries interactions in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):531-542.

Achille, F. 2006. Tinadendron, a new genus of Rubiaceae, Guettardeae from Eastern Melanesia. Adansonia 28(1):167-180.

Adoukonou-Sagbadja, H., Dansi, A., Vodouhè, R., and Akpagana, K. 2006. Indigenous knowledge and traditional conservation of fonio millet (Digitaria exilis, Digitaria iburua) in Togo. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2379-2395.

Alonso, M.R., Ponte-Lira, C.E., Castillo, C., Yanes, Y., Groh, K., and Ibáñez, M. 2006. A new Canariella species (Gastropoda: Helicoidea: Hygromiidae) of the new subgenus Majorata, both endemic to the Jandia Peninsula (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands). Zootaxa 1316:45-56.

Alston, K.P., and Richardson, D.M. 2006. The roles of habitat features, disturbance, and distance from putative source populations in structuring alien plant invasions at the urban/wildland interface on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 132(2):183-198.

Altrichter, M. 2006. Wildlife in the life of local people of the semi-arid Argentine Chaco. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2719-2736.

Altrichter, M., Boaglio, G., and Perovic, P. 2006. The decline of jaguars Panthera onca in the Argentine Chaco. Oryx 40(3):302-309.

Alvarez-Castaneda, S.T., Cortes-Calva, P., Mendez, L., and Ortega-Rubio, A. 2006. Development in the Sea of Cortes calls for mitigation. BioScience 56(10):825-829.

An, L., He, G.M., Liang, Z., and Liu, J.G. 2006. Impacts of demographic and socioeconomic factors on spatio-temporal dynamics of panda habitat. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2343-2363.

Andreev, N. 2006. Assessment of the status of wild populations of land snail (escargot) Helix pomatia L. in Moldova: the effect of exploitation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2957-2970.

Bagla, P. 2006. Indian wildlife researchers show their fangs over permit hassles. Science 314(5801):907.

Bajracharya, S.B., Furley, P.A., and Newton, A.C. 2006. Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2765-2786.

Baker, G.H., Brown, G., Butt, K., Curry, J.P., and Scullion, J. 2006. Introduced earthworms in agricultural and reclaimed land: their ecology and influences on soil properties, plant production and other soil biota. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1301-1316.

Bambini, L., Blyth, A., Bradford, T., Bristol, R., Burthe, S., Craig, L., Downs, N., Laing, S., Marshall-Ball, L., McGowan, D., Vel, T., and Racey, P. 2006. Another Seychelles endemic close to extinction: the emballonurid bat Coleura seychellensis. Oryx 40(3):310-318.

Banfai, D.S., and Bowman, D.M. 2006. Forty years of lowland monsoon rainforest expansion in Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):553-565.

Bangert, R.K., and Slobodchikoff, C.N. 2006. Conservation of prairie dog ecosystem engineering may support arthropod beta and gamma diversity. J. Arid Environ. 67(1):100-115.

Baret, S., Rouget, M., Richardson, D.M., Lavergne, C., Egoh, B., Dupont, J., and Strasberg, D. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Reunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecol. 31(6):747-758.

Barnett, R., Yamaguchi, N., Barnes, I., and Cooper, A. 2006. Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion Panthera leo: implications for its ex situ conservation. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):507-514.

Barrett, C.B., Gibson, C.C., Hoffman, B., and McCubbins, M.D. 2006. The complex links between governance and biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1358-1366.

Barrett, L., Pfluger, A., and Ding, W. 2006. Successful pilot Yangtze freshwater dolphin expedition. Oryx 40(3):258-259.

Barrows, C.W., Allen, M.F., and Rotenberry, J.T. 2006. Boundary processes between a desert sand dune community and an encroaching suburban landscape. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):486-494.

Baur, B., Cremene, C., Groza, G., Rakosy, L., Schileyko, A.A., Baur, A., Stoll, P., and Erhardt, A. 2006. Effects of abandonment of subalpine hay meadows on plant and invertebrate diversity in Transylvania, Romania. Biol. Conserv. 132(2):261-273.

Bellis, L.M., Navarro, J.L., Vignolo, P.E., and Martella, M.B. 2006. Habitat preferences of lesser rheas in Argentine Patagonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3065-3075.

Benedick, S., Hill, J.K., Mustaffa, N., Chey, V.K., Maryati, M., Searle, J.B., Schilthuizen, M., and Hamer, K.C. 2006. Impacts of rain forest fragmentation on butterflies in northern Borneo: species richness, turnover and the value of small fragments. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):967-977.

Beyene, Y., Botha, A.M., and Myburg, A.A. 2006. Genetic diversity in traditional Ethiopian highland maize accessions assessed by AFLP markers and morphological traits. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2655-2671.

Bhattacharyya, R., Bhattacharya, S., and Chaudhuri, S. 2006. Conservation and documentation of the medicinal plant resources of India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2705-2717.

Branstrator, D.K., Brown, M.E., Shannon, L.J., Thabes, M., and Heimgartner, K. 2006. Range expansion of Bythotrephes longimanus in North America: evaluating habitat characteristics in the spread of an exotic zooplankter. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1367-1379.

Brasher, A.M.D., Luton, C.D., Goodbred, S.L., and Wolff, R.H. 2006. Invasion patterns along elevation and urbanization gradients in Hawaiian streams. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 135(4):1109-1129.

Bride, I. 2006. The conundrum of conservation education and the conservation mission. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1337-1339.

Brook, B.W., and Sodhi, N.S. 2006. Rarity bites. Nature 444(7119):555-557.

Brooks, J.S., Franzen, M.A., Holmes, C.M., Grote, M.N., and Mulder, M.B. 2006. Testing hypotheses for the success of different conservation strategies. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1528-1538.

Buckley, Y.M., Anderson, S., Catterall, C.P., Corlett, R.T., Engel, T., Gosper, C.R., Nathan, R., Richardson, D.M., Setter, M., Spiegel, O., Vivian-Smith, G., Voigt, F.A., Weir, J.E.S., and Westcott, D.A. 2006. Management of plant invasions mediated by frugivore interactions. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):848-857.

Butchart, S.H.M., Stattersfield, A.J., and Collar, N.J. 2006. How many bird extinctions have we prevented? Oryx 40(3):266-278.

Cabeza, M., and Moilanen, A. 2006. Replacement cost: A practical measure of site value for cost-effective reserve planning. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):336-342.

Calado, R. 2006. Marine ornamental species from European waters: a valuable overlooked resource or a future threat for the conservation of marine ecosystems? Sci. Mar. 70(3):389-398.

Callaham, M.A., González, G., Hale, C.M., Heneghan, L., Lachnicht, S.L., and Zou, X.M. 2006. Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions in North America. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1317-1329.

Callaway, R.M., Kim, J., and Mahall, B.E. 2006. Defoliation of Centaurea solstitialis stimulates compensatory growth and intensifies negative effects on neighbors. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1389-1397.

Campos, J.L., Posada, D., and Morán, P. 2006. Genetic variation at MHC, mitochondrial and microsatellite loci in isolated populations of Brown trout (Salmo trutta). Conserv. Genet. 7(4):515-530.

Campos, M.T., and Nepstad, D.C. 2006. Smallholders, the Amazon's new conservationists. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1553-1556.

Canestrelli, D., Caputo, F.P., Bagnoli, C., and Nascetti, G. 2006. Integrating genetic, demographic and ecological issues for the conservation of the Alpine newt in central Italy. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43(4):322-334.

Catlin, D.H., and Rosenberg, D.K. 2006. Nest destruction associated with mortality and dispersal of burrowing owls in the imperial valley, California. Southwest. Nat. 51(3):406-409.

Chan, C.H., Ballantyne, K.N., Aikman, H., Fastier, D., Daugherty, C.H., and Chambers, G.K. 2006. Genetic analysis of interspecific hybridisation in the world's only Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) natural population. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):493-506.

Chen, Y.H., Opp, S.B., Berlocher, S.H., and Roderick, G.K. 2006. Are bottlenecks associated with colonization? Genetic diversity and diapause variation of native and introduced Rhagoletis completa populations. Oecologia 149(4):656-667.

Chiari, Y., Orozco-TerWengel, P., Vences, M., Vieites, D.R., Sarovy, A., Randrianirina, J.E., Meyer, A., and Louis, E. 2006. Genetic identification of units for conservation in tomato frogs, genus Dyscophus. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):473-482.

Clements, R., Sodhi, N.S., Schilthuizen, M., and Ng, P.K.L. 2006. Limestone karsts of southeast Asia: imperiled arks of biodiversity. BioScience 56(9):733-742.

Close, D.C., Messina, G., Krauss, S.L., Rokich, D.P., Stritzke, J., and Dixon, K.W. 2006. Conservation biology of the rare species Conospermum undulatum and Macarthuria keigheryi in an urban bushland remnant. Aust. J. Bot. 54(6):583-593.

Conrad, K.F., Warren, M.S., Fox, R., Parsons, M.S., and Woiwod, I.P. 2006. Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):279-291.

Cooper, A., McCann, T., and Bunce, R.G.H. 2006. The influence of sampling intensity on vegetation classification and the implications for environmental management. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):118-127.

Cumming, G.S., and Spiesman, B.J. 2006. Regional problems need integrated solutions: pest management and conservation biology in agroecosystems. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):533-543.

Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Vrancken, D., Ravishankar, T., and Koedam, N. 2006. Short-term mangrove browsing by feral water buffalo: conflict between natural resources, wildlife and subsistence interests? Environ. Conserv. 33(2):157-163.

Dalén, L., Kvaløy, K., Linnell, J.D.C., Elmhagen, B., Strand, O., Tannerfeldt, M., Henttonen, H., Fuglei, E., Landa, A., and Angerbjörn, A. 2006. Population structure in a critically endangered arctic fox population: does genetics matter? Mol. Ecol. 15(10):2809-2819.

Daly, D.C., Costa, D.P., and Melo, A.W.F. 2006. The 'salão' vegetation of Southwestern Amazonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2905-2923.

de Oliveira, L.R., Arias-Schreiber, M., Meyer, D., and Morgante, J.S. 2006. Effective population size in a bottlenecked fur seal population. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):505-509.

De Souza, G.C., Kubo, R., Guimarães, L., and Elisabetsky, E. 2006. An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2737-2746.

Debano, S.J. 2006. Effects of livestock grazing on aboveground insect communities in semi-arid grasslands of southeastern Arizona. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2547-2564.

Declerck, S., De Bie, T., Ercken, D., Hampel, H., Schrijvers, S., Van Wichelen, J., Gillard, V., Mandiki, R., Losson, B., Bauwens, D., Keijers, S., Vyverman, W., Goddeeris, B., De Meester, L., Brendonck, L., and Martens, K. 2006. Ecological characteristic's of small farmland ponds: associations with land use practices at multiple spatial scales. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):523-532.

DeSalle, R. 2006. Species discovery versus species identification in DNA barcoding efforts: response to Rubinoff. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1545-1547.

Dodson, E.K., and Fiedler, C.E. 2006. Impacts of restoration treatments on alien plant invasion in Pinus ponderosa forests, Montana, USA. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):887-897.

Dorji, L., Webb, E.L., and Shivakoti, G.P. 2006. Forest property rights under nationalized forest management in Bhutan. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):141-147.

Dreitz, V.J. 2006. Issues in species recovery: an example-based on the Wyoming toad. BioScience 56(9):765-771.

Dunham, A.E., Akçakaya, H.R., and Bridges, T.S. 2006. Using scalar models for precautionary assessments of threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1499-1506.

Dupont, Y.L., and Nielsen, B.O. 2006. Species composition, feeding specificity and larval trophic level of flower-visiting insects in fragmented versus continuous heathlands in Denmark. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):475-485.

Ellis, C.J., and Coppins, B.J. 2006. Contrasting functional traits maintain lichen epiphyte diversity in response to climate and autogenic succession. J. Biogeogr. 33(9):1643-1656.

Enserink, M., and Vogel, G. 2006. The carnivore comeback. Science 314(5800):746-749.

Ervin, G., Smothers, M., Holly, C., Anderson, C., and Linville, J. 2006. Relative importance of wetland type versus anthropogenic activities in determining site invasibility. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1425-1432.

Estrada, C.G., Damon, A., Hernández, C.S., Pinto, L.S., and Núñez, G.I. 2006. Bat diversity in montane rainforest and shaded coffee under different management regimes in southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):351-361.

Falk-Petersen, J., Bøhn, T., and Sandlund, O.T. 2006. On the numerous concepts in invasion biology. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1409-1424.

Fang, J., Wang, Z.H., Zhao, S.Q., Li, Y.K., Tang, Z.Y., Yu, D., Ni, L.Y., Liu, H.Z., Xie, P., Da, L.J., Li, Z.Q., and Zheng, C.Y. 2006. Biodiversity changes in the lakes of the Central Yangtze. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(7):369-377.

Fidler, F., Burgman, M.A., Cumming, G., Buttrose, R., and Thomason, N. 2006. Impact of criticism of null-hypothesis significance testing on statistical reporting practices in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1539-1544.

Follmann, G. 2006. Two new roccelloid Physciaceae from Pacific South America and a synopsis of the genus Santessonia. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 100:651-670.

Frelich, L.E., Hale, C.M., Scheu, S., Holdsworth, A.R., Heneghan, L., Bohlen, P.J., and Reich, P.B. 2006. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1235-1245.

Fryxell, J.M., Lynn, D.H., and Chris, P.J. 2006. Harvest reserves reduce extinction risk in an experimental microcosm. Ecol. Lett. 9(9):1025-1031.

Fu, Y.N., Guo, H.J., Chen, A.G., and Cui, J.Y. 2006. Household differentiation and on-farm conservation of biodiversity by indigenous households in Xishuangbanna, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2687-2703.

Fusari, A., and Carpaneto, G.M. 2006. Subsistence hunting and conservation issues in the game reserve of Gile, Mozambique. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2477-2495.

Galat, G., and Galat-Luong, A. 2006. Hope for the survival of the Critically Endangered white-naped mangabey Cercocebus atys lunulatus: a new primate species for Burkina Faso. Oryx 40(3):355-357.

Ge, S.K., Everitt, J., Carruthers, R., Gong, P., and Anderson, G. 2006. Hyperspectral characteristics of canopy components and structure for phenological assessment of an invasive weed. Environ. Monit. Assess. 120(1-3):109-126.

Genghini, M., Gellini, S., and Gustin, M. 2006. Organic and integrated agriculture: the effects on bird communities in orchard farms in northern Italy. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3077-3094.

Gevrey, M., Worner, S., Kasabov, N., Pitt, J., and Giraudel, J.L. 2006. Estimating risk of events using SOM models: a case study on invasive species establishment. Ecol. Model. 197(3-4):361-372.

Ghimire, S.K., Mckey, D., and Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Y. 2006. Himalayan medicinal plant diversity in an ecologically complex high altitude anthropogenic landscape, Dolpo, Nepal. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):128-140.

Gibb, H., Hjältén, J., Ball, J.P., Pettersson, R.B., Landin, J., Alvini, O., and Danell, K. 2006. Wing loading and habitat selection in forest beetles: are red-listed species poorer dispersers or more habitat-specific than common congenerics? Biol. Conserv. 132(2):250-260.

Gibbons, J.W., Winne, C.T., Scott, D.E., Willson, J.D., Glaudas, X., Andrews, K.M., Todd, B.D., Fedewa, L.A., Wilkinson, L., Tsaliagos, R.N., Harper, S.J., Greene, J.L., Tuberville, T.D., Metts, B.S., Dorcast, M.E., Nestor, J.P., Young, C.A., Akre, T., Reed, R.N., Buhlmann, K.A., Norman, J., Croshaw, D.A., Hagen, C., and Rothermel, B.B. 2006. Remarkable amphibian biomass and abundance in an isolated wetland: implications for wetland conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1457-1465.

Giles, B.G., Ky, T.S., Hoang, D.H., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2006. The catch and trade of seahorses in Vietnam. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2497-2513.

Gitlin, A.R., Sthultz, C.M., Bowker, M.A., Stumpf, S., Paxton, K.L., Kennedy, K., Muñoz, A., Bailey, J.K., and Whitham, T.G. 2006. Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1477-1486.

Gong, S.P., Wang, J.C., Shi, H.T., Song, R.H., and Xu, R.M. 2006. Illegal trade and conservation requirements of freshwater turtles in Nanmao, Hainan Province, China. Oryx 40(3):331-336.

González, G., Huang, C.Y., Zou, X.M., and Rodríguez, C. 2006. Earthworm invasions in the tropics. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1247-1256.

Gorenflo, L.J., and Brandon, K. 2006. Key human dimensions of gaps in global biodiversity conservation. BioScience 56(9):723-731.

Graening, G., Hobbs, H.H., Slay, M.E., Elliott, W.R., and Brown, A.V. 2006. Status update for bristly cave crayfish, Cambarus setosus (Decapoda: Cambaridae), and range extension into Arkansas. Southwest. Nat. 51(3):382-392.

Graening, G., Koppelman, J.B., Wagner, B.K., Slay, M.E., and Brickey, C.L. 2006. Range extension and status update of the endangered hell creek cave crayfish, Cambarus zophonastes (Decapoda: Cambaridae). Southwest. Nat. 51(3):392-396.

Graening, G., Slay, M.E., Brown, A.V., and Koppelman, J.B. 2006. Status and distribution of the endangered benton cave crayfish, Cambarus aculabrum (Decapoda: Cambaridae). Southwest. Nat. 51(3):376-381.

Greaves, G.J., Mathieu, R., and Seddon, P.J. 2006. Predictive modelling and ground validation of the spatial distribution of the New Zealand long-tailed bat (Chalinolobus tuberculatus). Biol. Conserv. 132(2):211-221.

Grenyer, R., Orme, C.D.L., Jackson, S.F., Thomas, G.H., Davies, R.G., Davies, T.J., Jones, K.E., Olson, V.A., Ridgely, R.S., Rasmussen, P.C., Ding, T.S., Bennett, P.M., Blackburn, T.M., Gaston, K.J., Gittleman, J.L., and Owens, I.P.F. 2006. Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates. Nature 444(7115):93-96.

Grey, M., Blais, A.M., Hunt, B., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2006. The USA's international trade in fish leather, from a conservation perspective. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):100-108.

Gribben, P.E., and Wright, J.T. 2006. Invasive seaweed enhances recruitment of a native bivalve: roles of refuge from predation and the habitat choice of recruits. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 318:177-185.

Guicking, D., Griffiths, R.A., Moore, R.D., Joger, U., and Wink, M. 2006. Introduced alien or persecuted native? Resolving the origin of the viperine snake (Natrix maura) on Mallorca. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3045-3054.

Hartley, S., Harris, R., and Lester, P.J. 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in the potential distribution of an invasive species: climate and the Argentine ant. Ecol. Lett. 9(9):1068-1079.

Hata, K., Suzuki, J.I., Kachi, N., and Yamamura, Y. 2006. A 19-year study of the dynamics of an invasive alien tree, Bischofia javanica, on a subtropical oceanic island. Pacific Sci. 60(4):455-470.

Hawksworth, D.L. 2006. Human exploitation of biodiversity and conservation: a question of balance? Introduction. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2341-2342.

Haydon, D.T., Randall, D.A., Matthews, L., Knobel, D.L., Tallents, L.A., Gravenor, M.B., Williams, S.D., Pollinger, J.P., Cleaveland, S., Woolhouse, M.E.J., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Marino, J., Macdonald, D.W., and Laurenson, M.K. 2006. Low-coverage vaccination strategies for the conservation of endangered species. Nature 443(7112):692-695.

He, Z.B., Zhao, W.Z., Chang, X.X., Chang, X., and Fang, J. 2006. Scale dependence in desert plant diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3055-3064.

Hedrick, P.W., Lee, R.N., and Hurt, C.R. 2006. The endangered Sonoran topminnow: examination of species and ESUs using three mtDNA genes. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):483-492.

Heinen, J.T., and Kandel, R. 2006. Threats to a small population: a census and conservation recommendations for wild buffalo Bubalus arnee in Nepal. Oryx 40(3):324-330.

Hejda, M., and Pyšek, P. 2006. What is the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on species diversity of invaded riparian vegetation? Biol. Conserv. 132(2):143-152.

Hendrix, P.F. 2006. Biological invasions belowground - earthworms as invasive species. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1201-1204.

Hendrix, P.F., Baker, G.H., Callaham, M.A., Damoff, G.A., Fragoso, C., González, G., James, S.W., Lachnicht, S.L., Winsome, T., and Zou, X. 2006. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1287-1300.

Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., Hando, J., Hopcraft, G., Loibooki, M., Mduma, S., and Sinclair, A.R.E. 2006. Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science 314(5803):1266.

Hilgert, N.I., and Gil, G.E. 2006. Medicinal plants of the Argentine Yungas plants of the Las Yungas biosphere reserve, Northwest of Argentina, used in health care. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2565-2594.

Hilty, J.A., Brooks, C., Heaton, E., and Merenlender, A.M. 2006. Forecasting the effect of land-use change on native and non-native mammalian predator distributions. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2853-2871.

Hoffman, J.I., Matson, C.W., Amos, W., Loughlin, T.R., and Bickham, J.W. 2006. Deep genetic subdivision within a continuously distributed and highly vagile marine mammal, the Steller's sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Mol. Ecol. 15(10):2821-2832.

Huebner, C.D., and Tobin, P.C. 2006. Invasibility of mature and 15-year-old deciduous forests by exotic plants. Plant Ecol. 186(1):57-68.

Hulme, P.E. 2006. Beyond control: wider implications for the management of biological invasions. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):835-847.

Ings, T.C., Ward, N.L., and Chittka, L. 2006. Can commercially imported bumble bees out-compete their native conspecifics? J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):940-948.

Iverson, J.B., Converse, S.J., Smith, G.R., and Valiulis, J.M. 2006. Long-term trends in the demography of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata): human disturbance and density-dependent effects. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):300-310.

Jacobson, S.K., Morris, J.K., Sanders, J.S., Wiley, E.N., Brooks, M., Bennetts, R.E., Percival, H.F., and Marynowski, S. 2006. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1516-1527.

Jaramillo-Correa, J.P., Beaulieu, J., Ledig, F.T., and Bousquet, J. 2006. Decoupled mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA population structure reveals Holocene collapse and population isolation in a threatened Mexican-endemic conifer. Mol. Ecol. 15(10):2787-2800.

Jeschke, J.M., and Strayer, D.L. 2006. Determinants of vertebrate invasion success in Europe and North America. Global Change Biol. 12(9):1608-1619.

Johnson, J.A., Lerner, H.R.L., Rasmussen, P.C., and Mindell, D.P. 2006. Systematics within Gyps vultures: a clade at risk. BMC Evol. Biol. 6:65.

Johnson, M.D., Sherry, T.W., Holmes, R.T., and Marra, P.P. 2006. Assessing habitat quality for a migratory songbird wintering in natural and agricultural habitats. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1433-1444.

Jones, J.W., Neves, R.J., Ahlstedt, S.A., and Hallerman, E.M. 2006. A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae). J. Molluscan Stud. 72:267-283.

Jongejans, E., Sheppard, A.W., and Shea, K. 2006. What controls the population dynamics of the invasive thistle Carduus nutans in its native range? J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):877-886.

Kalliovirta, M., Ryttäri, T., and Heikkinen, R.K. 2006. Population structure of a threatened plant, Pulsatilla patens, in boreal forests: modelling relationships to overgrowth and site closure. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3095-3108.

Katzner, T.E., Bragin, E.A., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2006. Modelling populations of long-lived birds of prey for conservation: a study of imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) in Kazakhstan. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):322-335.

Keough, H.L., and Blahna, D.J. 2006. Achieving integrative, collaborative ecosystem management. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1373-1382.

Khan, A.A., Qureshi, B.U.D., and Awan, M.S. 2006. Impact of musk trade on the decline in Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster population in Neelum Valley, Pakistan. Curr. Sci. 91(5):696-699.

Khumbongmayum, A.D., Khan, M., and Tripathi, R.S. 2006. Biodiversity conservation in sacred groves of Manipur, northeast India: population structure and regeneration status of woody species. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2439-2456.

Kirchner, F., Robert, A., and Colas, B. 2006. Modelling the dynamics of introduced populations in the narrow-endemic Centaurea corymbosa: a demo-genetic integration. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):1011-1021.

Kiss, L., and Magnin, F. 2006. High resilience of Mediterranean land snail communities to wildfires. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2925-2944.

Koske, R.E., and Gemma, J.N. 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizae effects on growth of two Hawaiian species: indigenous Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (Rosaceae) and invasive Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae). Pacific Sci. 60(4):471-482.

Krabbenhoft, T.J., Rohde, F.C., and Quattro, J.M. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Etheostoma perlongum (Hubbs and Raney 1946) (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 76(2-4):411-412.

Krivánek, M., Pyšek, P., and Jarošík, V. 2006. Planting history and propagule pressure as predictors of invasion by woody species in a temperate region. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1487-1498.

Krueger-Mangold, J., Sheley, R., and Engel, R. 2006. Can R*s predict invasion in semi-arid grasslands? Biol. Invasions 8(6):1343-1354.

Kulmatiski, A., Beard, K.H., and Stark, J.M. 2006. Soil history as a primary control on plant invasion in abandoned agricultural fields. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):868-876.

Kwan, D., Marsh, H., and Delean, S. 2006. Factors influencing the sustainability of customary dugong hunting by a remote indigenous community. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):164-171.

Lane, D.J.W., Kingston, T., and Lee, B.P.H. 2006. Dramatic decline in bat species richness in Singapore, with implications for Southeast Asia. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):584-593.

Lange, C.N. 2006. The endemic land snail Gulella taitensis of the Taita Hills forests, Kenya: on the brink of extinction. Oryx 40(3):362-364.

Lenth, B.A., Knight, R.L., and Gilgert, W.C. 2006. Conservation value of clustered housing developments. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1445-1456.

Leprieur, F., Hickey, M.A., Arbuckle, C.J., Closs, G.P., Brosse, S., and Townsend, C.R. 2006. Hydrological disturbance benefits a native fish at the expense of an exotic fish. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):930-939.

Leston, L.F.V., and Rodewald, A.D. 2006. Are urban forests ecological traps for understory birds? An examination using Northern cardinals. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):566-574.

Levin, B.A., and Rubenyan, H.R. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Barbus goktschaicus Kessler, 1877 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 76(2-4):409-410.

Levine, J.M., Pachepsky, E., Kendall, B.E., Yelenik, S.G., and Lambers, J.H.R. 2006. Plant-soil feedbacks and invasive spread. Ecol. Lett. 9(9):1005-1014.

Liddle, D.T., Brook, B.W., Matthews, J., Taylor, S.M., and Caley, P. 2006. Threat and response: a decade of decline in a regionally endangered rainforest palm affected by fire and introduced animals. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):362-375.

Littlewood, N.A., Dennis, P., Pakeman, R.J., and Woodin, S.J. 2006. Moorland restoration aids the reassembly of associated phytophagous insects. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):395-404.

Liu, H.M., Gao, L., Zheng, Z., and Feng, Z.L. 2006. The impact of Amomum villosum cultivation on seasonal rainforest in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2971-2985.

Loebl, M., van Beusekom, J.E.E., and Reise, K. 2006. Is spread of the neophyte Spartina anglica recently enhanced by increasing temperatures? Aquat. Ecol. 40(3):315-324.

Louzao, M., Igual, J.M., McMinn, M., Aguilar, J.S., Triay, R., and Oro, D. 2006. Small pelagic fish, trawling discards and breeding performance of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater: improving conservation diagnosis. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 318:247-254.

Lowry, P.P., and Rabehevitra, D. 2006. Endemic families of Madagascar. IX. A new littoral forest species of Schizolaena (Sarcolaenaceae). Adansonia 28(1):149-153.

Lowry, P.P., and Schatz, G.E. 2006. A new restricted-range species of Buxus L. (Buxaceae) from central Madagascar. Adansonia 28(1):67-70.

Lu, Y.H., Fu, B.J., Chen, L.D., Ouyang, Z.Y., and Xu, J.Y. 2006. Resolving the conflicts between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic development in China: fuzzy clustering approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2813-2827.

Luan, S.S., Chiang, T.Y., and Gong, X. 2006. High genetic diversity vs. low genetic differentiation in Nouelia insignis (Asteraceae), a narrowly distributed and endemic species in China, revealed by ISSR fingerprinting. Ann. Botany 98(3):583-589.

Lynch, T.P. 2006. Incorporation of recreational fishing effort into design of marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1466-1476.

Lynn, S., Martin, J.A., and Garcelon, D.K. 2006. Can supplemental foraging perches enhance habitat for endangered San Clemente Loggerhead Shrikes? Wilson J. Ornithol. 118(3):333-340.

Manning, A.D., Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2006. Scattered trees are keystone structures - implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):311-321.

Márquez, A., Maldonado, J.E., González, S., Beccaceci, M.D., Garcia, J.E., and Duarte, J.M.B. 2006. Phylogeography and Pleistocene demographic history of the endangered marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) from the Rio de la Plata Basin. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):563-575.

Martinez, A.E., Aranibar, D.F., and Gutierrez, E.R. 2006. An assessment of the abundance and distribution of the Titicaca Flightless Grebe Rollandia microptera on Lake Titicaca and evaluation of its conservation status. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(3):237-251.

Martínez, G.J., Planchuelo, A.M., Fuentes, E., and Ojeda, M. 2006. A numeric index to establish conservation priorities for medicinal plants in the Paravachasca Valley, Córdoba, Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2457-2475.

Martínez, J.A., Martínez, J.E., Mañosa, S., Zuberogoitia, I., and Calvo, J.F. 2006. How to manage human-induced mortality in the Eagle Owl Bubo bubo. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(3):265-278.

Martínez, M.L., Gallego-Fernández, J.B., García-Franco, J.G., Moctezuma, C., and Jiménez, C.D. 2006. Assessment of coastal dune vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances along the Gulf of Mexico. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):109-117.

Masembe, C., Muwanika, V.B., Nyakaana, S., Arctander, P., and Siegismund, H.R. 2006. Three genetically divergent lineages of the Oryx in eastern Africa: evidence for an ancient introgressive hybridization. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):551-562.

Mason, C.F. 2006. Avian species richness and numbers in the built environment: can new housing developments be good for birds? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2365-2378.

Matlock, R.B., and Edwards, P.J. 2006. The influence of habitat variables on bird communities in forest remnants in Costa Rica. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2987-3016.

Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Jury, S., Kell, S., and Scholten, M. 2006. Towards a definition of a crop wild relative. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2673-2685.

McAlpine, C.A., Rhodes, J.R., Callaghan, J.G., Bowen, M.E., Lunney, D., Mitchell, D.L., Pullar, D.V., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. The importance of forest area and configuration relative to local habitat factors for conserving forest mammals: a case study of koalas in Queensland, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 132(2):153-165.

McKinney, R.A., McWilliams, S.R., and Charpentier, M.A. 2006. Waterfowl-habitat associations during winter in an urban North Atlantic estuary. Biol. Conserv. 132(2):239-249.

McLean, M.A., Migge-Kleian, S., and Parkinson, D. 2006. Earthworm invasions of ecosystems devoid of earthworms: effects on soil microbes. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1257-1273.

Meimberg, H., Hammond, J.I., Jorgensen, C.M., Park, T.W., Gerlach, J.D., Rice, K.J., and Mckay, J.K. 2006. Molecular evidence for an extreme genetic bottleneck during introduction of an invading grass to California. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1355-1366.

Migge-Kleian, S., McLean, M.A., Maerz, J.C., and Heneghan, L. 2006. The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1275-1285.

Mills, A., Morkel, P., Amiyo, A., Runyoro, V., Borner, M., and Thirgood, S. 2006. Managing small populations in practice: black rhino Diceros bicomis michaeli in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Oryx 40(3):319-323.

Minteer, B.A., and Collins, J.P. 2006. Bighorn sheep, mountain lions, and the ethics of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1341.

Moço, G., Guerreiro, M., Ferreira, A.F., Rebelo, A., Loureiro, A., Petrucci-Fonseca, F., and Pérez, J.M. 2006. The ibex Capra pyrenaica returns to its former Portuguese range. Oryx 40(3):351-354.

Monadjem, A., Boycott, R.C., Roques, K., Gama, R., and Garcelon, D. 2006. Nest success and conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea in Swaziland. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(3):187-196.

Monello, R.J., Dennehy, J.J., Murray, D.L., and Wirsing, A.J. 2006. Growth and behavioral responses of tadpoles of two native frogs to an exotic competitor, Rana catesbeiana. J. Herpetol. 40(3):403-407.

Moore, S.J., and Battley, P.F. 2006. Differences in the digestive organ morphology of captive and wild Brown Teal Anas chlorotis and implications for releases. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(3):253-264.

Moorman, R.S. 2006. Benefits of local residents visiting La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):89-99.

Near, T.J., and Hardman, M. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of Noturus stanauli and N. crypticus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae), two imperiled freshwater fish species from the southeastern United States. Copeia 2006(3):378-383.

Newby, J. 2006. Saving the addax. Oryx 40(3):256.

Nicholson, E., Westphal, M.I., Frank, K., Rochester, W.A., Pressey, R.L., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. A new method for conservation planning for the persistence of multiple species. Ecol. Lett. 9(9):1049-1060.

Novak, T., Delakorda, S.L., and Novak, L.S. 2006. A review of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Slovenia. Zootaxa 1325:267-276.

O'Dell, R.E., and Claassen, V.P. 2006. Relative performance of native and exotic grass species in response to amendment of drastically disturbed serpentine substrates. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):898-908.

O'Rourke, E. 2006. Biodiversity and land use change on the Causse Méjan, France. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2611-2626.

Olsen, J.B., Wuttig, K., Fleming, D., Kretschmer, E.J., and Wenburg, J.K. 2006. Evidence of partial anadromy and resident-form dispersal bias on a fine scale in populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):613-619.

Ostberg, C.O., and Rodriguez, R.J. 2006. Hybridization and cytonuclear associations among native westslope cutthroat trout, introduced rainbow trout, and their hybrids within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 135(4):924-942.

Ozaki, K., Isono, M., Kawahara, T., Iida, S., Kudo, T., and Fukuyama, K. 2006. A mechanistic approach to evaluation of umbrella species as conservation surrogates. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1507-1515.

Page, A., and Meier, G. 2006. Rat-free habitat doubled in the Chagos Archipelago. Oryx 40(3):255-256.

Parker, G.E., and Osborn, F.V. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40(3):343-346.

Paula, M., and Leonardo, G. 2006. Multiple ice-age refugia in a southern beech of South America as evidenced by chloroplast DNA markers. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):591-603.

Peñalba, M.C., Molina-Freaner, F., and Rodríguez, L.L. 2006. Resource availability, population dynamics and diet of the nectar-feeding bat Leptonycteris curasoae in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3017-3034.

Peres, C.A., and Nascimento, H.S. 2006. Impact of game hunting by the Kayapó of south-eastern Amazonia: implications for wildlife conservation in tropical forest indigenous reserves. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2627-2653.

Perez, I., Geffen, E., and Mokady, O. 2006. Critically Endangered Arabian leopards Panthera pardus nimr in Israel: estimating population parameters using molecular scatology. Oryx 40(3):295-301.

Peters, S.L., Malcolm, J.R., and Zimmerman, B.L. 2006. Effects of selective logging on bat communities in the southeastern Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1410-1421.

Pidgeon, A.M., Radeloff, V.C., and Mathews, N.E. 2006. Contrasting measures of fitness to classify habitat quality for the black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata). Biol. Conserv. 132(2):199-210.

Piessens, K., and Hermy, M. 2006. Does the heathland flora in north-western Belgium show an extinction debt? Biol. Conserv. 132(3):382-394.

Pinheiro, M.H.O., Neto, L.C.D.A., and Monteiro, R. 2006. Urban areas and isolated remnants of natural habitats: an action proposal for botanical gardens. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2747-2764.

Plaskowski, V.D., Teul, M., Williams, K.M., and Cal, R.N. 2006. Birds of the Sibun riverine forest, Belize. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 17(3):333-352.

Pop, V.V., and Pop, A.A. 2006. Lumbricid earthworm invasion in the Carpathian Mountains and some other sites in Romania. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1219-1222.

Pratt, R.B., and Black, R.A. 2006. Do invasive trees have a hydraulic advantage over native trees? Biol. Invasions 8(6):1331-1341.

Pretty, J. 2006. Physical activity in modern society: is there also an environmental benefit? Environ. Conserv. 33(2):87-88.

Rajagopal, S., Venugopalan, V.P., van der Velde, G., and Jenner, H.A. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquat. Ecol. 40(3):273-297.

Ranius, T., and Kindvall, O. 2006. Extinction risk of wood-living model species in forest landscapes as related to forest history and conservation strategy. Landscape Ecol. 21(5):687-698.

Ricciardi, A., and Mottiar, M. 2006. Does Darwin's naturalization hypothesis explain fish invasions? Biol. Invasions 8(6):1403-1407.

Robertson, H.A., Karika, I., and Saul, E.K. 2006. Translocation of Rarotonga Monarchs Pomarea dimidiata within the Southern Cook Islands. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(3):197-215.

Rodrigues Da Silva, Ú.D.S., and Matos, D.M.D.S. 2006. The invasion of Pteridium aquilinum and the impoverishment of the seed bank in fire prone areas of Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):3035-3043.

Rodríguez, J.P., Rodríguez-Clark, K.M., Oliveira-Miranda, M.A., Good, T., and Grajal, A. 2006. Professional capacity building: the missing agenda in conservation priority setting. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1340.

Rogers, Z.S. 2006. A new species of Malagasy Gnidia and the lectotypification of Octolepis decalepis (Thymelaeaceae). Adansonia 28(1):155-160.

Rogers, Z.S., Malecot, V., and Sikes, K.G. 2006. A synoptic revision of Olax L. (Olacaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Adansonia 28(1):71-100.

Rominger, E.M., Bleich, V.C., and Goldstein, E.J. 2006. Bighorn sheep, mountain lions, and the ethics of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1341.

Round, P.D., Gale, G.A., and Brockelman, W.Y. 2006. A comparison of bird communities in mixed fruit orchards and natural forest at Khao Luang, southern Thailand. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2873-2891.

Rowe, E.C., Healey, J.R., Edwards-Jones, G., Hills, J., Howells, M., and Jones, D.L. 2006. Fertilizer application during primary succession changes the structure of plant and herbivore communities. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):510-522.

Rubenstein, D.R., Rubenstein, D.I., Sherman, P.W., and Gavin, T.A. 2006. Pleistocene park: does re-wilding North America represent sound conservation for the 21st century? Biol. Conserv. 132(2):232-238.

Rubinoff, D. 2006. DNA barcoding evolves into the familiar. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1548-1549.

Ryan, P.G., Dorse, C., and Hilton, G.M. 2006. The conservation status of the spectacled petrel Procellaria conspicillata. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):575-583.

Saltz, D., Rubenstein, D.I., and White, G.C. 2006. The impact of increased environmental stochasticity due to climate change on the dynamics of asiatic wild ass. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1402-1409.

Samways, M.J., and Grant, P.B.C. 2006. Regional response of odonata to river systems impacted by and cleared of invasive alien trees. Odonatologica 35(3):297-303.

Sarasola, J.H., and Maceda, J.J. 2006. Past and current evidence of persecution of the Endangered crowned eagle Harpyhaliaetus coronatus: in Argentina. Oryx 40(3):347-350.

Schiegg, K., Daniels, S.J., Walters, J.R., Priddy, J.A., and Pasinelli, G. 2006. Inbreeding in red-cockaded woodpeckers: effects of natal dispersal distance and territory location. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):544-552.

Schmaltz, G., Somers, C.M., Sharma, P., and Quinn, J.S. 2006. Non-destructive sampling of maternal DNA from the external shell of bird eggs. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):543-549.

Schutzenhofer, M.R., and Valone, T.J. 2006. Positive and negative effects of exotic Erodium cicutarium on an arid ecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):376-381.

Schwartz, M.W. 2006. How conservation scientists can help develop social capital for biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1550-1552.

Semerikov, V.L., Vendramin, G.G., Sebastiani, F., and Lascoux, M. 2006. RAPD-derived, PCR-based mitochondrial markers for Larix species and their usefulness in phylogeny. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):621-625.

Shanas, U., Abu Galyun, Y., Alshamlih, M., Cnaani, J., Guscio, D., Khoury, F., Mittler, S., Nassar, K., Shapira, I., Simon, D., Sultan, H., Topel, E., and Ziv, Y. 2006. Reptile diversity and rodent community structure across a political border. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):292-299.

Shears, N.T., Grace, R.V., Usmar, N.R., Kerr, V., and Babcock, R.C. 2006. Long-term trends in lobster populations in a partially protected vs. no-take marine park. Biol. Conserv. 132(2):222-231.

Sherman, A.R., and Martin, C.O. 2006. Rediscovery of the gray bat (Myotis grisescens) in northeastern Mississippi. Southwest. Nat. 51(3):418-420.

Sigg, D.P. 2006. Reduced genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation after translocation: comparison of the remnant and translocated populations of bridled nailtail wallabies (Onychogalea fraenata). Conserv. Genet. 7(4):577-589.

Simon, T.P., and Thoma, R.F. 2006. Conservation of imperiled crayfish - Orconectes (faxonius) indianensis Hay (Decapoda: Cambaridae). J. Crustacean Biol. 26(3):436-440.

Sitati, N.W., and Walpole, M.J. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human-elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40(3):279-286.

Smith, K.F., Sax, D.F., and Lafferty, K.D. 2006. Evidence for the role of infectious disease in species extinction and endangerment. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1349-1357.

Smith, R.M., Gaston, K.J., Warren, P.H., and Thompson, K. 2006. Urban domestic gardens (VIII): environmental correlates of invertebrate abundance. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2515-2545.

Smith, R.M., Warren, P.H., Thompson, K., and Gaston, K.J. 2006. Urban domestic gardens (VI): environmental correlates of invertebrate species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2415-2438.

Spalton, J.A., al Hikmani, H.M., Willis, D., and Said, A.S.B. 2006. Critically Endangered Arabian leopards Panthera pardus nimr persist in the Jabal Samhan Nature Reserve, Oman. Oryx 40(3):287-294.

Spear, S.F., Peterson, C.R., Matocq, M.D., and Storfer, A. 2006. Molecular evidence for historical and recent population size reductions of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) in Yellowstone National Park. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):605-611.

Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W., and Seuaturien, N. 2006. Collaborating to conserve large mammals in Southeast Asia. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1391-1401.

Stokes, K.E., O'Neill, K.P., Montgomery, W.I., Dick, J.T.A., Maggs, C.A., and McDonald, R.A. 2006. The importance of stakeholder engagement in invasive species management: a cross-jurisdictional perspective in Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2829-2852.

Sullivan, B.J., Reid, T.A., and Bugoni, L. 2006. Seabird mortality on factory trawlers in the Falkland Islands and beyond. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):495-504.

Takacs, D., Shapiro, D.F., and Head, W.D. 2006. From is to should: helping students translate conservation biology into conservation policy. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1342-1348.

Tanaka, A. 2006. Stakeholder analysis of river restoration activity for eight years in a river channel. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2787-2811.

Tang, Z.Y., Wang, Z.H., Zheng, C.Y., and Fang, J.Y. 2006. Biodiversity in China's mountains. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(7):347-352.

Terhivuo, J., and Saura, A. 2006. Dispersal and clonal diversity of North-European parthenogenetic earthworms. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1205-1218.

Theberge, M.M., and Dearden, P. 2006. Detecting a decline in whale shark Rhincodon typus sightings in the Andaman Sea, Thailand, using ecotourist operator-collected data. Oryx 40(3):337-342.

Thomsen, M.A., Corbin, J.D., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2006. The effect of soil nitrogen on competition between native and exotic perennial grasses from northern coastal California. Plant Ecol. 186(1):23-35.

Tikkanen, O.P., Martikainen, P., Hyvarinen, E., Junninen, K., and Kouki, J. 2006. Red-listed boreal forest species of Finland: associations with forest structure, tree species, and decaying wood. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43(4):373-383.

Tiunov, A.V., Hale, C.M., Holdsworth, A.R., and Vsevolodova-Perel, T.S. 2006. Invasion patterns of Lumbricidae into the previously earthworm-free areas of northeastern Europe and the western Great Lakes region of North America. Biol. Invasions 8(6):1223-1234.

Turvey, S.T., Barrett, L.A., Braulik, G.T., and Ding, W. 2006. Implementing the recovery programme for the Yangtze River dolphin. Oryx 40(3):257-258.

Tzeng, C.S., Lin, Y.S., Lin, S.M., Wang, T.Y., and Wang, F.Y. 2006. The phylogeography and population demographics of selected freshwater fishes in Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 45(3):285-297.

Underwood, E.C., and Fisher, B.L. 2006. The role of ants in conservation monitoring: if, when, and how. Biol. Conserv. 132(2):166-182.

Valentine, L.E. 2006. Habitat avoidance of an introduced weed by native lizards. Austral Ecol. 31(6):732-735.

Van Houtan, K.S. 2006. Conservation as virtue: a scientific and social process for conservation ethics. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1367-1372.

Vázquez, L.B., and Gaston, K.J. 2006. People and mammals in Mexico: conservation conflicts at a national scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2397-2414.

Veech, J.A. 2006. A comparison of landscapes occupied by increasing and decreasing populations of grassland birds. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1422-1432.

Vittoz, P., Wyss, T., and Gobat, J.M. 2006. Ecological conditions for Saxifraga hirculus in Central Europe: a better understanding for a good protection. Biol. Conserv. 131(4):594-608.

Vogel, G. 2006. On the brink. Science 314(5800):749.

Vucetich, J.A., Nelson, M.P., and Phillips, M.K. 2006. The normative dimension and legal meaning of endangered and recovery in the US Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol. 20(5):1383-1390.

Walker, M.P., Dover, J.W., Sparks, T.H., and Hinsley, S.A. 2006. Hedges and green lanes: vegetation composition and structure. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(8):2595-2610.

Wallander, J., Isaksson, D., and Lenberg, T. 2006. Wader nest distribution and predation in relation to man-made structures on coastal pastures. Biol. Conserv. 132(3):343-350.

Walpole, M. 2006. Partnerships for conservation and poverty reduction. Oryx 40(3):245-246.

Walton, D. 2006. Making conservation work. Antarct. Sci. 18(3):289.

Wang, G.X., Wang, Y.B., and Kubota, J. 2006. Land-cover changes and its impacts on ecological variables in the headwaters area of the Yangtze river, China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 120(1-3):361-385.

Wang, S.W., Lassoie, J.P., and Curtis, P.D. 2006. Farmer attitudes towards conservation in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Environ. Conserv. 33(2):148-156.

Wang, Y.Q., Zhu, W.Q., Huang, L., Zhou, K.Y., and Wang, R.P. 2006. Genetic diversity of Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) revealed by AFLP analysis: an implication on the management of captive conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2945-2955.

Whiteley, A.R., Spruell, P., and Allendorf, F.W. 2006. Can common species provide valuable information for conservation? Mol. Ecol. 15(10):2767-2786.

Willis, K.J., and Birks, H.J.B. 2006. What is natural? The need for a long-term perspective in biodiversity conservation. Science 314(5803):1261-1265.

Witt, J.D.S., Threloff, D.L., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2006. DNA barcoding reveals extraordinary cryptic diversity in an amphipod genus: implications for desert spring conservation. Mol. Ecol. 15(10):3073-3082.

Worner, S.P., and Gevrey, M. 2006. Modelling global insect pest species assemblages to determine risk of invasion. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):858-867.

Xu, H.G., Qiang, S., Han, Z.M., Guo, J.Y., Huang, Z.G., Sun, H.Y., He, S.P., Ding, H., Wu, H.R., and Wan, F. 2006. The status and causes of alien species invasion in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(9):2893-2904.

Yasué, M., and Dearden, P. 2006. The potential impact of tourism development on habitat availability and productivity of Malaysian plovers Charadrius peronii. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(5):978-989.

Young, R.P., Fa, J.E., Ogrodowczyk, A., Morton, M., Lesmond, S., and Funk, S.M. 2006. The St Lucia whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus vanzoi: a conservation dilemma? Oryx 40(3):358-361.

Yue, G.H., Zhu, Z.Y., Lin, G., Lo, L.C., and Feng, F. 2006. Novel polymorphic microsatellites for studying genetic diversity of red Asian arowanas. Conserv. Genet. 7(4):627-629.

Zambrano, L., Perrow, M.R., Sayer, C.D., Tomlinson, M.L., and Davidson, T.A. 2006. Relationships between fish feeding guild and trophic structure in English lowland shallow lakes subject to anthropogenic influence: implications for lake restoration. Aquat. Ecol. 40(3):391-405.

Zuckerberg, B., and Vickery, P.D. 2006. Effects of mowing and burning on shrubland and grassland birds on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Wilson J. Ornithol. 118(3):353-363.

Žydelis, R., Lorentsen, S.H., Fox, A.D., Kuresoo, A., Krasnov, Y., Goryaev, Y., Bustnes, J.O., Hario, M., Nilsson, L., and Stipniece, A. 2006. Recent changes in the status of Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri wintering in Europe: a decline or redistribution? Bird Conserv. Int. 16(3):217-236.

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