Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 266
February 2007

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In This Issue

Biodiversity Quickly Erodes in Forest Fragments

Amazonian rainforests support a huge share of the world's biodiversity, most of it dependant on their diverse communities of tree species. Up to 300 species of trees can be found in an area the size of two football fields. But the forests are rapidly being cleared for timber, cattle ranching and farming. Remaining forest is often reduced to small, irregularly-shaped "fragments," which may not be able to support healthy communities of rainforest-adapted plants and animals. In order to help preserve biodiversity in the Amazon and elsewhere, scientists need to understand the effects of fragmentation on biological communities.

In a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) ecologist William Laurance and colleagues have found that fragmentation of Amazonian rainforests by human encroachment leads to degradation of the remaining forest much more rapidly than previously thought. Even though the life cycles of many rainforest trees are measured in centuries or more, significant changes occur within just decades of fragmentation.

The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, operated cooperatively by STRI and Brazil's National Institute for Amazonian Research, is the world's largest and longest running experimental study of habitat fragmentation. The study consists of a 1,000-square kilometer experimental landscape in central Amazonia. In the early 1980s researchers created nine forest fragments ranging in size from 1 to 100 hectares (a hectare is 10,000 square meters, or about 2½ acres). The forest fragments were exhaustively inventoried for their plant and animal species before isolation, and re-sampled every 4-6 years afterwards in order to track changes in the biological communities. For this study, Laurance and his colleagues followed the fates of nearly 32,000 individual trees for approximately two decades.

They found that desiccation and wind damage can kill old-growth trees within 100 meters of forest edges, and these are replaced by fast-growing generalist species. Shade-tolerant understory species are particularly hard-hit, as are species dependant on rainforest animals for pollination and seed-dispersal. The resulting tree communities in fragments contain similar numbers of species as the original intact forest, but the species are different. And the communities are ecologically far less stable as species come and go at an accelerated rate.

"Rainforest trees can live for centuries, even millennia," said Laurance, "so none of us expected things to change too fast. But in just two decades - a wink of time for a thousand year-old tree - the ecosystem has been seriously degraded."

The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project is an ongoing study. Researchers will continue to monitor the changes in the tree community and in the other plant and animal species that depend on the trees. One important implication of this study is that the fragmented forest is likely to store less carbon than equivalent areas of intact forest, both because many large, old-growth trees die in fragments and because the wood of the fast-growing trees invading the fragments is less dense than that of the old-growth trees they replace. Over the long-term, this could exacerbate the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Current Literature

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Chmura, D., and Sierka, E. 2006. Relation between invasive plant and species richness of forest floor vegetation: a study of Impatiens parviflora DC. Pol. J. Ecol. 54(3):417-428.

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Daszak, P. 2006. Risky behavior in the Ebola zone. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):366-367.

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Drechsler, M., Johst, K., Wätzold, F., and Westphal, M.I. 2006. Integrating economic costs into the analysis of flexible conservation management strategies. Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1959-1966.

Eby, L.A., Roach, W.J., Crowder, L.B., and Stanford, J.A. 2006. Effects of stocking-up freshwater food webs. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(10):576-584.

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Erlandsson, J., Pal, P., and McQuaid, C.D. 2006. Re-colonisation rate differs between co-existing indigenous and invasive intertidal mussels following major disturbance. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 320:169-176.

Evans, K.L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Chown, S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2006. Protected areas and regional avian species richness in South Africa. Biol. Lett. 2(2):184-188.

Evans, K.L., van Rensburg, B.J., Gaston, K.J., and Chown, S.L. 2006. People, species richness and human population growth. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 15(6):625-636.

Ewers, R.M., and Laurance, W.F. 2006. Scale-dependent patterns of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Environ. Conserv. 33(3):203-211.

Fattorini, S. 2006. Biogeography and conservation of endemic tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) on east Mediterranean Islands. Vie Milieu 56(3):231-241.

Fearnside, P.F. 2006. Containing destruction from Brazil's Amazon highways: now is the time to give weight to the environment in decision-making. Environ. Conserv. 33(3):181-183.

Ferguson, S.H., and Higdon, J.W. 2006. How seals divide up the world: environment, life history, and conservation. Oecologia 150(2):318-329.

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Fox, H.E., and Caldwell, R.L. 2006. Recovery from blast fishing on coral reefs: a tale of two scales. Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1631-1635.

Freese, A., Benes, J., Bolz, R., Cizek, O., Dolek, M., Geyer, A., Gros, P., Konvicka, M., Liegl, A., and Stettmer, C. 2006. Habitat use of the endangered butterfly Euphydryas maturna and forestry in Central Europe. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):388-397.

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Funk, S.M., and Fa, J.E. 2006. Phylogeography of the endemic St. Lucia whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus vanzoi: conservation genetics at the species boundary. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):651-663.

Gassmann, A., Cock, M.J.W., Shaw, R., and Evans, H.C. 2006. The potential for biological control of invasive alien aquatic weeds in Europe: a review. Hydrobiologia 570:217-222.

Geleta, N., Labuschagne, M.T., and Viljoen, C.D. 2006. Genetic diversity analysis in sorghum germplasm as estimated by AFLP, SSR and morpho-agronomical markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3251-3265.

Girdler, E.B., and Radtke, T.A. 2006. Conservation implications of individual scale spatial pattern in the threatened dune thistle, Cirsium pitcheri. Am. Midl. Nat. 156(2):213-228.

Githiru, M., and Lens, L. 2006. Annual survival and turnover rates of an afrotropical robin in a fragmented forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3315-3327.

Gollan, J.R., and Wright, J.T. 2006. Limited grazing pressure by native herbivores on the invasive seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia in a temperate Australian estuary. Mar. Freshwater Res. 57(7):685-694.

González, B.A., Palma, R.E., Zapata, B., and Marín, J.C. 2006. Taxonomic and biogeographical status of guanaco Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae). Mammal Rev. 36(2):157-178.

Gopal, B., and Chauhan, M. 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):338-354.

Graf, J.A., Gusset, M., Reid, C., van Rensburg, S.J., Slotow, R., and Somers, M.J. 2006. Evolutionary ecology meets wildlife management: artificial group augmentation in the re-introduction of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Anim. Conserv. 9(4):398-403.

Greenlees, M.J., Brown, G.P., Webb, J.K., Phillips, B.L., and Shine, R. 2006. Effects of an invasive anuran [the cane toad (Bufo marinus)] on the invertebrate fauna of a tropical Australian floodplain. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):431-438.

Greulich, S., and Trémolières, M. 2006. Present distribution of the genus Elodea in the Alsatian Upper Rhine floodplain (France) with a special focus on the expansion of Elodea nuttallii St. John during recent decades. Hydrobiologia 570:249-255.

Grey, M., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2006. Extent and possible conservation implications of fish use for research, testing and education in North America. Aquat. Conserv. 16(6):569-578.

Griebeler, E.M., Müller, J.C., and Seitz, A. 2006. Spatial genetic patterns generated by two admixing genetic lineages: a simulation study. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):753-766.

Groombridge, J.J., Sparklin, B., Malcolm, T., Brosius, C.N., Okada, M.M., and Bruch, J.C. 2006. Patterns of spatial use and movement of the Poóuli - a critically endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3357-3368.

Grémillet, D., Pichegru, L., Siorat, F., and Georges, J.Y. 2006. Conservation implications of the apparent mismatch between population dynamics and foraging effort in French northern gannets from the English Channel. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 319:15-25.

Guo, J. 2006. River dolphins down for the count, and perhaps out. Science 314(5807):1860.

Gusset, M., Slotow, R., and Somers, M.J. 2006. Divided we fail: the importance of social integration for the re-introduction of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). J. Zool. 270(3):502-511.

Hailer, F., Helander, B., Folkestad, A.O., Ganusevich, S.A., Garstad, S., Hauff, P., Koren, C., Nygård, T., Volke, V., Vilà, C., and Ellegren, H. 2006. Bottlenecked but long-lived high genetic diversity retained in white-tailed eagles upon recovery from population decline. Biol. Lett. 2(2):316-319.

Haines, A.M., Tewes, M.E., Laack, L.L., Horne, J.S., and Young, J.H. 2006. A habitat-based population viability analysis for ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):424-436.

Hare, M.P., Allen, S.K., Bloomer, P., Camara, M.D., Carnegie, R.B., Murfree, J., Luckenbach, M., Meritt, D., Morrison, C., Paynter, K., Reece, K.S., and Rose, C.G. 2006. A genetic test for recruitment enhancement in Chesapeake Bay oysters, Crassostrea virginica, after population supplementation with a disease tolerant strain. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):717-734.

Hazlitt, S.L., Goldizen, A.W., and Eldridge, M.D.B. 2006. Significant patterns of population genetic structure and limited gene flow in a threatened macropodid marsupial despite continuous habitat in southeast Queensland, Australia. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):675-689.

Hess, G.R., Bartel, R.A., Leidner, A.K., Rosenfeld, K.M., Rubino, M.J., Snider, S.B., and Ricketts, T.H. 2006. Effectiveness of biodiversity indicators varies with extent, grain, and region. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):448-457.

Hoagland, P., and Jin, D. 2006. Science and economics in the management of an invasive species. BioScience 56(11):931-935.

Hoare, J.M., Pledger, S., Keall, S.N., Nelson, J., Mitchell, N.J., and Daugherty, C.H. 2006. Conservation implications of a long-term decline in body condition of the Brothers Island tuatara (Sphenodon guntheri). Anim. Conserv. 9(4):456-462.

Hoare, R., Dugdale, J., and Watts, C. 2006. The world's thinnest caterpillar? A new genus and species of Batrachedridae (Lepidoptera) from Sporadanthus ferrugineus (Restionaceae), a threatened New Zealand plant. Invertebr. Syst. 20(5):571-583.

Hoehn, M., and Sarre, S.D. 2006. Microsatellite DNA markers for Australian geckos. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):795-798.

James, J.J., Caird, M.A., Drenovsky, R.E., and Sheley, R.L. 2006. Influence of resource pulses and perennial neighbors on the establishment of an invasive annual grass in the Mojave Desert. J. Arid Environ. 67(3):528-534.

Jarvis, K.J., and Whiting, M.F. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea) based on six molecular loci: designating conservation status for Grylloblattodea species. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 41(1):222-237.

Jayaram, K., and Prasad, M.N.V. 2006. Drosera indica L. and D. burmanii Vahl., medicinally important insectivorous plants in Andhra Pradesh - regional threats and conservation. Curr. Sci. 91(7):943-946.

Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., Hedemark, M., and Saithongdam, T. 2006. Effects of human-carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):421-430.

Jones, M.E., Shepherd, M., Henry, R.J., and Delves, A. 2006. Chloroplast DNA variation and population structure in the widespread forest tree, Eucalyptus grandis. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):691-703.

Jouventin, P., Cuthbert, R.J., and Ottvall, R. 2006. Genetic isolation and divergence in sexual traits: evidence for the northern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes moseleyi being a sibling species. Mol. Ecol. 15(11):3413-3423.

Julliard, R., Bargain, B., Dubos, A., and Jiguet, F. 2006. Identifying autumn migration routes for the globally threatened Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Ibis 148(4):735-743.

Junk, W.J., Brown, M., Campbell, I.C., Finlayson, M., Gopal, B., Ramberg, L., and Warner, B.G. 2006. The comparative biodiversity of seven globally important wetlands: a synthesis. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):400-414.

Junk, W.J., da Cunha, C.N., Wantzen, K.M., Petermann, P., Strüssmann, C., Marques, M.I., and Adis, J. 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):278-309.

Kang, M., Pan, L., Yao, X.H., and Huang, H.W. 2006. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered fern Adiantum reniforme var. sinense. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):807-810.

Kang, M., Zhang, J.J., Wang, J., and Huang, H.W. 2006. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the endangered tree Berchemiella wilsonii var. pubipetiolata and cross-species amplification in closely related taxa. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):789-793.

Kanthaswamy, S., Kurushima, J.D., and Smith, D.G. 2006. Inferring Pongo conservation units: a perspective based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses. Primates 47(4):310-321.

Keppel, G., Rounds, I.A., and Thomas, N.T. 2006. The flora, vegetation, and conservation value of mesic forest at Dogotuki, Vanua Levu, Fiji Islands. New Zeal. J. Bot. 44(3):273-292.

Kindt, R., Van Damme, P., and Simons, A.J. 2006. Patterns of species richness at varying scales in western Kenya: planning for agroecosystem diversification. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3235-3249.

King, J.R., and Tschinkel, W.R. 2006. Experimental evidence that the introduced fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, does not competitively suppress co-occurring ants in a disturbed habitat. J. Anim. Ecol. 75(6):1370-1378.

Klok, C., Holtkamp, R., van Apeldoorn, R., Visser, M.E., and Hemerik, L. 2006. Analysing population numbers of the House Sparrow in The Netherlands with a matrix model and suggestions for conservation measures. Acta Biotheor. 54(3):161-178.

Klopper, R.R., Gautier, L., Smith, G.F., Spichiger, R., and Chatelain, C. 2006. Inventory of the African flora: a world first for the forgotten continent. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(5-6):185-186.

Kumara, H.N., Singh, M., and Kumar, S. 2006. Distribution, habitat correlates, and conservation of Loris lydekkerianus in Karnataka, India. Int. J. Primatol. 27(4):941-969.

Laiolo, P., and Tella, J.L. 2006. Fate of unproductive and unattractive habitats: recent changes in Iberian steppes and their effects on endangered avifauna. Environ. Conserv. 33(3):223-232.

Lara-Ruiz, P., Lopez, G.G., Santos, F.R., and Soares, L.S. 2006. Extensive hybridization in hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting in Brazil revealed by mtDNA analyses. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):773-781.

Laurance, W.F., Nascimento, H.E.M., Laurance, S.G., Andrade, A., Ribeiro, J.E.L.S., Giraldo, J.P., Lovejoy, T.E., Condit, R., Chave, J., Harms, K.E., and D'Angelo, S. 2006. Rapid decay of tree-community composition in Amazonian forest fragments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103(50):19010-19014 .

Lazaro, A., and Traveset, A. 2006. Reproductive success of the endangered shrub Buxus balearica Lam. (Buxaceae): pollen limitation, and inbreeding and outbreeding depression. Plant Syst. Evol. 261(1-4):117-128.

Leblois, R., Estoup, A., and Streiff, R. 2006. Genetics of recent habitat contraction and reduction in population size: does isolation by distance matter? Mol. Ecol. 15(12):3601-3615.

LeBreton, M., Prosser, A.T., Tamoufe, U., Sateren, W., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Diffo, J.L.D., Burke, D.S., and Wolfe, N.D. 2006. Healthy hunting in central Africa. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):372-374.

LeBreton, M., Prosser, A.T., Tamoufe, U., Sateren, W., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Diffo, J.L.D., Burke, D.S., and Wolfe, N.D. 2006. Patterns of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of disease risk among central African communities. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):357-363.

Lehman, S.M., Ratsimbazafy, J., Rajaonson, A., and Day, S. 2006. Ecological correlates to lemur community structure in southeast Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 27(4):1023-1040.

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Molina, K.C., and Erwin, R.M. 2006. The distribution and conservation status of the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in North America. Waterbirds 29(3):271-295.

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Mrosovsky, N. 2006. Distorting gene pools by conservation: assessing the case of doomed turtle eggs. Environ. Manage. 38(4):523-531.

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Nichols, J.D., Perry, J.E., and DeBerry, D.A. 2006. Using a floristic quality assessment technique to evaluate plant community integrity of forested wetlands in Southeastern Virginia. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):360-369.

Niemiller, M.L., Glorioso, B.M., Nicholas, C., Phillips, J., Rader, J., Reed, E., Sykes, K.L., Todd, J., Wyckoff, G.R., Young, E.L., and Miller, B.T. 2006. Status and distribution of the streamside salamander, Ambystoma barbouri, in middle Tennessee. Am. Midl. Nat. 156(2):394-399.

Ouborg, N.J., Vergeer, P., and Mix, C. 2006. The rough edges of the conservation genetics paradigm for plants. J. Ecology 94(6):1233-1248.

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Parker, T.H., Becker, C.D., Sandercock, B.K., and Agreda, A.E. 2006. Apparent survival estimates for five species of tropical birds in an endangered forest habitat in western Ecuador. Biotropica 38(6):764-769.

Peakall, R., and Lindenmayer, D. 2006. Genetic insights into population recovery following experimental perturbation in a fragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):520-532.

Pérez-Farrera, M.A., Vovides, A.P., Octavio-Aguilar, P., González-Astorga, J., de la Cruz-Rodríguez, J., Hernández-Jonapá, R., and Villalobos-Méndez, S.M. 2006. Demography of the cycad Ceratozamia mirandae (Zamiaceae) under disturbed and undisturbed conditions in a biosphere reserve of Mexico. Plant Ecol. 187(1):97-108.

Pierce, A.R., Parker, G., and Rabenold, K. 2006. Forest succession in an oak-hickory dominated stand during a 40-year period at the ross biological reserve, Indiana. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):351-359.

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Possley, J., and Maschinski, J. 2006. Competitive effects of the invasive grass Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) CE Hubb. on pine rockland vegetation. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):391-395.

Prévosto, B., Dambrine, E., Coquillard, P., and Robert, A. 2006. Broom (Cytisus scoparius) colonization after grazing abandonment in the French Massif Central: impact on vegetation composition and resource availability. Acta Oecol. 30(2):258-268.

Qiu, Y.X., Li, J.H., Liu, H.L., Chen, Y.Y., and Fu, C.X. 2006. Population structure and genetic diversity of Dysosma versipellis (Berberidaceae), a rare endemic from China. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 34(10):745-752.

Radhakrishna, S., Goswami, A.B., and Sinha, A. 2006. Distribution and conservation of Nycticebus bengalensis in northeastern India. Int. J. Primatol. 27(4):971-982.

Ramp, J.M., Collinge, S.K., and Ranker, T.A. 2006. Restoration genetics of the vernal pool endemic Lasthenia conjugens (Asteraceae). Conserv. Genet. 7(5):631-649.

Regnaut, S., Christe, P., Chapuisat, M., and Fumagalli, L. 2006. Genotyping faeces reveals facultative kin association on capercaillie's leks. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):665-674.

Reinhart, K.O., Gurnee, J., Tirado, R., and Callaway, R.M. 2006. Invasion through quantitative effects: intense shade drives native decline and invasive success. Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1821-1831.

Reissig, M., Trochine, C., Queimaliños, C., Balseiro, E., and Modenutti, B. 2006. Impact of fish introduction on planktonic food webs in lakes of the Patagonian Plateau. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):437-447.

Relyea, R., and Hoverman, J. 2006. Assessing the ecology in ecotoxicology: a review and synthesis in freshwater systems. Ecol. Lett. 9(10):1157-1171.

Reynolds, J.C., O'Mahony, D., and Aebischer, N.J. 2006. Implications of 'cyclical' population dynamics for the conservation of Irish hares (Lepus timidus hibernicus). J. Zool. 270(3):408-413.

Ricci, M. 2006. Conservation status and ex situ cultivation efforts of endemic flora of the Juan Fernández Archipelago. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3111-3130.

Rimer, R.L., and Evans, R.D. 2006. Invasion of downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) causes rapid changes in the nitrogen cycle. Am. Midl. Nat. 156(2):252-258.

Rius, M., and McQuaid, C.D. 2006. Wave action and competitive interaction between the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the indigenous Perna perna in South Africa. Mar. Biol. 150(1):69-78.

Roberts, P.D., Stewart, G.B., and Pullin, A.S. 2006. Are review articles a reliable source of evidence to support conservation and environmental management? A comparison with medicine. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):409-423.

Robertson, G., McNeill, M., Smith, N., Wienecke, B., Candy, S., and Olivier, F. 2006. Fast sinking (integrated weight) longlines reduce mortality of white-chinned petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) in demersal longline fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):458-471.

Rondinini, C., Wilson, K.A., Boitani, L., Grantham, H., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Tradeoffs of different types of species occurrence data for use in systematic conservation planning. Ecol. Lett. 9(10):1136-1145.

Ross, J.D., Arndt, A.D., Smith, R.F.C., Johnson, J.A., and Bouzat, J.L. 2006. Re-examination of the historical range of the greater prairie chicken using provenance data and DNA analysis of museum collections. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):735-751.

Rossi, L.G., and Knight, R.L. 2006. Cliff attributes and bird communities in Jefferson County, Colorado. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):331-338.

Roura-Pascual, N., Suarez, A.V., McNyset, K., Gómez, C., Pons, P., Touyama, Y., Wild, A.L., Gascon, F., and Peterson, A.T. 2006. Niche differentiation and fine-scale projections for Argentine ants based on remotely sensed data. Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1832-1841.

Rugiero, L., and Luiselli, L. 2006. Ecological modelling of habitat use and the annual activity patterns in an urban population of the tortoise, Testudo hermanni. Italian J. Zool. 73(3):219-225.

Sagar, R., and Singh, J.S. 2006. Tree density, basal area and species diversity in a disturbed dry tropical forest of northern India: implications for conservation. Environ. Conserv. 33(3):256-262.

Sanderson, E.W. 2006. How many animals do we want to save? The many ways of setting population target levels for conservation. BioScience 56(11):911-922.

Sanford, M.P. 2006. Biology and conservation of the endangered Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus Austin and Emmel) in western Great Basin saltgrass communities. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):396-402.

Selwyn, M.A., and Parthasarathy, N. 2006. Reproductive traits and phenology of plants in tropical dry evergreen forest on the coromandel coast of India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3207-3234.

Shahabuddin, G., and Kumar, R. 2006. Influence of anthropogenic disturbance on bird communities in a tropical dry forest: role of vegetation structure. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):404-413.

Sharma, K.K., Jaiswal, A.K., and Kumar, K.K. 2006. Role of lac culture in biodiversity conservation: issues at stake and conservation strategy. Curr. Sci. 91(7):894-898.

Sheller, F.J., Fagan, W.F., and Unmack, P.J. 2006. Using survival analysis to study translocation success in the Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1771-1784.

Shiponeni, N.N., and Milton, S.J. 2006. Seed dispersal in the dung of large herbivores: implications for restoration of Renosterveld shrubland old fields. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3161-3175.

Shriner, S.A., Wilson, K.R., and Flather, C.H. 2006. Reserve networks based on richness hotspots and representation vary with scale. Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1660-1673.

Sileshi, G., and Mafongoya, P.L. 2006. The short-term impact of forest fire on soil invertebrates in the miombo. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3153-3160.

Skei, J.K., Dolmen, D., Ronning, L., and Ringsby, T.H. 2006. Habitat use during the aquatic phase of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti) in central Norway: proposition for a conservation and monitoring area. Amphibia-Reptilia 27(3):309-324.

Smith, R.G., Maxwell, B.D., Menalled, F.D., and Rew, L.J. 2006. Lessons from agriculture may improve the management of invasive plants in wildland systems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(8):428-434.

Soini, E. 2006. Bird diversity and land use on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro and the adjacent plains, Tanzania. Afr. Zool. 41(2):193-209.

Spaggiari, J., and De Garine-Wichatitsky, M. 2006. Home range and habitat use of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a mosaic of savannah and native sclerophyll forest of New Caledonia. New Zeal. J. Zool. 33(3):175-183.

Stirling, I., and Parkinson, C.L. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59(3):261-275.

Stone, R. 2006. The Saola's last stand. Science 314(5804):1380-1383.

Storch, I., Bañuelos, M.J., Fernández-Gil, A., Obeso, J.R., Quevedo, M., and Rodríguez-Muñoz, R. 2006. Subspecies Cantabrian capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus endangered according to IUCN criteria. J. Ornithol. 147(4):653-655.

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Strecker, A.L., Arnott, S.E., Yan, N.D., and Girard, R. 2006. Variation in the response of crustacean zooplankton species richness and composition to the invasive predator Bythotrephes longimanus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(9):2126-2136.

Strong, J.A., Dring, M.J., and Maggs, C.A. 2006. Colonisation and modification of soft substratum habitats by the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 321:87-97.

Sugimoto, T., Nagata, J., Aramilev, V.V., Belozor, A., Higashi, S., and McCullough, D.R. 2006. Species and sex identification from faecal samples of sympatric carnivores, Amur leopard and Siberian tiger, in the Russian Far East. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):799-802.

Svenning, J.C., and Skov, F. 2006. Potential impact of climate change on the northern nemoral forest herb flora of Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(10):3341-3356.

Takagawa, S., Washitani, I., Uesugi, R., and Tsumura, Y. 2006. Influence of inbreeding depression on a lake population of Nymphoides peltata after restoration from the soil seed bank. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):705-716.

Terrados, J., and Maba, N. 2006. Is the vegetative development of the invasive chlorophycean, Caulerpa taxifolia, favored in sediments with a high content of organic matter? Bot. Mar. 49(4):331-338.

Thrush, S.F., Gray, J.S., Hewitt, J.E., and Ugland, K.I. 2006. Predicting the effects of habitat homogenization on marine biodiversity. Ecol. Appl. 16(5):1636-1642.

Thulin, C.G., Simberloff, D., Barun, A., Mccracken, G., Pascal, M., and Islam, M.A. 2006. Genetic divergence in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), a widely distributed invasive species. Mol. Ecol. 15(13):3947-3956.

Ticktin, T., Whitehead, A.N., and Fraiola, H. 2006. Traditional gathering of native hula plants in alien-invaded Hawaiian forests: adaptive practices, impacts on alien invasive species and conservation implications. Environ. Conserv. 33(3):185-194.

Tisdell, C. 2006. Knowledge about a species' conservation status and funding for its preservation: analysis. Ecol. Model. 198(3-4):515-519.

Togridou, A., Hovardas, T., and Pantis, J.D. 2006. Factors shaping implementation of protected area management decisions: a case study of the Zakynthos National Marine Park. Environ. Conserv. 33(3):233-243.

Tosi, A.J., Detwiler, K.M., and Clifford, S.L. 2006. X-chromosomal synapomorphies provide a non-invasive test for introgression among Cercopithecus monkeys. Conserv. Genet. 7(5):803-805.

Uehara, K., Tanaka, N., Momohara, A., and Zhou, Z.K. 2006. Genetic diversity of an endangered aquatic plant, Potamogeton lucens subspecies sinicus. Aquat. Bot. 85(4):352-356.

Van Oppen, M.J.H., and Gates, R.D. 2006. Conservation genetics and the resilience of reef-building corals. Mol. Ecol. 15(13):3863-3883.

Van Rossum, F., and Triest, L. 2006. Fine-scale genetic structure of the common Primula elatior (Primulaceae) at an early stage of population fragmentation. Am. J. Bot. 93(9):1281-1288.

Vargas, C.F., Parra-Tabla, V., Feinsinger, P., and Leirana-Alcocer, J. 2006. Genetic diversity and structure in fragmented populations of the tropical orchid Myrmecophila christinae var christinae. Biotropica 38(6):754-763.

Venter, O., Brodeur, N.N., Nemiroff, L., Belland, B., Dolinsek, I.J., and Grant, J.W.A. 2006. Threats to endangered species in Canada. BioScience 56(11):903-910.

Vidra, R.L., Shear, T.H., and Wentworth, T.R. 2006. Testing the paradigms of exotic species invasion in urban riparian forests. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):339-350.

Viedma, O., Moreno, J.M., and Rieiro, I. 2006. Interactions between land use/land cover change, forest fires and landscape structure in Sierra de Gredos (Central Spain). Environ. Conserv. 33(3):212-222.

Waldron, J.L., Bennett, S.H., Welch, S.M., Dorcas, M.E., Lanham, J.D., and Kalinowsky, W. 2006. Habitat specificity and home-range size as attributes of species vulnerability to extinction: a case study using sympatric rattlesnakes. Anim. Conserv. 9(4):414-420.

Wang, H.W., and Ge, S. 2006. Phylogeography of the endangered Cathaya argyrophylla (Pinaceae) inferred from sequence variation of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Mol. Ecol. 15(13):4109-4122.

Wato, Y.A., Wahungu, G.M., and Okello, M.M. 2006. Correlates of wildlife snaring patterns in Tsavo West National Park, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):500-509.

Watson-Jones, S.J., Maxted, N., and Ford-Lloyd, B.V. 2006. Population baseline data for monitoring genetic diversity loss for 2010: a case study for Brassica species in the UK. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):490-499.

Westhoff, J.T., Guyot, J.A., and DiStefano, R.J. 2006. Distribution of the imperiled Williams' crayfish (Orconectes williamsi) in the White River drainage of Missouri: associations with multi-scale environmental variables. Am. Midl. Nat. 156(2):273-288.

Weyl, O.L.F., and Lewis, H. 2006. First record of predation by the alien invasive freshwater fish Micropterus salmoides L. (Centrarchidae) on migrating estuarine fishes in South Africa. Afr. Zool. 41(2):294-296.

Wilkie, D. 2006. Bushmeat: a disease risk worth taking to put food on the table? Anim. Conserv. 9(4):370-371.

Williams, S.C., and Ward, J.S. 2006. Exotic seed dispersal by white-tailed deer in southern Connecticut. Nat. Areas J. 26(4):383-390.

Wilsey, B.J., and Polley, H.W. 2006. Aboveground productivity and root-shoot allocation differ between native and introduced grass species. Oecologia 150(2):300-309.

Wilson, J., and Peach, W. 2006. Impact of an exceptional winter flood on the population dynamics of bearded tits (Panurus biarmicus). Anim. Conserv. 9(4):463-473.

Wingfield, R., Murphy, K.J., and Gaywood, M. 2006. Assessing and predicting the success of Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt, a rare European aquatic macrophyte, in relation to lake environmental conditions. Hydrobiologia 570:79-86.

Yasué, M., and Dearden, P. 2006. The effects of heat stress, predation risk and parental investment on Malaysian plover nest return times following a human disturbance. Biol. Conserv. 132(4):472-480.

Zambrano, L., Martínez-Meyer, E., Menezes, N., and Peterson, A.T. 2006. Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in American freshwater systems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(9):1903-1910.

Zardi, G.I., Nicastro, K.R., McQuaid, C.D., Rius, M., and Porri, F. 2006. Hydrodynamic stress and habitat partitioning between indigenous (Perna perna) and invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) mussels: constraints of an evolutionary strategy. Mar. Biol. 150(1):79-88.

Zhang, F.F., and Jiang, Z.G. 2006. Mitochondrial phylogeography and genetic diversity of Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata): implications for conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 41(2):313-321.

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