In This Issue
Scientists are concerned that forests and other natural habitats are becoming increasingly empty of top predators. Large carnivores have historically been seen as threats and competitors to human interests, and have been deliberately hunted down and extirpated from some regions. Their vulnerability to extinction lies mainly in the basics of their biology: their high place on the food chain, their small population sizes, and the need of many to roam large areas for hunting. As human development whittles away at natural habitats, top carnivore species are often the first to disappear. Close to half of all mammalian carnivore species are in danger of extinction in at least some part of their natural range.
When predators are gone, prey populations can explode, overtaxing food resources and leading to what some ecologists have called an "ecological meltdown." But the effects can be less dramatic, especially when only the top predator species is lost. The surviving predators are presumably more resilient and adaptable, but can they pick up the slack in controlling prey populations?
Jaguars are the top predators in Latin American forests, but are now extirpated from much of their former range. Two smaller species of cats, pumas and ocelots, have generally fared better. Both are regularly found on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), located in Panama's Lake Gatun and the site of a research station operated by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institution (STRI). Jaguars, on the other hand, are only sporadic visitors. Ricardo S. Moreno, Roland W. Kays, and Rafael Samudio of STRI have been studying how the resident cat populations have responded to the jaguar's population decline. With the big cat away, have they expanded their diets to include prey that jaguars would have eaten?
The researchers found that the BCI pumas and ocelots have indeed altered their hunting preferences. BCI pumas are more likely to feed on collared peccaries, a jaguar favorite, than are pumas in forests still frequented by jaguars. For ocelots, the dietary shift has even more dramatic. Usually ocelots hunt only small prey such as mice and other rodents, but on BCI they go after medium-sized animals such as sloths and agoutis. These species are occasional meals for ocelots when jaguars are around, but on BCI they make up a third of the ocelot diet.
There are limits to the flexibility of these predators, however. At a nearby mainland site, which lack not only jaguars but also pumas as competitors, the ocelots still eat only small to medium-sized animals. Even without competition from bigger cats, ocelots hesitate to take on deer and peccaries.
The Singapore Botanic Gardens with its focus on plant diversity, propagation, conservation and education, is in search for experienced systematic botanists with special interest in the flora of the Malesian region. Two new positions for senior botanical research fellows are now available for application. The preference is for botanists working on large families with tree and shrub species (excluding Dipterocarpaceae), or groups with climbers or palms. Research on groups of plants with high horticultural or landscape potential has priority in the job consideration.
Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Botany and are expected to have a good track record of publication in recognized international journals and demonstrate effective botanical leadership in developing research programs. The successful candidates will also assist in herbarium curation, training, interpretation and outreach, and advice on the living collections in the Gardens. Those on longer stints will be expected to establish collaborations with regional and overseas institutions and add to the herbarium's collection.
The position is for a 1 to 3 year contract, with possibility of renewal. Salary will be commensurate with the experience, publication and achievement records. Application letter and updated biodata should be sent by postal air mail to Dr. Chin See Chung, Director, Singapore Botanic Gardens, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569; or by emailing to email@example.com.
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Alexander, G.G., and Allan, J.D. 2006. Stream restoration in the Upper Midwest, USA. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):595-604.
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Buisson, E., Holl, K.D., Anderson, S., Corcket, E., Hayes, G.F., Torre, F., Peteers, A., and Dutoit, T. 2006. Effect of seed source, topsoil removal, and plant neighbor removal on restoring California coastal prairies. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):569-577.
Bunnell, K.D., Flinders, J.T., and Wolfe, M.L. 2006. Potential impacts of coyotes and snowmobiles on lynx conservation in the Intermountain West. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):828-838.
Burgoyne, P.M. 2006. A new species of Cytinus (Cytinaceae) from South Africa and Swaziland, with a key to the southern African species. Novon 16(3):315-319.
Callaway, R.M., Miao, S.L., and Guo, Q.F. 2006. Are trans-Pacific invasions the new wave? Biol. Invasions 8(7):1435-1437.
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Chan, P.K., and Laurence, P. 2006. Assessment of potential Karner Blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) (family: Lycanidae) reintroduction sites in Ontario, Canada. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):645-652.
Cheptou, P.O., and Avendano, L.G. 2006. Pollination processes and the Allee effect in highly fragmented populations: consequences for the mating system in urban environments. New Phytol. 172(4):774-783.
Cheung, S.M., and Dudgeon, D. 2006. Quantifying the Asian turtle crisis: market surveys in southern China, 2000-2003. Aquat. Conserv. 16(7):751-770.
Choate, D.M., Wolfe, M.L., and Stoner, D.C. 2006. Evaluation of cougar population estimators in Utah. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):782-799.
Coates, D.J., Tischler, G., and McComb, J.A. 2006. Genetic variation and the mating system in the rare Acacia sciophanes compared with its common sister species Acacia anfractuosa (Mimosaceae). Conserv. Genet. 7(6):931-944.
Cook, J.A., Dawson, N.G., and MacDonald, S.O. 2006. Conservation of highly fragmented systems: the north temperate Alexander Archipelago. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):1-15.
Daehler, C.C. 2006. Invasibility of tropical islands by introduced plants: partitioning the influence of isolation and propagule pressure. Preslia 78(4):389-404.
Das, A., Krishnaswamy, J., Bawa, K.S., Kiran, M.C., Srinivas, V., Kumar, N.S., and Karanth, K.U. 2006. Prioritisation of conservation areas in the Western Ghats, India. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):16-31.
Davidson-Watts, I., Walls, S., and Jones, G. 2006. Differential habitat selection by Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pipistrellus pygmaeus identifies distinct conservation needs for cryptic species of echolocating bats. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):118-127.
de la Luz, J.L.L., and Cadena, R.D. 2006. Hydrophytes of the oases in the Sierra de la Giganta of Central Baja California Sur, Mexico: floristic composition and conservation status. J. Arid Environ. 67(4):553-565.
DeClerck, F., Ingram, J.C., and del Rio, C.M.R. 2006. The role of ecological theory and practice in poverty alleviation and environmental conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10(4):533-540.
Diamond, A.R., Folkerts, D.R., and Boyd, R. 2006. Pollination biology, seed dispersal, and recruitment in Rudbeckia auriculata (Perdue) Kral, a rare southeastern endemic. Castanea 71(3):226-238.
Ding, J.Q., Reardon, R., Wu, Y., Zheng, H., and Fu, W.D. 2006. Biological control of invasive plants through collaboration between China and the United States of America: a perspective. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1439-1450.
Dodd, N.L., Schweinsburg, R.E., and Boe, S. 2006. Landscape-scale forest habitat relationships to tassel-eared squirrel populations: implications for ponderosa pine forest restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):537-547.
Dolan, B.F. 2006. Water developments and desert bighorn sheep: implications for conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):642-646.
Domènech, R., and Vilà, M. 2006. The role of successional stage, vegetation type and soil disturbance in the invasion of the alien grass Cortaderia selloana. J. Veg. Sci. 17(5):591-598.
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Dunstan, P.K., and Johnson, C.R. 2006. Linking richness, community variability, and invasion resistance with patch size. Ecology 87(11):2842-2850.
Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2006. A potential novel source of information for screening and monitoring the impact of exotic plants on ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1511-1521.
Ellenberg, U., Mattern, T., Seddon, P.J., and Jorquera, G.L. 2006. Physiological and reproductive consequences of human disturbance in Humboldt penguins: the need for species-specific visitor management. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):95-106.
Ellis, J.S., Knight, M.E., Darvill, B., and Goulson, D. 2006. Extremely low effective population sizes, genetic structuring and reduced genetic diversity in a threatened bumblebee species, Bombus sylvarum (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Mol. Ecol. 15(14):4375-4386.
Emery, S.M., and Gross, K.L. 2006. Dominant species identity regulates invasibility of old-field plant communities. Oikos 115(3):549-558.
Ernst, R., Linsenmair, K.E., and Rödel, M.O. 2006. Diversity erosion beyond the species level: dramatic loss of functional diversity after selective logging in two tropical amphibian communities. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):143-155.
Ewald, J.A., Callegari, S.E., Kingdon, N.G., and Graham, N.A. 2006. Fox-hunting in England and Wales: its contribution to the management of woodland and other habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4309-4334.
Facon, B., and David, P. 2006. Metapopulation dynamics and biological invasions: a spatially explicit model applied to a freshwater snail. Am. Nat. 168(6):769-783.
Favreau, J.M., Drew, C.A., Hess, G.R., Rubino, M.J., Koch, F.H., and Eschelbach, K.A. 2006. Recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of surrogate species approaches. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3949-3969.
Finch, J.M., Samways, M.J., Hill, T.R., Piper, S.E., and Taylor, S. 2006. Application of predictive distribution modelling to invertebrates: Odonata in South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4239-4251.
Flanagan, N.S., Peakall, R., Clements, M.A., and Otero, J.T. 2006. Conservation of taxonomically difficult species: the case of the Australian orchid, Microtis angusii. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):847-859.
Frankham, R., and Wilcken, J. 2006. Does inbreeding distort sex-ratios? Conserv. Genet. 7(6):879-893.
Fuller, T., Munguía, M., Mayfield, M., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2006. Incorporating connectivity into conservation planning: a multi-criteria case study from central Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):131-142.
Gao, L.Z., Zhang, C.H., Li, D.Y., Pan, D.J., Jia, J.Z., and Dong, Y.S. 2006. Genetic diversity within Oryza rufipogon germplasms preserved in Chinese field gene banks of wild rice as revealed by microsatellite markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4059-4077.
Gaur, A., Shailaja, K., Singh, A., Arunabala, V., Satyarebala, B., and Singh, L. 2006. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). Conserv. Genet. 7(6):1005-1008.
George, S.L., and Crooks, K.R. 2006. Recreation and large mammal activity in an urban nature reserve. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):107-117.
Gilliam, F.S., and Platt, W.J. 2006. Conservation and restoration of the Pinus palustris ecosystem. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):7-10.
Gilliam, F.S., Platt, W.J., and Peet, R.K. 2006. Natural disturbances and the physiognomy of pine savannas: a phenomenological model. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):83-96.
Gopal, B., and Chauhan, M. 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):338-354.
Gould, W.A., González, G., and Carrero, R.G. 2006. Structure and composition of vegetation along an elevational gradient in Puerto Rico. J. Veg. Sci. 17(5):653-664.
Grassi, F., Labra, M., Imazio, S., Rubio, R.O., Failla, O., Scienza, A., and Sala, F. 2006. Phylogeographical structure and conservation genetics of wild grapevine. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):837-845.
Gratton, C. 2006. Interactions between a native silkmoth Hemileuca sp. and an invasive wetland plant, Lythrum salicaria. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 99(6):1182-1190.
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Greenleaf, S.S., and Kremen, C. 2006. Wild bee species increase tomato production and respond differently to surrounding land use in Northern California. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):81-87.
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Hammer, M.P. 2006. Range extensions for four estuarine gobies (Pisces: Gobiidae) in southern Australia: historically overlooked native taxa or recent arrivals? Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 130:187-196.
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Harcourt, A.H. 2006. Rarity in the tropics: biogeography and macroecology of the primates. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2077-2087.
Harvey, P., and Gardiner, T. 2006. Pitfall trapping of scarce Orthoptera at a coastal nature reserve in Essex, UK. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):371-373.
Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36(2):201-222.
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Hunter, M.E., and Omi, P.N. 2006. Response of native and exotic grasses to increased soil nitrogen and recovery in a postfire environment. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):587-594.
Jackson, R.M., Roe, J.D., Wangchuk, R., and Hunter, D.O. 2006. Estimating snow leopard population abundance using photography and capture-recapture techniques. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):772-781.
Jenkins, P.T., and Mooney, H.A. 2006. The United States, China, and invasive species: present status and future prospects. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1589-1593.
Joshi, P.K., Rawat, G.S., Padilya, H., and Roy, P.S. 2006. Biodiversity characterization in Nubra Valley, Ladakh with special reference to plant resource conservation and bioprospecting. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4253-4270.
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Kalinowski, S.T., and Taper, M.L. 2006. Maximum likelihood estimation of the frequency of null alleles at microsatellite loci. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):991-995.
Kelley, J.L., Magurran, A.E., and García, C.M. 2006. Captive breeding promotes aggression in an endangered Mexican fish. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):169-177.
Kim, K.C., and Byrne, L.B. 2006. Biodiversity loss and the taxonomic bottleneck: emerging biodiversity science. Ecol. Res. 21(6):794-810.
King, T.L., Switzer, J.F., Morrison, C.L., Eackles, M.S., Young, C.C., Lubinski, B.A., and Cryan, P. 2006. Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionary distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the US Endangered Species Act. Mol. Ecol. 15(14):4331-4359.
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Kirkman, L.K., and Mitchell, R.J. 2006. Conservation management of Pinus palustris ecosystems from a landscape perspective. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):67-74.
Kitajima, K., Fox, A.M., Sato, T., and Nagamatsu, D. 2006. Cultivar selection prior to introduction may increase invasiveness: evidence from Ardisia crenata. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1471-1482.
Kleijn, D., and Müller-Schärer, H. 2006. The relation between unpalatable species, nutrients and plant species richness in Swiss montane pastures. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3971-3982.
Kohli, R.K., Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., and Dogra, K.S. 2006. Status, invasiveness and environmental threats of three tropical American invasive weeds (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ageratum conyzoides L., Lantana camara L.) in India. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1501-1510.
Kohn, M.H., Murphy, W.J., Ostrander, E.A., and Wayne, R.K. 2006. Genomics and conservation genetics. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(11):629-637.
Konisky, R.A., Burdick, D.M., Dionne, M., and Neckles, H.A. 2006. A regional assessment of salt marsh restoration and monitoring in the Gulf of Maine. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):516-525.
Kulmatiski, A. 2006. Exotic plants establish persistent communities. Plant Ecol. 187(2):261-275.
Lang, B.K., Kelt, D.A., and Shuster, S.M. 2006. The role of controlled propagation on an endangered species: demographic effects of habitat heterogeneity among captive and native populations of the socorro isopod (Crustacea: Flabellifera). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3909-3935.
Laughlin, D.C., Moore, M.M., Bakker, J.D., Casey, C.A., Springer, J.D., Fulé, P.Z., and Covington, W.W. 2006. Assessing targets for the restoration of herbaceous vegetation in ponderosa pine forests. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):548-560.
Law, B.S., and Chidel, M. 2006. Eucalypt plantings on farms: use by insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):236-249.
Lawler, J.J., Aukema, J.E., Grant, J.B., Halpern, B.S., Kareiva, P., Nelson, C.R., Ohleth, K., Olden, J.D., Schlaepfer, M.A., Silliman, B.R., and Zaradic, P. 2006. Conservation science: a 20-year report card. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(9):473-480.
Le Roux, J.J., Wieczorek, A.M., Ramadan, M.M., and Tran, C.T. 2006. Resolving the native provenance of invasive fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis Poir.) in the Hawaiian Islands as inferred from phylogenetic analysis. Divers. Distrib. 12(6):694-702.
Lees, A.C., and Peres, C.A. 2006. Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Amazonian deforestation frontier. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):198-211.
Letnic, M., and Dickman, C.R. 2006. Boom means bust: interactions between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), rainfall and the processes threatening mammal species in arid Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3847-3880.
Lhuillier, E., Butaud, J.F., and Bouvet, J.M. 2006. Extensive clonality and strong differentiation in the insular pacific tree santalum insulare: implications for its conservation. Ann. Botany 98(5):1061-1072.
Lindenmayer, D.B., and McCarthy, M.A. 2006. Evaluation of PVA models of arboreal marsupials: coupling models with long-term monitoring data. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4079-4096.
Liu, G.H., Luo, L.M., Wang, B., Li, W., and Song, Z.P. 2006. Comparison of genetic variation in populations of wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, plants and their soil seed banks. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):909-917.
Liu, H., and Stiling, P. 2006. Testing the enemy release hypothesis: a review and meta-analysis. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1535-1545.
Liu, J., Dong, M., Miao, S.L., Li, Z.Y., Song, M.H., and Wang, R.Q. 2006. Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1461-1470.
Liu, W.H., Wang, Y.F., and Xu, R.M. 2006. Habitat utilization by ovipositing females and larvae of the Marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) in a mosaic of meadows and croplands. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):351-360.
López-Pujol, J., Zhang, F.M., and Ge, S. 2006. Plant biodiversity in China: richly varied, endangered, and in need of conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3983-4026.
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