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Department ofBotany

No. 267
March 2007

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In This Issue

Big Cats on a Little Island

Scientists are concerned that forests and other natural habitats are becoming increasingly empty of top predators. Large carnivores have historically been seen as threats and competitors to human interests, and have been deliberately hunted down and extirpated from some regions. Their vulnerability to extinction lies mainly in the basics of their biology: their high place on the food chain, their small population sizes, and the need of many to roam large areas for hunting. As human development whittles away at natural habitats, top carnivore species are often the first to disappear. Close to half of all mammalian carnivore species are in danger of extinction in at least some part of their natural range.

When predators are gone, prey populations can explode, overtaxing food resources and leading to what some ecologists have called an "ecological meltdown." But the effects can be less dramatic, especially when only the top predator species is lost. The surviving predators are presumably more resilient and adaptable, but can they pick up the slack in controlling prey populations?

Jaguars are the top predators in Latin American forests, but are now extirpated from much of their former range. Two smaller species of cats, pumas and ocelots, have generally fared better. Both are regularly found on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), located in Panama's Lake Gatun and the site of a research station operated by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institution (STRI). Jaguars, on the other hand, are only sporadic visitors. Ricardo S. Moreno, Roland W. Kays, and Rafael Samudio of STRI have been studying how the resident cat populations have responded to the jaguar's population decline. With the big cat away, have they expanded their diets to include prey that jaguars would have eaten?

The researchers found that the BCI pumas and ocelots have indeed altered their hunting preferences. BCI pumas are more likely to feed on collared peccaries, a jaguar favorite, than are pumas in forests still frequented by jaguars. For ocelots, the dietary shift has even more dramatic. Usually ocelots hunt only small prey such as mice and other rodents, but on BCI they go after medium-sized animals such as sloths and agoutis. These species are occasional meals for ocelots when jaguars are around, but on BCI they make up a third of the ocelot diet.

There are limits to the flexibility of these predators, however. At a nearby mainland site, which lack not only jaguars but also pumas as competitors, the ocelots still eat only small to medium-sized animals. Even without competition from bigger cats, ocelots hesitate to take on deer and peccaries.

Job Announcement

The Singapore Botanic Gardens with its focus on plant diversity, propagation, conservation and education, is in search for experienced systematic botanists with special interest in the flora of the Malesian region. Two new positions for senior botanical research fellows are now available for application. The preference is for botanists working on large families with tree and shrub species (excluding Dipterocarpaceae), or groups with climbers or palms. Research on groups of plants with high horticultural or landscape potential has priority in the job consideration.

Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Botany and are expected to have a good track record of publication in recognized international journals and demonstrate effective botanical leadership in developing research programs. The successful candidates will also assist in herbarium curation, training, interpretation and outreach, and advice on the living collections in the Gardens. Those on longer stints will be expected to establish collaborations with regional and overseas institutions and add to the herbarium's collection.

The position is for a 1 to 3 year contract, with possibility of renewal. Salary will be commensurate with the experience, publication and achievement records. Application letter and updated biodata should be sent by postal air mail to Dr. Chin See Chung, Director, Singapore Botanic Gardens, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569; or by emailing to

Current Literature

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Arens, P., Bugter, R., van't Westende, W., Zollinger, R., Stronks, J., Vos, C.C., and Smulders, M.J.M. 2006. Microsatellite variation and population structure of a recovering tree frog (Hyla arborea L.) metapopulation. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):825-835.

Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., and Mandujano, S. 2006. The importance of tropical rain forest fragments to the conservation of plant species diversity in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4159-4179.

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Baker, S.C., Richardson, A.M.M., Barmuta, L.A., and Thomson, R. 2006. Why conservation reserves should not always be concentrated in riparian areas: a study of ground-dwelling beetles in wet eucalypt forest. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):156-168.

Ballian, D., Grebenc, T., Bozic, G., Melnik, V., Wraber, T., and Kraigher, H. 2006. History, genetic differentiation and conservation strategies for disjunct populations of Sibiraea species from Southeastern Europe and Asia. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):895-907.

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Brown, G.P., Phillips, B.L., Webb, J.K., and Shine, R. 2006. Toad on the road: use of roads as dispersal corridors by cane toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):88-94.

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Buisson, E., Holl, K.D., Anderson, S., Corcket, E., Hayes, G.F., Torre, F., Peteers, A., and Dutoit, T. 2006. Effect of seed source, topsoil removal, and plant neighbor removal on restoring California coastal prairies. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):569-577.

Bunnell, K.D., Flinders, J.T., and Wolfe, M.L. 2006. Potential impacts of coyotes and snowmobiles on lynx conservation in the Intermountain West. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):828-838.

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Cayuela, L., Golicher, D.J., Benayas, J.M.R., González-Espinosa, M., and Ramírez-Marcial, N. 2006. Fragmentation, disturbance and tree diversity conservation in tropical montane forests. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(6):1172-1181.

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Cheptou, P.O., and Avendano, L.G. 2006. Pollination processes and the Allee effect in highly fragmented populations: consequences for the mating system in urban environments. New Phytol. 172(4):774-783.

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Choate, D.M., Wolfe, M.L., and Stoner, D.C. 2006. Evaluation of cougar population estimators in Utah. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):782-799.

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Davidson-Watts, I., Walls, S., and Jones, G. 2006. Differential habitat selection by Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pipistrellus pygmaeus identifies distinct conservation needs for cryptic species of echolocating bats. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):118-127.

de la Luz, J.L.L., and Cadena, R.D. 2006. Hydrophytes of the oases in the Sierra de la Giganta of Central Baja California Sur, Mexico: floristic composition and conservation status. J. Arid Environ. 67(4):553-565.

DeClerck, F., Ingram, J.C., and del Rio, C.M.R. 2006. The role of ecological theory and practice in poverty alleviation and environmental conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10(4):533-540.

Diamond, A.R., Folkerts, D.R., and Boyd, R. 2006. Pollination biology, seed dispersal, and recruitment in Rudbeckia auriculata (Perdue) Kral, a rare southeastern endemic. Castanea 71(3):226-238.

Ding, J.Q., Reardon, R., Wu, Y., Zheng, H., and Fu, W.D. 2006. Biological control of invasive plants through collaboration between China and the United States of America: a perspective. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1439-1450.

Dodd, N.L., Schweinsburg, R.E., and Boe, S. 2006. Landscape-scale forest habitat relationships to tassel-eared squirrel populations: implications for ponderosa pine forest restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):537-547.

Dolan, B.F. 2006. Water developments and desert bighorn sheep: implications for conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):642-646.

Domènech, R., and Vilà, M. 2006. The role of successional stage, vegetation type and soil disturbance in the invasion of the alien grass Cortaderia selloana. J. Veg. Sci. 17(5):591-598.

Donlan, C.J., Berger, J., Bock, C.E., Bock, J.H., Burney, D.A., Estes, J.A., Foreman, D., Martin, P.S., Roemer, G.W., Smith, F.A., Soule, M.E., and Greene, H.W. 2006. Pleistocene rewilding: an optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation. Am. Nat. 168(5):660-681.

Dunstan, P.K., and Johnson, C.R. 2006. Linking richness, community variability, and invasion resistance with patch size. Ecology 87(11):2842-2850.

Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2006. A potential novel source of information for screening and monitoring the impact of exotic plants on ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1511-1521.

Ellenberg, U., Mattern, T., Seddon, P.J., and Jorquera, G.L. 2006. Physiological and reproductive consequences of human disturbance in Humboldt penguins: the need for species-specific visitor management. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):95-106.

Ellis, J.S., Knight, M.E., Darvill, B., and Goulson, D. 2006. Extremely low effective population sizes, genetic structuring and reduced genetic diversity in a threatened bumblebee species, Bombus sylvarum (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Mol. Ecol. 15(14):4375-4386.

Emery, S.M., and Gross, K.L. 2006. Dominant species identity regulates invasibility of old-field plant communities. Oikos 115(3):549-558.

Ernst, R., Linsenmair, K.E., and Rödel, M.O. 2006. Diversity erosion beyond the species level: dramatic loss of functional diversity after selective logging in two tropical amphibian communities. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):143-155.

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Frankham, R., and Wilcken, J. 2006. Does inbreeding distort sex-ratios? Conserv. Genet. 7(6):879-893.

Fuller, T., Munguía, M., Mayfield, M., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2006. Incorporating connectivity into conservation planning: a multi-criteria case study from central Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):131-142.

Gao, L.Z., Zhang, C.H., Li, D.Y., Pan, D.J., Jia, J.Z., and Dong, Y.S. 2006. Genetic diversity within Oryza rufipogon germplasms preserved in Chinese field gene banks of wild rice as revealed by microsatellite markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4059-4077.

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George, S.L., and Crooks, K.R. 2006. Recreation and large mammal activity in an urban nature reserve. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):107-117.

Gilliam, F.S., and Platt, W.J. 2006. Conservation and restoration of the Pinus palustris ecosystem. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):7-10.

Gilliam, F.S., Platt, W.J., and Peet, R.K. 2006. Natural disturbances and the physiognomy of pine savannas: a phenomenological model. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):83-96.

Gopal, B., and Chauhan, M. 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):338-354.

Gould, W.A., González, G., and Carrero, R.G. 2006. Structure and composition of vegetation along an elevational gradient in Puerto Rico. J. Veg. Sci. 17(5):653-664.

Grassi, F., Labra, M., Imazio, S., Rubio, R.O., Failla, O., Scienza, A., and Sala, F. 2006. Phylogeographical structure and conservation genetics of wild grapevine. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):837-845.

Gratton, C. 2006. Interactions between a native silkmoth Hemileuca sp. and an invasive wetland plant, Lythrum salicaria. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 99(6):1182-1190.

Greathouse, E.A., Pringle, C.M., and Holmquist, J.G. 2006. Conservation and management of migratory fauna: dams in tropical streams of Puerto Rico. Aquat. Conserv. 16(7):695-712.

Greenleaf, S.S., and Kremen, C. 2006. Wild bee species increase tomato production and respond differently to surrounding land use in Northern California. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):81-87.

Gu, B.H. 2006. Environmental conditions and phosphorus removal in Florida lakes and wetlands inhabited by Hydrilla verticillata (Royle): implications for invasive species management. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1569-1578.

Guo, Q.F. 2006. Intercontinental biotic invasions: what can we learn from native populations and habitats? Biol. Invasions 8(7):1451-1459.

Hammer, M.P. 2006. Range extensions for four estuarine gobies (Pisces: Gobiidae) in southern Australia: historically overlooked native taxa or recent arrivals? Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 130:187-196.

Hamrick, J.L., Godt, M.J.W., and Gonzales, E. 2006. Conservation of genetic diversity in old-growth forest communities of the southeastern United States. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):51-58.

Harcourt, A.H. 2006. Rarity in the tropics: biogeography and macroecology of the primates. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2077-2087.

Harvey, P., and Gardiner, T. 2006. Pitfall trapping of scarce Orthoptera at a coastal nature reserve in Essex, UK. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):371-373.

Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36(2):201-222.

Higgs, E.S. 2006. Restoration goes wild: a reply to Throop and Purdom. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):500-503.

Hopfensperger, K.N., Engelhardt, K.A.M., and Seagle, S.W. 2006. The use of case studies in establishing feasibility for wetland restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):578-586.

Hunter, M.E., and Omi, P.N. 2006. Response of native and exotic grasses to increased soil nitrogen and recovery in a postfire environment. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):587-594.

Jackson, R.M., Roe, J.D., Wangchuk, R., and Hunter, D.O. 2006. Estimating snow leopard population abundance using photography and capture-recapture techniques. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 34(3):772-781.

Jenkins, P.T., and Mooney, H.A. 2006. The United States, China, and invasive species: present status and future prospects. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1589-1593.

Joshi, P.K., Rawat, G.S., Padilya, H., and Roy, P.S. 2006. Biodiversity characterization in Nubra Valley, Ladakh with special reference to plant resource conservation and bioprospecting. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4253-4270.

Junk, W.J., Brown, M., Campbell, I.C., Finlayson, M., Gopal, B., Ramberg, L., and Warner, B.G. 2006. The comparative biodiversity of seven globally important wetlands: a synthesis. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):400-414.

Junk, W.J., da Cunha, C.N., Wantzen, K.M., Petermann, P., Strüssmann, C., Marques, M.I., and Adis, J. 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):278-309.

Kalinowski, S.T., and Taper, M.L. 2006. Maximum likelihood estimation of the frequency of null alleles at microsatellite loci. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):991-995.

Kelley, J.L., Magurran, A.E., and García, C.M. 2006. Captive breeding promotes aggression in an endangered Mexican fish. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):169-177.

Kim, K.C., and Byrne, L.B. 2006. Biodiversity loss and the taxonomic bottleneck: emerging biodiversity science. Ecol. Res. 21(6):794-810.

King, T.L., Switzer, J.F., Morrison, C.L., Eackles, M.S., Young, C.C., Lubinski, B.A., and Cryan, P. 2006. Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionary distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the US Endangered Species Act. Mol. Ecol. 15(14):4331-4359.

King, W.M., and Wilson, J.B. 2006. Differentiation between native and exotic plant species from a dry grassland: fundamental responses to resource availability, and growth rates. Austral Ecol. 31(8):996-1004.

King, W.M., and Wilson, J.B. 2006. Differentiation between native and exotic plant species in a dry grassland: realized responses to perturbation, and comparison with fundamental responses. Austral Ecol. 31(8):984-995.

Kirkman, L.K., and Mitchell, R.J. 2006. Conservation management of Pinus palustris ecosystems from a landscape perspective. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):67-74.

Kitajima, K., Fox, A.M., Sato, T., and Nagamatsu, D. 2006. Cultivar selection prior to introduction may increase invasiveness: evidence from Ardisia crenata. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1471-1482.

Kleijn, D., and Müller-Schärer, H. 2006. The relation between unpalatable species, nutrients and plant species richness in Swiss montane pastures. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3971-3982.

Kohli, R.K., Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., and Dogra, K.S. 2006. Status, invasiveness and environmental threats of three tropical American invasive weeds (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ageratum conyzoides L., Lantana camara L.) in India. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1501-1510.

Kohn, M.H., Murphy, W.J., Ostrander, E.A., and Wayne, R.K. 2006. Genomics and conservation genetics. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(11):629-637.

Konisky, R.A., Burdick, D.M., Dionne, M., and Neckles, H.A. 2006. A regional assessment of salt marsh restoration and monitoring in the Gulf of Maine. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):516-525.

Kulmatiski, A. 2006. Exotic plants establish persistent communities. Plant Ecol. 187(2):261-275.

Lang, B.K., Kelt, D.A., and Shuster, S.M. 2006. The role of controlled propagation on an endangered species: demographic effects of habitat heterogeneity among captive and native populations of the socorro isopod (Crustacea: Flabellifera). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3909-3935.

Laughlin, D.C., Moore, M.M., Bakker, J.D., Casey, C.A., Springer, J.D., Fulé, P.Z., and Covington, W.W. 2006. Assessing targets for the restoration of herbaceous vegetation in ponderosa pine forests. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):548-560.

Law, B.S., and Chidel, M. 2006. Eucalypt plantings on farms: use by insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):236-249.

Lawler, J.J., Aukema, J.E., Grant, J.B., Halpern, B.S., Kareiva, P., Nelson, C.R., Ohleth, K., Olden, J.D., Schlaepfer, M.A., Silliman, B.R., and Zaradic, P. 2006. Conservation science: a 20-year report card. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4(9):473-480.

Le Roux, J.J., Wieczorek, A.M., Ramadan, M.M., and Tran, C.T. 2006. Resolving the native provenance of invasive fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis Poir.) in the Hawaiian Islands as inferred from phylogenetic analysis. Divers. Distrib. 12(6):694-702.

Lees, A.C., and Peres, C.A. 2006. Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Amazonian deforestation frontier. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):198-211.

Letnic, M., and Dickman, C.R. 2006. Boom means bust: interactions between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), rainfall and the processes threatening mammal species in arid Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3847-3880.

Lhuillier, E., Butaud, J.F., and Bouvet, J.M. 2006. Extensive clonality and strong differentiation in the insular pacific tree santalum insulare: implications for its conservation. Ann. Botany 98(5):1061-1072.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and McCarthy, M.A. 2006. Evaluation of PVA models of arboreal marsupials: coupling models with long-term monitoring data. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4079-4096.

Liu, G.H., Luo, L.M., Wang, B., Li, W., and Song, Z.P. 2006. Comparison of genetic variation in populations of wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, plants and their soil seed banks. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):909-917.

Liu, H., and Stiling, P. 2006. Testing the enemy release hypothesis: a review and meta-analysis. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1535-1545.

Liu, J., Dong, M., Miao, S.L., Li, Z.Y., Song, M.H., and Wang, R.Q. 2006. Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1461-1470.

Liu, W.H., Wang, Y.F., and Xu, R.M. 2006. Habitat utilization by ovipositing females and larvae of the Marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) in a mosaic of meadows and croplands. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):351-360.

López-Pujol, J., Zhang, F.M., and Ge, S. 2006. Plant biodiversity in China: richly varied, endangered, and in need of conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3983-4026.

Lucentini, L., Caporali, S., Palomba, A., Lancioni, H., and Panara, F. 2006. A comparison of conservative DNA extraction methods from fins and scales of freshwater fish: a useful tool for conservation genetics. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):1009-1012.

Lulow, M.E. 2006. Invasion by non-native annual grasses: the importance of species biomass, composition, and time among California native grasses of the Central Valley. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):616-626.

Maltchik, L., and Medeiros, E.S.F. 2006. Conservation importance of semi-arid streams in north-eastern Brazil: implications of hydrological disturhance and species diversity. Aquat. Conserv. 16(7):665-677.

Manning, A.D., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Fischer, J. 2006. Stretch goals and backcasting: approaches for overcoming barriers to large-scale ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):487-492.

Manzano-Fischer, P., List, R., Ceballos, G., and Cartron, J.L.E. 2006. Avian diversity in a priority area for conservation in North America: the Janos-Casas Grandes Prairie Dog Complex and adjacent habitats in northwestern Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3801-3825.

Marjokorpi, A., and Otsamo, R. 2006. Prioritization of target areas for rehabilitation: a case study from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):662-673.

Martin, L.M., and Wilsey, B.J. 2006. Assessing grassland restoration success: relative roles of seed additions and native ungulate activities. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(6):1098-1109.

Martins, K., Chaves, L.J., Buso, G.S.C., and Kageyama, P.Y. 2006. Mating system and fine-scale spatial genetic structure of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. (Solanaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):957-969.

Mayer, C., Soka, G., and Picker, M. 2006. The importance of monkey beetle (Scarabaeidae: Hopliini) pollination for Aizoaceae and Asteraceae in grazed and ungrazed areas at Paulshoek, Succulent Karoo, South Africa. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):323-333.

McClean, C.J., Doswald, N., Küper, W., Sommer, J.H., Barnard, P., and Lovett, J.C. 2006. Potential impacts of climate change on Sub-Saharan African plant priority area selection. Divers. Distrib. 12(6):645-655.

Mezquida, E.T., Slater, S.J., and Benkman, C.W. 2006. Sage-grouse and indirect interactions: potential implications of coyote control on sage-grouse populations. Condor 108(4):747-759.

Miller, H.C. 2006. Cloacal and buccal swabs are a reliable source of DNA for microsatellite genotyping of reptiles. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):1001-1003.

Moulton, T.P., and Wantzen, K.M. 2006. Conservation of tropical streams - special questions or conventional paradigms? Aquat. Conserv. 16(7):659-663.

Muchugi, A., Lengkeek, A.G., Kadu, C.A.C., Muluvi, G.M., Njagi, E.N.M., and Dawson, I.K. 2006. Genetic variation in the threatened medicinal tree Prunus africana in Cameroon and Kenya: implications for current management and evolutionary history. S. Afr. J. Bot. 72(4):498-506.

Muñoz, A.R., and Real, R. 2006. Assessing the potential range expansion of the exotic monk parakeet in Spain. Divers. Distrib. 12(6):656-665.

Naidoo, R., and Ricketts, T.H. 2006. Mapping the economic costs and benefits of conservation. PLoS Biol. 4(11):2153-2164.

New, T.R. 2006. Australian insects abroad: an under-utilised source of information for conservation? J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):307-309.

Niba, A.S., and Samways, M.J. 2006. Development of the concept of 'core resident species' for quality assurance of an insect reserve. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4181-4196.

Niedzialkowska, M., Jedrzejewski, W., Myslajek, R.W., Nowak, S., Jedrzejewska, B., and Schmidt, K. 2006. Environmental correlates of Eurasian lynx occurrence in Poland - large scale census and GIS mapping. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):63-69.

O'Grady, J.J., Brook, B.W., Reed, D.H., Ballou, J.D., Tonkyn, D.W., and Frankham, R. 2006. Realistic levels of inbreeding depression strongly affect extinction risk in wild populations. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):42-51.

Olden, J.D. 2006. Biotic homogenization: a new research agenda for conservation biogeography. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2027-2039.

Palmer, M.W. 2006. Scale dependence of native and alien species richness in North American floras. Preslia 78(4):427-436.

Pangau-Adam, M.Z., Waltert, M., and Mühlenberg, M. 2006. Nest predation risk on ground and shrub nests in forest margin areas of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4143-4158.

Peacor, S.D., Allesina, S., Riolo, R.L., and Pascual, M. 2006. Phenotypic plasticity opposes species invasions by altering fitness surface. PLoS Biol. 4(11):2112-2120.

Pertoldi, C., Negro, J.J., Muñoz, J., Barbanera, F., and Garrido, H. 2006. Introduction or reintroduction? Last resorts for the latest bird to become extinct in Europe, the Andalusian hemipode Turnix sylvatica sylvatica. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3895-3908.

Peter, D., and Shebitz, D. 2006. Historic anthropogenically maintained bear grass savannas of the southeastern Olympic Peninsula. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):605-615.

Proudfoot, G.A., Honeycutt, R.L., Slack, R.D., and Ingraldi, M.F. 2006. Variation in DNA microsatellites of the ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). Conserv. Genet. 7(6):945-956.

Pyšek, P., and Richardson, D.M. 2006. The biogeography of naturalization in alien plants. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2040-2050.

Pyšek, P., Richardson, D.M., and Jarošík, V. 2006. Who cites who in the invasion zoo: insights from an analysis of the most highly cited papers in invasion ecology. Preslia 78(4):437-468.

Raithel, C.J., Ginsberg, H.S., and Prospero, M.L. 2006. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):317-322.

Ramirez, O., Altet, L., Enseñat, C., Vilà, C., Sanchez, A., and Ruiz, A. 2006. Genetic assessment of the Iberian wolf Canis lupus signatus captive breeding program. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):861-878.

Reid, S.M., and Wilson, C.C. 2006. PCR-RFLP based diagnostic tests for moxostoma species in Ontario. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):997-1000.

Reinhart, K.O., and VandeVoort, R. 2006. Effect of native and exotic leaf litter on macroinvertebrate communities and decomposition in a western Montana stream. Divers. Distrib. 12(6):776-781.

Rexroad, C., Vallejo, R., Coulibaly, I., Couch, C., Garber, A., Westerman, M., and Sullivan, C. 2006. Identification and characterization of microsatellites for striped bass from repeat-enriched libraries. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):971-982.

Richardson, D.M. 2006. Pinus: a model group for unlocking the secrets of alien plant invasions? Preslia 78(4):375-388.

Ricketson, J.M. 2006. A new species and conservation status of Schindleria (Phytolaccaceae) from Peru. Novon 16(3):404-408.

Riddle, B.R. 2006. Conservation biogeography - introduction. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2025-2026.

Rode, K.D., Farley, S.D., and Robbins, C.T. 2006. Behavioral responses of brown bears mediate nutritional effects of experimentally introduced tourism. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):70-80.

Rogers, D.I., Piersma, T., and Hassell, C.J. 2006. Roost availability may constrain shorebird distribution: exploring the energetic costs of roosting and disturbance around a tropical bay. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):225-235.

Rogers, Z.S., Randrianasolo, A., and Miller, J.S. 2006. A new species of Ludia (Salicaceae) from Madagasear's eastern littoral forest. Novon 16(3):409-412.

Rojas-Bracho, L., Reeves, R.R., and Jaramillo-Legorreta, A. 2006. Conservation of the vaquita Phocoena sinus. Mammal Rev. 36(3):179-216.

Rossi, G., Parolo, G., Zonta, L.A., Crawford, J.A., and Leonardi, A. 2006. Salix herbacea L. fragmented small population in the N-Apennines (Italy): response to human trampling disturbance. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3881-3893.

Rumi, A., Gregoric, D.E.G., Núñez, V., César, I.I., Roche, M.A., Tassara, M.P., Martín, S.M., and Armengol, M.F.L. 2006. Freshwater Gastropoda from Argentina: species richness, distribution patterns, and an evaluation of endangered species. Malacologia 49(1):189-208.

Rymer, P.D., and Ayre, D.J. 2006. Does genetic variation and gene flow vary with rarity in obligate seeding Persoonia species (Proteaceae)? Conserv. Genet. 7(6):919-930.

Sainsbury, J.P., Greene, T.C., Moorhouse, R.J., Daugherty, C.H., and Chambers, G.K. 2006. Microsatellite analysis reveals substantial levels of genetic variation but low levels of genetic divergence among isolated populations of Kaka (Nestor meridionalis). Emu 106(4):329-338.

Scandura, M., Capitani, C., Iacolina, L., and Marco, A. 2006. An empirical approach for reliable microsatellite genotyping of wolf DNA from multiple noninvasive sources. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):813-823.

Schaffelke, B., Smith, J.E., and Hewitt, C.L. 2006. Introduced macroalgae - a growing concern. J. Appl. Phycol. 18(3-5):529-541.

Schmidt, B.C., and Roland, J. 2006. Moth diversity in a fragmented habitat: importance of functional groups and landscape scale in the boreal forest. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 99(6):1110-1120.

Schmitt, T., Habel, J.C., Besold, J., Becker, T., Johnen, L., Knolle, M., Rzepecki, A., Schultze, J., and Zapp, A. 2006. The Chalk-hill Blue Polyommatus coridon (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera) in a highly fragmented landscape: how sedentary is a sedentary butterfly? J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):311-316.

Schwenke, P.L., Rhydderch, J.G., Ford, M.J., Marshall, A.R., and Park, L.K. 2006. Forensic identification of endangered Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using a multilocus SNP assay. Conserv. Genet. 7(6):983-989.

Seitz, J.C., and Poulakis, G.R. 2006. Anthropogenic effects on the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) in the United States. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52(11):1533-1540.

Sergio, F., Newton, I., Marchesi, L., and Pedrini, P. 2006. Ecologically justified charisma: preservation of top predators delivers biodiversity conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 43(6):1049-1055.

Sergio, F., Pedrini, P., Rizzolli, F., and Marchesi, L. 2006. Adaptive range selection by golden eagles in a changing landscape: a multiple modelling approach. Biol. Conserv. 133(1):32-41.

Severns, P.M., Boldt, L., and Villegas, S. 2006. Conserving a wetland butterfly: quantifying early lifestage survival through seasonal flooding, adult nectar, and habitat preference. J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):361-370.

Sharma, D.C. 2006. Conservation research under threat in India. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10(4):511.

Sheley, R.L., and Half, M.L. 2006. Enhancing native forb establishment and persistence using a rich seed mixture. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):627-635.

Simpson, A., Sellers, E., Grosse, A., and Xie, Y. 2006. Essential elements of online information networks on invasive alien species. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1579-1587.

Slocum, M.G., Aide, T.M., Zimmerman, J.K., and Navarro, L. 2006. A strategy for restoration of montane forest in anthropogenic fern thickets in the Dominican Republic. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):526-536.

Smith, K.F., and Carpenter, S.M. 2006. Potential spread of introduced black rat (Rattus rattus) parasites to endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on the California Channel Islands. Divers. Distrib. 12(6):742-748.

Sorrie, B.A., and Weakley, A.S. 2006. Conservation of the endangered Pinus palustris ecosystem based on Coastal Plain centres of plant endemism. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(1):59-66.

Sroka, K., and Finch, O.D. 2006. Ground beetle diversity in ancient woodland remnants in north-western Germany (Coleoptera, Carabidae). J. Insect Conserv. 10(4):335-350.

Stevenson, R.D., and Woods, W.A. 2006. Condition indices for conservation: new uses for evolving tools. Integr. Comp. Biol. 46(6):1169-1190.

Stigall, A.L., and Lieberman, B.S. 2006. Quantitative palaeobiogeography: GIS, phylogenetic biogeographical analysis, and conservation insights. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2051-2060.

Stohlgren, T.J., Jarnevich, C., Chong, G.W., and Evangelista, P.H. 2006. Scale and plant invasions: a theory of biotic acceptance. Preslia 78(4):405-426.

Strayer, D.L., Eviner, V.T., Jeschke, J.M., and Pace, M.L. 2006. Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(11):645-651.

Sunwar, S., Thornström, C.G., Subedi, A., and Bystrom, M. 2006. Home gardens in western Nepal: opportunities and challenges for on-farm management of agrobiodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4211-4238.

Terrell, J.E. 2006. Human biogeography: evidence of our place in nature. J. Biogeogr. 33(12):2088-2098.

Throop, W., and Purdom, R. 2006. Wilderness restoration: the paradox of public participation. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):493-499.

Tix, D., Hebberger, J.A., and Charvat, I. 2006. Influence of aboveground biomass removal on nitrogen mineralization in a restored tallgrass prairie. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):561-568.

Tocher, M.D., Fletcher, D., and Bishop, P.J. 2006. A modelling approach to determine a translocation scenario for the endangered New Zealand frog Leiopelma hamiltoni. Herp. J. 16(2):97-106.

Todd, B.D., and Rothermel, B.B. 2006. Assessing quality of clearcut habitats for amphibians: effects on abundances versus vital rates in the southern toad (Bufo terrestris). Biol. Conserv. 133(2):178-185.

Tracy, C.R., Nussear, K.E., Esque, T.C., Dean-Bradley, K., Tracy, C.R., DeFalco, L.A., Castle, K.T., Zimmerman, L.C., Espinoza, R.E., and Barber, A.M. 2006. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology. Integr. Comp. Biol. 46(6):1191-1205.

Tsehaye, Y., Berg, T., Tsegaye, B., and Tanto, T. 2006. Farmers' management of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) diversity in Tigray, Ethiopia and implications for on-farm conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4289-4308.

Varady-Szabo, H., and Buddle, C.M. 2006. On the relationships between ground-dwelling spider (Araneae) assemblages and dead wood in a northern sugar maple forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4119-4141.

Vega, I.L., Ayala, O.A., Contreras-Medina, R., and Vargas, A.P. 2006. Biogeography, current knowledge and conservation of threatened vascular plants characteristic of Mexican temperate forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3773-3799.

Vergara, P.M., and Simonetti, J.A. 2006. Abundance and movement of understory birds in a maulino forest fragmented by pine plantations. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(12):3937-3947.

Villaseñor, J.L., Delgadillo, C., and Ortiz, E. 2006. Biodiversity hotspots from a multigroup perspective: mosses and Senecios in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(13):4045-4058.

Wade, P., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Shelden, K., Barlow, J., Carretta, J., Durban, J., LeDuc, R., Munger, L., Rankin, S., Sauter, A., and Stinchcomb, C. 2006. Acoustic detection and satellite-tracking leads to discovery of rare concentration of endangered North Pacific right whales. Biol. Lett. 2(3):417-419.

Wang, D.J., Li, S., McShea, W.J., and Li, M.F. 2006. Use of remote-trip cameras for wildlife surveys and evaluating the effectiveness of conservation activities at a nature reserve in Sichuan province, China. Environ. Manage. 38(6):942-951.

Wang, Q., Wang, C.H., Zhao, B., Ma, Z.J., Luo, Y.Q., Chen, J.K., and Li, B. 2006. Effects of growing conditions on the growth of and interactions between salt marsh plants: implications for invasibility of habitats. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1547-1560.

Wantzen, K.M., Siqueira, A., da Cunha, C.N., and de Sá, M.D.F.P. 2006. Stream-valley systems of the Brazilian Cerrado: impact assessment and conservation scheme. Aquat. Conserv. 16(7):713-732.

Webster, C.R., Jenkins, M.A., and Jose, S. 2006. Woody invaders and the challenges they pose to forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. J. Forestry 104(7):366-374.

Wightman, C.S., and Germaine, S.S. 2006. Forest stand characteristics altered by restoration affect Western Bluebird habitat quality. Restor. Ecol. 14(4):653-661.

Wild, M., Gagnon, D., and Bouchard, A. 2006. Why are ferns regularly over-represented on state and provincial rare plant lists? Divers. Distrib. 12(6):749-755.

Williamson, M. 2006. Explaining and predicting the success of invading species at different stages of invasion. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1561-1568.

Williamson, S.D., and Balkwill, K. 2006. Factors determining levels of threat to serpentine endemics. S. Afr. J. Bot. 72(4):619-626.

Willis, T.V., and Magnuson, J.J. 2006. Response of fish communities in five north temperate lakes to exotic species and climate. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(6):2808-2820.

Wittig, B., Kemmermann, A.R.G., and Zacharias, D. 2006. An indicator species approach for result-orientated subsidies of ecological services in grasslands - a study in Northwestern Germany. Biol. Conserv. 133(2):186-197.

Wu, Y.G., Rutchey, K., Wang, N.M., and Godin, J. 2006. The spatial pattern and dispersion of Lygodium microphyllum in the Everglades wetland ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1483-1493.

Xu, H.G., Ding, H., Li, M.Y., Qiang, S., Guo, J.Y., Han, Z.M., Huang, Z.G., Sun, H.Y., He, S.P., Wu, H.R., and Wan, F.H. 2006. The distribution and economic losses of alien species invasion to China. Biol. Invasions 8(7):1495-1500.

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