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Department ofBotany

No. 268
April 2007

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In This Issue

Multiple Pathways for Parasites

Species invading a new habitat often leave their enemies behind. With fewer predators, competitors, and parasites to impede them, some invasive species can be explosively successful in their new home--just like kudzu and zebra mussels. But sometimes old enemies can catch up with invading species. Sometimes they are already there waiting when the species arrives.

Mark Torchin, an ecologist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, is part of team led by Osamu Miura of the University of Tohuku in Japan that used genetic markers to follow the fortunes of the Asian mud snail, an invasive intertidal species. The snails were inadvertently brought to North America from Japan in the early 1900s when estuaries were seeded with Pacific oysters to boost the seafood industry. In their native range, mud snails are commonly infected with parasitic flatworms called trematodes. The North American immigrants have them too, but to a much lesser extent. Like many parasites, the flatworms have a complex life cycle, involving several host species. Even if the imported snails had been infected with a full complement of trematode species, many would not have been able to reproduce because of missing additional hosts that they require in the environment.

The scientists found that the North American snails were infected with two common trematode species. The snails and one of the trematode species had reduced genetic variation compared to the native populations in Japan. This was expected: The small numbers of individuals that make up founding populations will represent just a fraction of the genetic variation in the home range. The researchers were able to use the genetics to pinpoint where in the original range the snails and flatworms came from.

The other flatworm species, however, did not fit the pattern. Its genetic variation was undiminished, and its genes also seemed to indicate a broad source region. Because trematode flatworms often infect birds as well as snails in their life cycle, Torchin and his colleagues hypothesize that these flatworms crossed the ocean not with the snails, but with migratory shorebirds. If that's the case, then the flatworms would have already been present in the North American environment when the snails arrived.

This was surely bad news for the snails. But does it matter to human beings? Yes it does, the researchers explain in a recent paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, we need to better understand the dynamics of how diseases and parasites of humans, livestock, and wildlife are spread by introduced species. This study shows how outbreaks can arise not by the arrival of a new parasite or pathogen, but by the arrival of a key host in its life cycle. The more new species arrive in a region, the higher the chances that infectious agents that were formerly tourists will become pervasive residents.

Current Literature

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Hill, R., and Sendashonga, C. 2006. Conservation biology genetically modified organisms, and the biosafety protocol. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1620-1625.

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Lehman, S.M., Rajaonson, A., and Day, S. 2006. Edge effects on the density of Cheirogaleus major. Int. J. Primatol. 27(6):1569-1588.

Lewin, I., and Smolinski, A. 2006. Rare, threatened and alien species in the gastropod communities in the clay pit ponds in relation to the environmental factors (The Ciechanowska Upland, Central Poland). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3617-3635.

Li, Z.Q., Yu, D., Xiong, W., and Wang, D. 2006. Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3417-3444.

Li, Z.Q., Yu, D., Xiong, W., Wang, Q., and Tu, M.H. 2006. Testing the higher-taxon approach: a case study of aquatic marcophytes in China's northwest arid zone and its implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3401-3416.

Li, Z.Y., and Rogers, M.E. 2006. Food items consumed by white-headed langurs in Fusui, China. Int. J. Primatol. 27(6):1551-1567.

Lodge, D.M., Williams, S., MacIsaac, H.J., Hayes, K.R., Leung, B., Reichard, S., Mack, R.N., Moyle, P.B., Smith, M., Andow, D.A., Carlton, J.T., and McMichael, A. 2006. Biological invasions: recommendations for US policy and management. Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2035-2054.

Loehle, C. 2006. Endemic plant distributions in eastern North America: implications for conservation. J. Forestry 104(8):415-418.

Loiselle, P.V. 2006. A review of the Malagasy Pachypanchax (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae), with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa 1366:1-44.

Luiselli, L., Akani, G.C., and Politano, E. 2006. Effects of habitat alteration caused by petrochemical activities and oil spills on the habitat use and interspecific relationships among four species of Afrotropical freshwater turtles. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3751-3767.

Maes, D., and Bonte, D. 2006. Using distribution patterns of five threatened invertebrates in a highly fragmented dune landscape to develop a multispecies conservation approach. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):490-499.

Maiorano, L., Falcucci, A., and Boitani, L. 2006. Gap analysis of terrestrial vertebrates in Italy: priorities for conservation planning in a human dominated landscape. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):455-473.

Mandryk, A.M., and Wein, R.W. 2006. Exotic vascular plant invasiveness and forest invasibility in urban boreal forest types. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1651-1662.

Martínez, I., Carreño, F., Escudero, A., and Rubio, A. 2006. Are threatened lichen species well-protected in Spain? Effectiveness of a protected areas network. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):500-511.

Martinich, J.A., Solarz, S.L., and Lyons, J.R. 2006. Preparing students for conservation careers through project-based learning. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1579-1583.

McGarvey, D.J. 2007. Merging precaution with sound science under the Endangered Species Act. BioScience 57(1):65-70.

McGeoch, M.A., Chown, S.L., and Kalwij, J.M. 2006. A global indicator for biological invasion. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1635-1646.

Melbourne, B.A., Cornell, H.V., Davies, K.F., Dugaw, C.J., Elmendorf, S., Freestone, A.L., Hall, R.J., Harrison, S., Hastings, A., Holland, M., Holyoak, M., Lambrinos, J., Moore, K., and Yokomizo, H. 2007. Invasion in a heterogeneous world: resistance, coexistence or hostile takeover? Ecol. Lett. 10(1):77-94.

Mercado-Silva, N., Olden, J.D., Maxted, J.T., Hrabik, T.R., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2006. Forecasting the spread of invasive rainbow smelt in the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1740-1749.

Micael, J., Azevedo, J.M.N., and Costa, A.C. 2006. Biological characterisation of a subtidal tunnel in São Miguel island (Azores). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3675-3684.

Miller, M.P., Haig, S.M., and Wagner, R.S. 2006. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: implications for conservation and management. J. Heredity 97(6):561-570.

Miller, M.P., Weigel, D.E., and Mock, K.E. 2006. Patterns of genetic structure in the endangered aquatic gastropod Valvata utahensis (Mollusca: Valvatidae) at small and large spatial scales. Freshwater Biol. 51(12):2362-2375.

Mitrovski, P., Heinze, D.A., Broome, L., Hoffmann, A.A., and Weeks, A.R. 2007. High levels of variation despite genetic fragmentation in populations of the endangered mountain pygmy-possum, Burramys parvus, in alpine Australia. Mol. Ecol. 16(1):75-87.

Miura, O., Torchin, M.E., Kuris, A.M., Hechinger, R.F., and Chiba, S. 2006. Introduced cryptic species of parasites exhibit different invasion pathways . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103(52):19818-19823.

Moilanen, A., Wintle, B.A., Elith, J., and Burgman, M. 2006. Uncertainty analysis for regional-scale reserve selection. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1688-1697.

Mony, C., Mony, J.F., Thiébaut, G., and Muller, S. 2006. Floristic and ecological diversity of Ranunculus aquatic habitats in the sub-Atlantic range: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3383-3400.

Moore, J.A., and Gillingham, J.C. 2006. Spatial ecology and multi-scale habitat selection by a threatened rattlesnake: the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Copeia 4:742-751.

Mortimer, J.A., Meylan, P.A., and Donnelly, M. 2007. Whose turtles are they, anyway? Mol. Ecol. 16(1):17-18.

Nagayi-Yawe, K.J., Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., Kizito, Y.S., and Balirwa, J.S. 2006. Population characteristics of Oreochromis esculentus in the Victoria and Kyoga lake basins. Implications for conservation and improvement of the stocks. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(4):423-430.

Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T.H., and Rouget, M. 2006. Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(12):681-687.

Nepstad, D.C., Stickler, C.M., and Almeida, O.T. 2006. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1595-1603.

Neves, F.M., and Bemvenuti, C.E. 2006. The ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) as a potential indicator of anthropic impact along the Rio Grande do Sul coast, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):431-435.

Nguyen, T.T.T., and De Silva, S.S. 2006. Freshwater finfish biodiversity and conservation: an Asian perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3543-3568.

Nichols, J.D., and Williams, B.K. 2006. Monitoring for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(12):668-673.

Öckinger, E., Eriksson, A.K., and Smith, H.G. 2006. Effects of grassland abandonment, restoration and management on butterflies and vascular plants. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):291-300.

Olabarria, C. 2006. Faunal change and bathymetric diversity gradient in deep-sea prosobranchs from Northeastern Atlantic. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3685-3702.

Olden, J.D., McCarthy, J.M., Maxted, J.T., Fetzer, W.W., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2006. The rapid spread of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) with observations on native crayfish declines in Wisconsin (USA) over the past 130 years. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1621-1628.

Orr, D.W. 2006. The trial. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1570-1573.

Orth, R.J., Carruthers, T.J.B., Dennison, W.C., Duarte, C.M., Fourqurean, J.W., Heck, K.L., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Olyarnik, S., Short, F.T., Waycott, M., and Williams, S.L. 2006. A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. BioScience 56(12):987-996.

Pacheco, J., Ceballos, G., Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., Suzán, G., Rodríguez-Herrera, B., and Marcé, E. 2006. Diversity, natural history and conservation of mammals from San Vito de Coto Brus, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1):219-240.

Page, H.M., Dugan, J.E., Culver, C.S., and Hoesterey, J.C. 2006. Exotic invertebrate species on offshore oil platforms. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 325:101-107.

Paillisson, J.M., Reeber, S., Carpentier, A., and Marion, L. 2006. Plant-water regime management in a wetland: consequences for a floating vegetation-nesting bird, whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3469-3480.

Paltto, H., Nordén, B., Götmark, F., and Franc, N. 2006. At which spatial and temporal scales does landscape context affect local density of Red Data Book and Indicator species? Biol. Conserv. 133(4):442-454.

Pankiw, T. 2006. Asian honey bees: biology, conservation, and human interactions. Q. Rev. Biol. 81(4):408.

Paracuellos, M. 2006. How can habitat selection affect the use of a wetland complex by waterbirds? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4569-4582.

Parr, C.L., and Andersen, A.N. 2006. Patch mosaic burning for biodiversity conservation: a critique of the pyrodiversity paradigm. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1610-1619.

Pasiecznik, N.M., Vall, A.O.M., Nourissier-Mountou, S., Danthu, P., Murch, J., McHugh, M.J., and Harris, P.J.C. 2006. Discovery of a life history shift: precocious flowering in an introduced population of Prosopis. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1681-1687.

Patankar, R., von Hippel, F.A., and Bell, M.A. 2006. Extinction of a weakly armoured threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) population in Prator Lake, Alaska. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15(4):482-487.

Pautasso, M. 2007. Scale dependence of the correlation between human population presence and vertebrate and plant species richness. Ecol. Lett. 10(1):16-24.

Pearson, D.L. 2006. A historical review of the studies of Neotropical tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) with special reference to their use in biodiversity and conservation. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 41(3):217-226.

Peltzer, P.M., Lajmanovich, R.C., Attademo, A.M., and Beltzer, A.H. 2006. Diversity of anurans across agricultural ponds in Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3499-3513.

Pennisi, E. 2007. US weighs protection for polar bears. Science 315(5808):25.

Phillips, O.L., Rose, S., Mendoza, A.M., and Vargas, P.N. 2006. Resilience of southwestern Amazon forests to anthropogenic edge effects. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1698-1710.

Pierce, S., Ceriani, R.M., Villa, M., and Cerabolini, B. 2006. Quantifying relative extinction risks and targeting intervention for the orchid flora of a natural park in the European prealps. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1804-1810.

Pip, E. 2006. Littoral mollusc communities and water quality in southern Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3637-3652.

Pockl, M. 2007. Strategies of a successful new invader in European fresh waters: fecundity and reproductive potential of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus in the Austrian Danube, compared with the indigenous Gammarus fossarum and G. roeseli. Freshwater Biol. 52(1):50-63.

Price, S.J., Dorcas, M.E., Gallant, A.L., Klaver, R.W., and Willson, J.D. 2006. Three decades of urbanization: estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):436-441.

Pullin, A.S., and Stewart, G.B. 2006. Guidelines for systematic review in conservation and environmental management. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1647-1656.

Qian, H., and Ricklefs, R.E. 2006. The role of exotic species in homogenizing the North American flora. Ecol. Lett. 9(12):1293-1298.

Rand, T.A., and Louda, S.A. 2006. Spillover of agriculturally subsidized predators as a potential threat to native insect herbivores in fragmented landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1720-1729.

Raxworthy, C.J., and Nussbaum, R.A. 2006. Six new species of occipital-lobed Calumma chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from Montane Regions of Madagascar, with a new description and revision of Calumma brevicorne. Copeia 4:711-734.

Reddiex, B., Forsyth, D.M., McDonald-Madden, E., Einoder, L.D., Griffioen, P.A., Chick, R.R., and Robley, A.J. 2006. Control of pest mammals for biodiversity protection in Australia. I. Patterns of control and monitoring. Wildlife Res. 33(8):691-709.

Redding, D.W., and Mooers, A.Ø. 2006. Incorporating evolutionary measures into conservation prioritization. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1670-1678.

Ringsby, T.H., Sæther, B.E., Jensen, H., and Engen, S. 2006. Demographic characteristics of extinction in a small, insular population of house sparrows in northern Norway. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1761-1767.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. 2006. Linking a cougar decline, trophic cascade, and catastrophic regime shift in Zion National Park. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):397-408.

Rolando, A., Caprio, E., Rinaldi, E., and Ellena, I. 2007. The impact of high-altitude ski-runs on alpine grassland bird communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(1):210-219.

Rolston, H. 2006. Disenchanting the rhetoric: human uniqueness and human responsibility. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1576-1578.

Rondinini, C., Chiozza, F., and Boitani, L. 2006. High human density in the irreplaceable sites for African vertebrates conservation. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):358-363.

Rudel, T.K. 2006. Shrinking tropical forests, human agents of change, and conservation policy. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1604-1609.

Saleh, M.A. 2007. Assessment of mangrove vegetation on Abu Minqar Island of the Red Sea. J. Arid Environ. 68(2):331-336.

Samways, M.J. 2006. National red list of South African Odonata. Odonatologica 35(4):341-368.

Samways, M.J., and Tarboton, W. 2006. Rediscovery of Metacnemis angusta (Selys) in the Western Cape, South Africa, with description of male and redescription of female (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae). Odonatologica 35(4):375-378.

Sánchez-Fernández, D., Abellán, P., Mellado, A., Velasco, J., and Millán, A. 2006. Are water beetles good indicators of biodiversity in Mediterranean aquatic ecosystems? The case of the segura river basin (SE spain). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4507-4520.

Sarkar, U.K., Deepak, P.K., Negi, R.S., Singh, S., and Kapoor, D. 2006. Captive breeding of endangered fish Chitala chitala (Hamilton-Buchanan) for species conservation and sustainable utilization. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3579-3589.

Scheibling, R.E., and Gagnon, P. 2006. Competitive interactions between the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp tomentosoides and native canopy-forming seaweeds in Nova Scotia (Canada). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 325:1-14.

Sebastia, M.T. 2007. Plant guilds drive biomass response to global warming and water availability in subalpine grassland. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(1):158-167.

Segura, I., Rocha-Olivares, A., Flores-Ramírez, S., and Rojas-Bracho, L. 2006. Conservation implications of the genetic and ecological distinction of Tursiops truncatus ecotypes in the Gulf of California. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):336-346.

Shier, D.M. 2006. Effect of family support on the success of translocated black-tailed prairie dogs. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1780-1790.

Skeffington, M.S., Moran, J., O Connor, Á., Regan, E., Coxon, C.E., Scott, N.E., and Gormally, M. 2006. Turloughs - Ireland's unique wetland habitat. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):265-290.

Slik, J.W.F., and Van Balen, S. 2006. Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4425-4451.

Smith, G.R., and Iverson, J.B. 2006. Changes in sex ratio over time in the endangered iguana Cyclura cychlura inornata. Can. J. Zool. 84(10):1522-1527.

Snyder, W.E., and Evans, E.W. 2006. Ecological effects of invasive arthropod generalist predators. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 37:95-122.

Sobral, M., and Couto, F. 2006. Four new Myrtaceae from eastern Brazil. Novon 16(4):520-529.

Sobral, M., and Proença, C.E.B. 2006. Siphoneugena delicata (Myrtaceae), a new species from the montane Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil. Novon 16(4):530-532.

Sodhi, N.S., Brooks, T.M., Koh, L.P., Acciaioli, G., Erb, M., Tan, A.K.J., Curran, L.M., Brosius, P., Lee, T.M., Patlis, J.M., Gumal, M., and Lee, R.J. 2006. Biodiversity and human livelihood crises in the Malay archipelago. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1811-1813.

Spitaler, R., and Zidorn, C. 2006. Rediscovery of Androsace hausmannii (Primulaceae) and Braya alpina (Brassicaceae) in North Tyrol: implications for geobotany and listings of alpine taxa in red lists. Phyton Ann. Rei Bot. 46(1):83-98.

Stojanovic, M., and Karaman, S. 2006. Threat status and distribution of the earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845; sensu Zicsi 1985, on the Balkans and the neighboring regions. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4601-4617.

Stokstad, E. 2007. Feared quagga mussel turns up in western United States. Science 315(5811):453.

Strecker, U. 2006. The impact of invasive fish on an endemic Cyprinodon species flock (Teleostei) from Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatan, Mexico. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15(4):408-418.

Su, G.H., Huang, Y.L., Tan, F.X., Ni, X.W., Tang, T., and Shi, S.H. 2007. Conservation genetics of Lumnitzera littorea (Combretaceae), an endangered mangrove, from the Indo-West Pacific. Mar. Biol. 150(3):321-328.

Tapio, I., Värv, S., Bennewitz, J., Maleviciute, J., Fimland, E., Grislis, Z., Meuwissen, T.H.E., Miceikiene, I., Olsaker, I., Viinalass, H., Vilkki, J., and Kantanen, J. 2006. Prioritization for conservation of northern European cattle breeds based on analysis of microsatellite data. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1768-1779.

Tattoni, C., Preatoni, D.G., Lurz, P.W.W., Rushton, S.P., Tosi, G., Bertolino, S., Martinoli, A., and Wauters, L.A. 2006. Modelling the expansion of a grey squirrel population: implications for squirrel control. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1605-1619.

Terrier, A., Castella, E., Falkner, G., and Killeen, I.J. 2006. Species account for Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae), a species listed in annexes II and IV of the habitats directive. J. Conchology 39:193-205.

Thieltges, D.W., Strasser, M., and Reise, K. 2006. How bad are invaders in coastal waters? The case of the American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata in western Europe. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1673-1680.

Tinker, M.T., Doak, D.F., Estes, J.A., Hatfield, B.B., Hatfield, B.B., Staedler, M.M., and Bodkin, J.L. 2006. Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters. Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2293-2312.

Tirpak, J.M., Giuliano, W.M., Miller, C.A., Allen, T.J., Bittner, S., Buehler, D.A., Edwards, J.W., Harper, C.A., Igo, W.K., Normar, G.W., Seamster, M., and Stauffer, D.F. 2006. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):364-378.

Tobin, P.C., Whitmire, S.L., Johnson, D.M., Bjørnstad, O.N., and Liebhold, A.M. 2007. Invasion speed is affected by geographical variation in the strength of Allee effects. Ecol. Lett. 10(1):36-43.

Topic, J., and Stancic, Z. 2006. Extinction of fen and bog plants and their habitats in Croatia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3371-3381.

Torres, J., Miquel, J., Casanova, J.C., Ribas, A., Feliu, C., and Morand, S. 2006. Endoparasite species richness of Iberian carnivores: influences of host density and range distribution. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4619-4632.

Turner, W.R., Wilcove, D.S., and Swain, H.M. 2006. Assessing the effectiveness of reserve acquisition programs in protecting rare and threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1657-1669.

Uehara-Prado, M., Brown, K.S., and Freitas, A.V.L. 2007. Species richness, composition and abundance of fruit-feeding butterflies in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: comparison between a fragmented and a continuous landscape. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(1):43-54.

Vâlcu, M. 2006. Seasonal changes in bird species diversity at the interface between forest and reed-bed. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3459-3467.

Valtonen, A., Jantunen, J., and Saarinen, K. 2006. Flora and lepidoptera fauna adversely affected by invasive Lupinus polyphyllus along road verges. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):389-396.

Van Appledorn, M., Lamb, D.A., Albalak, K., and Bach, C.E. 2007. Zebra mussels decrease burrowing ability and growth of a native snail, Campeloma decisum. Hydrobiologia 575:441-445.

Van Dyke, F., and Darragh, J.A. 2006. Short- and long-term changes in elk use and forage production in sagebrush communities following prescribed burning. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4375-4398.

van Eeden, D.G., van Rensburg, B.J., De Wijn, M., and Bothma, J.D. 2006. The value of community-based conservation in a heterogeneous landscape: an avian case study from sand forest in Maputaland, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 36(2):153-157.

van Gils, J.A., Piersma, T., Dekinga, A., Spaans, B., and Kraan, C. 2006. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area. PLoS Biol. 4(12):2399-2404.

Varghese, A.O., and Murthy, Y.V.N.K. 2006. Application of geoinformatics for conservation and management of rare and threatened plant species. Curr. Sci. 91(6):762-769.

Vasudevan, K., Kumar, A., and Chellam, R. 2006. Species turnover: the case of stream amphibians of rainforests in the Western Ghats, southern India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3515-3525.

Wesche, S., Kirby, K., and Ghazoul, J. 2006. Plant assemblages in British beech woodlands within and beyond native range: implications of future climate change for their conservation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 236(2-3):385-392.

Whittingham, M.J., Krebs, J.R., Swetnam, R.D., Vickery, J.A., Wilson, J.D., and Freckleton, R.P. 2007. Should conservation strategies consider spatial generality? Farmland birds show regional not national patterns of habitat association. Ecol. Lett. 10(1):25-35.

Wiersma, Y.F., and Nudds, T.D. 2006. Conservation targets for viable species assemblages in Canada: are percentage targets appropriate? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4555-4567.

Willi, Y., Van Buskirk, J., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2006. Limits to the adaptive potential of small populations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 37:433-458.

Williams, N.S.G., Morgan, J.W., McCarthy, M.A., and McDonnell, M.J. 2006. Local extinction of grassland plants: the landscape matrix is more important than patch attributes. Ecology 87(12):3000-3006.

Williams, R., Lusseau, D., and Hammond, P.S. 2006. Estimating relative energetic costs of human disturbance to killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biol. Conserv. 133(3):301-311.

Wolman, A.G. 2006. Measurement and meaningfulness in conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1626-1634.

Zerbini, A.N., Waite, J.M., Laake, J.L., and Wade, P.R. 2006. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I 53(11):1772-1790.

Zielinski, W.J., Carroll, C., and Dunk, J.R. 2006. Using landscape suitability models to reconcile conservation planning for two key forest predators. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):409-430.

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