Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany

No. 270
June 2007

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

Oysters, Jellyfish, and the Chesapeake Food Web

Declining oyster abundances in Chesapeake Bay have led to declining abundances of stinging jellyfish known as sea nettles over the past several decades, according to research by Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) scientist Denise Breitburg and former SERC postdoctoral fellow Richard Fulford. Because sea nettles are major predators of other gelatinous animals known as ctenophores, the decline in sea nettles has led to a population boom of ctenophores. Because ctenophores are voracious predators of zooplankton--including oyster and fish larvae--the chain of effects from the decline of oysters in the Bay may have dramatic effects on the structure of the food web and hamper efforts to restore oyster populations.

Sea nettle jellyfish

Overfishing is a major problem in many aquatic ecosystems and it is becoming increasingly clear to scientists that its effects can be complex. Oysters are not only key members of the food web in many estuaries, but by building reefs they provide habitat for many other species. Sea nettles spend their adult lives swimming through the water in search of ctenophores and other prey, but they spend an earlier stage of their life cycle on the bottom attached to hard surfaces such as oyster shells. With fewer available oyster reefs in recent years, fewer sea nettles survive to adulthood and the population has declined.

Because the sea nettles help control predators of oyster larvae such as ctenophores, the loss of sea nettles may lead to a further decline in oysters, or at the least make it difficult for oyster populations to rebound. This in itself has important implications for the ecology and economics of the Chesapeake, but there are also implications for the Bay's fish populations. Not only do the fast-reproducing ctenophores prey on fish larvae, but they also compete for food with many adult fish such as the Bay anchovy. Despite the decline of sea nettles, the overall effect of the loss of oyster reefs might be to tip the ecological balance in the Chesapeake food web away from fish and toward gelatinous predators.

The study's conclusions are based on trawls and visual counts of sea nettles and ctenophores in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over several decades, beginning in the 1960s. By comparing the results to stream discharge and climatic data over the same time period, the researchers ruled out salinity and climatic changes as causes of the decline in sea nettles and the rise in ctenophores, which previous work had suggested.

Current Literature

Abella, S.R., Jaeger, J.F., and Schetter, T.A. 2007. Public land acquisition and ecological restoration: an example from northwest Ohio's Oak Openings region. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):92-97.

Adams, C.E., Bean, C.W., Fraser, D., and Maitland, P.S. 2007. Conservation and management of the Arctic charr: a forward view. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 16(1):2-5.

Aerts, R., Negussie, A., Maes, W., November, E., Hermy, M., and Muys, B. 2007. Restoration of dry afromontane forest using pioneer shrubs as nurse-plants for Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):129-138.

Aguilar-Perera, A. 2006. Disappearance of a Nassau grouper spawning aggregation off the southern Mexican Caribbean coast. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 327:289-296.

Alberts, A.C. 2007. Behavioral considerations of headstarting as a conservation strategy for endangered Caribbean rock iguanas. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102(3-4):380-391.

Ali, P.H.A., Raghavan, R., and Prasad, G. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Horabagrus brachysoma (Gunther, 1864) (Bagridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):221.

Allen, D.C., Sietman, B.E., Kelner, D.E., Hove, M.C., Kurth, J.E., Davis, J.M., Weiss, J.L., and Hornbach, D.J. 2007. Early life-history and conservation status of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (Bivalvia, Unionidae) in Minnesota. Am. Midl. Nat. 157(1):74-91.

Allendorf, T., Swe, K.K., Oo, T., Htut, Y., Aung, M., Aung, M., Allendorf, K., Hayek, L.A., Leimgrubek, P., and Wemmer, C. 2006. Community attitudes toward three protected areas in Upper Myanmar (Burma). Environ. Conserv. 33(4):344-352.

Altizer, S., Nunn, C.L., and Lindenfors, P. 2007. Do threatened hosts have fewer parasites? A comparative study in primates. J. Anim. Ecol. 76(2):304-314.

Araújo, M.B., and Rahbek, C. 2007. Conserving biodiversity in a world of conflicts. J. Biogeogr. 34(2):199-200.

Armitage, A.R., Jensen, S.M., Yoon, J.E., and Ambrose, R.F. 2007. Wintering shorebird assemblages and behavior in restored tidal wetlands in southern California. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):139-148.

Ascensao, F., and Mira, A. 2007. Factors affecting culvert use by vertebrates along two stretches of road in southern Portugal. Ecol. Res. 22(1):57-66.

Attum, O., Lee, Y.M., Roe, J.H., and Kingsbury, B.A. 2007. Upland-wetland linkages: relationship of upland and wetland characteristics with watersnake abundance. J. Zool. 271(2):134-139.

Aukema, J.E., Carlo, T.A., and Collazo, J.A. 2007. Landscape assessment of tree communities in the northern karst region of Puerto Rico. Plant Ecol. 189(1):101-115.

Avalos, G., Hoelll, K., Gardner, J., Anderson, S., and Lee, C. 2006. Impact of the invasive plant Syzigium jambos (Myrtaceae) on patterns of understory seedling abundance in a Tropical Premontane Forest, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2):415-421.

Ávila-Díaz, I., and Oyama, K. 2007. Conservation genetics of an endemic and endangered epiphytic Laelia speciosa (Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(2):184-193.

Azevedo-Ramos, C., do Amaral, B.D., Nepstad, D.C., Soares, B., and Nasi, R. 2006. Integrating ecosystem management, protected areas, and mammal conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):17.

Barnes, T.G. 2007. Using herbicides to rehabilitate native grasslands. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):56-65.

Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M., and Yoshinaga, A. 2007. Imbibition and germination of seeds of Colubrina oppositifolia (Rhamnaceae), a federal-endangered tree species endemic to Hawaii. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):25-30.

Bean, A.R. 2007. A new system for determining which plant species are indigenous in Australia. Aust. Syst. Bot. 20(1):1-43.

Becker, B.H., Peery, M.Z., and Beissinger, S.R. 2006. Ocean climate and prey availability affect the trophic level and reproductive success of the marbled murrelet, an endangered seabird. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 329:267-279.

Behling, H., and Pillar, V.D. 2007. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):243-251.

Bell, S., Hampshire, K., and Topalidou, S. 2007. The political culture of poaching: a case study from northern Greece. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):399-418.

Benno, B., Verheij, E., Stapley, J., Rumisha, C., Ngatunga, B., Abdallah, A., and Kalombo, H. 2006. Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae Smith, 1939) discoveries and conservation in Tanzania. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):486-490.

Bergl, R.A., Oates, J.F., and Fotso, R. 2007. Distribution and protected area coverage of endemic taxa in West Africa's Biafran forests and highlands. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):195-208.

Bergl, R.A., and Vigilant, L. 2007. Genetic analysis reveals population structure and recent migration within the highly fragmented range of the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). Mol. Ecol. 16(3):501-516.

Biondini, M. 2007. Plant diversity, production, stability, and susceptibility to invasion in restored northern tall grass prairies (United States). Restor. Ecol. 15(1):77-87.

Blanco, G. 2006. Natural selection and the risks of artificial selection in the wild: nestling quality or quantity from supplementary feeding in the Spanish imperial eagle. Ardeola 53(2):341-351.

Bochet, E., García-Fayos, P., and Tormo, J. 2007. Road slope revegetation in semiarid mediterranean environments. Part I: seed dispersal and spontaneous colonization. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):88-96.

Bode, M., and Possingham, H. 2007. Can culling a threatened species increase its chance of persisting? Ecol. Model. 201(1):11-18.

Bortolus, A., and Schwindt, E. 2007. What would Darwin have written now? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):337-345.

Bowker, M.A. 2007. Biological soil crust rehabilitation in theory and practice: an underexploited opportunity. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):13-23.

Brasileiro, C.A., Haddad, C.F.B., Sawaya, R.J., and Martins, M. 2007. A new and threatened species of Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) from Queimada Grande Island, southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 1391:47-55.

Breitburg, D.L., and Fulford, R.S. 2006. Oyster-sea nettle interdependence and altered control within the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Estuaries Coasts 29(5):776-784.

Briggs, J.C. 2007. Marine biogeography and ecology: invasions and introductions. J. Biogeogr. 34(2):193-198.

Brock, J., Aboling, S., Stelzer, R., Esch, E., and Papenbrock, J. 2007. Genetic variation among different populations of Aster tripolium grown on naturally and anthropogenic salt-contaminated habitats: implications for conservation strategies. J. Plant Res. 120(1):99-112.

Brusati, E.D., and Grosholz, E.D. 2007. Effect of native and invasive cordgrass on Macoma petalum density, growth, and isotopic signatures. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 71(3-4):517-522.

Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Cordeiro, N.J., Fjeldså, J., Küper, W., Rahbek, C., Sanderson, E.W., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Sommer, J.H., and Williams, P.H. 2007. Correlations among species distributions, human density and human infrastructure across the high biodiversity tropical mountains of Africa. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):164-177.

Burgess, N.D., Butynski, T.M., Cordeiro, N.J., Doggart, N.H., Fjeldså, J., Howell, K.M., Kilahama, F.B., Loader, S.P., Lovett, J.C., Mbilinyi, B., Menegon, M., Moyer, D.C., Nashanda, E., Perkin, A., Rovero, F., Stanley, W.T., and Stuart, S.N. 2007. The biological importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):209-231.

Bush, V., and Adams, C.E. 2007. Using phenotypic variation to determine conservation value: application of a novel approach to Arctic charr. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 16(1):29-33.

Cabin, R.J. 2007. Science-driven restoration: a square grid on a round earth? Restor. Ecol. 15(1):1-7.

Callaway, R.M., and Vivanco, J.M. 2007. Invasion of plants into native communities using the underground information superhighway. Allelopathy J. 19(1):143-151.

Callicott, J.B., Rozzi, R., Delgado, L., Monticino, M., Acevedo, M., and Harcombe, P. 2007. Biocomplexity and conservation of biodiversity hotspots: three case studies from the Americas. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):321-333.

Carrascal, L.M., Seoane, J., Palomino, D., and Alonso, C.L. 2006. Habitat preferences, population size and demographic trends of houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata in Lanzarote and La Graciosa (Canary Islands). Ardeola 53(2):251-269.

Carrion, V., Donlan, C.J., Campbell, K., Lavoie, C., and Cruz, F. 2007. Feral donkey (Equus asinus) eradications in the Galápagos. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):437-445.

Carter, J., and Biagas, J. 2007. Prioritizing bottomland hardwood forest sites for protection and augmentation. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):72-82.

Chan, K., and Dening, J. 2007. Use of sandbanks by terns in Queensland, Australia: a priority for conservation in a popular recreational waterway. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):447-464.

Chang, C.S., Choi, D.Y., Kim, H., Kim, Y.S., and Park, T.Y. 2007. Genetic diversity and mating system of the threatened plant Kirengeshoma palmata (Saxifragaceae) in Korea. J. Plant Res. 120(1):149-156.

Chelazzi, G., Naziridis, T., Benvenuti, S., Ugolini, A., and Crivelli, A.J. 2007. Use of river-wetland habitats in a declining population of the terrapin (Mauremys rivulata) along the Strymon River, northern Greece. J. Zool. 271(2):154-161.

Chiarucci, A., D'Auria, F., and Bonini, I. 2007. Is vascular plant species diversity a predictor of bryophyte species diversity in Mediterranean forests? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):525-545.

Chou, J.Y., Wang, W.L., and Chang, J.S. 2007. Three new members of Characeae (Charales, Chlorophyta) from Taiwan, including one endangered monospecific genus. Bot. Stud. 48(1):117-126.

Cintra, R., Sanaiotti, T.M., and Cohn-Haft, M. 2007. Spatial distribution and habitat of the Anavilhanas Archipelago bird community in the Brazilian Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):313-336.

Clavero, M., Blanco-Garrido, F., and Prenda, J. 2007. Population and microhabitat effects of interspecific interactions on the endangered Andalusian toothcarp (Aphanius baeticus). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(2):173-182.

Contreras-MacBeath, T., and Rivas, J.M. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Notropis boucardi (Günther 1868) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):287-288.

Cordeiro, N.J., Burgess, N.D., Dovie, D.B.K., Kaplin, B.A., and Marrs, R. 2007. Conservation in areas of high population density in sub-Saharan Africa. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):155-163.

Criscione, C.D., and Blouin, M.S. 2007. Parasite phylogeographical congruence with salmon host evolutionarily significant units: implications for salmon conservation. Mol. Ecol. 16(5):993-1005.

Croci, S., Le Quilliec, P., and Clergeau, P. 2007. Geographical range as predictor of spatial expansion of invading birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):511-524.

Croes, B.M., Laurance, W.F., Lahm, S.A., Tchignoumba, L., Alonso, A., Lee, M.E., Campbell, P., and Buij, R. 2007. The influence of hunting on antipredator behavior in central African monkeys and duikers. Biotropica 39(2):257-263.

Cummings, J., Reid, N., Davies, I., and Grant, C. 2007. Experimental manipulation of restoration barriers in abandoned eucalypt plantations. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):156-167.

Cuthbert, R., Parry-Jones, J., Green, R.E., and Pain, D.J. 2007. NSAIDs and scavenging birds: potential impacts beyond Asia's critically endangered vultures. Biol. Lett. 3(1):90-93.

Cyranoski, D. 2007. Logging: the new conservation. Nature 446(7136):608-610.

Dearden, P., Bennett, M., and Rollins, R. 2006. Implications for coral reef conservation of diver specialization. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):353-363.

Drew, J.A., and Henne, A.P. 2006. Conservation biology and traditional ecological knowledge: integrating academic disciplines for better conservation practice. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):34.

Earle, S.A. 2006. Coelacanths: inspiring conservation of the Blue Planet. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):416-418.

Edmands, S. 2007. Between a rock and a hard place: evaluating the relative risks of inbreeding and outbreeding for conservation and management. Mol. Ecol. 16(3):463-475.

Ellis, C.J., and Coppins, B.J. 2007. 19th century woodland structure controls stand-scale epiphyte diversity in present-day Scotland. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):84-91.

Erdmann, M. 2006. Lessons learned from the conservation campaign for the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):501-504.

Ernst, R., Konrad, T., Linsenmair, K.E., and Rodel, M.O. 2007. The impacts of selective logging on three sympatric species of Leptodactylus in a Central Guyana rainforest. Amphibia-Reptilia 28(1):51-64.

Espinosa, F., Guerra-García, J.M., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2007. Sewage pollution and extinction risk: an endangered limpet as a bioindicator? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):377-397.

Faria, D., and Baumgarten, J. 2007. Shade cacao plantations (Theobroma cacao) and bat conservation in southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):291-312.

Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E., Huntington, H.P., and Frost, K.J. 2006. Integration or co-optation? Traditional knowledge and science in the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):306-315.

Field, R.G., Gardiner, T., Mason, C.F., and Hill, J. 2007. Agri-environment schemes and butterflies: the utilisation of two metre arable field margins. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):465-474.

Finston, T.L., Johnson, M.S., Humphreys, W.F., Eberhard, S.M., and Halse, S.A. 2007. Cryptic speciation in two widespread subterranean amphipod genera reflects historical drainage patterns in an ancient landscape. Mol. Ecol. 16(2):355-365.

Fitch, E.A., Walck, J.L., and Hidayati, S.N. 2007. Agroecosystem management for rare species of Paysonia (Brassicaceae): integrating their seed ecology and life cycle with cropping regimens in a changing climate. Am. J. Bot. 94(1):102-110.

Franco, J.A., and Morgan, J.W. 2007. Using historical records, aerial photography and dendroecological methods to determine vegetation changes in a grassy woodland since European settlement. Aust. J. Bot. 55(1):1-9.

Fraser, D.J., Coon, T., Prince, M.R., Dion, R., and Bernatchez, L. 2006. Integrating traditional and evolutionary knowledge in biodiversity conservation: a population level case study. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):4.

Frieswyk, C.B., and Zedler, J.B. 2006. Do seed banks confer resilience to coastal wetlands invaded by Typha x glauca? Can. J. Bot. 84(12):1882-1893.

Funk, J.L., and Vitousek, P.M. 2007. Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems. Nature 446(7139):1079-1081.

Ghorbani, J., Le Duc, M.G., McAllister, H.A., Pakeman, R.J., and Marrs, R.H. 2007. Temporal responses of propagule banks during ecological restoration in the United Kingdom. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):103-117.

Giliomee, J.H. 2006. Conserving and increasing biodiversity in the large-scale, intensive farming systems of the Western Cape, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):375-378.

Githiru, M., and Lens, L. 2007. Application of fragmentation research to conservation planning for multiple stakeholders: an example from the Taita Hills, southeast Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):271-278.

Gladstone, W. 2007. Requirements for marine protected areas to conserve the biodiversity of rocky reeffishes. Aquat. Conserv. 17(1):71-87.

Goehring, D.M., Daily, G.C., Dasgupta, S., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2007. Range occupancy and endangerment: a test with a butterfly community. Am. Midl. Nat. 157(1):106-120.

Habit, E., and Belk, M.C. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Percilia irwini (Eigenmann 1927) (Perciliidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):213-214.

Hartley, M.K., Rogers, W.E., Siemann, E., and Grace, J. 2007. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: balancing plant and arthropod conservation. Am. Midl. Nat. 157(1):92-105.

Hays, W.S.T., and Conant, S. 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 1. A worldwide review of effects of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae). Pacific Sci. 61(1):3-16.

Herborg, L.M., Weetman, D., Van Oosterhout, C., and Hänfling, B. 2007. Genetic population structure and contemporary dispersal patterns of a recent European invader, the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Mol. Ecol. 16(2):231-242.

Hershler, R., Liu, H.P., and Lang, B.K. 2007. Genetic and morphologic variation of the Pecos assiminea, an endangered mollusk of the Rio Grande region, United States and Mexico (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea: Assimineidae). Hydrobiologia 579:317-335.

Hingrat, Y., Saint Jalme, M., Ysnel, F., Le Nuz, E., and Lacroix, F. 2007. Habitat use and mating system of the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) in a semi-deserticarea of North Africa: implications for conservation. J. Ornithol. 148(1):39-52.

Ioannis, L., Ifgenia, K., and Triantafyllidis, A. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Silurus aristotelis (Agassiz 1856) (Siluridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):285-286.

Islam, M.S., and Tanaka, M. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Tor putitora Hamilton 1822 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):219-220.

Jackson, D.B. 2007. Factors affecting the abundance of introduced hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to the Hebridean island of South Uist in the absence of natural predators and implications for nesting birds. J. Zool. 271(2):210-217.

Jahodová, Š., Trybush, S., Pyšek, P., Wade, M., and Karp, A. 2007. Invasive species of Heracleum in Europe: an insight into genetic relationships and invasion history. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):99-114.

Jeffrey, P., and Mcintosh, B.S. 2006. Description, diagnosis, prescription: a critique of the application of co-evolutionary models to natural resource management. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):281-293.

Jiménez, J.E. 2007. Ecology of a coastal population of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) on Chiloé Island, southern Chile. J. Zool. 271(1):63-77.

Jones, S.N., and Bergey, E.A. 2007. Habitat segregation in stream crayfishes: implications for conservation. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 26(1):134-144.

Junninen, K., Penttilä, R., and Martikainen, P. 2007. Fallen retention aspen trees on clear-cuts can be important habitats for red-listed polypores: a case study in Finland. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):475-490.

Kahindo, C., Bowie, R.C.K., and Bates, J.M. 2007. The relevance of data on genetic diversity for the conservation of Afro-montane regions. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):262-270.

Kalema, J., and Ssegawa, P. 2007. The flora of highly degraded and vulnerable wetland ecosystems of Nyamuriro and Doho, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 45:28-33.

Kano, Y., and Shimizu, Y. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Oncorhynchus iwame (Kimura & Nakamura 1961) (Salmonidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):215-216.

Kark, S., Allnutt, T.F., Levin, N., Manne, L.L., and Williams, P.H. 2007. The role of transitional areas as avian biodiversity centres. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(2):187-196.

Kopp, K., and Jokela, J. 2007. Resistant invaders can convey benefits to native species. Oikos 116(2):295-301.

Kueffer, C., Schumacher, E., Fleischmann, K., Edwards, P.J., and Dietz, H. 2007. Strong below-ground competition shapes tree regeneration in invasive Cinnamomum verum forests. J. Ecology 95(2):273-282.

Lafuma, L., and Maurice, S. 2007. Increase in mate availability without loss of self-incompatibility in the invasive species Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae). Oikos 116(2):201-208.

Laiolo, P., and Jovani, R. 2007. The emergence of animal culture conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(1):5.

Lancioni, T., and Gaino, E. 2006. The invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha in Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy): distribution and reproduction. Italian J. Zool. 73(4):335-346.

Lapolla, J.S., Suman, T., Sosa-Calvo, J., and Schultz, T.R. 2007. Leaf litter ant diversity in Guyana. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):491-510.

Lawrence, A., Paudel, K., Barnes, R., and Malla, Y. 2006. Adaptive value of participatory biodiversity monitoring in community forestry. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):325-334.

Le Breton, J., Orivel, J., Chazeau, J., and Dejean, A. 2007. Unadapted behaviour of native, dominant ant species during the colonization of an aggressive, invasive ant. Ecol. Res. 22(1):107-114.

Loo, S.E., Keller, R.P., and Leung, B. 2007. Freshwater invasions: using historical data to analyse spread. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):23-32.

Losure, D.A., Wilsey, B.J., and Moloney, K.A. 2007. Evenness-invasibility relationships differ between two extinction scenarios in tallgrass prairie. Oikos 116(1):87-98.

Lucena, R.F.P., Albuquerque, U.P., Monteiro, J.M., Almeida, C.D.C.B.R., Florentino, A.T.N., and Feitosa Ferraz, J.S. 2007. Useful plants of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil - a look at their conservation and sustainable use. Environ. Monit. Assess. 125(1-3):281-290.

Luck, G.W. 2007. The relationships between net primary productivity, human population density and species conservation. J. Biogeogr. 34(2):201-212.

Ma, Z.J., Gan, X.J., Choi, C.Y., Jing, K., Tang, S.M., Li, B., and Chen, J.K. 2007. Wintering bird communities in newly-formed wetland in the Yangtze River estuary. Ecol. Res. 22(1):115-124.

MacDonald, N.W., Scull, B.T., and Abella, S.R. 2007. Mid-spring burning reduces spotted knapweed and increases native grasses during a Michigan experimental grassland establishment. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):118-128.

Mahan, C.G., Diefenbach, D.R., and Cass, W.B. 2007. Evaluating and revising a long-term monitoring program for vascular plants: lessons from Shenandoah National Park. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):16-24.

Maitland, P.S., Winfield, I.J., McCarthy, I.D., and Igoe, F. 2007. The status of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus in Britain and Ireland. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 16(1):6-19.

Manning, A.D., Lindenmayer, D.B., Barry, S.C., and Nix, H.A. 2007. Large-scale spatial and temporal dynamics of the vulnerable and highly mobile superb parrot. J. Biogeogr. 34(2):289-304.

Marcot, B.G. 2006. Characterizing species at risk I: modeling rare species under the Northwest Forest Plan. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):10.

Marcot, B.G., Hohenlohe, P.A., Morey, S., Holmes, R., Molina, R., Turley, M.C., Huff, M.H., and Laurence, J.A. 2006. Characterizing species at risk II: using Bayesian belief networks as decision support tools to determine species conservation categories under the Northwest Forest Plan. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):12.

Marcot, B.G., Steventon, J.D., Sutherland, G.D., and McCann, R.K. 2006. Guidelines for developing and updating Bayesian belief networks applied to ecological modeling and conservation. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(12):3063-3074.

Martínez-Cruz, B., Godoy, J.A., and Negro, J.J. 2007. Population fragmentation leads to spatial and temporal genetic structure in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle. Mol. Ecol. 16(3):477-486.

Mawdsley, J.R. 2007. Ecology, distribution, and conservation biology of the tiger beetle Cicindela patruela consentanea Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 109(1):17-28.

Mayle, F.E., Langstroth, R.P., Fisher, R.A., and Meir, P. 2007. Long-term forest-savannah dynamics in the Bolivian Amazon: implications for conservation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):291-307.

McCrary, J.K., Murphy, B.R., Stauffer, J.R., and Hendrix, S.S. 2007. Tilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae) status in Nicaraguan natural waters. Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(2):107-114.

McDonald, R.A., O'Hara, K., and Morrish, D.J. 2007. Decline of invasive alien mink (Mustela vison) is concurrent with recovery of native otters (Lutra lutra). Divers. Distrib. 13(1):92-98.

McNay, R.S., Marcot, B.G., Brumovsky, V., and Ellis, R. 2006. A Bayesian approach to evaluating habitat for woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(12):3117-3133.

Medley, K.E., and Krisko, B. 2007. Physical site conditions and land use history as factors influencing the conservation of regrowth forests in a southwest Ohio nature reserve. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):31-40.

Meegaskumbura, M., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Schneider, C.J., and Pethiyagoda, R. 2007. New species amongst Sri Lanka's extinct shrub frogs (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae: Philautus). Zootaxa 1397:1-15.

Miranda, A.T., and Vega, I.L. 2006. Trace analysis for the establishment of conservation areas in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. Interciencia 31(12):849-855.

Morrison, L.W. 2007. Assessing the reliability of ecological monitoring data: power analysis and alternative approaches. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):83-91.

Mulvaney, C.R., Molano-Flores, B., and Whitman, D.W. 2006. Is insect herbivory contributing to the threatened status of Agalinis auriculata (Orobanchaceae) in Illinois? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(4):560-565.

Muñoz-Fuentes, V., Vilà, C., Green, A.J., Negro, J.J., and Sorenson, M.D. 2007. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain. Mol. Ecol. 16(3):629-638.

Nassar, J.M., Ramírez, N., Lampo, M., González, J.A., Casado, R., and Nava, F. 2007. Reproductive biology and mating system estimates of two Andean melocacti, Melocactus schatzlii and M. andinus (Cactaceae). Ann. Botany 99(1):29-38.

Naughton-Treves, L., Kammen, D.M., and Chapman, C. 2007. Burning biodiversity: woody biomass use by commercial and subsistence groups in western Uganda's forests. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):232-241.

Ndanyalasi, H.J., Bitariho, R., and Dovie, D.B.K. 2007. Harvesting of non-timber forest products and implications for conservation in two montane forests of East Africa. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):242-250.

Nelson, G.C., Bennett, E., Berhe, A.A., Cassman, K., DeFries, R., Dietz, T., Dobermann, A., Dobson, A., Janetos, A., Levy, M., Marco, D., Nakicenovic, N., O'Neill, B., Norgaard, R., Petschel-Held, G., Ojima, D., Pingali, P., Watson, R., and Zurek, M. 2006. Anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem change: an overview. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):29.

O'Corry-Crowe, G., Taylor, B.L., Gelatt, T., Loughlin, T.R., Bickham, J., Basterretche, M., Pitcher, K.W., and DeMaster, D.P. 2006. Demographic independence along ecosystem boundaries in Steller sea lions revealed by mtDNA analysis: implications for management of an endangered species. Can. J. Zool. 84(12):1796-1809.

O'Dea, M.E. 2007. Influence of mycotrophy on native and introduced grass regeneration in a semiarid grassland following burning. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):149-155.

Panetta, F.D. 2007. Evaluation of weed eradication programs: containment and extirpation. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):33-41.

Pauly, G.B., Piskurek, O., and Shaffer, H.B. 2007. Phylogeographic concordance in the southeastern United States: the flatwoods salamander, Ambystoma cingulatum, as a test case. Mol. Ecol. 16(2):415-429.

Pawar, S.S., Birand, A.C., Ahmed, M.F., Sengupta, S., and Raman, T.R.S. 2007. Conservation biogeography in North-east India: hierarchical analysis of cross-taxon distributional congruence. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):53-65.

Pérez, M.R., De Blas, D.E., Nasi, R., Sayer, J.A., Karsenty, A., Sassen, M., Angoué, C., Gami, N., Ndoye, O., Ngono, G., Nguinguiri, J.C., Nzala, D., Toirambe, B., and Yalibanda, Y. 2006. Socioeconomic constraints, environmental impacts and drivers of change in the Congo Basin as perceived by logging companies. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):316-324.

Piscart, C., Manach, A., Copp, G.H., and Marmonier, P. 2007. Distribution and microhabitats of native and non-native gammarids (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Brittany, with particular reference to the endangered endemic sub-species Gammarus duebeni celticus. J. Biogeogr. 34(3):524-533.

Pleguezuelos, J.M., Santos, X., Brito, J.C., Parellada, X., Llorente, G.A., and Fahd, S. 2007. Reproductive ecology of Vipera latastei, in the Iberian Peninsula: implications for the conservation of a Mediterranean viper. Zoology 110(1):9-19.

Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behanyana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., Meirte, D., Kahindo, C., Herremans, M., Peterhans, J.K., Pilgrim, J.D., Wilson, M., Languy, M., and Moyer, D. 2007. The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):178-194.

Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Treves, A., Owiunji, I., and Rainer, H. 2007. Transboundary conservation in the Greater Virunga landscape: its importance for landscape species. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):279-287.

Pollino, C.A., White, A.K., and Hart, B.T. 2007. Examination of conflicts and improved strategies for the management of an endangered Eucalypt species using Bayesian networks. Ecol. Model. 201(1):37-59.

Ramsay, P.J., and Miller, W.R. 2006. Marine geophysical technology used to define coelacanth habitats on the KwaZulu-Natal shelf, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):427-434.

Redwine, J.R., Sawicki, R., Lorenz, J.J., and Hoffman, W. 2007. Ripe fruit availability in the fragmented hardwood forests of the northern Florida Keys. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):8-15.

Ribbink, A.J., and Roberts, M. 2006. African Coelacanth Ecosystem Programme: an overview of the conference contributions. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):409-415.

Richardson, D.M., Holmes, P.M., Esler, K.J., Galatowitsch, S.M., Stromberg, J.C., Kirkman, S.P., Pyšek, P., and Hobbs, R.J. 2007. Riparian vegetation: degradation, alien plant invasions, and restoration prospects. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):126-139.

Ridder, B. 2007. The naturalness versus wildness debate: ambiguity, inconsistency, and unattainable objectivity. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):8-12.

Romeiras, M.M., Cotrim, H.C., Duarte, M.C., and Pais, M.S. 2007. Genetic diversity of three endangered species of Echium L. (Boraginaceae) endemic to Cape Verde Islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):547-566.

Rosatte, R., Hamr, J., Young, J., Filion, I., and Smith, H. 2007. The restoration of Elk (Cervus elaphus) in Ontario, Canada: 1998-2005. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):34-43.

Rotenberg, J.A. 2007. Ecological role of a tree (Gmelina arborea) plantation in Guatemala: an assessment of an alternative land use for tropical avian conservation. Auk 124(1):316-330.

Rout, T.M., Hauser, C.E., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Minimise long-term loss or maximise short-term gain? Optimal translocation strategies for threatened species. Ecol. Model. 201(1):67-74.

Rowe, G., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2007. Defining population boundaries: use of three Bayesian approaches with microsatellite data from British natterjack toads (Bufo calamita). Mol. Ecol. 16(4):785-796.

Rowe, H.I., Brown, C.S., and Claassen, V.P. 2007. Comparisons of mycorrhizal responsiveness with field soil and commercial inoculum for six native montane species and Bromus tectorum. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):44-52.

Samways, M.J. 2007. Insect conservation: a synthetic management approach. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52:465-487.

Sanchez-Velasquez, L.R., and Pineda-Lopez, M.D. 2006. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(3):997-1002.

Santos, X., Brito, J.C., Pleguezuelos, J.M., and Llorente, G.A. 2007. Comparing Filippi and Luiselli's (2000) method with a cartographic approach to assess the conservation status of secretive species: the case of the Iberian snake-fauna. Amphibia-Reptilia 28(1):17-23.

Sato, T. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Kirikuchi charr, Salvelinus leucomaenis japonicus (Oshima 1961) (Salmonidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):217-218.

Saunders, K.M., McMinn, A., Roberts, D., Hodgson, D.A., and Heijnis, H. 2007. Recent human-induced salinity changes in Ramsar-listed Orielton Lagoon, south-east Tasmania, Australia: a new approach for coastal lagoon conservation and management. Aquat. Conserv. 17(1):51-70.

Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G., and Waples, R.S. 2007. Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(1):25-33.

Sebert-Cuvillier, E., Paccaut, F., Chabrerie, O., Endels, P., Goubet, O., and Decocq, G. 2007. Local population dynamics of an invasive tree species with a complex life-history cycle: a stochastic matrix model. Ecol. Model. 201(2):127-143.

Setsuko, S., Ishida, K., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Tomaru, N. 2007. Population differentiation and gene flow within a metapopulation of a threatened tree, Magnolia stellata (Magnoliaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(1):128-136.

Shah, M.A., and Reshi, Z. 2007. Invasion by alien Anthemis cotula L. in a biodiversity hotspot: release from native foes or relief from alien friends? Curr. Sci. 92(1):21-22.

Shepherd, B., and Whittington, J. 2006. Response of wolves to corridor restoration and human use management. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):1.

Shepherd, T.M., and Burns, K.J. 2007. Intraspecific genetic analysis of the summer tanager Piranga rubra: implications for species limits and conservation. J. Avian Biol. 38(1):13-27.

Simões, C.G., and Marques, M.C.M. 2007. The role of sprouts in the restoration of atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):53-59.

Sirami, C., Brotons, L., and Martin, J.L. 2007. Vegetation and songbird response to land abandonment: from landscape to census plot. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):42-52.

Slocum, M.G., Platt, W.J., Beckage, B., Panko, B., and Lushine, J.B. 2007. Decoupling natural and anthropogenic fire regimes: a case study in Everglades National Park, Florida. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):41-55.

Smith, L.L., DiTommaso, A., Lehmann, J., and Greipsson, S. 2006. Growth and reproductive potential of the invasive exotic vine Vincetoxicum rossicum in northern New York State. Can. J. Bot. 84(12):1771-1780.

Smith, M., and Hunsley, E. 2006. Effects of achene pattern, achene density and competition on germination in Boltonia decurrens, a threatened plant of the Illinois River Valley. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(4):528-534.

Sólymos, P. 2007. Are current protections of land snails in Hungary relevant to conservation? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):347-356.

Soto-Pinto, L., Villalvazo-López, V., Jiménez-Ferrer, G., Ramírez-Marcial, N., Montoya, G., and Sinclair, F.L. 2007. The role of local knowledge in determining shade composition of multistrata coffee systems in Chiapas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):419-436.

Stamps, J.A., and Swaisgood, R.R. 2007. Someplace like home: experience, habitat selection and conservation biology. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102(3-4):392-409.

Steventon, J.D., Sutherland, G.D., and Arcese, P. 2006. A population-viability-based risk assessment of Marbled Murrelet nesting habitat policy in British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(12):3075-3086.

Strayer, D.L., and Malcom, H.M. 2007. Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on native bivalves: the beginning of the end or the end of the beginning? J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 26(1):111-122.

Sun, W.B., Han, C.Y., Gao, L.M., and Wilson, C.A. 2007. Genetic diversity of the rare Asian plant, Trigonobalanus doichangensis (Fagaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 55(1):10-17.

Swaisgood, R.R. 2007. Current status and future directions of applied behavioral research for animal welfare and conservation. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102(3-4):139-162.

Telleria, J.L., Venero, J.L., and Santos, T. 2006. Conserving birdlife of Peruvian highland bogs: effects of patch-size and habitat quality on species richness and bird numbers. Ardeola 53(2):271-283.

Tepedino, V.J., Bowlin, W.R., and Griswold, T.L. 2006. Pollination biology of the endangered Blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Wats.: Scrophulariaceae) in Nebraska. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(4):548-559.

Thomsen, M.A., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2007. Mechanisms of resistance to invasion in a California grassland: the roles of competitor identity, resource availability, and environmental gradients. Oikos 116(1):17-30.

Tiébré, M.S., Vanderhoeven, S., Saad, L., and Mahy, G. 2007. Hybridization and sexual reproduction in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex in Belgium. Ann. Botany 99(1):193-203.

Tobin, P.C., Liebhold, A.M., and Roberts, E.A. 2007. Comparison of methods for estimating the spread of a non-indigenous species. J. Biogeogr. 34(2):305-312.

Tormo, J., Bochet, E., and García-Fayos, P. 2007. Roadfill revegetation in semiarid Mediterranean environments. Part II: topsoiling, species selection, and hydroseeding. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):97-102.

Trigas, P., Iatrou, G., and Karetsos, G. 2007. Species diversity, endemism and conservation of the family Caryophyllaceae in Greece. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):357-376.

Turner, W.R. 2006. Interactions among spatial scales constrain species distributions in fragmented urban landscapes. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):6.

Uehara-Prado, M., and Fonseca, R.L. 2007. Urbanization and mismatch with protected areas place the conservation of a threatened species at risk. Biotropica 39(2):264-268.

van Aarde, R.J., Jackson, T.P., and Ferreira, S.M. 2006. Conservation science and elephant management in southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):385-388.

Vandergast, A.G., Bohonak, A.J., Weissman, D.B., and Fisher, R.N. 2007. Understanding the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context of evolutionary history: phylogeography and landscape genetics of a southern California endemic Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus). Mol. Ecol. 16(5):977-992.

VanderWerf, E.A., Wood, K.R., Swenson, C., LeGrande, M., Eijzenga, H., and Walker, R.L. 2007. Avifauna of Lehua Islet, Hawai'i: conservation value and management needs. Pacific Sci. 61(1):39-52.

Vaughan, C., Nemeth, N., and Marineros, L. 2006. Scarlet macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(3):919-926.

Vecsei, P., Peterson, D., Suciu, R., and Artyukhin, E. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world, Acipenser stellatus, Pallas, 1771 (Acipenseridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):211-212.

Vélez-Espino, L.A. 2006. Distribution and habitat suitability index model for the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai (Pisces: Siluriformes) in Ecuador. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2):623-638.

Vollmer, S.V., and Palumbi, S.R. 2007. Restricted gene flow in the Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicomis: implications for the recovery of endangered reefs. J. Heredity 98(1):40-50.

Walton, M.E.M., Samonte-Tan, G.P.B., Primavera, J.H., Edwards-Jones, G., and Le Vay, L. 2006. Are mangroves worth replanting? The direct economic benefits of a community-based reforestation project. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):335-343.

Wassenaar, T.D., Ferreira, S.M., and van Aarde, R.J. 2007. Flagging aberrant sites and assemblages in restoration projects. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):68-76.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., Gregory, M.J.P., Gordon, A.G., McLeod, D.R.A., and Haworth, P.F. 2007. Complex effects of habitat loss on Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Ibis 149(1):26-36.

Wiggins, G.J., Grant, J.F., and Lambdin, P.L. 2007. Diversity of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from Arnold Air Force base in the Barrens of the Eastern Highland Rim, Tennessee. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):66-71.

Willcox, A.S., and Nambu, D.M. 2007. Wildlife hunting practices and bushmeat dynamics of the Banyangi and Mbo people of Southwestern Cameroon. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):251-261.

Willi, Y., Van Buskirk, J., Schmid, B., and Fischer, M. 2007. Genetic isolation of fragmented populations is exacerbated by drift and selection. J. Evol. Biol. 20(2):534-542.

Williams, D.W., Jackson, L.L., and Smith, D.D. 2007. Effects of frequent mowing on survival and persistence of forbs seeded into a species-poor grassland. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):24-33.

Willis, K.J., Araújo, M.B., Bennett, K.D., Figueroa-Rangel, B., Froyd, C.A., and Myers, N. 2007. How can a knowledge of the past help to conserve the future? Biodiversity conservation and the relevance of long-term ecological studies. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):175-186.

Willis, K.J., Gillson, L., and Knapp, S. 2007. Biodiversity hotspots through time: an introduction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):169-174.

Wilson, J.R.U., Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M., Proches, S., Amis, M.A., Henderson, L., and Thuiller, W. 2007. Residence time and potential range: crucial considerations in modelling plant invasions. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):11-22.

Wilson, L.D., and Townsend, J.H. 2007. A checklist and key to the snakes of the genus Geophis (Squamata: Colubridae: Dipsadinae), with commentary on distribution and conservation. Zootaxa 1395:1-31.

Wolf, S., Keitt, B., Aguirre-Muñoz, A., Tershy, B., Palacios, E., and Croll, D. 2006. Transboundary seabird conservation in an important North American marine ecoregion. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):294-305.

Wong, C.C., Wu, S.C., Kuek, C., Khan, A.G., and Wong, M.H. 2007. The role of mycorrhizae associated with vetiver grown in Pb-/Zn-contaminated soils: greenhouse study. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):60-67.

Young, A.S., Chang, S.M., and Sharitz, R.R. 2007. Reproductive ecology of a federally endangered legume, Baptisia arachnifera, and its more widespread congener, B. lanceolata (Fabaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(2):228-236.

Zacharias, I., Dimitriou, E., Dekker, A., and Dorsman, E. 2007. Overview of temporary ponds in the Mediterranean region: threats, management and conservation issues. J. Environ. Biol. 28(1):1-9.

Zhang, J., Wei, F.W., Li, M., and Xu, M.Q. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Hemisalanx prognathus (Regan 1908) (Salangidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):209-210.

Zhao, W.G., Zhou, Z.H., Miao, X.X., Zhang, Y., Wang, S.B., Huang, J.H., Xiang, H., Pan, Y.L., and Huang, Y.P. 2007. A comparison of genetic variation among wild and cultivated Morus secies (Moraceae: Morus) as revealed by ISSR and SSR markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):275-290.

**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]