Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 270
June 2007

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In This Issue

Oysters, Jellyfish, and the Chesapeake Food Web

Declining oyster abundances in Chesapeake Bay have led to declining abundances of stinging jellyfish known as sea nettles over the past several decades, according to research by Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) scientist Denise Breitburg and former SERC postdoctoral fellow Richard Fulford. Because sea nettles are major predators of other gelatinous animals known as ctenophores, the decline in sea nettles has led to a population boom of ctenophores. Because ctenophores are voracious predators of zooplankton--including oyster and fish larvae--the chain of effects from the decline of oysters in the Bay may have dramatic effects on the structure of the food web and hamper efforts to restore oyster populations.

Sea nettle jellyfish

Overfishing is a major problem in many aquatic ecosystems and it is becoming increasingly clear to scientists that its effects can be complex. Oysters are not only key members of the food web in many estuaries, but by building reefs they provide habitat for many other species. Sea nettles spend their adult lives swimming through the water in search of ctenophores and other prey, but they spend an earlier stage of their life cycle on the bottom attached to hard surfaces such as oyster shells. With fewer available oyster reefs in recent years, fewer sea nettles survive to adulthood and the population has declined.

Because the sea nettles help control predators of oyster larvae such as ctenophores, the loss of sea nettles may lead to a further decline in oysters, or at the least make it difficult for oyster populations to rebound. This in itself has important implications for the ecology and economics of the Chesapeake, but there are also implications for the Bay's fish populations. Not only do the fast-reproducing ctenophores prey on fish larvae, but they also compete for food with many adult fish such as the Bay anchovy. Despite the decline of sea nettles, the overall effect of the loss of oyster reefs might be to tip the ecological balance in the Chesapeake food web away from fish and toward gelatinous predators.

The study's conclusions are based on trawls and visual counts of sea nettles and ctenophores in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over several decades, beginning in the 1960s. By comparing the results to stream discharge and climatic data over the same time period, the researchers ruled out salinity and climatic changes as causes of the decline in sea nettles and the rise in ctenophores, which previous work had suggested.

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Giliomee, J.H. 2006. Conserving and increasing biodiversity in the large-scale, intensive farming systems of the Western Cape, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):375-378.

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Hays, W.S.T., and Conant, S. 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 1. A worldwide review of effects of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae). Pacific Sci. 61(1):3-16.

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Lancioni, T., and Gaino, E. 2006. The invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha in Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy): distribution and reproduction. Italian J. Zool. 73(4):335-346.

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MacDonald, N.W., Scull, B.T., and Abella, S.R. 2007. Mid-spring burning reduces spotted knapweed and increases native grasses during a Michigan experimental grassland establishment. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):118-128.

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Maitland, P.S., Winfield, I.J., McCarthy, I.D., and Igoe, F. 2007. The status of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus in Britain and Ireland. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 16(1):6-19.

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Martínez-Cruz, B., Godoy, J.A., and Negro, J.J. 2007. Population fragmentation leads to spatial and temporal genetic structure in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle. Mol. Ecol. 16(3):477-486.

Mawdsley, J.R. 2007. Ecology, distribution, and conservation biology of the tiger beetle Cicindela patruela consentanea Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 109(1):17-28.

Mayle, F.E., Langstroth, R.P., Fisher, R.A., and Meir, P. 2007. Long-term forest-savannah dynamics in the Bolivian Amazon: implications for conservation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):291-307.

McCrary, J.K., Murphy, B.R., Stauffer, J.R., and Hendrix, S.S. 2007. Tilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae) status in Nicaraguan natural waters. Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(2):107-114.

McDonald, R.A., O'Hara, K., and Morrish, D.J. 2007. Decline of invasive alien mink (Mustela vison) is concurrent with recovery of native otters (Lutra lutra). Divers. Distrib. 13(1):92-98.

McNay, R.S., Marcot, B.G., Brumovsky, V., and Ellis, R. 2006. A Bayesian approach to evaluating habitat for woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(12):3117-3133.

Medley, K.E., and Krisko, B. 2007. Physical site conditions and land use history as factors influencing the conservation of regrowth forests in a southwest Ohio nature reserve. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):31-40.

Meegaskumbura, M., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Schneider, C.J., and Pethiyagoda, R. 2007. New species amongst Sri Lanka's extinct shrub frogs (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae: Philautus). Zootaxa 1397:1-15.

Miranda, A.T., and Vega, I.L. 2006. Trace analysis for the establishment of conservation areas in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. Interciencia 31(12):849-855.

Morrison, L.W. 2007. Assessing the reliability of ecological monitoring data: power analysis and alternative approaches. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):83-91.

Mulvaney, C.R., Molano-Flores, B., and Whitman, D.W. 2006. Is insect herbivory contributing to the threatened status of Agalinis auriculata (Orobanchaceae) in Illinois? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(4):560-565.

Muñoz-Fuentes, V., Vilà, C., Green, A.J., Negro, J.J., and Sorenson, M.D. 2007. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain. Mol. Ecol. 16(3):629-638.

Nassar, J.M., Ramírez, N., Lampo, M., González, J.A., Casado, R., and Nava, F. 2007. Reproductive biology and mating system estimates of two Andean melocacti, Melocactus schatzlii and M. andinus (Cactaceae). Ann. Botany 99(1):29-38.

Naughton-Treves, L., Kammen, D.M., and Chapman, C. 2007. Burning biodiversity: woody biomass use by commercial and subsistence groups in western Uganda's forests. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):232-241.

Ndanyalasi, H.J., Bitariho, R., and Dovie, D.B.K. 2007. Harvesting of non-timber forest products and implications for conservation in two montane forests of East Africa. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):242-250.

Nelson, G.C., Bennett, E., Berhe, A.A., Cassman, K., DeFries, R., Dietz, T., Dobermann, A., Dobson, A., Janetos, A., Levy, M., Marco, D., Nakicenovic, N., O'Neill, B., Norgaard, R., Petschel-Held, G., Ojima, D., Pingali, P., Watson, R., and Zurek, M. 2006. Anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem change: an overview. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):29.

O'Corry-Crowe, G., Taylor, B.L., Gelatt, T., Loughlin, T.R., Bickham, J., Basterretche, M., Pitcher, K.W., and DeMaster, D.P. 2006. Demographic independence along ecosystem boundaries in Steller sea lions revealed by mtDNA analysis: implications for management of an endangered species. Can. J. Zool. 84(12):1796-1809.

O'Dea, M.E. 2007. Influence of mycotrophy on native and introduced grass regeneration in a semiarid grassland following burning. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):149-155.

Panetta, F.D. 2007. Evaluation of weed eradication programs: containment and extirpation. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):33-41.

Pauly, G.B., Piskurek, O., and Shaffer, H.B. 2007. Phylogeographic concordance in the southeastern United States: the flatwoods salamander, Ambystoma cingulatum, as a test case. Mol. Ecol. 16(2):415-429.

Pawar, S.S., Birand, A.C., Ahmed, M.F., Sengupta, S., and Raman, T.R.S. 2007. Conservation biogeography in North-east India: hierarchical analysis of cross-taxon distributional congruence. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):53-65.

Pérez, M.R., De Blas, D.E., Nasi, R., Sayer, J.A., Karsenty, A., Sassen, M., Angoué, C., Gami, N., Ndoye, O., Ngono, G., Nguinguiri, J.C., Nzala, D., Toirambe, B., and Yalibanda, Y. 2006. Socioeconomic constraints, environmental impacts and drivers of change in the Congo Basin as perceived by logging companies. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):316-324.

Piscart, C., Manach, A., Copp, G.H., and Marmonier, P. 2007. Distribution and microhabitats of native and non-native gammarids (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Brittany, with particular reference to the endangered endemic sub-species Gammarus duebeni celticus. J. Biogeogr. 34(3):524-533.

Pleguezuelos, J.M., Santos, X., Brito, J.C., Parellada, X., Llorente, G.A., and Fahd, S. 2007. Reproductive ecology of Vipera latastei, in the Iberian Peninsula: implications for the conservation of a Mediterranean viper. Zoology 110(1):9-19.

Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behanyana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., Meirte, D., Kahindo, C., Herremans, M., Peterhans, J.K., Pilgrim, J.D., Wilson, M., Languy, M., and Moyer, D. 2007. The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):178-194.

Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Treves, A., Owiunji, I., and Rainer, H. 2007. Transboundary conservation in the Greater Virunga landscape: its importance for landscape species. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):279-287.

Pollino, C.A., White, A.K., and Hart, B.T. 2007. Examination of conflicts and improved strategies for the management of an endangered Eucalypt species using Bayesian networks. Ecol. Model. 201(1):37-59.

Ramsay, P.J., and Miller, W.R. 2006. Marine geophysical technology used to define coelacanth habitats on the KwaZulu-Natal shelf, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):427-434.

Redwine, J.R., Sawicki, R., Lorenz, J.J., and Hoffman, W. 2007. Ripe fruit availability in the fragmented hardwood forests of the northern Florida Keys. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):8-15.

Ribbink, A.J., and Roberts, M. 2006. African Coelacanth Ecosystem Programme: an overview of the conference contributions. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):409-415.

Richardson, D.M., Holmes, P.M., Esler, K.J., Galatowitsch, S.M., Stromberg, J.C., Kirkman, S.P., Pyšek, P., and Hobbs, R.J. 2007. Riparian vegetation: degradation, alien plant invasions, and restoration prospects. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):126-139.

Ridder, B. 2007. The naturalness versus wildness debate: ambiguity, inconsistency, and unattainable objectivity. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):8-12.

Romeiras, M.M., Cotrim, H.C., Duarte, M.C., and Pais, M.S. 2007. Genetic diversity of three endangered species of Echium L. (Boraginaceae) endemic to Cape Verde Islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):547-566.

Rosatte, R., Hamr, J., Young, J., Filion, I., and Smith, H. 2007. The restoration of Elk (Cervus elaphus) in Ontario, Canada: 1998-2005. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):34-43.

Rotenberg, J.A. 2007. Ecological role of a tree (Gmelina arborea) plantation in Guatemala: an assessment of an alternative land use for tropical avian conservation. Auk 124(1):316-330.

Rout, T.M., Hauser, C.E., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Minimise long-term loss or maximise short-term gain? Optimal translocation strategies for threatened species. Ecol. Model. 201(1):67-74.

Rowe, G., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2007. Defining population boundaries: use of three Bayesian approaches with microsatellite data from British natterjack toads (Bufo calamita). Mol. Ecol. 16(4):785-796.

Rowe, H.I., Brown, C.S., and Claassen, V.P. 2007. Comparisons of mycorrhizal responsiveness with field soil and commercial inoculum for six native montane species and Bromus tectorum. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):44-52.

Samways, M.J. 2007. Insect conservation: a synthetic management approach. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52:465-487.

Sanchez-Velasquez, L.R., and Pineda-Lopez, M.D. 2006. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(3):997-1002.

Santos, X., Brito, J.C., Pleguezuelos, J.M., and Llorente, G.A. 2007. Comparing Filippi and Luiselli's (2000) method with a cartographic approach to assess the conservation status of secretive species: the case of the Iberian snake-fauna. Amphibia-Reptilia 28(1):17-23.

Sato, T. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Kirikuchi charr, Salvelinus leucomaenis japonicus (Oshima 1961) (Salmonidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):217-218.

Saunders, K.M., McMinn, A., Roberts, D., Hodgson, D.A., and Heijnis, H. 2007. Recent human-induced salinity changes in Ramsar-listed Orielton Lagoon, south-east Tasmania, Australia: a new approach for coastal lagoon conservation and management. Aquat. Conserv. 17(1):51-70.

Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G., and Waples, R.S. 2007. Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(1):25-33.

Sebert-Cuvillier, E., Paccaut, F., Chabrerie, O., Endels, P., Goubet, O., and Decocq, G. 2007. Local population dynamics of an invasive tree species with a complex life-history cycle: a stochastic matrix model. Ecol. Model. 201(2):127-143.

Setsuko, S., Ishida, K., Ueno, S., Tsumura, Y., and Tomaru, N. 2007. Population differentiation and gene flow within a metapopulation of a threatened tree, Magnolia stellata (Magnoliaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(1):128-136.

Shah, M.A., and Reshi, Z. 2007. Invasion by alien Anthemis cotula L. in a biodiversity hotspot: release from native foes or relief from alien friends? Curr. Sci. 92(1):21-22.

Shepherd, B., and Whittington, J. 2006. Response of wolves to corridor restoration and human use management. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):1.

Shepherd, T.M., and Burns, K.J. 2007. Intraspecific genetic analysis of the summer tanager Piranga rubra: implications for species limits and conservation. J. Avian Biol. 38(1):13-27.

Simões, C.G., and Marques, M.C.M. 2007. The role of sprouts in the restoration of atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):53-59.

Sirami, C., Brotons, L., and Martin, J.L. 2007. Vegetation and songbird response to land abandonment: from landscape to census plot. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):42-52.

Slocum, M.G., Platt, W.J., Beckage, B., Panko, B., and Lushine, J.B. 2007. Decoupling natural and anthropogenic fire regimes: a case study in Everglades National Park, Florida. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):41-55.

Smith, L.L., DiTommaso, A., Lehmann, J., and Greipsson, S. 2006. Growth and reproductive potential of the invasive exotic vine Vincetoxicum rossicum in northern New York State. Can. J. Bot. 84(12):1771-1780.

Smith, M., and Hunsley, E. 2006. Effects of achene pattern, achene density and competition on germination in Boltonia decurrens, a threatened plant of the Illinois River Valley. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(4):528-534.

Sólymos, P. 2007. Are current protections of land snails in Hungary relevant to conservation? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):347-356.

Soto-Pinto, L., Villalvazo-López, V., Jiménez-Ferrer, G., Ramírez-Marcial, N., Montoya, G., and Sinclair, F.L. 2007. The role of local knowledge in determining shade composition of multistrata coffee systems in Chiapas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):419-436.

Stamps, J.A., and Swaisgood, R.R. 2007. Someplace like home: experience, habitat selection and conservation biology. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102(3-4):392-409.

Steventon, J.D., Sutherland, G.D., and Arcese, P. 2006. A population-viability-based risk assessment of Marbled Murrelet nesting habitat policy in British Columbia. Can. J. Forest Res. 36(12):3075-3086.

Strayer, D.L., and Malcom, H.M. 2007. Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on native bivalves: the beginning of the end or the end of the beginning? J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 26(1):111-122.

Sun, W.B., Han, C.Y., Gao, L.M., and Wilson, C.A. 2007. Genetic diversity of the rare Asian plant, Trigonobalanus doichangensis (Fagaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 55(1):10-17.

Swaisgood, R.R. 2007. Current status and future directions of applied behavioral research for animal welfare and conservation. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102(3-4):139-162.

Telleria, J.L., Venero, J.L., and Santos, T. 2006. Conserving birdlife of Peruvian highland bogs: effects of patch-size and habitat quality on species richness and bird numbers. Ardeola 53(2):271-283.

Tepedino, V.J., Bowlin, W.R., and Griswold, T.L. 2006. Pollination biology of the endangered Blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Wats.: Scrophulariaceae) in Nebraska. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(4):548-559.

Thomsen, M.A., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2007. Mechanisms of resistance to invasion in a California grassland: the roles of competitor identity, resource availability, and environmental gradients. Oikos 116(1):17-30.

Tiébré, M.S., Vanderhoeven, S., Saad, L., and Mahy, G. 2007. Hybridization and sexual reproduction in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex in Belgium. Ann. Botany 99(1):193-203.

Tobin, P.C., Liebhold, A.M., and Roberts, E.A. 2007. Comparison of methods for estimating the spread of a non-indigenous species. J. Biogeogr. 34(2):305-312.

Tormo, J., Bochet, E., and García-Fayos, P. 2007. Roadfill revegetation in semiarid Mediterranean environments. Part II: topsoiling, species selection, and hydroseeding. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):97-102.

Trigas, P., Iatrou, G., and Karetsos, G. 2007. Species diversity, endemism and conservation of the family Caryophyllaceae in Greece. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):357-376.

Turner, W.R. 2006. Interactions among spatial scales constrain species distributions in fragmented urban landscapes. Ecol. Soc. [Online] 11(2):6.

Uehara-Prado, M., and Fonseca, R.L. 2007. Urbanization and mismatch with protected areas place the conservation of a threatened species at risk. Biotropica 39(2):264-268.

van Aarde, R.J., Jackson, T.P., and Ferreira, S.M. 2006. Conservation science and elephant management in southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 102(9-10):385-388.

Vandergast, A.G., Bohonak, A.J., Weissman, D.B., and Fisher, R.N. 2007. Understanding the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context of evolutionary history: phylogeography and landscape genetics of a southern California endemic Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus). Mol. Ecol. 16(5):977-992.

VanderWerf, E.A., Wood, K.R., Swenson, C., LeGrande, M., Eijzenga, H., and Walker, R.L. 2007. Avifauna of Lehua Islet, Hawai'i: conservation value and management needs. Pacific Sci. 61(1):39-52.

Vaughan, C., Nemeth, N., and Marineros, L. 2006. Scarlet macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(3):919-926.

Vecsei, P., Peterson, D., Suciu, R., and Artyukhin, E. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world, Acipenser stellatus, Pallas, 1771 (Acipenseridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):211-212.

Vélez-Espino, L.A. 2006. Distribution and habitat suitability index model for the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai (Pisces: Siluriformes) in Ecuador. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2):623-638.

Vollmer, S.V., and Palumbi, S.R. 2007. Restricted gene flow in the Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicomis: implications for the recovery of endangered reefs. J. Heredity 98(1):40-50.

Walton, M.E.M., Samonte-Tan, G.P.B., Primavera, J.H., Edwards-Jones, G., and Le Vay, L. 2006. Are mangroves worth replanting? The direct economic benefits of a community-based reforestation project. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):335-343.

Wassenaar, T.D., Ferreira, S.M., and van Aarde, R.J. 2007. Flagging aberrant sites and assemblages in restoration projects. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):68-76.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., Gregory, M.J.P., Gordon, A.G., McLeod, D.R.A., and Haworth, P.F. 2007. Complex effects of habitat loss on Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Ibis 149(1):26-36.

Wiggins, G.J., Grant, J.F., and Lambdin, P.L. 2007. Diversity of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from Arnold Air Force base in the Barrens of the Eastern Highland Rim, Tennessee. Nat. Areas J. 27(1):66-71.

Willcox, A.S., and Nambu, D.M. 2007. Wildlife hunting practices and bushmeat dynamics of the Banyangi and Mbo people of Southwestern Cameroon. Biol. Conserv. 134(2):251-261.

Willi, Y., Van Buskirk, J., Schmid, B., and Fischer, M. 2007. Genetic isolation of fragmented populations is exacerbated by drift and selection. J. Evol. Biol. 20(2):534-542.

Williams, D.W., Jackson, L.L., and Smith, D.D. 2007. Effects of frequent mowing on survival and persistence of forbs seeded into a species-poor grassland. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):24-33.

Willis, K.J., Araújo, M.B., Bennett, K.D., Figueroa-Rangel, B., Froyd, C.A., and Myers, N. 2007. How can a knowledge of the past help to conserve the future? Biodiversity conservation and the relevance of long-term ecological studies. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):175-186.

Willis, K.J., Gillson, L., and Knapp, S. 2007. Biodiversity hotspots through time: an introduction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 362(1478):169-174.

Wilson, J.R.U., Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M., Proches, S., Amis, M.A., Henderson, L., and Thuiller, W. 2007. Residence time and potential range: crucial considerations in modelling plant invasions. Divers. Distrib. 13(1):11-22.

Wilson, L.D., and Townsend, J.H. 2007. A checklist and key to the snakes of the genus Geophis (Squamata: Colubridae: Dipsadinae), with commentary on distribution and conservation. Zootaxa 1395:1-31.

Wolf, S., Keitt, B., Aguirre-Muñoz, A., Tershy, B., Palacios, E., and Croll, D. 2006. Transboundary seabird conservation in an important North American marine ecoregion. Environ. Conserv. 33(4):294-305.

Wong, C.C., Wu, S.C., Kuek, C., Khan, A.G., and Wong, M.H. 2007. The role of mycorrhizae associated with vetiver grown in Pb-/Zn-contaminated soils: greenhouse study. Restor. Ecol. 15(1):60-67.

Young, A.S., Chang, S.M., and Sharitz, R.R. 2007. Reproductive ecology of a federally endangered legume, Baptisia arachnifera, and its more widespread congener, B. lanceolata (Fabaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(2):228-236.

Zacharias, I., Dimitriou, E., Dekker, A., and Dorsman, E. 2007. Overview of temporary ponds in the Mediterranean region: threats, management and conservation issues. J. Environ. Biol. 28(1):1-9.

Zhang, J., Wei, F.W., Li, M., and Xu, M.Q. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Hemisalanx prognathus (Regan 1908) (Salangidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(3):209-210.

Zhao, W.G., Zhou, Z.H., Miao, X.X., Zhang, Y., Wang, S.B., Huang, J.H., Xiang, H., Pan, Y.L., and Huang, Y.P. 2007. A comparison of genetic variation among wild and cultivated Morus secies (Moraceae: Morus) as revealed by ISSR and SSR markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(2):275-290.

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