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Department ofBotany

No. 274
October 2007

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In This Issue

Tropical Park Fires Linked with Poverty

From EurekAlert!

According to the first global assessment of forest fire control effectiveness in tropical parks, poverty and corruption correlate closely with lack of fire protection in tropical moist forests. A better understanding of the links between corruption, poverty and park management will help conservationists and policy makers create sophisticated strategies to conserve tropical ecosystems.

The survey is published in the July issue of Ecological Applications, reported by lead author S. Joseph Wright, staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa and Carlos Portillo-Quintero from the University of Alberta; and Diane Davies from the University of Maryland.

"Satellite data on fire frequency provides a measure of park effectiveness across countries," Wright said. "It is strikingly clear from our study that poverty and corruption limit the effectiveness of parks set up to protect tropical forests."

The survey indicates that parks were most effective at reducing fire incidence in Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia and Taiwan; whereas parks failed to prevent fires in Cambodia, Guatemala and Sierra Leone.

"Current integration of state-of-the-art remote sensing databases with Geographic Information Systems is allowing us to better evaluate the effectiveness of conservation efforts in tropical environments," Sanchez- Azofeifa said.

While nearly all tropical countries have established parks to protect rainforests, not all have the political and economic means to enforce park boundaries and prevent illegal extraction of park resources.

To better distinguish functional parks from "paper" parks and to characterize the relationship between social factors and park protection worldwide, the team created an index comparing fire frequency inside and outside of 823 tropical and subtropical parks.

Low fire frequency within parks was chosen as an indicator of park effectiveness because the background level of fire in tropical moist forests is low, so the presence of fire often indicates that humans are engaged in timber extraction, clearing land for agriculture or other land-use conversion.

The frequency was based on fire detection data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). "The MODIS fire products enable us to monitor global fires and see how fire regimes are changing," said Chris Justice of the NASA MODIS fire team.

Wright added that satellite data has limitations. "The satellite data must be carefully screened. Perhaps the clearest examples of this system's limitations were a park in Costa Rica and two parks in Indonesia where active volcanoes triggered the MODIS fire detection algorithm," he said.

As part of this publication, fire frequency data from 3,964 tropical reserves will be posted online. The authors hope that other investigators more familiar with reserves in particular countries or regions will use these data to better understand the causes of fires in parks and their management implications.

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Li, H.M., Aide, T.M., Ma, Y.X., Liu, W.J., and Cao, M. 2007. Demand for rubber is causing the loss of high diversity rain forest in SW China. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1731-1745.

Lin, Y.C., James, R., and Dolman, P.M. 2007. Conservation of heathland ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae): the value of lowland coniferous plantations. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1337-1358.

Lindbladh, M., Brunet, J., Hannon, G., Niklasson, M., Eliasson, P., Eriksson, G.R., and Ekstrand, A. 2007. Forest history as a basis for ecosystem restoration - a multidisciplinary case study in a south swedish temperate landscape. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):284-295.

Lindsey, P.A., Frank, L.G., Alexander, R., Mathieson, A., and Romañach, S.S. 2007. Trophy hunting and conservation in Africa: problems and one potential solution. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):880-883.

Loh, R.K., and Daehler, C.C. 2007. Influence of invasive tree kill rates on native and invasive plant establishment in a Hawaiian forest. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):199-211.

Lombardo, K., Fehmi, J.S., Rice, K.J., and Laca, E.A. 2007. Nassella pulchra survival and water relations depend more on site productivity than on small-scale disturbance. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):177-178.

Lopezaraiza-Mikel, M.E., Hayes, R.B., Whalley, M.R., and Memmott, J. 2007. The impact of an alien plant on a native plant-pollinator network: an experimental approach. Ecol. Lett. 10(7):539-550.

Lusk, J.M., and Reekie, E.G. 2007. The effect of growing season length and water level fluctuations on growth and survival of two rare and at risk Atlantic Coastal Plain flora species, Coreopsis rosea and Hydrocotyle umbellata. Can. J. Bot. 85(2):119-131.

MacDougall, A.S., and Turkington, R. 2007. Does the type of disturbance matter when restoring disturbance-dependent grasslands? Restor. Ecol. 15(2):263-272.

Manzelli, M., Pileri, L., Lacerenza, N., Benedettelli, S., and Vecchio, V. 2007. Genetic diversity assessment in Somali sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) accessions using microsatellite markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1715-1730.

Marris, E. 2007. Africa conservation - Making room. Nature 448(7156):860-863.

Martínez, L.S., Barragán, A.R., Muñoz, D.G., García, N., Huerta, P., and Vargas, F. 2007. Conservation and biology of the leatherback turtle in the Mexican Pacific. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(1):70-78.

Mason, T.J., and French, K. 2007. Management regimes for a plant invader differentially impact resident communities. Biol. Conserv. 136(2):246-259.

Melick, D., Yang, X.F., and Xu, J.C. 2007. Seeing the wood for the trees: how conservation policies can place greater pressure on village forests in southwest China. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1959-1971.

Melis, C., Sundby, M., Andersen, R., Moksnes, A., Pedersen, B., and Røskaft, E. 2007. The role of moose Alces alces L. in boreal forest - the effect on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) abundance and diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1321-1335.

Memmott, J., Craze, P.G., Waser, N.M., and Price, M.V. 2007. Global warming and the disruption of plant-pollinator interactions. Ecol. Lett. 10(8):710-717.

Miller, R.M., Rodríguez, J.P., Aniskowicz-Fowler, T., Bambaradeniya, C., Boles, R., Eaton, M.A., Gärdenfors, U., Keller, V., Molur, S., Walker, S., and Pollock, C. 2007. National threatened species listing based on IUCN criteria and regional guidelines: current status and future perspectives. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):684-696.

Moilanen, A., and Cabeza, M. 2007. Accounting for habitat loss rates in sequential reserve selection: simple methods for large problems. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):470-482.

Mooers, A.Ø., Prugh, L.R., Festa-Bianchet, M., and Hutchings, J.A. 2007. Biases in legal listing under Canadian endangered species legislation. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):572-575.

Moreau, M.A., and Coomes, O.T. 2007. Aquarium fish exploitation in western Amazonia: conservation issues in Peru. Environ. Conserv. 34(1):12-22.

Morrison, J.A., Lubchansky, H.A., Mauck, K.E., McCartney, K.M., and Dunn, B. 2007. Ecological comparison of two co-invasive species in eastern deciduous forests: Alliaria petiolata and Microstegium vimineum. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134(1):1-17.

Mulder, M.B., Caro, T., and Msago, O.A. 2007. The role of research in evaluating conservation strategies in Tanzania: the case of the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):647-658.

Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T.H., and Rouget, M. 2007. Response to Hockley: the merit of economic and biological measures in conservation planning. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(6):287-288.

Nestlerode, J.A., Luckenbach, M.W., and O'Beirn, F.X. 2007. Settlement and survival of the oyster Crassostrea virginica on created oyster reef habitats in chesapeake bay. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):273-283.

Neumann, M. 2007. Web-based data, document, and knowledge management in restoration projects. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):326-329.

Nuttle, T. 2007. Evaluation of restoration practice based on environmental filters. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):330-333.

O'Connor, T.G., Goodman, P.S., and Clegg, B. 2007. A functional hypothesis of the threat of local extirpation of woody plant species by elephant in Africa. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):329-345.

Ohwaki, A., Nakamura, K., and Tanabe, S.I. 2007. Butterfly assemblages in a traditional agricultural landscape: importance of secondary forests for conserving diversity, life history specialists and endemics. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1521-1539.

Oliveira, P.J.C., Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Almeyda, A., Galván-Gildemeister, R., Keene, S., Raybin, R.F., and Smith, R.C. 2007. Land-use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon. Science 317(5842):1233-1236.

Paling, E.I., van Keulen, M., and Tunbridge, D.J. 2007. Seagrass transplanting in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia: a comparison of manual transplantation methodology using Posidonia sinuosa Cambridge et Kuo. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):240-249.

Papaioannou, H.I., and Kati, V.I. 2007. Current status of the Balkan chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica) in Greece: implications for conservation. Belgian J. Zool. 137(1):33-39.

Parsons, M.H., Lamont, B.B., Koch, J.M., and Dods, K. 2007. Disentangling competition, herbivory, and seasonal effects on young plants in newly restored communities. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):250-262.

Pawar, S., Koo, M.S., Kelley, C., Ahmed, M.F., Chaudhuri, S., and Sarkay, S. 2007. Conservation assessment and prioritization of areas in Northeast India: priorities for amphibians and reptiles. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):346-361.

Pellet, J., Fleishman, E., Dobkin, D.S., Gander, A., and Murphy, D.D. 2007. An empirical evaluation of the area and isolation paradigm of metapopulation dynamics. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):483-495.

Pereira, J.A.A., Oliveira-Filho, A.T., and Lemos-Filho, J.P. 2007. Environmental heterogeneity and disturbance by humans control much of the tree species diversity of Atlantic montane forest fragments in SE Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1761-1784.

Piedra, R., Vélez, E., Dutton, P., Possardt, E., and Padillas, C. 2007. Nesting of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) from 1999-2000 through 2003-2004 at Playa Langosta, Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(1):111-116.

Pillans, S., Ortiz, J.C., Pillans, R.D., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. The impact of marine reserves on nekton diversity and community composition in subtropical eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):455-469.

Pimm, S.L. 2007. Africa: still the "Dark Continent". Conserv. Biol. 21(3):567-569.

Piper, J.K., Schmidt, E.S., and Janzen, A.J. 2007. Effects of species richness on resident and target species components in a prairie restoration. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):189-198.

Pohlon, E., Augspurger, C., Risse-Buhl, U., Arle, J., Willkomm, M., Halle, S., and Küsel, K. 2007. Querying the obvious: lessons from a degraded stream. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):312-316.

Polak, M. 2007. Nest-site selection and nest predation in the Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris population in eastern Poland. Ardea 95(1):31-38.

Prins, E., and Clarke, G.P. 2007. Discovery and enumeration of Swahilian Coastal Forests in Lindi region, Tanzania, using Landsat TM data analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1551-1565.

Probert, R., Adams, J., Coneybeer, J., Crawford, A., and Hay, F. 2007. Seed quality for conservation is critically affected by pre-storage factors. Aust. J. Bot. 55(3):326-335.

Pusey, A.E., Pintea, L., Wilson, M.L., Kamenya, S., and Goodall, J. 2007. The contribution of long-term research at Gombe National Park to chimpanzee conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):623-634.

Ranganathan, J., Chan, K.M.A., and Daily, G.C. 2007. Satellite detection of bird communities in tropical countryside. Ecol. Appl. 17(5):1499-1510.

Ribas, C.R., and Schoereder, J.H. 2007. Ant communities, environmental. characteristics and their implications for conservation in the Brazilian Pantanal. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1511-1520.

Ricker, M., Ramírez-Krauss, I., Ibarra-Manríquez, G., Martínez, E., Ramos, C.H., González-Medellín, G., Gómez-Rodríguez, G., Palacio-Prieto, J.L., and Hernández, H.M. 2007. Optimizing conservation of forest diversity: a country-wide approach in Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1927-1957.

Riemann, H., and Ezcurra, E. 2007. Endemic regions of the vascular flora of the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. J. Veg. Sci. 18(3):327-336.

Riley, E.P. 2007. Flexibility in diet and activity patterns of Macaca tonkeana in response to anthropogenic habitat alteration. Int. J. Primatol. 28(1):107-133.

Rissman, A.R., Lozier, L., Comendant, T., Kareiva, P., Kiesecker, J.M., Shaw, M.R., and Merenlender, A.M. 2007. Conservation easements: biodiversity protection and private use. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):709-718.

Roberts, D.G., Ayre, D.J., and Whelan, R.J. 2007. Urban plants as genetic reservoirs or threats to the integrity of bushland plant populations. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):842-852.

Rodda, G.H., and Savidge, J.A. 2007. Biology and impacts of pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregulatis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubiridae). Pacific Sci. 61(3):307-324.

Rodríguez, C., Naves, J., Fernández-Gil, A., Obeso, J.R., and Delibes, M. 2007. Long-term trends in food habits of a relict brown bear population in northern Spain: the influence of climate and local factors. Environ. Conserv. 34(1):36-44.

Rodríguez, J.P., Taber, A.B., Daszak, P., Sukumar, R., Valladares-Padua, C., Padua, S., Aguirre, L.F., Medellín, R.A., Acosta, M., Aguirre, A.A., Bonacic, C., Bordino, P., Bruschini, J., Buchori, D., González, S., Mathew, T., Méndez, M., Mugica, L., Pacheco, L.F., Dobson, A.P., and Pearl, M. 2007. Globalization of conservation: a view from the south. Science 317(5839):755-756.

Rokich, D.P., and Dixon, K.W. 2007. Recent advances in restoration ecology, with a focus on the Banksia woodland and the smoke germination tool. Aust. J. Bot. 55(3):375-389.

Ruschel, A.R., Nodari, R.O., and Moerschbacher, B.M. 2007. Woody plant species richness in the Turvo State Park, a large remnant of deciduous Atlantic forest, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1699-1714.

Salo, M., and Pyhälä, A. 2007. Exploring the gap between conservation science and protected area establishment in the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve (Peruvian Amazonia). Environ. Conserv. 34(1):23-32.

Scheldeman, X., Willemen, L., d'Eeckenbrugge, G.C., Romeijn-Peeters, E., Restrepo, M.T., Motoche, J.R., Jiménez, D., Lobo, M., Medina, C.I., Reyes, C., Rodríguez, D., Ocampo, J.A., Van Damme, P., and Goetgebeur, P. 2007. Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papayas (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1867-1884.

Selvi, F. 2007. Diversity, geographic variation and conservation of the serpentine flora of Tuscany (Italy). Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1423-1439.

Seminoff, J.A., Paladino, F.V., and Rhodin, A.G.J. 2007. Refocusing on leatherbacks: conservation challenges and signs of success. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(1):1-6.

Shearer, B.L., Crane, C.E., Barrett, S., and Cochrane, A. 2007. Phytophthora cinnamomi invasion, a major threatening process to conservation of flora diversity in the South-west Botanical Province of Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 55(3):225-238.

Sinclair, A.R.E., Mduma, S.A.R., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Fryxell, J.M., Hilborn, R., and Thirgood, S. 2007. Long-term ecosystem dynamics in the Serengeti: lessons for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):580-590.

Skov, H., Durinck, J., Leopold, M.F., and Tasker, M.L. 2007. A quantitative method for evaluating the importance of marine areas for conservation of birds. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):362-371.

Smith, G.F., Iremonger, S., Kelly, D.L., O'Donoghue, S., and Mitchell, F.J.G. 2007. Enhancing vegetation diversity in glades, rides and roads in plantation forests. Biol. Conserv. 136(2):283-294.

Snaddon, J.L., and Turner, E.C. 2007. A child's eye view of the insect world: perceptions of insect diversity. Environ. Conserv. 34(1):33-35.

Sobrinho, T.G., and Schoereder, J.H. 2007. Edge and shape effects on ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species richness and composition in forest fragments. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1459-1470.

Solano, E., and Feria, T.P. 2007. Ecological niche modeling and geographic distribution of the genus Polianthes L. (Agavaceae) in Mexico: using niche modeling to improve assessments of risk status. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1885-1900.

Spänhoff, B., and Arle, J. 2007. Setting attainable goals of stream habitat restoration from a macroinvertebrate view. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):317-320.

Stave, J., Oba, G., Nordal, I., and Stenseth, N.C. 2007. Traditional ecological knowledge of a riverine forest in Turkana, Kenya: implications for research and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1471-1489.

Stewart, G.B., Pullin, A.S., and Coles, C.F. 2007. Poor evidence-base for assessment of windfarm impacts on birds. Environ. Conserv. 34(1):1-11.

Stoner, C., Caro, T., Mduma, S., Mlingwa, C., Sabuni, G., and Borner, M. 2007. Assessment of effectiveness of protection strategies in Tanzania based on a decade of survey data for large herbivores. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):635-646.

Stoner, C., Caro, T., Mduma, S., Mlingwa, C., Sabuni, G., Borner, M., and Schelten, C. 2007. Changes in large herbivore populations across large areas of Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 45(2):202-215.

Summerville, K.S., Bonte, A.C., and Fox, L.C. 2007. Short-term temporal effects on community structure of Lepidoptera in restored and remnant tallgrass prairies. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):179-188.

Tabuti, J.R.S. 2007. The uses, local perceptions and ecological status of 16 woody species of Gadumire Sub-county, Uganda. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1901-1915.

Temperton, V.M. 2007. The recent double paradigm shift in restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):344-347.

Teske, P.R., Lockyear, J.F., Hecht, T., and Kaiser, H. 2007. Does the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, have a preference for aquatic vegetation type, cover or height? Afr. Zool. 42(1):23-30.

Thirgood, S.J., Mduma, S.A.R., Keyyu, J.D., and Laurenson, M.K. 2007. The value of long-term research: conservation science and practice in Tanzania. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):576-579.

Thomé, J.C.A., Baptistotte, C., Moreira, L.M.D.P., Scalfoni, J.T., Almeida, A.P., Riethi, D.B., and Barata, P.C.R. 2007. Nesting biology and conservation of the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, 1988-1989 to 2003-2004. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(1):15-27.

Thompson, R., and Starzomski, B.M. 2007. What does biodiversity actually do? A review for managers and policy makers. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1359-1378.

Thomson, J.R., Mac Nally, R., Fleishman, E., and Horrocks, G. 2007. Predicting bird species distributions in reconstructed landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):752-766.

Ticktin, T., Fraiola, H., and Whitehead, A.N. 2007. Non-timber forest product harvesting in alien-dominated forests: effects of frond-harvest and rainfall on the demography of two native Hawaiian ferns. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1633-1651.

Timm, B.C., McGarigal, K., and Compton, B.W. 2007. Timing of large movement events of pond-breeding amphibians in Western Massachusetts, USA. Biol. Conserv. 136(3):442-454.

Tischew, S., and Kirmer, A. 2007. Implementation of basic studies in the ecological restoration of surface-mined land. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):321-325.

Tomillo, P.S., Velez, E., Reina, R.D., Piedra, R., Paladinos, F.V., and Spotila, J.R. 2007. Reassessment of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nesting population at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Costa Rica: effects of conservation efforts. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(1):54-62.

Valdivia, C.E., and Simonetti, J.A. 2007. Decreased frugivory and seed germination rate do not reduce seedling recruitment rates of Aristotelia chilensis in a fragmented forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(6):1593-1602.

Vester, H.F.M., Lawrence, D., Eastman, J.R., Turner, B.L., Calme, S., Dickson, R., Pozo, C., and Sangermano, F. 2007. Land change in the southern Yucatan and Calakmul Biosphere Reserve: effects on habitat and biodiversity. Ecol. Appl. 17(4):989-1003.

Vina, A., Bearer, S., Chen, X.D., He, G.M., Linderman, M., An, L., Zhang, H.M., Ouyang, Z.Y., and Liu, J.G. 2007. Temporal changes in giant panda habitat connectivity across boundaries of Wolong Nature Reserve, China. Ecol. Appl. 17(4):1019-1030.

Vogel, G. 2007. Scientists say Ebola has pushed western gorillas to the brink. Science 317(5844):1484.

Walker, K.J., Critchley, C.N.R., Sherwood, A.J., Large, R., Nuttall, P., Hulmes, S., Rose, R., and Mountford, J.O. 2007. The conservation of arable plants on cereal field margins: an assessment of new agri-environment scheme options in England, UK. Biol. Conserv. 136(2):260-270.

Wallentinus, I., and Nyberg, C.D. 2007. Introduced marine organisms as habitat modifiers. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 55(7-9):323-332.

Watanabe, K., and Omura, T. 2007. Relationship between reservoir size and genetic differentiation of the stream caddisfly Stenopsyche marmorata. Biol. Conserv. 136(2):203-211.

Weiher, E. 2007. On the status of restoration science: obstacles and opportunities. Restor. Ecol. 15(2):340-343.

Weston, M.A., and Elgar, M.A. 2007. Responses of incubating hooded plovers (Thinornis rubricollis) to disturbance. J. Coastal Res. 23(3):569-576.

Whitelaw, G.S., and Eagles, P.F.J. 2007. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):675-683.

Whitman, K.L., Starfield, A.M., Quadling, H., and Packer, C. 2007. Modeling the effects of trophy selection and environmental disturbance on a simulated population of African lions. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):591-601.

Wootton, L. 2007. First report of Carex macrocephala in eastern North America with notes on its co-occurrence with Carex kobomugi in New Jersey. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134(1):126-134.

Wright, S.J., Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Portillo-Quintero, C., and Davies, D. 2007. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves. Ecol. Appl. 17(5):1259-1266.

Yakimowski, S.B., and Eckert, C.G. 2007. Threatened peripheral populations in context: geographical variation in population frequency and size and sexual reproduction in a clonal woody shrub. Conserv. Biol. 21(3):811-822.

Yates, C.J., Coates, D.J., Elliott, C., and Byrne, M. 2007. Composition of the pollinator community, pollination and the mating system for a shrub in fragments of species rich kwongan in south-west Western Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(5):1379-1395.

Yates, C.J., Elliott, C., Byrne, M., Coates, D.J., and Fairman, R. 2007. Seed production, germinability and seedling growth for a bird-pollinated shrub in fragments of kwongan in south-west Australia. Biol. Conserv. 136(2):306-314.

Yates, C.J., Ladd, P.G., Coates, D.J., and McArthur, S. 2007. Hierarchies of cause: understanding rarity in an endemic shrub Verticordia staminosa (Myrtaceae) with a highly restricted distribution. Aust. J. Bot. 55(3):194-205.

Yonariza., and Webb, EL. 2007. Rural household participation in illegal timber felling in a protected area of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Environ. Conserv. 34(1):73-82.

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