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Department ofBotany

No. 277
January 2008

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In This Issue

Corn... Fuel... Fire!

Amazon deforestation and fires are being aggravated by US farm subsidies, claims Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) staff scientist William Laurance. According to Laurance, whose findings are reported in Science, a recent spike in Amazonian fires is being promoted by massive US subsidies that promote American corn production for ethanol. The ethanol is being blended with gasoline as an automobile fuel.

"American taxpayers are spending $11 billion a year to subsidize corn producers - and this is having some surprising global consequences," said Laurance.

The US is the world's leading producer of soy, but many American soy farmers are shifting to corn to qualify for the government subsidies. Since 2006, US corn production rose 19% while soy farming fell by 15%.

The drop-off in US soy has helped to drive a major increase in global soy prices, which have nearly doubled in the last 14 months. In Brazil, the world's second-largest soy producer, high soy prices are having a serious impact on the Amazon rainforest and tropical savannas.

"Amazon fires and forest destruction have spiked over the last several months, especially in the main soy-producing states in Brazil," said Laurance. "Just about everyone there attributes this to rising soy and beef prices."

High soy prices affect the Amazon in several ways. Some forests are cleared for soy farms. Farmers also buy and convert many cattle ranches into soy farms, effectively pushing the ranchers further into the Amazonian frontier. Finally, wealthy soy farmers are lobbying for major new Amazon highways to transport their soybeans to market, and this is increasing access to forests for loggers and land speculators.

Laurance emphasized that he was not the first person to suggest that US corn subsidies could indirectly harm the Amazon. "But now we're seeing that these predictions-first made last summer-are being borne out. The evidence of a corn connection to the Amazon is circumstantial, but it's about as close as you ever get to a smoking gun."

Current Literature

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Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aguirre, A., Benítez-Malvido, J., and Mandujano, S. 2007. Impact of rain forest fragmentation on the population size of a structurally important palm species: Astrocaryum mexicanum at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):198-206.

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Baldwin, R.F., and Trombulak, S.C. 2007. Losing the dark: a case for a national policy on land conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1133-1134.

Banks, S.A., and Skilleter, G.A. 2007. The importance of incorporating fine-scale habitat data into the design of an, intertidal marine reserve system. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):13-29.

Baral, N., Stern, M.J., and Heinen, J.T. 2007. Integrated conservation and development project life cycles in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: is development overpowering conservation? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2903-2917.

Bauer, C.R., Bobeldyk, A.M., and Lamberti, G.A. 2007. Predicting habitat use and trophic interactions of Eurasian ruffe, round gobies, and zebra mussels in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. Biol. Invasions 9(6):667-678.

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Bernhardt, E.S., Sudduth, E.B., Palmer, M.A., Allan, J.D., Meyer, J.L., Alexander, G., Follastad-Shah, J., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, R., Lave, R., Rumps, J., and Pagano, L. 2007. Restoring rivers one reach at a time: results from a survey of US river restoration practitioners. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):482-493.

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Buchanan, J.B., Gutiérrez, R.J., Anthony, R.G., Cullinan, T., Diller, L.V., Forsman, E.D., and Franklin, A.B. 2007. A synopsis of suggested approaches to address potential competitive interactions between Barred Owls (Strix varia) and Spotted Owls (S. occidentalis). Biol. Invasions 9(6):679-691.

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Castiñeiras, L., Guzmán, F.A., Duque, M.C., Shagarodsky, T., Cristóbal, R., and de Vicente, M.C. 2007. AFLPs and morphological diversity of Phaseolus lunatus L. in Cuban home gardens: approaches to recovering the lost ex situ collection. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2847-2865.

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Cevik, C., Yokes, MB., Cavas, L., Erkol, LI., Derici, OB., and Verlaque, M. 2007. First report of Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) on the Levantine coast (Turkey, eastern Mediterranean). Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 74(3):549-556.

Chambers, F.M., Mauquoy, D., Cloutman, E.W., Daniell, J.R.G., and Jones, P.S. 2007. Recent vegetation history of Drygarn Fawr (Elenydd SSSI), Cambrian Mountains, Wales: implications for conservation management of degraded blanket mires. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2821-2846.

Chapman, JW., Carlton, JT., Bellinger, MR., and Blakeslee, A. 2007. Premature refutation of a human-mediated marine species introduction: the case history of the marine snail Littorina littorea in the northwestern Atlantic. Biol. Invasions 9(6):737-750.

Cole, D.N. 2007. Seedling establishment and survival on restored campsites in subalpine forest. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):430-439.

Cook, BD., Bunn, SE., and Hughes, JM. 2007. Molecular genetic and stable isotope signatures reveal complementary patterns of population connectivity in the regionally vulnerable southern pygmy perch (Nannoperca australis). Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):60-72.

Cox, T.A., Lewison, R.L., Žydelis, R., Crowder, L.B., Safina, C., and Read, A.J. 2007. Comparing effectiveness of experimental and implemented bycatch reduction measures: the ideal and the real. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1155-1164.

Cristobal-Azkarate, J., and Arroyo-Rodríguez, V. 2007. Diet and activity pattern of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico: effects of habitat fragmentation and implications for conservation. Am. J. Primatol. 69(9):1013-1029.

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da Silva, A.C.C.D., de Castilhos, J.C., Lopez, G.G., and Barata, P.C.R. 2007. Nesting biology and conservation of the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidocheyls olivacea) in Brazil, 1991/1992 to 2002/2003. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 87(4):1047-1056.

Daly, H.E., Czech, B., Trauger, D.L., Rees, W.E., Grover, M., Dobson, T., and Trombulak, S.C. 2007. Are we consuming too much - for what? Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1359-1362.

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Demopoulos, A.W.J., Fry, B., and Smith, C.R. 2007. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: a Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison. Oecologia 153(3):675-686.

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Emery, S.M. 2007. Limiting similarity between invaders and dominant species in herbaceous plant communities? J. Ecology 95(5):1027-1035.

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Farrera, M.A.P., Vovides, A.P., Iglesias, C., Meléndez, N.M., and Camilo, R.M. 2007. Endangered Chamaedorea species (Arecaceae) from southeastern Mexico, with notes on conservation status, habitat, and distribution. Rhodora 109(938):187-196.

Feng, Y.L., Auge, H., and Ebeling, S.K. 2007. Invasive Buddleja davidii allocates more nitrogen to its photosynthetic machinery than five native woody species. Oecologia 153(3):501-510.

Fenner, A.L., and Bull, C.M. 2007. Short-term impact of grassland fire on the endangered pygmy bluetongue lizard. J. Zool. 272(4):444-450.

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Freeman, J.P., Stohlgren, T.J., Hunter, M.E., Omi, P.N., Martinson, E.J., Chong, G.W., and Browns, C.S. 2007. Rapid assessment of postfire plant invasions in coniferous forests of the western united states. Ecol. Appl. 17(6):1656-1665.

Fumanal, B., Chauvel, B., Sabatier, A., and Bretagnolle, F. 2007. Variability and cryptic heteromorphism of Ambrosia artemisiifolia seeds: what consequences for its invasion in France? Ann. Botany 100(2):305-313.

Furmankiewicz, J., and Altringham, J. 2007. Genetic structure in a swarming brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) population: evidence for mating at swarming sites. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):913-923.

García, J.D.D., Arévalo, J.R., and Fernández-Palacios, J.M. 2007. Road edge effect on the abundance of the lizard Gallotia galloti (Sauria: Lacertidae) in two Canary Islands forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2949-2963.

Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2007. Paradox, presumption and pitfalls in conservation biology: the importance of habitat change for amphibians and reptiles. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):166-179.

Ghazoul, J. 2007. Placing humans at the heart of conservation. Biotropica 39(5):565-566.

Gido, K.B., and Franssen, N.R. 2007. Invasion of stream fishes into low trophic positions. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 16(3):457-464.

Gippoliti, S., and Amori, G. 2007. The problem of subspecies and biased taxonomy in conservation lists: the case of mammals. Folia Zoolog. 56(2):113-117.

Grabinska, B. 2007. The distribution of protected and endangered mammals versus land use, type of habitat and protected areas of Poland: a geographical approach. Pol. J. Ecol. 55(3):605-613.

Grabowski, M., Bacela, K., and Konopacka, A. 2007. How to be an invasive gammarid (Amphipoda: Gammaroidea) - comparison of life history traits. Hydrobiologia 590:75-84.

Graham, N.A.J., Wilson, S.K., Jennings, S., Polunin, N.V.C., Robinson, J., Bijoux, J.P., and Daw, T.M. 2007. Lag effects in the impacts of mass coral bleaching on coral reef fish, fisheries, and ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1291-1300.

Granek, E.F., and Ruttenberg, B.I. 2007. Protective capacity of mangroves during tropical storms: a case study from 'Wilma' and 'Gamma' in Belize. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 343:101-105.

Grant, J.B., Olden, J.D., Lawler, J.J., Nelson, C.R., and Silliman, B.R. 2007. Academic institutions in the United States and Canada ranked according to research productivity in the field of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1139-1144.

Groning, J., Krause, S., and Hochkirch, A. 2007. Habitat preferences of an endangered insect species, Cepero's ground-hopper (Tetrix ceperoi). Ecol. Res. 22(5):767-773.

Gross, M. 2007. Restoration and the origins of ecology. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):375-376.

Guo, Z.W., Li, Y.M., Xiao, X.M., Zhang, L., and Gan, Y.L. 2007. Hydroelectricity production and forest conservation in watersheds. Ecol. Appl. 17(6):1557-1562.

Guschanski, K., Olivieri, G., Funk, S.M., and Radespiel, U. 2007. MtDNA reveals strong genetic differentiation among geographically isolated populations of the golden brown mouse lemur, Microcebus ravelobensis. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):809-821.

Gustavsson, E., Lennartsson, T., and Emanuelsson, M. 2007. Land use more than 200 years ago explains current grassland plant diversity in a Swedish agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):47-59.

Halpern, B.S., Selkoe, K.A., Micheli, F., and Kappel, C.V. 2007. Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1301-1315.

Handler, A.T., Gruner, D.S., Haines, W.P., Lange, M.W., and Kaneshiro, K.Y. 2007. Arthropod surveys on Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, and insights into the decline of the native tree Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae). Pacific Sci. 61(4):485-502.

Hanson, D.A., Britten, H.B., Restani, M., and Washburn, L.R. 2007. High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):789-795.

Hassett, B.A., Palmer, M.A., and Bernhardt, E.S. 2007. Evaluating stream restoration in the Chesapeake Bay watershed through practitioner interviews. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):563-572.

Hayes, D.M., Minton, R.L., and Perez, K.E. 2007. Elimia comalensis (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae) from the Edwards Plateau, Texas: multiple unrecognized endemics or native exotic? Am. Midl. Nat. 158(1):97-112.

Hecht, S.B., and Saatchi, S.S. 2007. Globalization and forest resurgence: changes in forest cover in El Salvador. BioScience 57(8):663-672.

Hedmark, E., and Ellegren, H. 2007. DNA-based monitoring of two newly founded Scandinavian wolverine populations. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):843-852.

Herborg, L.M., Rudnick, D.A., Siliang, Y., Lodge, D.M., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2007. Predicting the range of Chinese mitten crabs in Europe. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1316-1323.

Hoehn, M., Sarre, S.D., and Henle, K. 2007. The tales of two geckos: does dispersal prevent extinction in recently fragmented populations? Mol. Ecol. 16(16):3299-3312.

Holdsworth, A.R., Frelich, L.E., and Reich, P.B. 2007. Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests. Ecol. Appl. 17(6):1666-1677.

Houston, D., Mcinnes, K., Elliott, G., Eason, D., Moorhouse, R., and Cockrem, J. 2007. The use of a nutritional supplement to improve egg production in the endangered kakapo. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):248-255.

Howald, G., Donlan, C.J., Galván, J.P., Russell, J.C., Parkes, J., Samaniego, A., Wang, Y.W., Veitch, D., Genovesi, P., Pascal, M., Saunders, A., and Tershy, B. 2007. Invasive rodent eradication on islands. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1258-1268.

Hunter, N.L. 2007. Climate change and moving species: furthering the debate on assisted colonization. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1356-1358.

Isfendiyaroglu, S., Welch, G., and Ataol, M. 2007. The Caucasian black grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi in Turkey: recent survey results and conservation recommendations. Wildlife Biol. 13:13-20.

Jameson, J.S., and Ramsay, P.M. 2007. Changes in high-altitude Polylepis forest cover and quality in the Cordillera de Vilcanota, Perú, 1956-2005. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):38-46.

Jiao, J.Y., Tzanopoulos, J., Xofis, P., Bai, W.J., Ma, X.H., and Mitchley, J. 2007. Can the study of natural vegetation succession assist in the control of soil erosion on abandoned croplands on the Loess Plateau, China? Restor. Ecol. 15(3):391-399.

Jonsell, M., Hansson, J., and Wedmo, L. 2007. Diversity of saproxylic beetle species in logging residues in Sweden - comparisons between tree species and diameters. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):89-99.

Jorgensen, L.L., and Primicerio, R. 2007. Impact scenario for the invasive red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) (Reptantia, Lithodidae) on Norwegian, native, epibenthic prey. Hydrobiologia 590:47-54.

Kaimowitz, D., and Sheil, D. 2007. Conserving what and for whom? Why conservation should help meet basic human needs in the tropics. Biotropica 39(5):567-574.

Kalcounis-Rueppell, M.C., Payne, V.H., Huff, S.R., and Boyko, A.L. 2007. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent on bat foraging ecology in an urban stream system. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):120-130.

Kanda, N., Goto, M., Kato, H., McPhee, M.V., and Pastene, L.A. 2007. Population genetic structure of Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera brydei) at the inter-oceanic and trans-equatorial levels. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):853-864.

Katz, S.L., Barnas, K., Hicks, R., Cowen, J., and Jenkinson, R. 2007. Freshwater habitat restoration actions in the Pacific Northwest: a decade's investment in habitat improvement. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):494-505.

Kercher, S.M., Herr-Turoff, A., and Zedler, J.B. 2007. Understanding invasion as a process: the case of Phalaris arundinacea in wet prairies. Biol. Invasions 9(6):657-665.

Kettle, C.J., Hollingsworth, P.M., Jaffré, T., Moran, B., and Ennos, R.A. 2007. Identifying the early genetic consequences of habitat degradation in a highly threatened tropical conifer, Araucaria nemorosa Laubenfels. Mol. Ecol. 16(17):3581-3591.

Kight, C.R., and Swaddle, J.P. 2007. Associations of anthropogenic activity and disturbance with fitness metrics of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):189-197.

Knyazev, M.S., Mamaev, S.A., and Vlasenko, V.E. 2007. Relict communities and populations of petrophilous plant species in northern regions of Sverdlovsk oblast and problems in their conservation. Russian J. Ecol. 38(5):317-322.

Koh, L.P. 2007. Potential habitat and biodiversity losses from intensified biodiesel feedstock production. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1373-1375.

Kolehmainen, J., and Mutikainen, P. 2007. Population stage structure, survival and recruitment in the endangered East African forest herb Saintpaulia. Plant Ecol. 192(1):85-95.

Kondolf, G.M., Anderson, S., Lave, R., Pagano, L., Merenlender, A., and Bernhardt, E.S. 2007. Two decades of river restoration in California: what can we learn? Restor. Ecol. 15(3):516-523.

Kriger, K.M., Pereoglou, F., and Hero, J.M. 2007. Latitudinal variation in the prevalence and intensity of chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in Eastern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1280-1290.

Kristan, W.B., and Boarman, W.I. 2007. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common raven nesting biology in the west Mojave desert. Ecol. Appl. 17(6):1703-1713.

Kursar, T.A., Caballero-George, C.C., Capson, T.L., Cubilla-Rios, L., Gerwick, W.H., Maria, V.H., Ibañez, A., Linington, R.G., McPhail, K.L., Ortega-Barría, E., Romero, L.I., and Coley, P.D. 2007. Linking bioprospecting with sustainable development and conservation: the Panama case. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2789-2800.

La Torre-Cuadros, M.D.L.Á., Herrando-Pérez, S., and Young, K.R. 2007. Diversity and structural patterns for tropical montane and premontane forests of central Peru, with an assessment of the use of higher-taxon surrogacy. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2965-2988.

Lach, L. 2007. A mutualism with a native membracid facilitates pollinator displacement by Argentine ants. Ecology 88(8):1994-2004.

LaFever, D.H., Lopez, R.R., Feagin, R.A., and Silvy, N.J. 2007. Predicting the impacts of future sea-level rise on an endangered lagomorph. Environ. Manage. 40(3):430-437.

Lafon, C.W., Waldron, J.D., Cairns, D.M., Tchakerian, M.D., Coulson, R.N., and Klepzig, K.D. 2007. Modeling the effects of fire on the long-term dynamics and restoration of yellow pine and oak forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):400-411.

Laurance, W.F. 2007. Switch to corn promotes Amazon deforestation. Science 318(5857):1721.

Lee, S.D., Jablonski, P.G., and Higuchi, H. 2007. Winter foraging of threatened cranes in the Demilitarized Zone of Korea: behavioral evidence for the conservation importance of unplowed rice fields. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):286-289.

Lee, T.M., Sodhi, N.S., and Prawiradilaga, D.M. 2007. The importance of protected areas for the forest and endemic avifauna of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Ecol. Appl. 17(6):1727-1741.

Li, G., Jiang, G.M., Li, Y.G., Liu, M.Z., Peng, Y., Li, L.H., and Han, X.G. 2007. A new approach to the fight against desertification in Inner Mongolia. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):95-97.

Liao, X.L., Wang, D., Yu, X.M., Li, W.T., Cheng, L., Wang, J.W., and Tong, J.G. 2007. Characterization of novel microsatellite loci in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and amplification in closely related species in Gobioninae. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):1003-1007.

Liu, Z., Ren, B., Wei, F., Long, Y., Hao, Y., and Ll, M. 2007. Phylogeography and population structure of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) inferred from mitochondrial control region DNA sequence analysis. Mol. Ecol. 16(16):3334-3349.

Lorence, D.H., and Perlman, S. 2007. A new species of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) from Hawai'i, Hawaiian Islands. Novon 17(3):357-361.

López-Pujol, J., Font, J., Simon, J., and Blanché, C. 2007. Can the preservation of historical relicts permit the conservation of endangered plant species? The case of Silene sennenii (Caryophyllaceae). Conserv. Genet. 8(4):903-912.

Mainguy, J., Worley, K., Côté, S.D., and Coltman, D.W. 2007. Low MHC DRB class II diversity in the mountain goat: past bottlenecks and possible role of pathogens and parasites. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):885-891.

Mandujano, M.C., Verhulst, J.A.M., Carrillo-Angeles, I.G., and Golubov, J. 2007. Population dynamics of Ariocarpus scaphirostris Bodeker (Cactaceae): evaluating the status of a threatened species. Int. J. Plant Sci. 168(7):1035-1044.

Markwith, S.H., and Parker, K.C. 2007. Conservation of Hymenocallis coronaria genetic diversity in the presence of disturbance and a disjunct distribution. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):949-963.

Mertz, O., Ravnborg, H.M., Lövei, G.L., Nielsen, I., and Konijnendijk, C.C. 2007. Ecosystem services and biodiversity in developing countries. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2729-2737.

Miller, J.R., and Hobbs, R.J. 2007. Habitat restoration - do we know what we're doing? Restor. Ecol. 15(3):382-390.

Miller, M.W., Mcclellan, D.B., Wiener, J.W., and Stoffle, B. 2007. Apparent rapid fisheries escalation at a remote Caribbean island. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):92-94.

Miotto, R.A., Rodrigues, F.P., Ciocheti, G., and Galetti, P.M. 2007. Determination of the minimum population size of pumas (Puma concolor) through fecal DNA analysis in two protected cerrado areas in the Brazilian Southeast. Biotropica 39(5):647-654.

Molnár, Z., Bartha, S., Seregélyes, T., Illyés, E., Botta-Dukát, Z., Timár, G., Horváth, F., Révész, A., Kun, A., Bölöni, J., Biró, M., Bodonczi, L., József, A.D., Fogarasi, P., Horváth, A., Isépy, I., Karas, L., Kecskés, F., Molnár, C., Ajkai, A.O.N., and Rév, S. 2007. A grid-based, satellite-image supported, multi-attributed vegetation mapping method (MÉTA). Folia Geobot. 42(3):225-247.

Mondor, E.B., and Addicott, J.F. 2007. Do exaptations facilitate mutualistic associations between invasive and native species? Biol. Invasions 9(6):623-628.

Morrison, J.A., and Mauck, K. 2007. Experimental field comparison of native and non-native maple seedlings: natural enemies, ecophysiology, growth and survival. J. Ecology 95(5):1036-1049.

Mortimer, J.A., Donnelly, M., Meylan, A.B., and Meylan, P.A. 2007. Critically endangered hawksbill turtles: molecular genetics and the broad view of recovery. Mol. Ecol. 16(17):3516-3517.

Motala, S.M., Krell, F.T., Mungroo, Y., and Donovan, S.E. 2007. The terrestrial arthropods of Mauritius: a neglected conservation target. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2867-2881.

Muskó, I.B., Balogh, C., Tóth, Á.P., Varga, É., and Lakatos, G. 2007. Differential response of invasive malacostracan species to lake level fluctuations. Hydrobiologia 590:65-74.

Muth, N.Z., and Pigliucci, M. 2007. Implementation of a novel framework for assessing species plasticity in biological invasions: responses of Centaurea and Crepis to phosphorus and water availability. J. Ecology 95(5):1001-1013.

Neflemann, C., Støen, O.G., Kindberg, J., Swenson, J.E., Vistnes, I., Ericsson, G., Katajisto, J., Kaltenborn, B.P., Martin, J., and Ordiz, A. 2007. Terrain use by an expanding brown bear population in relation to age, recreational resorts and human settlements. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):157-165.

Nicol, S.J., Batker, R.J., Koehn, J.D., and Burgman, M.A. 2007. Structural habitat selection by the critically endangered trout cod, Maccullochella macquariensis, Cuvier. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):30-37.

Nielsen, S.T. 2007. Deforestation and biodiversity: effects of bushland cultivation on dung beetles in semi-arid Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2753-2769.

O'Donnell, T.K., and Galat, D.L. 2007. River enhancement in the upper Mississippi River basin: approaches based on river uses, alterations, and management agencies. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):538-549.

Ohl-Schacherer, J., Shepard, G.H., Kaplan, H., Peres, C.A., Levi, T., and Yu, D.W. 2007. The sustainability of subsistence hunting by Matsigenka native communities in Manu National Park, Peru. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1174-1185.

Olsson, O. 2007. Genetic origin and success of reintroduced white storks. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1196-1206.

Palmer, M., Allan, J.D., Meyer, J., and Bernhardt, E.S. 2007. River restoration in the twenty-first century: data and experiential future efforts. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):472-481.

Palop-Esteban, M., Segarra-Moragues, J.G., and González-Candelas, F. 2007. Historical and biological determinants of genetic diversity in the highly endemic triploid sea lavender Limonium dufourii (Plumbaginaceae). Mol. Ecol. 16(18):3814-3827.

Panov, V.E., Rodionova, N.V., Bolshagin, P.V., and Bychek, E.A. 2007. Invasion biology of Ponto-Caspian onychopod cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera: Onychopoda). Hydrobiologia 590:3-14.

Paquette, S.R., Behncke, S.M., O'Brien, S.H., Brenneman, R.A., Louis, E.E., and Lapointe, F.J. 2007. Riverbeds demarcate distinct conservation units of the radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata) in southern Madagascar. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):797-807.

Pattanayak, S.K., and Wendland, K.J. 2007. Nature's care: diarrhea, watershed protection, and biodiversity conservation in Flores, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2801-2819.

Pautasso, M., and McKinney, M.L. 2007. The botanist effect revisited: plant species richness, county area, and human population size in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1333-1340.

Pearman, P.B., and Weber, D. 2007. Common species determine richness patterns in biodiversity indicator taxa. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):109-119.

Pedersen, A.B., Jones, K.E., Nunn, C.L., and Altizer, S. 2007. Infectious diseases and extinction risk in wild mammals. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1269-1279.

Perz, S.G., Overdevest, C., Caldas, M.M., Walker, R.T., and Arima, E.Y. 2007. Unofficial road building in the Brazilian Amazon: dilemmas and models for road governance. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):112-121.

Pierson, S.A.A., Keiffer, C.H., McCarthy, B.C., and Rogstad, S.H. 2007. Limited reintroduction does not always lead to rapid loss of genetic diversity: an example from the American chestnut (Castanea dentata; Fagaceae). Restor. Ecol. 15(3):420-429.

Prasad, G., Ali, P.H.A., and Raghavan, R. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Horabagrus nigricollaris (Pethiyagoda and Kottelat, 1994) (Bagridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 80(1):105.

Pratt, M.C., and Grason, E.W. 2007. Invasive species as a new food source: does a nudibranch predator prefer eating an invasive bryozoan? Biol. Invasions 9(6):645-655.

Qin, J.H., Xu, J., and Xie, P. 2007. Diet overlap between the endemic fish Anablariflus grahami (Cyprinidae) and the exotic noodlefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) in Lake Fuxian, China. J. Freshwater Ecol. 22(3):365-370.

Quayle, J.F., Ramsay, L.R., and Fraser, D.F. 2007. Trend in the status of breeding bird fauna in British Columbia, Canada, based on the IUCN Red List Index method. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1241-1247.

Raghu, S., and Walton, C. 2007. Understanding the ghost of Cactoblastis past: historical clarifications on a poster child of classical biological control. BioScience 57(8):699-705.

Randrianambinina, B., Mbotizafy, S., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ravoahangimalala, R.O., and Zimmermann, E. 2007. Seasonality in reproduction of Lepilemur edwardsi. Int. J. Primatol. 28(4):783-790.

Ranjbar, M. 2007. Note on Astragalus sect. Incani (Fabaceae) in Iran. Novon 17(3):390-392.

Rao, M.N., Ganeshaiah, K.N., and Shaanker, R.U. 2007. Assessing threats and mapping sandal resources to identify genetic 'hot-spot' for in-situ conservation in peninsular India. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):925-935.

Rasul, G. 2007. Political ecology of the degradation of forest commons in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):153-163.

Rawat, D.S., and Rana, C.S. 2007. Arenaria curvifolia Majumdar (Caryophyllaceae): an endangered, and endemic Himalayan herb rediscovered. Curr. Sci. 92(11):1486-1488.

Rayner, M.J., Clout, M.N., Stamp, R.K., Imber, M.J., Brunton, D.H., and Hauber, M.E. 2007. Predictive habitat modelling for the population census of a burrowing seabird: a study of the endangered Cook's petrel. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):235-247.

Reaser, J.K., Meyerson, L.A., Cronk, Q., De Poorter, M., Eldrege, L.G., Green, E., Kairo, M., Latasi, P., Mack, R.N., Mauremootoo, J., O'Dowd, D., Orapa, W., Sastroutomo, S., Saunders, A., Shine, C., Thrainsson, S., and Vaiutu, L. 2007. Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of invasive alien species in island ecosystems. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):98-111.

Reisch, C. 2007. Genetic structure of Saxifraga tridactylites (Saxifragaceae) from natural and man-made habitats. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):893-902.

Rentch, J.S., Schuler, T.M., Ford, W.M., and Nowacki, G.J. 2007. Red spruce stand dynamics, simulations, and restoration opportunities in the central Appalachians. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):440-452.

Rinella, M.J., Pokorny, M.L., and Rekaya, R. 2007. Grassland invader responses to realistic changes in native species richness. Ecol. Appl. 17(6):1824-1831.

Roll, U., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2007. Non-indigenous insect species in Israel and adjacent areas. Biol. Invasions 9(6):629-643.

Roman, J., and Darling, J.A. 2007. Paradox lost: genetic diversity and the success of aquatic invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(9):454-464.

Rowley, J.J.L., and Alford, R.A. 2007. Movement patterns and habitat use of rainforest stream frogs in northern Queensland, Australia: implications for extinction vulnerability. Wildlife Res. 34(5):371-378.

Ruggiero, L.F., Mckelvey, K.S., Aubry, K.B., Copeland, J.P., Pletscher, D.H., and Hornocker, I.G. 2007. Wolverine conservation and management. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(7):2145-2146.

Rumps, J.M., Katz, S.L., Barnas, K., Morehead, M.D., Jenkinson, R., Clayton, S.R., and Goodwin, P. 2007. Stream restoration in the Pacific Northwest: analysis of interviews with project managers. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):506-515.

Russello, M.A., Brazaitis, P., Gratten, J., Watkins-Colwell, G.J., and Caccone, A. 2007. Molecular assessment of the genetic integrity, distinctiveness and phylogeographic context of the Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) on Palau. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):777-787.

Sampaio, A.B., Holl, K.D., and Scariot, A. 2007. Does restoration enhance regeneration of seasonal deciduous forests in pastures in central Brazil? Restor. Ecol. 15(3):462-471.

Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Pfaff, A., Robalino, J.A., and Boomhower, J.P. 2007. Costa Rica's payment for environmental services program: intention, implementation, and impact. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1165-1173.

Sanders, N.J., Weltzin, J.F., Crutsinger, G.M., Fitzpatrick, M.C., Nuñez, M.A., Oswalt, C.M., and Lane, K.E. 2007. Insects mediate the effects of propagule supply and resource availability on a plant invasion. Ecology 88(9):2383-2391.

Sax, D.F., Stachowicz, J.J., Brown, J.H., Bruno, J.F., Dawson, M.N., Gaines, S.D., Grosberg, R.K., Hastings, A., Holt, R.D., Mayfield, M.M., O'Connor, M.I., and Rice, W.R. 2007. Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(9):465-471.

Schnitzler, A., Hale, B.W., and Alsum, E.M. 2007. Examining native and exotic species diversity in European riparian forests. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):146-156.

Schofield, G., Bishop, C.M., MacLean, G., Brown, P., Baker, M., Katselidis, K.A., Dimopoulos, P., Pantis, J.D., and Hays, G.C. 2007. Novel GPS tracking of sea turtles as a tool for conservation management. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 347(1-2):58-68.

Schultz, L., Folke, C., and Olsson, P. 2007. Enhancing ecosystem management through social-ecological inventories: lessons from Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):140-152.

Sei, M., and Porter, A.H. 2007. Delimiting species boundaries and the conservation genetics of the endangered maritime ringlet butterfly (Coenonympha nipisiquit McDunnough). Mol. Ecol. 16(16):3313-3325.

Sekhsaria, P. 2007. Conservation in India and the need to think beyond 'tiger vs. tribal'. Biotropica 39(5):575-577.

Shah, J.J.F., Dahm, C.N., Gloss, S.P., and Bernhardt, E.S. 2007. River and riparian restorationin the southwest: results of the national river restoration science synthesis project. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):550-562.

Sissenwine, M. 2007. Environmental science, environmentalism and governance. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):90-91.

Skelly, D.K., Joseph, L.N., Possingham, H.P., Freidenburg, L.K., Farrugia, T.J., Kinnison, M.T., and Hendry, A.P. 2007. Evolutionary responses to climate change. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1353-1355.

Smith, S.L., Sher, A.A., and Grant, T.A. 2007. Genetic diversity in restoration materials and the impacts of seed collection in Colorado's restoration plant production industry. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):369-374.

Soberón, J., and Medellín, R.A. 2007. Categorization systems of threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1366-1367.

Sreekantha, Chandran, M.D.S., Mesta, D.K., Rao, G.R., Gururaja, K.V., and Ramachandra, T.V. 2007. Fish diversity in relation to landscape and vegetation in central Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 92(11):1592-1603.

Storch, I. 2007. Conservation status of grouse worldwide: an update. Wildlife Biol. 13:5-12.

Sudduth, E.B., Meyer, J.L., and Bernhardt, E.S. 2007. Stream restoration practices in the southeastern United States. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):573-583.

Tassin, J., Rivierè, JN., and Clergeau, P. 2007. Reproductive versus vegetative recruitment of the invasive tree Schinus terebenthifolius: implications for restoration on Reunion Island. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):412-419.

Taylor, C.A., Schuster, G.A., Cooper, J.E., DiStefano, R.J., Eversole, A.G., Hamr, P., Hobbs, H.H., Robison, H.W., Skelton, C.E., and Thoma, R.E. 2007. A reassessment of the conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada after 10+ years of increased awareness. Fisheries 32(8):372-389.

Taylor, T.D., and Parkin, D.T. 2007. Characterisation of 13 microsatellite loci for the Moluccan Cockatoo, Cacatua moluccensis, and Cuban Amazon, Amazona leucocephala, and their conservation and utility in other parrot species (Psittaciformes). Conserv. Genet. 8(4):991-994.

Thalmann, U. 2007. Biodiversity, phylogeography, biogeography and conservation: lemurs as an example. Folia Primatolog. 78(5-6):420-443.

Thiengo, S.C., Faraco, F.A., Salgado, N.C., Cowie, R.H., and Fernandez, M.A. 2007. Rapid spread of an invasive snail in South America: the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, in Brasil. Biol. Invasions 9(6):693-702.

Thiha, Webb, E.L., and Honda, K. 2007. Biophysical and policy drivers of landscape change in a central Vietnamese district. Environ. Conserv. 34(2):164-172.

Thomas, M.B., and Reid, A.M. 2007. Are exotic natural enemies an effective way of controlling invasive plants? Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(9):447-453.

Thrall, P.H., Slattery, J.F., Broadhurst, L.M., and Bickford, S. 2007. Geographic patterns of symbiont abundance and adaptation in native Australian Acacia-rhizobia interactions. J. Ecology 95(5):1110-1122.

Titeux, N., Dufrene, M., Radoux, J., Hirzel, A.H., and Defourny, P. 2007. Fitness-related parameters improve presence-only distribution modelling for conservation practice: the case of the red-backed shrike. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):207-223.

Tolisano, J. 2007. Artists as the new naturalists: a response and expansion to Jacobson et al. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1135-1136.

Tompkins, M.R., and Kondolf, G.M. 2007. Systematic postproject appraisals to maximise lessons learned from river restoration projects: case study of compound channel restoration projects in Northern California. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):524-537.

Trauth, J.B., Johnson, R.L., and Trauth, S.E. 2007. Conservation implications of a morphometric comparison between the Illinois Chorus Frog (Pseudacris streckeri illinoensis) and Strecker's Chorus Frog (P. s. streckeri) (Anura: Hylidae) from Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Zootaxa 1589:23-32.

Tsumura, Y., Matsumoto, A., Tani, N., Ujino-Ihara, T., Kado, T., Iwata, H., and Uchida, K. 2007. Genetic diversity and the genetic structure of natural populations of Chamaecyparis obtusa: implications for management and conservation. Heredity 99(2):161-172.

Valladares, F., and Gianoli, E. 2007. How much ecology do we need to know to restore Mediterranean ecosystems? Restor. Ecol. 15(3):363-368.

van Grunsven, R.H.A., van der Putten, W.H., Bezemer, T.M., Tamis, W.L.M., Berendse, F., and Veenendaal, E.M. 2007. Reduced plant-soil feedback of plant species expanding their range as compared to natives. J. Ecology 95(5):1050-1057.

Vanderwel, M.C., Maicolm, J.R., and Mills, S.C. 2007. A meta-analysis of bird responses to uniform partial harvesting across North America. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1230-1240.

Vellend, M., Harmon, L.J., Lockwood, J.L., Mayfield, M.M., Hughes, A.R., Wares, J.P., and Sax, D.F. 2007. Effects of exotic species on evolutionary diversification. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(9):481-488.

Walton, M.E., Le Vay, L., Lebata, J.H., Binas, J., and Primavera, J.H. 2007. Assessment of the effectiveness of mangrove rehabilitation using exploited and non-exploited indicator species. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):180-188.

Ward, D.F. 2007. Modelling the potential geographic distribution of invasive ant species in New Zealand. Biol. Invasions 9(6):723-735.

Wedderburn, S.D., Walker, K.F., and Zampatti, B.P. 2007. Habitat separation of Craterocephalus (Atherinidae) species and populations in off-channel areas of the lower River Murray, Australia. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 16(3):442-449.

Wetterer, J.K. 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 3. The African big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Sci. 61(4):437-456.

Whiteman, C.W., Matushima, E.R., Confalonieric, U.E.C., Palha, M.D.C., da Silva, A.D.L., and Monteiro, V.C. 2007. Human and domestic animal populations as a potential threat to wild carnivore conservation in a fragmented landscape from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):290-296.

Wiens, J. 2007. The dangers of black-and-white conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1371-1372.

Wilkin, T.A., Garant, D., Gosler, A.G., and Sheldon, B.C. 2007. Edge effects in the great tit: analyses of long-term data with GIS techniques. Conserv. Biol. 21(5):1207-1217.

Williams, C.S., and Bonner, T.H. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Notropis sabinae (Jordan and Gilbert 1886) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 80(1):7-8.

Williams, D.A., Wang, Y.Q., Borchetta, M., and Gaines, M.S. 2007. Genetic diversity and spatial structure of a keystone species in fragmented pine rockland habitat. Biol. Conserv. 138(1-2):256-268.

Wilson, K.A., Underwood, E.C., Morrison, S.A., Klausmeyer, K.R., Murdoch, W.W., Reyers, B., Wardell-Johnson, G., Marquet, P.A., Rundel, P.W., McBride, M.F., Pressey, R.L., Bode, M., Hoekstra, J.M., Andelman, S., Looker, M., Rondinini, C., Kareiva, P., Shaw, M.R., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Conserving biodiversity efficiently: what to do, where, and when. PLoS Biol. 5(9):1850-1861.

Woodcock, M.R., Kippenhan, M.G., Knisley, C.B., and Foster, J.A. 2007. Molecular genetics of Cicindela (Cylindera) terricola and elevation of C. lunalonga to species level, with comments on its conservation status. Conserv. Genet. 8(4):865-877.

Zaiko, A., Olenin, S., Daunys, D., and Nalepa, T. 2007. Vulnerability of benthic habitats to the aquatic invasive species. Biol. Invasions 9(6):703-714.

Zambrana, N.Y.P., Byg, A., Svenning, J.C., Moraes, M., Grandez, C., and Balslev, H. 2007. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(10):2771-2787.

Zamora, C.O., and Montagnini, F. 2007. Seed rain and seed dispersal agents in pure and mixed plantations of native trees and abandoned pastures at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Restor. Ecol. 15(3):453-461.

Zhi, Y.B., Li, H.L., An, S.Q., Zhao, L., Zhou, C.F., and Deng, Z.F. 2007. Inter-specific competition: Spartina alterniflora is replacing Spartina anglica in coastal China. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 74(3):437-448.

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