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Department ofBotany

No. 278
February 2008

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In This Issue

Symposium to Explore Coevolution

The Departments of Botany, Entomology, and Paleobiology will convene the 2008 Smithsonian Botanical Symposium, "Partners in Evolution: Interactions, Adaptations, and Speciation," to be held at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., on 26 April 2008.

Plants and animals have ecologically interacted for hundreds of millions of years. These interactions have resulted in adaptations and specializations in both the plants and the animals. In some cases these adaptations have resulted in the coevolution of the two lineages. The 2008 Smithsonian Botanical Symposium will address the various ecological interactions, evolutionary adaptations, and co-radiations of plants and animals in habitats across the planet. The Symposium will also explore the processes of coevolution and how human alteration of environments is affecting the coevolutionary process.

The Symposium aims to highlight the new hall of coevolution, entitled "Partners in Evolution - Butterflies and Plants," which will open at the National Museum of Natural History in February of 2008. This new permanent exhibit will give visitors the opportunity to walk among living tropical and temperate butterflies and plants, and learn how they have co-evolved over millions of years generating the biological diversity we see today. Research of Smithsonian scientists dealing with the topic of coevolution will also be featured.

Registration and additional information about the 2008 Smithsonian Botanical Symposium are available at <>. You may also call 202-633-0920 or email for more information.


The Gloria Barron Wilderness Society Scholarship awards $10,000 each to two graduate students for the coming academic year to support research and preparation of a paper on an aspect of wilderness. Proposals relating to climate change are strongly encouraged. Additional funding will be provided to pay travel expenses for the recipient to work with staff members of The Wilderness Society on this project. The Society wishes to encourage the publication of this work in an academic journal or other appropriate medium and has additional funds to help cover expenses of publishing and publicizing the final paper.

Applicants must be (1) enrolled in an accredited graduate institution in North America, (2) have strong academic qualifications and (3) have academic and/or career goals focused on making a significant positive difference in the long-term protection of wilderness in North America. Graduate students in natural resources management, law or policy programs are strongly encouraged to apply.

The deadline for applications is March 3, 2008. For more information and application instructions, please visit <>. For additional questions, please contact Christine Soliva, Ecology and Economics Research Department, The Wilderness Society at

Current Literature

Adams, W.M. 2007. Thinking like a human: social science and the two cultures problem. Oryx 41(3):275-276.

Ahmad, K., Hussain, M., Ashraf, M., Luqman, M., Ashraf, M.Y., and Khan, Z.I. 2007. Indigenous vegetation of Soone valley: at the risk of extinction. Pakistan J. Bot. 39(3):679-690.

Alcaraz, C., and García-Berthou, E. 2007. Life history variation of invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) along a salinity gradient. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):83-92.

Aldridge, D.C., Fayle, T.M., and Jackson, N. 2007. Freshwater mussel abundance predicts biodiversity in UK lowland rivers. Aquat. Conserv. 17(6):554-564.

Anderson, C.B., and Rosemond, A.D. 2007. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile. Oecologia 154(1):141-153.

Apostolidis, A.P., Apostolou, P.K., Georgiadis, A., and Sandaltzopoulos, R. 2007. Rapid identification of Salmo trutta lineages by multiplex PCR utilizing primers tailored to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the mitochondrial control region. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1025-1028.

Archie, E.A., Hollister-Smith, J.A., Poole, J.H., Lee, P.C., Moss, C.J., Maldonado, J.E., Fleischer, R.C., and Alberts, S.C. 2007. Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants. Mol. Ecol. 16(19):4138-4148.

Arinaitwe, J.A., Ngeh, P.C., and Thompson, H.S. 2007. The contribution of the Important Bird Areas programme to the conservation of birds in Africa. Ostrich 78(2):139-143.

Arnedo, M.A., and Ferrández, M.A. 2007. Mitochondrial markers reveal deep population subdivision in the European protected spider Macrothele calpeiana (Walckenaer, 1805) (Araneae, Hexathelidae). Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1147-1162.

Arrendal, J., Vilà, C., and Björklund, M. 2007. Reliability of noninvasive genetic census of otters compared to field censuses. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1097-1107.

Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Mandujano, S., Benítez-Malvido, J., and Cuende-Fanton, C. 2007. The influence of large tree density on howler monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana) presence in very small rain forest fragments. Biotropica 39(6):760-766.

Attorre, F., Francesconi, F., Taleb, N., Scholte, P., Saed, A., Alfo, M., and Bruno, F. 2007. Will dragonblood survive the next period of climate change? Current and future potential distribution of Dracaena cinnabari (Socotra, Yemen). Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):430-439.

Ayala, J.R., Rader, R.B., Belk, M.C., and Schaalje, G.B. 2007. Ground-truthing the impact of invasive species: spatio-temporal overlap between native least chub and introduced western mosquitofish. Biol. Invasions 9(7):857-869.

Bacha, M., and Amara, R. 2007. Freshwater fish of Algeria. Study of the ichthyofauna of the Soummam River. Cybium 31(3):351-358.

Bali, A., Kumar, A., and Krishnaswamy, J. 2007. The mammalian communities in coffee plantations around a protected area in the Western Ghats, India. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):93-102.

Bardat, J., and Aubert, M. 2007. Impact of forest management on the diversity of corticolous bryophyte assemblages in temperate forests. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):47-66.

Barlow, J., Overal, W.L., Araujo, I.S., Gardner, T.A., and Peres, C.A. 2007. The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for fruit-feeding butterflies in the Brazilian Amazon. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(5):1001-1012.

Bartuszevige, A.M., Hrenko, R.L., and Gorchov, D.L. 2007. Effects of leaf litter on establishment, growth and survival of invasive plant seedlings in a deciduous forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 158(2):472-477.

Beebee, T.J.C. 2007. Population structure and its implications for conservation of the great silver beetle Hydrophilus piceus in Britain. Freshwater Biol. 52(11):2101-2111.

Beheler, A.S., Fike, J.A., and Rhodes, O.E. 2007. Eight new polymorphic microsatellite loci from the eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe). Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1259-1261.

Bizoux, J.P., and Mahy, G. 2007. Within-population genetic structure and clonal diversity of a threatened endemic metallophyte, Viola calaminaria (Violaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(5):887-895.

Bowman, J., Kidd, A.G., Gorman, R.M., and Schulte-Hostedde, A.I. 2007. Assessing the potential for impacts by feral mink on wild mink in Canada. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):12-18.

Bradter, U., Gombobaatar, S., Uuganbayar, C., Grazia, T.E., and Exo, K.M. 2007. Time budgets and habitat use of White-naped Cranes Grus vipio in the Ulz river valley, north-eastern Mongolia during the breeding season. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):259-271.

Brooks, T., Andriamaro, L., Gereau, R., Hawkins, F., Howell, K., Knox, D., Langhammer, P., Lamoreux, J.F., Lowry, P.P., Luke, Q., Matiku, P., McKnight, M.W., Msuya, C., Mugo, R., Rabarison, H., Rakotobe, Z.L., and Randrianasolo, H. 2007. Objectives and priorities for bird conservation and biodiversity in Africa. Ostrich 78(2):115-126.

Browne, C.L., and Hecnar, S.J. 2007. Species loss and shifting population structure of freshwater turtles despite habitat protection. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):421-429.

Bruskotter, J.T., Schmidt, R.H., and Teel, T.L. 2007. Are attitudes toward wolves changing? A case study in Utah. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):211-218.

Bryan, J.J., Gerber, G.P., Welch, M.E., and Stephen, C.L. 2007. Re-evaluating the taxonomic status of the Booby Cay Iguana, Cyclura carinata bartschi. Copeia 2007(3):734-739.

Cannon, C.H., Summers, M., Harting, J.R., and Kessler, P.J.A. 2007. Developing conservation priorities based on forest type, condition, and threats in a poorly known ecoregion: Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biotropica 39(6):747-759.

Carpintero, S., Retana, J., Cerdá, X., Reyes-López, J., and De Reyna, L.A. 2007. Exploitative strategies of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and native ant species in a southern Spanish pine forest. Environ. Entomol. 36(5):1100-1111.

Cassey, P., Lockwood, J.L., and Fenn, K.H. 2007. Using long-term occupancy information to inform the management of Cape Sable seaside sparrows in the Everglades. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):139-149.

Chaudhary, P. 2007. Global and local conservation priorities. Science 318(5855):1379.

Chiweshe, N. 2007. Black Eagles and hyraxes - the two flagship species in the conservation of wildlife in the Matobo Hills, Zimbabwe. Ostrich 78(2):381-386.

Chung, M.Y., and Chung, M.G. 2007. Extremely low levels of genetic diversity in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis thunbergii (Orchidaceae) in South Korea: implications for conservation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 155(2):161-169.

Coetzee, B.W.T., van Rensburg, B.J., and Robertson, M.P. 2007. Invasion of grasslands by silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Mimosaceae), alters beetle (Coleoptera) assemblage structure. Afr. Entomol. 15(2):328-339.

Cofre, H.L., Vilina, Y.A., Aguirre, J., Egli, W., Garcia, M.D., Kocksch, H., Rotrmann, J., Seeger, H., and Tala, C. 2007. Local distribution, abundance and conservation of black-headed duck in the Mediterranean wetlands of Chile. Waterbirds 30(3):412-416.

Crone, E.E., Pickering, D., and Schultz, C.B. 2007. Can captive rearing promote recovery of endangered butterflies? An assessment in the face of uncertainty. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):103-112.

Cryan, P.M., and Brown, A.C. 2007. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):1-11.

da Silva, R.M., Fernandes, G.W., and Lovato, M.B. 2007. Genetic variation in two Chamaecrista species (Leguminosae), one endangered and narrowly distributed and another widespread in the Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil. Can. J. Bot. 85(7):629-636.

Darling, J.A., and Blum, M.J. 2007. DNA-based methods for monitoring invasive species: a review and prospectus. Biol. Invasions 9(7):751-765.

Davies, A.J., Roberts, J.M., and Hall-Spencer, J. 2007. Preserving deep-sea natural heritage: emerging issues in offshore conservation and management. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):299-312.

De Francesco, C.G., and Lagiglia, H. 2007. A predatory land snail invades central-western Argentina. Biol. Invasions 9(7):795-798.

De Souza, A.T., Ilarri, M.D.I., De Medeiros, P.R., Grempel, R.G., Rosa, R.S., and Sampaio, C.L.S. 2007. Fishes (Elasmobranchii and Actinopterygii) of Picãozinho reef, Northeastern Brazil, with notes on their conservation status. Zootaxa 1608:11-19.

Dekoninck, W., De Koninck, H., Baugnee, J.Y., and Maelfait, J.P. 2007. Ant biodiversity conservation in Belgian calcareous grasslands: active management is vital. Belgian J. Zool. 137(2):137-146.

Devictor, V., Godet, L., Julliard, R., Couvet, D., and Jiguet, F. 2007. Can common species benefit from protected areas? Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):29-36.

Dinerstein, E. 2007. Global and local conservation priorities. Science 318(5855):1377.

Ditto, A.M., and Frey, J.K. 2007. Effects of ecogeographic variables on genetic variation in montane mammals: implications for conservation in a global warming scenario. J. Biogeogr. 34(7):1136-1149.

Dlugosch, K.M., and Parker, I.M. 2007. Molecular and quantitative trait variation across the native range of the invasive species Hypericum canariense: evidence for ancient patterns of colonization via pre-adaptation? Mol. Ecol. 16(20):4269-4283.

Dodman, T., and Diagana, C. 2007. Movements of waterbirds within Africa and their conservation implications. Ostrich 78(2):149-154.

Donlan, C.J., Campbell, K., Cabrera, W., Lavoie, C., Carrion, V., and Cruz, F. 2007. Recovery of the Galápagos rail (Laterallus spilonotus) following the removal of invasive mammals. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):520-524.

El Bekkay, M., Oubrou, W., Ribi, M., Smith, K., and Bowden, C. 2007. Programme of conservation for the Nothern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita) in Morocco. Ostrich 78(2):155-157.

Elliotr, M.L., Hurt, R., and Sydeman, W.J. 2007. Breeding biology and status of the California least tern Stema antillarum browni at Alameda Point, San Francisco Bay, California. Waterbirds 30(3):317-325.

Ellis, J.C., Shulman, M.J., Jessop, H., Suomala, R., Morris, S.R., Seng, V., Wagner, M., and Mach, K. 2007. Impact of Raccoons on breeding success in large colonies of Great Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls. Waterbirds 30(3):375-383.

Etterson, M.A., Etterson, J.R., and Cuthbert, F.J. 2007. A robust new method for analyzing community change and an example using 83 years of avian response to forest succession. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):381-389.

Evelyn, H., Belk, M., Victoriano, P., and Jaque, E. 2007. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns and conservation of fish assemblages in a Chilean coastal river. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3179-3191.

Facey, P.D., Lee, P.L.M., Smith, M.N.E., and Hipkin, C.R. 2007. Conservation of genetic diversity in British populations of the diploid endemic Coincya monensis ssp. monensis (Isle of Man Cabbage): the risk of hybridisation with the tetraploid alien, Coincya monensis ssp. cheiranthos. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1029-1042.

Ficetola, G.F. 2007. The influence of beach features on nesting of the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata in the Arabian Gulf. Oryx 41(3):402-405.

Ficetola, G.F., Coic, C., Detaint, M., Berroneau, M., Lorvelec, O., and Miaud, C. 2007. Pattern of distribution of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana in Europe. Biol. Invasions 9(7):767-772.

Fontaine, B., Bouchet, P., Van Achterberg, K., Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A., Araujo, R., Asche, M., Aspöck, U., Audisio, P., Aukema, B., Bailly, N., Balsamo, M., Bank, R.A., Barnard, P., Belfiore, C., Bogdanowicz, W., Bongers, T., Boxshall, G., Burckhardt, D., Camicas, J.L., Chylarecki, P., Crucitti, P., Deharveng, L., Dubois, A., Enghoff, H., Faubel, A., Fochetti, R., Gargominy, O., Gibson, D., Gibson, R., Gómez López, M.S., Goujet, D., Harvey, M.S., Heller, K.G., Van Helsdingen, P., Hoch, H., De Jong, H., De Jong, Y., Karsholt, O., Los, W., Lundquist, L., Magowski, W., Manconi, R., Martens, J., Massard, J.A., Massard-Geimer, G., Mcinnes, S.J., Mendes, L.F., Mey, E., Michelsen, V., Minelli, A., Nielsen, C., Nafria, J.M.N., Van Nieukerken, E.J., Noyes, J., Pape, T., Pohl, H., De Prins, W., Ramos, M., Ricci, C., Roselaar, C., Rota, E., Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Segers, H., Strassen, RZ., Szeptycki, A., Thibaud, J.M., Thomas, A., Timm, T., Van Tol, J., Vervoort, W., and Willmann, R. 2007. The European Union's 2010 target: putting rare species in focus. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):167-185.

Franklin, J. 2007. Recovery from clearing, cyclone and fire in rain forests of Tonga, South Pacific: vegetation dynamics 1995-2005. Austral Ecol. 32(7):789-797.

Franssen, N.R., Gido, K.B., and Propst, D.L. 2007. Flow regime affects availability of native and nonnative prey of an endangered predator. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):330-340.

Galarza, J.A., Roques, S., Carreras-Carbonell, J., Macpherson, E., Turner, G.F., and Rico, C. 2007. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the cardinal fish (Apogon imberbis). Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1251-1253.

Gale, S. 2007. Autogamous seed set in a critically endangered orchid in Japan: pollination studies for the conservation of Nervilia nipponica. Plant Syst. Evol. 268(1-4):59-73.

Gammon, M.A., Grimsby, J.L., Tsfrelson, D., and Kesseli, R. 2007. Molecular and morphological evidence reveals introgression in swarms of the invasive taxa Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and F. xbohemica (Polygonaceae) in the United States. Am. J. Bot. 94(6):948-956.

Gante, H.F., Santos, C.D., and Alves, M.J. 2007. A new species of Chondrostoma Agassiz, 1832 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) with sexual dimorphism from the lower Rio Tejo Basin, Portugal. Zootaxa 1616:23-35.

Garcia, G., Cunningham, A.A., Horton, D.L., Garner, T.W.J., Hyatt, A., Hengstberger, S., Lopez, J., Ogrodowczyk, A., Fenton, C., and Fa, J.E. 2007. Mountain chickens Leptodactylus fallax and sympatric amphibians appear to be disease free on Montserrat. Oryx 41(3):398-401.

Garnett, S.T., and Christidis, L. 2007. Implications of changing species definitions for conservation purposes. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):187-195.

Gergel, S.E., Stange, Y., Coops, N.C., Johansen, K., and Kirby, K.R. 2007. What is the value of a good map? An example using high spatial resolution imagery to aid riparian restoration. Ecosystems 10(5):688-702.

Gilman, E., Kobayashi, D., Swenarton, T., Brothers, N., Dalzell, P., and Kinan-Kelly, I. 2007. Reducing sea turtle interactions in the Hawaii-based longline swordfish fishery. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):19-28.

Goates, M.C., Hatcha, K.A., and Eggett, D.L. 2007. The need to ground truth 30.5 m buffers: a case study of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):474-483.

Gottschalk, T.K., Ekschmitt, K., Isfendiyaroglu, S., Gem, E., and Wolters, V. 2007. Assessing the potential distribution of the Caucasian black grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi in Turkey through spatial modelling. J. Ornithol. 148(4):427-434.

Gray, T.N.E., Chamnan, H., Borey, R., Collar, N.J., and Dolman, P.M. 2007. Habitat preferences of a globally threatened bustard provide support for community-based conservation in Cambodia. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):341-350.

Grazette, S., Horrocks, J.A., Phillip, P.E., and Isaac, C.J. 2007. An assessment of the marine turtle fishery in Grenada, West Indies. Oryx 41(3):330-336.

Grenyer, R., Orme, C.D.L., Davies, T.J., Jackson, S.F., Davies, R.G., Olson, V.A., Jones, K.E., Gaston, K.J., Blackburn, T.M., Thomas, G.H., Bennett, P.M., Rasmussen, P.C., Ding, T.S., Gittleman, J.L., and Owens, I.P.F. 2007. Effective global conservation strategies - reply. Nature 450(7171):E20.

Grimsby, J.L., Tsirelson, D., Gammon, M.A., and Kesseli, R. 2007. Genetic diversity and clonal vs. sexual reproduction in Fallopia spp. (Polygonaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(6):957-964.

Grotkopp, E., and Rejmánek, M. 2007. High seedling relative growth rate and specific leaf area are traits of invasive species: phylogenetically independent contrasts of woody angiosperms. Am. J. Bot. 94(4):526-532.

Hao, Y.L., Liu, Z.J., Wu, H., Ren, B.P., Wei, F.W., and Li, M. 2007. Isolation and characterization of 11 microsatellite loci for the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1021-1024.

Hardy, P.B., Sparks, T.H., Isaac, N.J.B., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2007. Specialism for larval and adult consumer resources among British butterflies: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):440-452.

Hatfield, R.G., and LeBuhn, G. 2007. Patch and landscape factors shape community assemblage of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in montane meadows. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):150-158.

Hayward, M.W., O'Brien, J., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2007. Carrying capacity of large African predators: predictions and tests. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):219-229.

Hocking, D.J., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2007. Effects of timber harvest on breeding-site selection by gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):506-513.

Horwich, R.H., and Lyon, J. 2007. Community conservation: practitioners' answer to critics. Oryx 41(3):376-385.

Houston, D.C., Mee, A., and McGrady, M. 2007. Why do condors and vultures eat junk? The implications for conservation. J. Raptor Res. 41(3):235-238.

Hsieh, H.J., Chen, C.L.A., Dai, C.F., Ou, W.S., Tsai, W.S., and Su, W.C. 2007. From the drawing board to the field: an example for establishing an MPA in Penghu, Taiwan. Aquat. Conserv. 17(6):619-635.

Hüls, J., Otte, A., and Eckstein, R.L. 2007. Population life-cycle and stand structure in dense and open stands of the introduced tall herb Heracleum mantegazzianum. Biol. Invasions 9(7):799-811.

Isbell, L.A., and Chism, J. 2007. Distribution and abundance of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya, 1979-2004. Am. J. Primatol. 69(11):1223-1235.

Jacquemyn, H., Vandepitte, K., Brys, R., Honnay, O., and Roldán-Ruiz, I. 2007. Fitness variation and genetic diversity in small, remnant populations of the food deceptive orchid Orchis purpurea. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):203-210.

James, A.I., and Eldridge, D.J. 2007. Reintroduction of fossorial native mammals and potential impacts on ecosystem processes in an Australian desert landscape. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):351-359.

Jankowski, J.E., and Rabenold, K.N. 2007. Endemism and local rarity in birds of neotropical montane rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):453-463.

Kaneko, S., Isagi, Y., and Nakagoshi, N. 2007. Development of microsatellite markers for Echinops setifer (Asteraceae), an endangered grassland plant species in Japan. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1231-1233.

Kappes, H., Lay, R., and Topp, W. 2007. Changes in different trophic levels of litter-dwelling macrofauna associated with giant knotweed invasion. Ecosystems 10(5):734-744.

Kawamura, K., Kubota, M., Furukawa, M., and Harada, Y. 2007. The genetic structure of endangered indigenous populations of the amago salmon, Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, in Japan. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1163-1176.

Keith, M., Rehema, W., and Fischer, A. 2007. Conflicts between humans over wildlife management: on the diversity of stakeholder attitudes and implications for conflict management. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3129-3146.

Kelly, J.R., and Volpe, J.R. 2007. Native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) survival and growth adjacent to non-native oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Bot. Mar. 50(3):143-150.

Kevin, J.G., Richard, A.F., Alison, L., Charlotte, M., Sinead, P., and Dempsey, N. 2007. Urban domestic gardens (XI): variation in urban wildlife gardening in the United Kingdom. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3227-3238.

Kingston, J.J., and Gwilliam, J. 2007. Hybridization between two sympatrically breeding species of fur seal at Iles Crozet revealed by genetic analysis. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1133-1145.

Kiringe, J.W., Okello, M.M., and Ekajul, S.W. 2007. Managers' perceptions of threats to the protected areas of Kenya: prioritization for effective management. Oryx 41(3):314-321.

Klein, Á., Nagy, T., Csörgö, T., and Mátics, R. 2007. Exterior nest-boxes may negatively affect Barn Owl Tyto alba survival: an ecological trap. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):273-281.

Kleinwächter, M., and Rickfelder, T. 2007. Habitat models for a riparian carabid beetle: their validity and applicability in the evaluation of river bank management. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3067-3081.

Kothera, L., Richards, C.M., and Carney, S.E. 2007. Genetic diversity and structure in the rare Colorado endemic plant Physaria bellii Mulligan (Brassicaceae). Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1043-1050.

Kumar, S., Agoramoorthy, G., and Hsu, M.J. 2007. Population size, density and conservation status of the grizzled giant squirrel in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Mammalia 71(1-2):89-94.

Larson, B.M.H. 2007. DNA barcoding: the social frontier. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(8):437-442.

Leech, T.J., Craig, E., Beaven, B., Mitchell, D.K., and Seddon, P.J. 2007. Reintroduction of rifleman Acanthisitta chloris to Ulva Island, New Zealand: evaluation of techniques and population persistence. Oryx 41(3):369-375.

Lemes, M.R., Grattapaglia, D., Grogan, J., Proctor, J., and Gribel, R. 2007. Flexible mating system in a logged population of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae): implications for the management of a threatened neotropical tree species. Plant Ecol. 192(2):169-179.

Leroux, S.J., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Cumming, S.G., Lessard, R.B., and Nagy, J. 2007. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design. Ecol. Appl. 17(7):1954-1966.

Leroux, S.J., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Lessard, R.B., and Cumming, S.G. 2007. Minimum dynamic reserves: a framework for determining reserve size in ecosystems structured by large disturbances. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):464-473.

Li, M., Liu, Z.J., Gou, J.X., Ren, B.P., Pan, R.L., Su, Y.J., Funk, S.A., and Wei, F.W. 2007. Phylogeography and population structure of the golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana): inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Am. J. Primatol. 69(11):1195-1209.

Lin, Y., and Tan, D.Y. 2007. The potential and exotic invasive plant: Solanum rostratum. Acta Phytotaxon. Sin. 45(5):675-685.

Lindbladh, M., Abrahamsson, M., Seedre, M., and Jonsell, M. 2007. Saproxylic beetles in artificially created high-stumps of spruce and birch within and outside hotspot areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3213-3226.

Liu, H., Stiling, P., and Pemberton, R.W. 2007. Does enemy release matter for invasive plants? evidence from a comparison of insect herbivore damage among invasive, non-invasive and native congeners. Biol. Invasions 9(7):773-781.

Lovell, S., Hamer, M., Slotow, R., and Herbert, D. 2007. Assessment of congruency across invertebrate taxa and taxonomic levels to identify potential surrogates. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):113-125.

Lozano, J., Virgós, E., Cabezas-Díaz, S., and Mangas, J.G. 2007. Increase of large game species in Mediterranean areas: is the European wildcat (Felis silvestris) facing a new threat? Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):321-329.

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Millus, S.A., Stapp, P., and Martin, P. 2007. Experimental control of a native predator may improve breeding success of a threatened seabird in the California Channel Islands. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):484-492.

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Murphy, M.A., Kendall, K.C., Robinson, A., and Waits, L.P. 2007. The impact of time and field conditions on brown bear (Ursus arctos) faecal DNA amplification. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1219-1224.

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Nantongo, P., Byaruhanga, A., and Mugisha, A. 2007. Community-based conservation of critical sites: Uganda's experience. Ostrich 78(2):159-162.

Naranjo, E.J., and Bodmer, R.E. 2007. Source-sink systems and conservation of hunted ungulates in the Lacandon Forest, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):412-420.

Narum, S.R., William, D.A., Talbot, A.J., and Powell, M.S. 2007. Reproductive isolation following reintroduction of Chinook salmon with alternative life histories. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1123-1132.

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Ngoprasert, D., Lynam, A.J., and Gale, G.A. 2007. Human disturbance affects habitat use and behaviour of Asiatic leopard Panthera pardus in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Oryx 41(3):343-351.

Nicholson, T.E., Mayer, K.A., Staedler, M.M., and Johnson, A.B. 2007. Effects of rearing methods on survival of released free-ranging juvenile southern sea otters. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):313-320.

Nijman, V., and Shepherd, C.R. 2007. Trade in non-native, CITES-listed, wildlife in Asia, as exemplified by the trade in freshwater turtles and tortoises (Chelonidae) in Thailand. Contrib. Zool. 76(3):207-211.

Nyström, P., Hansson, J., Månsson, J., Sundstedt, M., Reslow, C., and Broström, A. 2007. A documented amphibian decline over 40 years: possible causes and implications for species recovery. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):399-411.

O'Brien, J., McCracken, G.F., Say, L., and Hayden, T.J. 2007. Rodrigues fruit bats (Pteropus rodricensis, Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae) retain genetic diversity despite population declines and founder events. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1073-1082.

Pardo, B.G., López, A., Martinez, P., and Bouza, C. 2007. Novel microsatellite loci in the threatened European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) for genetic diversity and parentage analysis. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1243-1245.

Perini, D., Meloni, M., Wolff, K., and Binelli, G. 2007. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Primula glaucescens Moretti and their cross-species amplification in P. spectabilis Tratt. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1263-1266.

Perrine, J.D., Pollinger, J.P., Sacks, B.N., Barrett, R.H., and Wayne, R.K. 2007. Genetic evidence for the persistence of the critically endangered Sierra Nevada red fox in California. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1083-1095.

Pertoldi, C., Bijisma, R., and Loesclicke, V. 2007. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology: merging theoretical, experimental and applied approaches (Potsdam, Germany). Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1267-1268.

Petranka, J.W., Harp, E.M., Holbrook, C.T., and Hamel, J.A. 2007. Long-term persistence of amphibian populations in a restored wetland complex. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):371-380.

Plowes, R.M., Dunn, J.G., and Gilbert, L.E. 2007. The urban fire ant paradox: native fire ants persist in an urban refuge while invasive fire ants dominate natural habitats. Biol. Invasions 9(7):825-836.

Procaccinia, G., Olsen, J.L., and Reusch, T.B.H. 2007. Contribution of genetics and genomics to seagrass biology and conservation. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 350(1-2):234-259.

Rainey, H.J., and Zuberbühler, K. 2007. Seasonal variation in hornbill abundance in a West African national park detected using analysis of acoustic recordings. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):235-244.

Ratnayeke, S., van Manen, F.T., and Padmalal, U.K.G.K. 2007. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka. Wildlife Biol. 13(3):272-284.

Rautiainen, P., Aikio, S., and Hyvarinen, M. 2007. Growth and disturbance in the spatial dynamics of an endangered seashore grass Arctophila fulva var. pendulina. Ecol. Model. 207(2-4):145-154.

Reed, D.H., Nicholas, A.C., and Stratton, G.E. 2007. Inbreeding levels and prey abundance interact to determine fecundity in natural populations of two species of wolf spider. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1061-1071.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. 2007. Restoring Yellowstone's aspen with wolves. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):514-519.

Robalo, J., Doadrio, I., Valente, A., and Almada, V.C. 2007. Identification of ESUs in the critically endangered Portuguese minnow Chondrostoma lusitanicum Collares-Pereira 1980, based on a phylogeographical analysis. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1225-1229.

Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2007. Effective global conservation strategies. Nature 450(7171):E19.

Rodríguez, J.P., Taber, A.B., Daszak, P., Sukumar, R., Valladares-Padua, C., Padua, S., Aguirre, L.F., Medellín, R.A., Acosta, M., Aguirre, A.A., Bonacic, C., Bordino, P., Bruschini, J., Buchori, D., González, S., Mathew, T., Méndez, M., Mugica, L., Dobson, A.P., and Pearl, M. 2007. Global and local conservation priorities - response. Science 318(5855):1380-1382.

Rodríguez-Cabal, M.A., Aizen, M.A., and Novaro, A.J. 2007. Habitat fragmentation disrupts a plant-disperser mutualism in the temperate forest of South America. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):195-202.

Rodríguez-Ramilo, S.T., Toro, M.Á., Caballero, A., and Fernández, J. 2007. The accuracy of a heritability estimator using molecular information. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1189-1198.

Rodzen, J.A., Banks, J.D., Meredith, E.P., and Jones, K.C. 2007. Characterization of 37 microsatellite loci in mountain lions (Puma concolor) for use in forensic and population applications. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1239-1241.

Rohan, D.W., John, W.H.T., Stephen, E.W., and Yeates, D.K. 2007. Altitudinally restricted communities of Schizophoran flies in Queensland's Wet Tropics: vulnerability to climate change. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3163-3177.

Roll, U., Dayan, T., Simberloff, D., and Goren, M. 2007. Characteristics of the introduced fish fauna of Israel. Biol. Invasions 9(7):813-824.

Roques, S., Galarza, J.A., Macpherson, E., Turuer, G.F., Carreras-Carbonell, J., and Rico, C. 2007. Isolation of eight microsatellites loci from the saddled bream, Oblada melanura and cross-species amplification in two sea bream species of the genus Diplodus. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1255-1257.

Ryabtsev, V.V., and Katzner, T.E. 2007. Severe declines of Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca populations in the Baikal region, Russia: a modern and historical perspective. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):197-209.

Scarano, F.R. 2007. Global and local conservation priorities. Science 318(5855):1377-1379.

Schmid-Hempel, P., Schmid-Hempel, R., Brunner, P.C., Seeman, O.D., and Allen, G.R. 2007. Invasion success of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, despite a drastic genetic bottleneck. Heredity 99(4):414-422.

Schulman, L., Ruokolainen, K., Junikka, L., Sääksjärvi, I.E., Salo, M., Juvonen, S.K., Salo, J., and Higgins, M. 2007. Amazonian biodiversity and protected areas: do they meet? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3011-3051.

Seki, S.I., Takano, H., Kawakami, K., Kotaka, N., Endo, A., and Takehara, K. 2007. Distribution and genetic structure of the Japanese wood pigeon (Columba janthina) endemic to the islands of East Asia. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1109-1121.

Siemens, T.J., and Blossey, B. 2007. An evaluation of mechanisms preventing growth and survival of two native species in invasive bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica, Polygonaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94(5):776-783.

Silva, J.P., Faria, N., and Catry, T. 2007. Summer habitat selection and abundance of the threatened little bustard in Iberian agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):186-194.

Simmons, R., Baker, N., Braby, R., Dodman, T., Nasirwa, O., Tyler, S., Versfeld, W., Wearne, K., and Wheeler, M. 2007. The Chestnut-banded Plover is an overlooked globally Near Threatened species. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):283-293.

Skarpaas, O., and Shea, K. 2007. Dispersal patterns, dispersal mechanisms, and invasion wave speeds for invasive thistles. Am. Nat. 170(3):421-430.

Slough, B.G. 2007. Status of the wolverine Gulo gulo in Canada. Wildlife Biol. 13:76-82.

Small, R.D.S. 2007. Becoming unsustainable? Recent trends in the formal sector of insect trading in Papua New Guinea. Oryx 41(3):386-389.

Snoj, A., Razpet, A., TomIjanovic, T., Treer, T., and Susnik, S. 2007. Genetic composition of the Jadro softmouth trout following translocation into a new habitat. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1213-1217.

Song, B.H., and Mitchell-Olds, T. 2007. High genetic diversity and population differentiation in Boechera fecunda, a rare relative of Arabidopsis. Mol. Ecol. 16(19):4079-4088.

St-Ainour, V., and Lesbarrères, D. 2007. Genetic evidence of Ranavirus in toe clips: an alternative to lethal sampling methods. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1247-1250.

Steck, C.E., Bürgi, M., Bolliger, J., Kienast, F., Lehmann, A., and Gonseth, Y. 2007. Conservation of grasshopper diversity in a changing environment. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):360-370.

Struebig, M.J., Harrison, M.E., Cheyne, S.M., and Limin, S.H. 2007. Intensive hunting of large flying foxes Pteropus vampyrus natunae in Central Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Oryx 41(3):390-393.

Sutton, J.R., Stohlgren, T.J., and Beck, K.G. 2007. Predicting yellow toadflax infestations in the flat tops wilderness of Colorado. Biol. Invasions 9(7):783-793.

Taki, H., and Kevan, P.G. 2007. Does habitat loss affect the communities of plants and insects equally in plant-pollinator interactions? Preliminary findings. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3147-3161.

Telles, M.P.C., Diniz, J.A.F., Bastos, R.P., Soares, T.N., Guimarães, L.D., and Lima, L.P. 2007. Landscape genetics of Physalaemus cuvieri in Brazilian Cerrado: correspondence between population structure and patterns of human occupation and habitat loss. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):37-46.

Tepedino, V.J., Alston, D.G., Bradley, B.A., Toler, T.R., and Griswold, T.L. 2007. Orchard pollination in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Honey bees or native bees? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3083-3094.

Tepedino, V.J., Toler, T.R., Bradley, B.A., Hawk, J.L., and Griswold, T.L. 2007. Pollination biology of a disjunct population of the endangered sandhills endemic Penstemon haydenii S. Wats. (Scrophulariaceae) in Wyoming, USA. Plant Ecol. 193(1):59-69.

Tero, T., and Kotiaho, J.S. 2007. Mimicking natural disturbances of boreal forests: the effects of controlled burning and creating dead wood on beetle diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3193-3211.

Terry, M.A., and Hayden, W.J. 2007. Vascular flora of Powhatan County, Virginia. Castanea 72(3):138-158.

Theoharides, K.A., and Dukes, J.S. 2007. Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytol. 176(2):256-273.

Thiollay, J.M. 2007. Raptor declines in West Africa: comparisons between protected, buffer and cultivated areas. Oryx 41(3):322-329.

Thiollay, J.M. 2007. Raptor population decline in West Africa. Ostrich 78(2):405-413.

Thompson, J., Lugo, A.E., and Thomlinson, J. 2007. Land use history, hurricane disturbance, and the fate of introduced species in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. Plant Ecol. 192(2):289-301.

Tobias, J.A., and Brightsmith, D.J. 2007. Distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Blue-headed Macaw Primolius couloni. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):126-138.

Traill, L.W., Bradshaw, C.J.A., and Brook, B.W. 2007. Minimum viable population size: a meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates. Biol. Conserv. 139(1-2):159-166.

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Tyler, A.C., Lambrinos, J.G., and Grosholz, E.D. 2007. Nitrogen inputs promote the spread of an invasive marsh grass. Ecol. Appl. 17(7):1886-1898.

UNEP/MAP/Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas. 2007. Plan of action for the conservation of bird sanctuaries written in the Annex II of ASP protocol and biological diversity. Ostrich 78(2):145-148.

Valdovinos, C., Moya, C., Olmos, V., Parra, O., Karrasch, B., and Buettner, O. 2007. The importance of water-level fluctuation for the conservation of shallow water benthic macroinvertebrates: an example in the Andean zone of Chile. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):3095-3109.

Vale, M.M., Bell, J.B., Alves, M.A.S., and Pimm, S.L. 2007. Abundance, distribution and conservation of Rio Branco Antbird Cercomacra carbonaria and Hoary-throated Spinetail Synallaxis kollari. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):245-257.

Van Balen, S., and Nijman, V. 2007. New information on the Critically Endangered Javanese Lapwing Vanellus macropterus, based mainly on unpublished notes by August Spennemann (c. 1878-1945). Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):225-233.

Versieux, L.M., and Wendt, T. 2007. Bromeliaceae diversity and conservation in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(11):2989-3009.

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Walther, B.A., Schaffer, N., van Niekerk, A., Thuiller, W., Rahbek, C., and Chown, S.L. 2007. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Ibis 149(4):701-714.

Whitcraft, C.R., Talley, D.M., Crooks, J.A., Boland, J., and Gaskin, J. 2007. Invasion of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in a southern California salt marsh. Biol. Invasions 9(7):875-879.

Wilcox, J., and Beck, C.W. 2007. Effects of Ligustrum sinense Lour. (Chinese privet) on abundance and diversity of songbirds and native plants in a southeastern nature preserve. Southeast. Nat. 6(3):535-550.

Williams, M.C., and Wardle, G.M. 2007. Pinus radiata invasion in Australia: identifying key knowledge gaps and research directions. Austral Ecol. 32(7):721-739.

Williams, P.H., Araújo, M.B., and Rasmont, P. 2007. Can vulnerability among British bumblebee (Bombus) species be explained by niche position and breadth? Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):493-505.

Williams, S.L. 2007. Introduced species in seagrass ecosystems: status and concerns. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 350(1-2):89-110.

Willig, M.R., Bloch, C.P., Brokaw, N., Higgins, C., Thompson, J., and Zimmermann, C.R. 2007. Cross-scale responses of biodiversity to hurricane and anthropogenic disturbance in a tropical forest. Ecosystems 10(5):824-838.

Willig, M.R., Presley, S.J., Bloch, C.P., Hice, C.L., Yanoviak, S.P., Díaz, M.M., Chauca, L.A., Pacheco, V., and Weaver, S.C. 2007. Phyllostomid bats of lowland Amazonia: effects of habitat alteration on abundance. Biotropica 39(6):737-746.

Woodhams, D.C., Vredenburg, V.T., Simon, M.A., Billheimer, D., Shakhtour, B., Shyr, Y., Briggs, C.J., Rollins-Smith, L.A., and Harris, R.N. 2007. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to innate immune defenses of the threatened mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa. Biol. Conserv. 138(3-4):390-398.

Wynn, R.B., Josey, S.A., Martin, A.P., Johns, D.G., and Yesou, P. 2007. Climate-driven range expansion of a critically endangered top predator in northeast Atlantic waters. Biol. Lett. 3(5):529-532.

Xia, L., Yang, Q.S., Li, Z.C., Wu, Y.H., and Feng, Z.J. 2007. The effect of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on the migration of Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii in Hoh-xil National Nature Reserve, China. Oryx 41(3):352-357.

Xu, Y.C., Fang, S.G., and Li, Z.K. 2007. Sustainability of the South China tiger: implications of inbreeding depression and introgression. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1199-1207.

Yao, X.H., Ye, Q.G., Kang, M., and Huang, H.W. 2007. Microsatellite analysis reveals interpopulation differentiation and gene flow in the endangered tree Changiostyrax dolichocarpa (Styracaceae) with fragmented distribution in central China. New Phytol. 176(2):472-480.

Yasué, M., Patterson, A., and Dearden, P. 2007. Are saltflats suitable supplementary nesting habitats for Malaysian Plovers Charadrius peronii threatened by beach habitat loss in Thailand? Bird Conserv. Int. 17(3):211-223.

Zaonarivelo, J.R., Andriantompohavana, R., Shore, G.E., Engberg, S.E., McGuire, S.M., Louis, E.E., and Brenneman, R.A. 2007. Characterization of 21 microsatellite marker loci in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1209-1212.

Zayed, A., and Packer, L. 2007. The population genetics of a solitary oligolectic sweat bee, Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Heredity 99(4):397-405.

Zeng, Y., Jiang, Z.G., and Li, C.W. 2007. Genetic variability in relocated Pere David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) populations - implications to reintroduction program. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1051-1059.

Zheng-Feng, W., Gang, L., Shcng-Lei, F., and Hai, R. 2007. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Cryptocarya chinensis in lower subtropical China. Conserv. Genet. 8(5):1235-1237.

Zimmermann, F., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., and Breitenmoser, U. 2007. Importance of dispersal for the expansion of a Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx population in a fragmented landscape. Oryx 41(3):358-368.

Zona, S., Verdecia, R., Sánchez, A.L., Lewis, C.E., and Maunder, M. 2007. The conservation status of West Indian palms (Arecaceae). Oryx 41(3):300-305.

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