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Department ofBotany

No. 279
March 2008

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In This Issue

Conservation Biology: The View from Archaeology

Sustainable use, involving both consumptive and non-consumptive practices, is central to biological conservation. But this concept is confounded by divergent claims varying from persistent resource overuse to traditional practices that maintain the resource base. Arguments for either side of the debate routinely draw from contemporary situations, relying on relatively short time periods. If the notion "sustainable" is to be consequential, the period under consideration must be meaningful. Claims that trends over a few years, or even decades, are representative of long-term phenomena are questionable, for they depend on numerous untested assumptions.

Research in anthropology, conservation biology, ecology, restoration ecology, social development, and wildlife management is routinely constrained to relatively short time periods, and such results are of limited value for evaluating sustainable use. Archaeozoology provides unique tools for investigating trends in human-resource relations over periods of centuries and millennia. It is one of the few disciplines explicitly dedicated to the study of material evidence over significant time periods - an approach that bears directly on the question of sustainable use.

To nurture greater communication and collaboration between practitioners of conservation biology and archaeologists, a special issue of the Journal for Nature Conservation was dedicated to "Archaeozoology and Sustainable Use" (2007, 15(3): 163-222). Guest editor Jack Frazier, from Smithsonian's Conservation and Research Center, provided the introductory paper,followed by four case studies by archaeozoologists Jeffrey P. Blick, Kitty F. Emery, Michael A. Etnier, and Iain McKechnie.

The case studies inform us about past human interactions with the resource base, and illuminate the concept of human carrying capacity in prehistoric times, a question relevant to both small populations of little more than 500 people, as well as to large, complex societies of millions of people, actively involved in tribute and regional trade. The studies show that despite the common assumption that small human populations have few substantive impacts on their environment, this assumption needs to be viewed on a case-by-case basis. Claims that large complex prehistoric humans inevitably depleted wildlife populations also need to be evaluated carefully.

Despite ever-mounting evidence that prehistoric societies overexploited their prey populations, the studies in this special issue show that there were no species extinctions after centuries or millennia of exploitation. Hence, evaluations of sustainable use must be much more sensitive and subtle: populations of a species may continue to exist, but with depressed levels of abundance, with reduced/modified geographic distributions, or with smaller average body sizes. Objective, scientific evaluation of sustainable use, and other aspects of biological conservation, must contemplate archaeozoological evidence.

Current Literature

Acevedo, P., Cassinello, J., and Gortazar, C. 2007. The Iberian ibex is under an expansion trend but displaced to suboptimal habitats by the presence of extensive goat livestock in central Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3361-3376.

Ahyong, S.T., and Yeo, D.C.J. 2007. Feral populations of the Australian Red-Claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus von Martens) in water supply catchments of Singapore. Biol. Invasions 9(8):943-946.

Amo, L., López, P., and Martín, J. 2007. Natural oak forest vs. ancient pine plantations: lizard microhabitat use may explain the effects of ancient reforestations on distribution and conservation of Iberian lizards. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3409-3422.

Armstrong, D.P., and Cassey, P. 2007. Estimating the effect of inbreeding on survival. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):487-492.

Bernardo, J., Ossola, R.J., Spotila, J., and Crandall, K.A. 2007. Interspecies physiological variation as a tool for cross-species assessments of global warming-induced endangerment: validation of an intrinsic determinant of macroecological and phylogeographic structure. Biol. Lett. 3(6):695-698.

Betzholtz, P.E., Ehrig, A., Lindeborg, M., and Dinnétz, P. 2007. Food plant density, patch isolation and vegetation height determine occurrence in a Swedish metapopulation of the marsh fritillary Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):343-350.

Binks, R.M., Kennington, W.J., and Johnson, M.S. 2007. Rapid evolutionary responses in a translocated population of intertidal snail (Bembicium vittatum) utilise variation from different source populations. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1421-1429.

Biscardi, S., Russo, D., Casciani, V., Cesarini, D., Mei, M., and Boitani, L. 2007. Foraging requirements of the endangered long-fingered bat: the influence of micro-habitat structure, water quality and prey type. J. Zool. 273(4):372-381.

Blick, J.P. 2007. Pre-Columbian impact on terrestrial, intertidal, and marine resources, San Salvador, Bahamas (AD 950-1500). J. Nature Conserv. 15(3):174-183.

Bragagnolo, C., Nogueira, A.A., Pinto-da-Rocha, R., and Pardini, R. 2007. Harvestmen in an Atlantic forest fragmented landscape: evaluating assemblage response to habitat quality and quantity. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):389-400.

Brauns, M., Garcia, X.F., Walz, N., and Pusch, M.T. 2007. Effects of human shoreline development on littoral macroinvertebrates in lowland lakes. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(6):1138-1144.

Bremner, A., and Park, K. 2007. Public attitudes to the management of invasive non-native species in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):306-314.

Brisbin, I.L., and Peterson, A.T. 2007. Playing chicken with red junglefowl: identifying phenotypic markers of genetic purity in Gallus gallus. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):429-435.

Brooks, S.E., Allison, E.H., and Reynolds, J.D. 2007. Vulnerability of Cambodian water snakes: initial assessment of the impact of hunting at Tonle Sap Lake. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):401-414.

Burney, D.A., and Burney, L.P. 2007. Paleoecology and "inter-situ" restoration on Kaua'i, Hawai'i. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(9):483-490.

Burt, J.W., Muir, A.A., Piovia-Scott, J., Veblen, K.E., Chang, A.L., Grossman, J.D., and Weiskel, H.W. 2007. Preventing horticultural introductions of invasive plants: potential efficacy of voluntary initiatives. Biol. Invasions 9(8):909-923.

Carpaneto, G.M., Mazziotta, A., and Valerio, L. 2007. Inferring species decline from collection records: roller dung beetles in Italy (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Divers. Distrib. 13(6):903-919.

Carroll, S.P. 2007. Natives adapting to invasive species: ecology, genes, and the sustainability of conservation. Ecol. Res. 22(6):892-901.

Caruso, T., Pigino, G., Bernini, F., Bargagli, R., and Migliorini, M. 2007. The Berger-Parker index as an effective tool for monitoring the biodiversity of disturbed soils: a case study on Mediterranean oribatid (Acari: Oribatida) assemblages. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3277-3285.

Castro, A.L.F., Stewart, B.S., Wilson, S.G., Hueter, R.E., Meekan, M.G., Motta, P.J., Bowen, B.W., and Karl, S.A. 2007. Population genetic structure of Earth's largest fish, the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). Mol. Ecol. 16(24):5183-5192.

Caut, S., Casanovas, J.G., Virgos, E., Lozano, J., Witmer, G.W., and Courchamp, F. 2007. Rats dying for mice: modelling the competitor release effect. Austral Ecol. 32(8):858-868.

Chan, K.M.A. 2008. Conservation: in a rut, we need rut-inspired solutions. Nature 451(7175):127.

Chapman, J.W., Carlton, J.T., Bellinger, M.R., and Blakeslee, A.M.H. 2007. Premature refutation of a human-mediated marine species introduction: the case history of the marine snail Littorina littorea in the Northwestern Atlantic. Biol. Invasions 9(8):995-1008.

Chapron, G., and Arlettaz, R. 2008. Conservation: academics should 'conserve or perish'. Nature 451(7175):127.

Ciborowski, K.L., Consuegra, S., de Leániz, C.G., Wang, J., Beaumont, M.A., and Jordan, W.C. 2007. Stocking may increase mitochondrial DNA diversity but fails to halt the decline of endangered Atlantic salmon populations. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1355-1367.

Clifford, D.L., Woodroffe, R., Garcelon, D.K., Timm, S.F., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2007. Using pregnancy rates and perinatal mortality to evaluate the success of recovery strategies for endangered island foxes. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):442-451.

Collyer, M.L., Stockwell, C.A., Dean, C.A., and Reiser, M.H. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution in introduced populations: evidence from translocated populations of white sands pupfish (Cyrpinodon tularosa). Ecol. Res. 22(6):902-910.

Costa, G.C., Nogueira, C., Machado, R.B., and Colli, G.R. 2007. Squamate richness in the Brazilian Cerrado and its environmental-climatic associations. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):714-724.

Crossman, N.D., Bryan, B.A., Ostendorf, B., and Collins, S. 2007. Systematic landscape restoration in the rural-urban fringe: meeting conservation planning and policy goals. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3781-3802.

Croteau, E.K., Lougheed, S.C., Krannitz, P.G., Mahony, N.A., Walker, B.L., and Boag, P.T. 2007. Genetic population structure of the sagebrush Brewer's sparrow, Spizella breweri breweri, in a fragmented landscape at the northern range periphery. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1453-1463.

Crutsinger, G.M., Souza, L., and Sanders, N.J. 2008. Intraspecific diversity and dominant genotypes resist plant invasions. Ecol. Lett. 11(1):16-23.

Davidson, N.J., Close, D.C., Battaglia, M., Churchill, K., Ottenschlaeger, M., Watson, T., and Bruce, J. 2007. Eucalypt health and agricultural land management within bushland remnants in the Midlands of Tasmania, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):439-446.

Davies, H., Brereton, T.M., Roy, D.B., and Fox, R. 2007. Government targets for protected area management: will threatened butterflies benefit? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3719-3736.

Davies, R.J.P., Craigie, A.I., Mackay, D.A., Whalen, M.A., Cheong, J.P.E., and Leach, G.J. 2007. Resolution of the taxonomy of Eriocaulon (Eriocaulaceae) taxa endemic to Australian mound springs, using morphometrics and AFLP markers. Aust. Syst. Bot. 20(5):428-447.

Davis, A.K. 2007. Walking trails in a nature preserve alter terrestrial salamander distributions. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):385-389.

Davy, C.M., Russo, D., and Fenton, M.B. 2007. Use of native woodlands and traditional olive groves by foraging bats on a Mediterranean island: consequences for conservation. J. Zool. 273(4):397-405.

Degner, J.F., Stout, I.J., Roth, J.D., and Parkinson, C.L. 2007. Population genetics and conservation of the threatened southeastern beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris): subspecies and evolutionary units. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1441-1452.

Diaz-Almela, E., Arnaud-Haond, S., Vliet, M.S., Álvarez, E., Marbà, N., Duarte, C.M., and Serrão, E.A. 2007. Feed-backs between genetic structure and perturbation-driven decline in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1377-1391.

Dimalexis, A., Xirouchakis, S., Portolou, D., Latsoudis, P., Karris, G., Fric, J., Georgiakakis, P., Barboutis, C., Bourdakis, S., Ivovic, M., Kominos, T., and Kakalis, E. 2008. The status of Eleonora's Falcon (Falco eleonorae) in Greece. J. Ornithol. 149(1):23-30.

Domènech, R., and Vilà, M. 2007. Cortaderia selloana invasion across a Mediterranean coastal strip. Acta Oecol. 32(3):255-261.

Dudaniec, R.Y., Fessl, B., and Kleindorfer, S. 2007. Interannual and interspecific variation in intensity of the parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, in Darwin's finches. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):325-332.

Dunn, R.R., and Danoff-Burg, J.A. 2007. Road size and carrion beetle assemblages in a New York forest. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):325-332.

Eilu, G., Oriekot, J., and Tushabe, H. 2007. Conservation of indigenous plants outside protected areas in Tororo District, eastern Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 45:73-78.

El-Ghani, M.M.A., and Marei, A.H. 2007. Environment and vegetation of Randonia africana: an endangered desert plant in Egypt. Afr. J. Ecol. 45(4):469-475.

Elvira, B., and Almodóvar, A. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Chondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 81(1):27-28.

Elvira, B., and Almodóvar, A. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Chondrostoma scodrense Elvira, 1987 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 81(1):25-26.

Emery, K.F. 2007. Assessing the impact of ancient Maya animal use. J. Nature Conserv. 15(3):184-195.

Etnier, M.A. 2007. Defining and identifying sustainable harvests of resources: archaeological examples of pinniped harvests in the eastern North Pacific. J. Nature Conserv. 15(3):196-207.

Everaert, J., and Stienen, E.W.M. 2007. Impact of wind turbines on birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium). Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3345-3359.

Fatemi, M., Gross, C.L., and Bruhl, J.J. 2007. The first phenetic analysis of species limits in Bertya (Euphorbiaceae). Aust. Syst. Bot. 20(5):448-463.

Feeley, K.J., Gillespie, T.W., Lebbin, D.J., and Walter, H.S. 2007. Species characteristics associated with extinction vulnerability and nestedness rankings of birds in tropical forest fragments. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):493-501.

Fenner, A.L., Bull, C.M., and Hutchinson, M.N. 2007. Omnivorous diet of the endangered pygmy bluetongue lizard, Tiliqua adelaidensis. Amphibia-Reptilia 28(4):560-565.

Fisher, M.C. 2007. Potential interactions between amphibian immunity, infectious disease and climate change. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):420-421.

Fong, J.J., Parham, J.F., Shi, H., Stuart, B.L., and Carter, R.L. 2007. A genetic survey of heavily exploited, endangered turtles: caveats on the conservation value of trade animals. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):452-460.

Fontaine, B., Gargominy, O., and Neubert, E. 2007. Priority sites for conservation of land snails in Gabon: testing the umbrella species concept. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):725-734.

Franzen, M., and Mulder, M.B. 2007. Ecological, economic and social perspectives on cocoa production worldwide. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3835-3849.

Franzén, M., and Johannesson, M. 2007. Predicting extinction risk of butterflies and moths (Macrolepidoptera) from distribution patterns and species characteristics. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):367-390.

Frazier, J. 2007. Sustainable use of wildlife: the view from archaeozoology. J. Nature Conserv. 15(3):163-173.

Funk, W.C., Mullins, T.D., and Haig, S.M. 2007. Conservation genetics of snowy plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus) in the Western Hemisphere: population genetic structure and delineation of subspecies. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1287-1309.

Gamble, L.R., McGarigal, K., and Compton, B.W. 2007. Fidelity and dispersal in the pond-breeding amphibian, Ambystoma opacum: implications for spatio-temporal population dynamics and conservation. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):247-257.

Gareca, E.E., Martinez, Y.Y., Bustamante, R.O., Aguirre, L.F., and Siles, M.M. 2007. Regeneration patterns of Polylepis subtusalbida growing with the exotic trees Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus at Parque Nacional Tunari, Bolivia. Plant Ecol. 193(2):253-263.

Garner, T.W.J. 2007. Experimental evidence of innate immunity: a matter of design, convenience or constraints? Anim. Conserv. 10(4):418-419.

Gibson, L.A., and New, T.R. 2007. Characterising insect diversity on Australia's remnant native grasslands: ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and beetles (Coleoptera) at Craigieburn Grasslands Reserve, Victoria. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):409-413.

Giokas, S., Karkoulis, P., Pafilis, P., and Valakos, E. 2007. Relictual physiological ecology in the threatened land snail Codringtonia helenae: a cause for decline in a changing environment? Acta Oecol. 32(3):269-278.

Goldsworthy, S.D., and Page, B. 2007. A risk-assessment approach to evaluating the significance of seal bycatch in two Australian fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):269-285.

Greathead, C.F., Dorman, D.W., Mair, J.M., and Saunders, G.R. 2007. The sea pens Virgularia mirabilis, Pennatula phosphorea and Funiculina quadrangularis: distribution and conservation issues in Scottish waters. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 87(5):1095-1103.

Greenlees, M.J., Brown, G.P., Webb, J.K., Phillips, B.L., and Shine, R. 2007. Do invasive cane toads (Chaunus marinus) compete with Australian frogs (Cyclorana australis)? Austral Ecol. 32(8):900-907.

Griffiths, A.D., and McKay, J.L. 2007. Cane toads reduce the abundance and site occupancy of Merten's water monitor (Varanus mertensi). Wildlife Res. 34(8):609-615.

Guillemain, M., Blanc, R., Lucas, C., and Lepley, M. 2007. Ecotourism disturbance to wildfowl in protected areas: historical, empirical and experimental approaches in the Camargue, Southern France. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3633-3651.

Gujja, B. 2007. Conservation of high-altitude wetlands: 368 experiences of the WWF network. Mtn. Res. Dev. 27(4):368-371.

Gutiérrez, D., and Menéndez, R. 2007. Regional hotspots of butterfly diversity in a protected area: are they indicators of unique assemblages and areas with more species of conservation concern? Acta Oecol. 32(3):301-311.

Hahn, B.A., and Silverman, E.D. 2007. Managing breeding forest songbirds with conspecific song playbacks. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):436-441.

Hawkes, C.V. 2007. Are invaders moving targets? The generality and persistence of advantages in size, reproduction, and enemy release in invasive plant species with time since introduction. Am. Nat. 170(6):832-843.

Henry, M., Cosson, J.F., and Pons, J.M. 2007. Abundance may be a misleading indicator of fragmentation-sensitivity: the case of fig-eating bats. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):462-467.

Hernández-Stefanoni, J.L., and Dupuy, J.M. 2007. Mapping species density of trees, shrubs and vines in a tropical forest, using field measurements, satellite multiespectral imagery and spatial interpolation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3817-3833.

Hochkirch, A., Witzenberger, K.A., Teerling, A., and Niemeyer, F. 2007. Translocation of an endangered insect species, the field cricket (Gryllus campestris Linnaeus, 1758) in northern Germany. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3597-3607.

Holmes, E.E., Sabo, J.L., Viscido, S.V., and Fagan, W.F. 2007. A statistical approach to quasi-extinction forecasting. Ecol. Lett. 10(12):1182-1198.

Horn, J.L., Plisko, J.D., and Hamer, M.L. 2007. The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa: diversity, communities and conservation. Afr. Zool. 42(2):172-179.

Huber, C., Schulze, C., and Baumgarten, M. 2007. The effect of femel- and small scale clear-cutting on ground dwelling spider communities in a Norway spruce forest in Southern Germany. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3653-3680.

Izawa, T., Kawahara, T., and Takahashi, H. 2007. Genetic diversity of an endangered plant, Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae): background genetic research for future conservation. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1369-1376.

Jabin, M., Topp, W., Kulfan, J., and Zach, P. 2007. The distribution pattern of centipedes in four primeval forests of central Slovakia. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3437-3445.

Jackson, S.T. 2007. Looking forward from the past: history, ecology, and conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(9):455.

Johnsen, S.I., Taugbol, T., Andersen, O., Museth, J., and Vrålstad, T. 2007. The first record of the non-indigenous signal crayfish Pasifastacus leniusculus in Norway. Biol. Invasions 9(8):939-941.

Jongepierová, I., Mitchley, J., and Tzanopoulos, J. 2007. A field experiment to recreate species rich hay meadows using regional seed mixtures. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):297-305.

Kallimanis, A.S., Ragia, V., Sgardelis, S.P., and Pantis, J.D. 2007. Using regression trees to predict alpha diversity based upon geographical and habitat characteristics. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3863-3876.

Kalogirou, S., Corsini, M., Kondilatos, G., and Wennhage, H. 2007. Diet of the invasive piscivorous fish Fistularia commersonii in a recently colonized area of the eastern Mediterranean. Biol. Invasions 9(8):887-896.

Karanth, K.K. 2007. Making resettlement work: the case of India's Bhadra wildlife sanctuary. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):315-324.

Kati, V., Foufopoulos, J., Ioannidis, Y., Papaioannou, H., Poirazidis, K., and Lebrun, P. 2007. Diversity, ecological structure and conservation of herpetofauna in a Mediterranean area (Dadia National Park, Greece). Amphibia-Reptilia 28(4):517-529.

Kinnison, M.T., Hendry, A.P., and Stockwell, C.A. 2007. Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology II: impediments to integration and application. Ecol. Res. 22(6):947-954.

Knight, K.S., Kurylo, J.S., Endress, A.G., Stewart, J.R., and Reich, P.B. 2007. Ecology and ecosystem impacts of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica): a review. Biol. Invasions 9(8):925-937.

Knowlton, J.L., Donlan, C.J., Roemer, G.W., Samaniego-Herrera, A., Kertt, B.S., Wood, B., Aguirre-Muñoz, A., Faulknier, K.R., and Tershy, B.R. 2007. Eradication of non-native mammals and the status of insular mammals on the California Channel Islands, USA, and Pacific Baja California Peninsula Islands, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 52(4):528-540.

Kodric-Brown, A., Wilcox, C., Bragg, J.G., and Brown, J.H. 2007. Dynamics of fish in Australian desert springs: role of large-mammal disturbance. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):789-798.

Koh, L.P. 2007. Impending disaster or sliver of hope for Southeast Asian forests? The devil may lie in the details. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3935-3938.

Kopra, K., and Feller, M.C. 2007. Forest fires and old-growth forest abundance in wet, cold, Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir forests of British Columbia, Canada. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):345-353.

Kurtz, J., and Scharsack, J.P. 2007. Resistance is skin-deep: innate immunity may help amphibians to survive a deadly fungus. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):422-424.

Kuussaari, M., Heliölä, J., Pöyry, J., and Saarinen, K. 2007. Contrasting trends of butterfly species preferring semi-natural grasslands, field margins and forest edges in northern Europe. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):351-366.

Kyle, G.P., Beard, K.H., and Kulmatiski, A. 2007. Reduced soil compaction enhances establishment of non-native plant species. Plant Ecol. 193(2):223-232.

Larson, B.M.H. 2007. An alien approach to invasive species: objectivity and society in invasion biology. Biol. Invasions 9(8):947-956.

Lasne, E., Lek, S., and Laffaille, P. 2007. Patterns in fish assemblages in the Loire floodplain: the role of hydrological connectivity and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):258-268.

Last, P.R., Gledhill, D.C., and Holmes, B.H. 2007. A new handfish, Brachionichthys australis sp. nov. (Lophiiformes: Brachionichthyidae), with a redescription of the critically endangered spotted handfish, B. hirsutus (Lacepede). Zootaxa 1666:53-68.

Lawes, M.J., Joubert, R., Griffiths, M.E., Boudreau, S., and Chapman, C.A. 2007. The effect of the spatial scale of recruitment on tree diversity in Afromontane forest fragments. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):447-456.

Le Corre, M. 2008. Cats, rats and seabirds. Nature 451(7175):134-135.

Leberg, P.L., Green, M.C., Adams, B.A., Purcell, K.M., and Luent, M.C. 2007. Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):502-508.

Leicht-Young, S.A., Silander, J.A., and Latimer, A.M. 2007. Comparative performance of invasive and native Celastrus species across environmental gradients. Oecologia 154(2):273-282.

Leite, Y.L.R., Loss, S., Rego, R.P., Costa, L.P., and Bonvicino, C.R. 2007. The rediscovery and conservation status of the Bahian giant tree rat Phyllomys unicolor (Mammalia: Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Zootaxa 1638:51-57.

Levin, N., Shmida, A., Levanoni, O., Tamari, H., and Kark, S. 2007. Predicting mountain plant richness and rarity from space using satellite-derived vegetation indices. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):692-703.

Levinsky, I., Skov, F., Svenning, J.C., and Rahbek, C. 2007. Potential impacts of climate change on the distributions and diversity patterns of European mammals. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3803-3816.

Lindenmayer, D., Hobbs, R.J., Montague-Drake, R., Alexandra, J., Bennett, A., Burgman, M., Cale, P., Calhoun, A., Cramer, V., Cullen, P., Driscoll, D., Fahrig, L., Fischer, J., Franklin, J., Haila, Y., Hunter, M., Gibbons, P., Lake, S., Luck, G., MacGregor, C., McIntyre, S., Mac Nally, R., Manning, A., Miller, J., Mooney, H., Noss, R., Possingham, H., Saunders, D., Schmiegelow, F., Scott, M., Simberloff, D., Sisk, T., Tabor, G., Walker, B., Wiens, J., Woinarski, J., and Zavaleta, E. 2008. A checklist for ecological management of landscapes for conservation. Ecol. Lett. 11(1):78-91.

López-López, P., García-Ripollés, C., Soutullo, Á., Cadahía, L., and Urios, V. 2007. Are important bird areas and special protected areas enough for conservation?: the case of Bonelli's eagle in a Mediterranean area. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3755-3780.

Losey, J.E., Perlman, J.E., and Hoebeke, E.R. 2007. Citizen scientist rediscovers rare nine-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata, in eastern North America. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):415-417.

Lu, H.F., Campbell, D., Chen, J., Qin, P., and Ren, H. 2007. Conservation and economic viability of nature reserves: an emergy evaluation of the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):415-438.

Luck, G.W. 2007. A review of the relationships between human population density and biodiversity. Biol. Rev. 82(4):607-645.

Maren, I.E., and Vetaas, O.R. 2007. Does regulated land use allow regeneration of keystone forest species in the Annapurna conservation area, central Himalaya? Mtn. Res. Dev. 27(4):345-351.

Marignani, M., Del Vico, E., and Maccherini, S. 2007. Spatial scale and sampling size affect the concordance between remotely sensed information and plant community discrimination in restoration monitoring. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3851-3861.

Martínez, J.E., Pagán, I., Palazón, J.A., and Calvo, J.F. 2007. Habitat use of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) in a special protection area: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3481-3488.

Mattson, W., Vanhanen, H., Veteli, T., Sivonen, S., and Niemela, P. 2007. Few immigrant phytophagous insects on woody plants in Europe: legacy of the European crucible? Biol. Invasions 9(8):957-974.

McGoogan, K., Kivell, T., Hutchison, M., Young, H., Blanchard, S., Keeth, M., and Lehman, S.M. 2007. Phylogenetic diversity and the conservation biogeography of African primates. J. Biogeogr. 34(11):1962-1974.

McKechnie, I. 2007. Investigating the complexities of sustainable fishing at a prehistoric village on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. J. Nature Conserv. 15(3):208-222.

McKenney, J.L., Cripps, M.G., Price, W.J., Hinz, H.L., and Schwarzländer, M. 2007. No difference in competitive ability between invasive North American and native European Lepidium draba populations. Plant Ecol. 193(2):293-303.

Melo, S.C.O., Gaiotto, F.A., Cupertino, F.B., Corrêa, R.X., Reis, A.M.M., Grattapaglia, D., and Brondani, R.P.V. 2007. Microsatellite markers for Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood), a tree that named a country. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1269-1271.

Metcalf, C.J.E., Hampson, K., and Koons, D.N. 2007. What happens if density increases? Conservation implications of population influx into refuges. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):478-486.

Metcalf, J.L., Pritchard, V.L., Silvestri, S.M., Jenkins, J.B., Wood, J.S., Cowley, D.E., Evans, R.P., Shiozawa, D.K., and Martin, A.P. 2007. Across the great divide: genetic forensics reveals misidentification of endangered cutthroat trout populations. Mol. Ecol. 16(21):4445-4454.

Metzger, K.L., Sinclair, A.R.E., Campbell, K.L.I., Hilborn, R., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Mduma, S.A.R., and Reich, R.M. 2007. Using historical data to establish baselines for conservation: the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) of the Serengeti as a case study. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):358-374.

Meyer, K.M., Gimpel, K., and Brandl, R. 2007. Viability analysis of endangered crayfish populations. J. Zool. 273(4):364-371.

Midgley, A.C. 2007. The social negotiation of nature conservation policy: conserving pinewoods in the Scottish Highlands. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3317-3332.

Mingozzi, T., Masciari, G., Paolillo, G., Pisani, B., Russo, M., and Massolo, A. 2007. Discovery of a regular nesting area of loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta in southern Italy: a new perspective for national conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3519-3541.

Miura, O. 2007. Molecular genetic approaches to elucidate the ecological and evolutionary issues associated with biological invasions. Ecol. Res. 22(6):876-883.

Moreira-Muñoz, A., and Muñoz-Schick, M. 2007. Classification, diversity, and distribution of Chilean Asteraceae: implications for biogeography and conservation. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):818-828.

Moreno, S., Beltrán, J.F., Cotilla, I., Kuffner, B., Laffite, R., Jordán, G., Ayala, J., Quintero, C., Jiménez, A., Castro, F., Cabezas, S., and Villafuerte, R. 2007. Long-term decline of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in south-western Spain. Wildlife Res. 34(8):652-658.

Moritz, R.F.A., Kraus, F.B., Kryger, P., and Crewe, R.M. 2007. The size of wild honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) and its implications for the conservation of honeybees. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):391-397.

Moro, D., and Gadal, S. 2007. Benefits of habitat restoration to small mammal diversity and abundance in a pastoral agricultural landscape in mid-Wales. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3543-3557.

Mouly, A., and Achille, F. 2007. The enigmatic Rhopalobrachium fragrans transferred to Cyclophyllum (Rubiaceae). Syst. Bot. 32(4):883-887.

Muhanguzi, H.D.R., Obua, J., and Oryem-Origa, H. 2007. The effect of human disturbance on tree species composition and demographic structure in Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 45:2-10.

Mukherjee, N., Mondol, S., Andheria, A., and Ramakrishnan, U. 2007. Rapid multiplex PCR based species identification of wild tigers using non-invasive samples. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1465-1470.

Murdoch, W., Polasky, S., Wilson, K.A., Possingham, H.P., Kareiva, P., and Shaw, R. 2007. Maximizing return on investment in conservation. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):375-388.

Nascimbene, J., Nimis, P.L., and Marini, L. 2007. Testing indicators of epiphytic lichen diversity: a case study in N Italy. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3377-3383.

Nautiyal, S., and Kaechele, H. 2007. Conserving the Himalayan forests: approaches and implications of different conservation regimes. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3737-3754.

Negro, M., Casale, A., Migliore, L., Palestrini, C., and Rolando, A. 2007. The effect of local anthropogenic habitat heterogeneity on assemblages of carabids (Coleoptera, Caraboidea) endemic to the Alps. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3919-3932.

Neira, C., Levin, L.A., Grosholz, E.D., and Mendoza, G. 2007. Influence of invasive Spartina growth stages on associated macrofaunal communities. Biol. Invasions 9(8):975-993.

New, T.R. 2007. Recovery plans for insects: what should they contain, and what should they achieve? J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):321-324.

Nicolè, F., Tellier, F., Vivat, A., and Till-Bottraud, I. 2007. Conservation unit status inferred for plants by combining interspecific crosses and AFLP. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1273-1285.

Niggebrugge, K., Durance, I., Watson, A.M., Leuven, R.S.E.W., and Ormerod, S. 2007. Applying landscape ecology to conservation biology: spatially explicit analysis reveals dispersal limits on threatened wetland gastropods. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):286-296.

Niu, H., Wang, N., Zhao, L., and Liu, J. 2007. Distribution and underground habitats of cave-dwelling bats in China. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):470-477.

Norscia, I. 2008. Pilot survey of avahi population (woolly lemurs) in littoral forest fragments of southeast Madagascar. Primates 49(1):85-88.

Ohnishi, N., Saitoh, T., Ishibashi, Y., and Oi, T. 2007. Low genetic diversities in isolated populations of the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Japan, in comparison with large stable populations. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1331-1337.

Olden, J.D., Hogan, Z.S., and Zanden, M.J.V. 2007. Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(6):694-701.

Osborne, P.E., and Suárez-Seoane, S. 2007. Identifying core areas in a species' range using temporal suitability analysis: an example using little bustards Tetrax tetrax L. in Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3505-3518.

Oyler-McCance, S.J., Ransler, F.A., Berkman, L.K., and Quinn, T.W. 2007. A rangewide population genetic study of trumpeter swans. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1339-1353.

Paiaro, V., Mangeaud, A., and Pucheta, E. 2007. Alien seedling recruitment as a response to altitude and soil disturbance in the mountain grasslands of central Argentina. Plant Ecol. 193(2):279-291.

Palacios-Vargas, J.G., Castaño-Meneses, G., Gómez-Anaya, J.A., Martínez-Yrizar, A., Mejía-Recamier, B.E., and Martínez-Sánchez, J. 2007. Litter and soil arthropods diversity and density in a tropical dry forest ecosystem in Western Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3703-3717.

Papes, M., and Gaubert, P. 2007. Modelling ecological niches from low numbers of occurrences: assessment of the conservation status of poorly known viverrids (Mammalia, Carnivora) across two continents. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):890-902.

Pastor, T., Garza, J.C., Aguilar, A., Tounta, E., and Androukaki, E. 2007. Genetic diversity and differentiation between the two remaining populations of the critically endangered Mediterranean monk seal. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):461-469.

Peel, M.J.S., Kruger, J.M., and MacFadyen, S. 2007. Woody vegetation of a mosaic of protected areas adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. J. Veg. Sci. 18(6):807-814.

Pérez-Collazos, E., and Catalán, P. 2007. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation implications for the Iberian threatened populations of the irano-turanian relict Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (Chenopodiaceae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 92(3):419-429.

Picó, F.X., and van Groenendael, J. 2007. Large-scale plant conservation in European semi-natural grasslands: a population genetic perspective. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):920-926.

Pluhácek, J., Sinha, S.P., Bartoš, L., and Šípek, P. 2007. Parity as a major factor affecting infant mortality of highly endangered Indian rhinoceros: evidence from zoos and Dudhwa National Park, India. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):457-461.

Polus, E., Vandewoestijne, S., Choutt, J., and Baguette, M. 2007. Tracking the effects of one century of habitat loss and fragmentation on calcareous grassland butterfly communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3423-3436.

Pomarico, M., Figliuolo, G., and Rana, G.L. 2007. Tuber spp. biodiversity in one of the southernmost European distribution areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3447-3461.

Prentis, P.J., White, E.M., Radford, I.J., Lowe, A.J., and Clarke, A.R. 2007. Can hybridization cause local extinction: a case for demographic swamping of the Australian native Senecio pinnatifolius by the invasive Senecio madagascariensis? New Phytol. 176(4):902-912.

Pritchard, V.L., Jones, K., and Cowley, D.E. 2007. Estimation of introgression in cutthroat trout populations using microsatellites. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1311-1329.

Qin, B., Lau, J.A., Kopshever, J., Callaway, R.M., McGray, H., Perry, L.G., Weir, T.L., Paschke, M.W., Hierro, J.L., Yoder, J., Vivanco, J.M., and Strauss, S. 2007. No evidence for root-mediated allelopathy in Centaurea solstitialis, a species in a commonly allelopathic genus. Biol. Invasions 9(8):897-907.

Quérouil, S., Silva, M.A., Freitas, L., Prieto, R., Magalhães, S., Dinis, A., Alves, F., Matos, J.A., Mendonça, D., Hammond, P.S., and Santos, R.S. 2007. High gene flow in oceanic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of the North Atlantic. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1405-1419.

Raabová, J., Münzbergová, Z., and Fischer, M. 2007. Ecological rather than geographic or genetic distance affects local adaptation of the rare perennial herb, Aster amellus. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):348-357.

Reid, S.M., Mandrak, N.E., Carl, L.M., and Wilson, C.C. 2008. Influence of dams and habitat condition on the distribution of redhorse (Moxostoma) species in the Grand River watershed, Ontario. Environ. Biol. Fish. 81(1):111-125.

Robertson, B.C., Steeves, T.E., McBride, K.P., Goldstien, S.J., Williams, M., and Gemmell, N.J. 2007. Phylogeography of the New Zealand blue duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos): implications for translocation and species recovery. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1431-1440.

Rodríguez-Estrella, R. 2007. Land use changes affect distributional patterns of desert birds in the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):877-889.

Rogers, D.C., and Wethington, A.R. 2007. Physa natricina Taylor 1988, junior synonym of Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805 (Pulmonata: Physidae). Zootaxa 1662:45-51.

Rogers, Z.S., and Sweeney, P.W. 2007. Two distinctive new species of Malagasy Garcinia (Clusiaceae). Syst. Bot. 32(4):772-779.

Ruth, A.D., Miller, D.L., Lose, S., and Long, A. 2007. Effects of reintroduction of fire into fire suppressed coastal scrub and longleaf pine communities along the lower gulf coastal plain. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):332-344.

Sambuichi, R.H.R., and Haridasan, M. 2007. Recovery of species richness and conservation of native Atlantic forest trees in the cacao plantations of southern Bahia in Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3681-3701.

Sánchez-Guzmán, J.M., Morán, R., Masero, J.A., Corbacho, C., Costillo, E., Villegas, A., and Santiago-Quesada, F. 2007. Identifying new buffer areas for conserving waterbirds in the Mediterranean basin: the importance of the rice fields in Extremadura, Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3333-3344.

Sandel, M., and Harris, P.M. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Elassoma okatie Rohde and Arndt 1987 (Elassomatidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 80(4):487-488.

Sari, M. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas 1811) (Cyprinidae) living in the highly alkaline Lake Van, Turkey. Environ. Biol. Fish. 81(1):21-23.

Sattler, T., Bontadina, F., Hirzel, A.H., and Arlettaz, R. 2007. Ecological niche modelling of two cryptic bat species calls for a reassessment of their conservation status. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(6):1188-1199.

Scalercio, S., Pizzolotto, R., and Brandmayr, P. 2007. Multi-scale analysis of butterfly diversity in a Mediterranean mountain landscape: mapping and evaluation of community vulnerability. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3463-3479.

Scheerer, P.D. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Oregonichthys crameri (Snyder, 1908) (Cyprinidae) . Environ. Biol. Fish. 80(4):493-494.

Schelling, L.R., and McCarthy, B.C. 2007. Effects of prescribed fire and thinning on the spatial heterogeneity of the seed bank in a mixed oak forest. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):320-331.

Schmitt, T., and Rákosy, L. 2007. Changes of traditional agrarian landscapes and their conservation implications: a case study of butterflies in Romania. Divers. Distrib. 13(6):855-862.

Schrope, M. 2008. Providential outcome. Nature 451(7175):122-123.

Selås, V., and Vik, J.O. 2007. The arctic fox Alopex lagopus in Fennoscandia: a victim of human-induced changes in interspecific competition and predation? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3575-3583.

Sergio, F., and Pedrini, P. 2007. Biodiversity gradients in the Alps: the overriding importance of elevation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3243-3254.

Severns, P.M., and Lewis, B.S. 2007. Is it appropriate to rely on seed set to assess candidate plant populations for genetic rescue? A case study with a threatened species. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):313-319.

Smallbone, L.T., Prober, S.M., and Lunt, I.D. 2007. Restoration treatments enhance early establishment of native forbs in a degraded temperate grassy woodland. Aust. J. Bot. 55(8):818-830.

Smith, C.S., Howes, A.L., Price, B., and McAlpine, C.A. 2007. Using a Bayesian belief network to predict suitable habitat of an endangered mammal - the Julia Creek dunnart (Sminthopsis douglasi). Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):333-347.

Smith, W., Scott, I.A.W., and Keogh, J.S. 2007. Molecular phylogeography of Rosenberg's goanna (Reptilia: Varanidae: Varanus rosenbergi) and its conservation status in New South Wales. Syst. Biodivers. 5(4):361-369.

Söderström, B., and Hedblom, M. 2007. Comparing movement of four butterfly species in experimental grassland strips. J. Insect Conserv. 11(4):333-342.

Spathelf, M., and Waite, T.A. 2007. Will hotspots conserve extra primate and carnivore evolutionary history? Divers. Distrib. 13(6):746-751.

Statzner, B., Bonada, N., and Dolédec, S. 2007. Conservation of taxonomic and biological trait diversity of European stream macroinvertebrate communities: a case for a collective public database. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3609-3632.

Stephenson, C.M., Kohn, D.D., Park, K.J., Atkinson, R., Edwards, C., and Travis, J.M. 2007. Testing mechanistic models of seed dispersal for the invasive Rhododendron ponticum (L.). Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 9(1):15-28.

Stout, J.C. 2007. Reproductive biology of the invasive exotic shrub, Rhododendron ponticum L. (Ericaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 155(3):373-381.

Suzuki, N., and Olson, D.H. 2007. Options for biodiversity conservation in managed forest landscapes of multiple ownerships in Oregon and Washington, USA. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3895-3917.

Symstad, A.J., and Bynum, M. 2007. Conservation value of Mount Rushmore National Memorial's forest. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):293-301.

Takamura, K. 2007. Performance as a fish predator of largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede)] invading Japanese freshwaters: a review. Ecol. Res. 22(6):940-946.

Tanneberger, F., Bellebaum, J., Fartmann, T., Haferland, H.J., Helmecke, A., Jehle, P., Just, P., and Sadlik, J. 2008. Rapid deterioration of Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola habitats at the western margin of the breeding range. J. Ornithol. 149(1):105-115.

Tapia, L., Domínguez, J., and Rodríguez, L. 2007. Modelling habitat use and distribution of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in a low-density area of the Iberian Peninsula. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3559-3574.

Tie, W., Mei, L., and Naiang, W. 2007. Protecting China cedar (Cryptomeria fortunei) habitat using GIS-based simulation, modeling of existence probability, and function zoning. Mtn. Res. Dev. 27(4):352-358.

Tolman, D.A. 2007. Soil patterns in three Darlingtonia fens of southwestern Oregon. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):374-384.

Traba, J., de la Morena, E.L.G., Morales, M.B., and Suárez, F. 2007. Determining high value areas for steppe birds in Spain: hot spots, complementarity and the efficiency of protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3255-3275.

Treinys, R., Lõhmus, A., Stoncius, D., Skuja, S., Drobelis, E., Sablevicius, B., Rumbutis, S., Dementavicius, D., Narusevicius, V., Petraska, A., and Augutis, D. 2008. At the border of ecological change: status and nest sites of the Lithuanian Black Stork Ciconia nigra population 2000-2006 versus 1976-1992. J. Ornithol. 149(1):75-81.

Turner, W.R., Brandon, K., Brooks, T.M., Costanza, R., da Fonseca, G.A.B., and Portela, R. 2007. Global conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. BioScience 57(10):868-873.

Ukizintambara, T., White, L., Abernethy, K., and Thebaud, C. 2007. Gallery forests versus bosquets: conservation of natural fragments at Lope National Park in central Gabon. Afr. J. Ecol. 45(4):476-482.

Ukmar, E., Battisti, C., Luiselli, L., and Bologna, M.A. 2007. The effects of fire on communities, guilds and species of breeding birds in burnt and control pinewoods in central Italy. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3287-3300.

Unmack, P.J., and Wager, R.N.E. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Chlamydogobius micropterus Larson, 1995 (Gobiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 80(4):489-490.

Van Auken, O.W., Bush, J.K., Richter, F.A., and Karges, J. 2007. Structure of isolated populations of Populus tremuloides (Quaking aspen) in the Davis Mountains of far-west Texas. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):302-312.

Van Noort, S., Gardiner, A.J., and Tolley, K.A. 2007. New records of Ficus (Moraceae) species emphasize the conservation significance of inselbergs in Mozambique. S. Afr. J. Bot. 73(4):642-649.

Vergano, L., and Nunes, P.A.L.D. 2007. Analysis and evaluation of ecosystem resilience: an economic perspective with an application to the Venice lagoon. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3385-3408.

Vermaat, J.E., Goosen, H., and Omtzigt, N. 2007. Do biodiversity patterns in Dutch wetland complexes relate to variation in urbanisation, intensity of agricultural land use or fragmentation? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3585-3595.

Vidya, T.N.C., Varma, S., Dang, N.X., Thandh, T.V., and Sukumar, R. 2007. Minimum population size, genetic diversity, and social structure of the Asian elephant in Cat Tien National Park and its adjoining areas, Vietnam, based on molecular genetic analyses. Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1471-1478.

Vila, I., Mendez, M.A., Scott, S., Morales, P.M., and Poulin, E. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Orestias ascotanensis Parenti, 1984 (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 80(4):491-492.

Virgós, E., Cabezas-Díaz, S., and Lozano, J. 2007. Is the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) a threatened species in Spain? Sociological constraints in the conservation of species. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3489-3504.

Vora, R.S., Tyrrell, L.E., and Anderson, C.E. 2007. A six-step approach for identifying and prioritizing potential research natural areas, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):366-373.

Vorwerk, P.D., Froneman, P., and Paterson, A.W. 2007. Recovery of the critically endangered river pipefish, Sygnathus watermeyi, in the Kariega Estuary, Eastern Cape Province. S. Afr. J. Sci. 103(5-6):199-201.

Wallace, K.J. 2007. Classification of ecosystem services: problems and solutions. Biol. Conserv. 139(3-4):235-246.

Wanless, R.M., and Wilson, J.W. 2007. Predatory behaviour of the Gough Moorhen Gallinula comeri: conservation implications. Ardea 95(2):311-315.

Whitcomb, R.F., Tully, J.G., Gasparich, G.E., Regassa, L.B., Williamson, D.L., and French, F.E. 2007. Spiroplasma species in the Costa Rican highlands: implications for biogeography and biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(13):3877-3894.

Wilcox, J.C., Healy, M.T., and Zedler, J.B. 2007. Restoring native vegetation to an urban wet meadow dominated by reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in Wisconsin. Nat. Areas J. 27(4):354-365.

Williams, J.E., Haak, A.L., Gillespie, N.G., and Colyer, W.T. 2007. The conservation success index: synthesizing and communicating salmonid condition and management needs. Fisheries 32(10):477-492.

Wood, D.J.A., Koprowski, J.L., and Lurz, P.W.W. 2007. Tree squirrel introduction: a theoretical approach with population viability analysis. J. Mammal. 88(5):1271-1279.

Woodhams, D.C., Ardipradja, K., Alford, R.A., Marantelli, G., Reinert, L.K., and Rollins-Smith, L.A. 2007. Resistance to chytridiomycosis varies among amphibian species and is correlated with skin peptide defenses. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):409-417.

Woodhams, D.C., Rollins-Smith, L.A., Alford, R.A., Simon, M.A., and Harris, R.N. 2007. Innate immune defenses of amphibian skin: antimicrobial peptides and more. Anim. Conserv. 10(4):425-428.

Yonekura, R., Kawamura, K., and Uchii, K. 2007. A peculiar relationship between genetic diversity and adaptability in invasive exotic species: bluegill sunfish as a model species. Ecol. Res. 22(6):911-919.

Zanatta, D.T., and Murphy, R.W. 2007. Range-wide population genetic analysis of the endangered northern riffleshell mussel, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Bivalvia: Unionoida). Conserv. Genet. 8(6):1393-1404.

Zerbe, S., Schmidt, I., and Betzin, J. 2007. Indicators for plant species richness in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of Germany. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(12):3301-3316.

Ziomek, J., and Banaszek, A. 2007. The common hamster, Cricetus cricetus in Poland: status and current range. Folia Zoolog. 56(3):235-242.

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