Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 280
April 2008

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In This Issue

Barcoding an Entire Ecosystem

A U.S.-French research team, including lead investigator Chris Meyer of the National Museum of Natural History, is planning an ambitious project to barcode the whole ecosystem of Moorea, a small island about 12 miles west of Tahiti in the tropical South Pacific. With a $5.2 million grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Moorea Biocode Project will create a comprehensive inventory of all non-microbial life on the island, from the bottom of the ocean to the mountain tops.

Chris Meyer collects marine invertebrates on the forereef off Moorea. (Photo by Jim Hayward)

Meyer was recently quoted in the University of California Berkeley News press release about the extent of the current undertaking. "We'll check the gut contents of a gecko, spider or fish to find out what it's eating," said Meyer, who managed the pilot project while he was a researcher at UC Berkeley. "This information will show how organisms fit together in the ecosystem, and because we will characterize every species on Moorea, we will be able to reconstruct the entire food web. With such a tool, ecologists in French Polynesia can pioneer a whole system approach to investigating how island food webs respond to disturbance, such as when invasive species enter the picture or sea temperatures rise...I'd be disappointed if we don't hit at least 10,000 species."

At the end of the three-year project, the team will have accomplished a first - sequencing a whole tropical ecosystem. Neil Davies, executive director of the Moorea research station and lead investigator, explains, "Like the Human Genome Project, however, this unprecedented accomplishment is, in some ways, merely a necessary first step...Its goal is to accelerate progress on the larger questions: how to maintain a healthy ecosystem and what to do when things go wrong."

Current Literature

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Allison, S.K. 2007. You can't not choose: embracing the role of choice in ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):601-605.

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Caterino, M.S. 2007. Species richness and complementarity of beetle faunas in a mediterranean-type biodiversity hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):3993-4007.

Chambers, P.A., Lacoul, P., Murphy, K.J., and Thomaz, S.M. 2008. Global diversity of aquatic macrophytes in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:9-26.

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Chisholm, R., and Taylor, R. 2007. Null-hypothesis significance testing and the critical weight range for Australian mammals. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1641-1645.

Cho, Y.C., Shin, H.C., Kim, S.S., and Lee, C.S. 2007. Dynamics and conservation of the Gwangneung National Forest in Central Korea: a national model for forest restoration. J. Plant Biol. 50(6):615-625.

Choudhury, B.I., Khan, M.L., Arunachalam, A., and Das, A.K. 2007. Population status of Gymnocladus assamicus, a critically endangered tree species in Arunachal Pradesh. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1489-1491.

Cinner, J.E., Sutton, S.G., and Bond, T.G. 2007. Socioeconomic thresholds that affect use of customary fisheries management tools. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1603-1611.

Coelho, V.R., and Manfrino, C. 2007. Coral community decline at a remote Caribhean island: marine no-take reserves are not enough. Aquat. Conserv. 17(7):666-685.

Coote, L., Smith, G.F., Kelly, D.L., O'Donoghue, S., Dowding, P., Iremonger, S., and Mitchell, F.J.G. 2007. Epiphytes of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations in Ireland and the effects of open spaces. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4009-4024.

Courtois, R., Ouellet, J.P., Breton, L., Gingras, A., and Dussault, C. 2007. Effects of forest disturbance on density, space use, and mortality of woodland caribou. Ecoscience 14(4):491-498.

Cousins, S.A.O., and Aggemyr, E. 2008. The influence of field shape, area and surrounding landscape an plant species richness in grazed ex-fields. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):126-135.

Cousinsa, S.A.O., and Lindbor, R. 2008. Remnant grassland habitats as source communities for plant diversification in agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):233-240.

Coway-Gómez, K. 2007. Effects of human settlements on abundance of Podocnemis unifilis and P. expansa turtles in Northeastern Bolivia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(2):199-205.

Crandall, K.A., and Buhay, J.E. 2008. Global diversity of crayfish (Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae-Decapoda) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:295-301.

Culley, T.M., and Hardiman, N.A. 2007. The beginning of a new invasive plant: a history of the ornamental Callery pear in the United States. BioScience 57(11):956-964.

Danancher, D., Labonne, J., Gaudin, P., and Joly, P. 2007. Scale measurements as a conservation tool in endangered Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquat. Conserv. 17(7):712-723.

Darwall, W.R.T., Pollock, C.M., Smith, K.G., and Vié, J.C. 2008. Response to De Silva et al. (2007): Endemic freshwater finfish of Asia: distribution and conservation status. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):159-160.

Davidar, P., Arjunan, M., Mammen, P.C., Garrigues, J.P., Puyravaud, I.P., and Roessingh, K. 2007. Forest degradation in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot: resource collection, livelihood concerns and sustainability. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1573-1578.

Davis, E.B., Koo, M.S., Conroy, C., Patton, J.L., and Moritz, C. 2008. The California Hotspots Project: identifying regions of rapid diversification of mammals. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):120-138.

De Grave, S., Cai, Y., and Anker, A. 2008. Global diversity of shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:287-293.

DeGasperis, B.G., and Motzkin, G. 2007. Windows of opportunity: historical and ecological controls on Berberis thunbergii invasions. Ecology 88(12):3115-3125.

Denslow, J.S. 2007. Managing dominance of invasive plants in wildlands. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1579-1586.

Deredec, A., and Courchamp, F. 2007. Importance of the Allee effect for reintroductions. Ecoscience 14(4):440-451.

Diffendorfer, J.E., Fleming, G.M., Duggan, J.M., Chapman, R.E., Rahn, M.E., Mitrovich, M.J., and Fisher, R.N. 2007. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: an example from coastal sage scrub. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):130-141.

DiStefano, R.J. 2008. Conservation of imperiled crayfish - Orconectes (Procericambarus) peruncus (Creaser, 1931) (Decapoda: Cambaridae). J. Crustacean Biol. 28(1):189-192.

Diwakar, S., Jain, M., and Balakrishnan, R. 2007. Psychoacoustic sampling as a reliable, non-invasive method to monitor orthopteran species diversity in tropical forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4081-4093.

Dlugosch, K.M., and Parker, I.M. 2008. Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):431-449.

Dodson, E.K., Metlen, K.L., and Fiedler, C.E. 2007. Common and uncommon understory species differentially respond to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests, Montana. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):696-708.

Dong, S.K., Gao, H.W., Xu, G.C., Hou, X.Y., Long, R.J., Kang, M.Y., and Lassoie, J.P. 2007. Farmer and professional attitudes to the large-scale ban on livestock grazing of grasslands in China. Environ. Conserv. 34(3):246-254.

Drechsler, M., Johst, K., Ohl, C., and Wätzold, F. 2007. Designing cost-effective payments for conservation measures to generate spatiotemporal habitat heterogeneity. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1475-1486.

Drechsler, M., Wätzold, F., Johst, K., Bergmann, H., and Settele, J. 2007. A model-based approach for designing cost-effective compensation payments for conservation of endangered species in real landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):174-186.

Dunham, A.E., Erhart, E.M., Overdorff, D.J., and Wright, P.C. 2008. Evaluating effects of deforestation, hunting, and El Niño events on a threatened lemur. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):287-297.

Eigenbrod, F., Hecnar, S.J., and Fahrig, L. 2008. The relative effects of road traffic and forest cover on anuran populations. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):35-46.

EPCN. 2007. Developing the pond manifesto. Ann. Limnol. 43(4):221-232.

Ewen, J.G., and Armstrong, D.P. 2007. Strategic monitoring of reintroductions in ecological restoration programmes. Ecoscience 14(4):401-409.

Fahselt, D. 2007. Is transplanting an effective means of preserving vegetation? Can. J. Bot. 85(10):1007-1017.

Finlayson, G.R., Vieira, E.M., Priddel, D., Wheeler, R., Bentley, J., and Dickman, C.R. 2008. Multi-scale patterns of habitat use by re-introduced mammals: a case study using medium-sized marsupials. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):320-331.

Firestone, J., Lyons, S.B., Wang, C., and Corbett, J.J. 2008. Statistical modeling of North Atlantic right whale migration along the mid-Atlantic region of the eastern seaboard of the United States. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):221-232.

Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Montague-Drake, R. 2008. The role of landscape texture in conservation biogeography: a case study on birds in south-eastern Australia. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):38-46.

Fleishman, E., and Mac Nally, R. 2007. Measuring the response of animals to contemporary drivers of fragmentation. Can. J. Zool. 85(10):1080-1090.

Fonseca, C.R., and Joner, F. 2007. Two-sided edge effect studies and the restoration of endangered ecosystems. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):613-619.

Forero-Medina, G., Castaño-Mora, O.V., and Montenegro, O. 2007. Abundance, population structure, and conservation of Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare on the Caribbean island of San Andrés, Colombia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(2):163-169.

Foster, B.L., Murphy, C.A., Keller, K.R., Aschenbach, T.A., Questad, E.J., and Kindscher, K. 2007. Restoration of prairie community structure and ecosystem function in an abandoned hayfield: a sowing experiment. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):652-661.

Fox, L.R. 2007. Climatic and biotic stochasticity: disparate causes of convergent demographies in rare, sympatric plants. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1556-1561.

Gaines, W.L., Haggard, M., Lehmkuhl, J.F., Lyons, A.L., and Harrod, R.J. 2007. Short-term response of land birds to Ponderosa pine restoration. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):670-678.

Gallant, A.L., Klaver, R.W., Casper, G.S., and Lannoo, M.J. 2007. Global rates of habitat loss and implications for amphibian conservation. Copeia 2007(4):967-979.

Garcia, M.B. 2008. Life history and population size variability in a relict plant. Different routes towards long-term persistence. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):106-113.

Gardner, T.A., Caro, T., Fitzherbert, E.B., Banda, T., and Lalbhai, P. 2007. Conservation value of multiple-use areas in East Africa. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1516-1525.

Garrett, L.J.H., Jones, C.G., Cristinacce, A., and Bell, D.J. 2007. Competition or co-existence of reintroduced, critically endangered Mauritius fodies and invasive Madagascar fodies in lowland Mauritius? Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):19-28.

Gerber, L.R., Wielgus, J., and Sala, E. 2007. A decision framework for the adaptive management of an exploited species with implications for marine reserves. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1594-1602.

Gerla, P.J. 2007. Estimating the effect of cropland to prairie conversion on peak storm run-off. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):720-730.

Ghazoul, J. 2007. Challenges to the uptake of the ecosystem service rationale for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1651-1652.

Gilad, O., Grant, W.E., and Saltz, D. 2008. Simulated dynamics of Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the Israeli Negev: effects of migration corridors and post-reintroduction changes in natality on population viability. Ecol. Model. 210(1-2):169-178.

Gómez-Mendoza, L., and Arriaga, L. 2007. Modeling the effect of climate change on the distribution of oak and pine species of Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1545-1555.

Goosem, M. 2007. Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through rainforests. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1587-1595.

Gratwicke, B., Seidensticker, J., Shrestha, M., Vermilye, K., and Birnbaum, M. 2007. Evaluating the performance of a decade of Save The Tiger Fund's investments to save the world's last wild tigers. Environ. Conserv. 34(3):255-265.

Griffen, B.D., and Delaney, D.G. 2007. Species invasion shifts the importance of predator dependence. Ecology 88(12):3012-3021.

Griffen, B.D., Guy, T., and Buck, J.C. 2008. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator. J. Anim. Ecol. 77(1):32-40.

Grivet, D., Sork, V.L., Westfall, R.D., and Davis, F.W. 2008. Conserving the evolutionary potential of California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née): a multivariate genetic approach to conservation planning. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):139-156.

Groeneveld, E.V.G., Massé, A., and Rochefort, L. 2007. Polytrichum strictum as a nurse-plant in peatland restoration. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):709-719.

Gunawardene, N.R., Daniels, A.E.D., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Karunakaran, P.V., Nayak, K.G., Prasad, S., Puyravaud, P., Ramesh, B.R., Subramanian, K.A., and Vasanthy, G. 2007. A brief overview of the Western Ghats Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1567-1572.

Halpern, B.S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K.A., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F., D'Agrosa, C., Bruno, J.F., Casey, K.S., Ebert, C., Fox, H.E., Fujita, R., Heinemann, D., Lenihan, H.S., Madin, E.M.P., Perry, M.T., Selig, E.R., Spalding, M., Steneck, R., and Watson, R. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319(5865):948-952.

Hansen, M.J. 2007. Evaluating management strategies and recovery of an invasive grass (Agropyron cristatum) using matrix population models. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):91-99.

Haugaasen, T., and Peres, C.A. 2007. Vertebrate responses to fruit production in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4165-4190.

Hedtke, S.M., Zamudio, K.R., Phillips, C.A., Losos, J., and Brylski, P. 2007. Conservation genetics of the endangered Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata). Herpetologica 63(4):411-420.

Henderson, L. 2007. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a summary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA). Bothalia 37(2):215-248.

Herrerías-Diego, Y., Quesada, M., Stoner, K.E., Lobo, J.A., Hernández-Flores, Y., and Montoya, G.S. 2008. Effect of forest fragmentation on fruit and seed predation of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):241-248.

Hilli, M., Kuitunen, M.T., and Suhonen, J. 2007. The effect of land use change on the vascular plant species turnover in boreal lakes. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):3951-3962.

Hirst, A.J. 2008. Surrogate measures for assessing cryptic faunal biodiversity on macroalgal-dominated subtidal reefs. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):211-220.

Hochkirchi, A., and Adorf, F. 2007. Effects of prescribed burning and wildfires on Orthoptera in Central European peat bogs. Environ. Conserv. 34(3):225-235.

Hughes, G.O., Thuiller, W., Midgley, G.F., and Collins, K. 2008. Environmental change hastens the demise of the critically endangered riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticulairis). Biol. Conserv. 141(1):23-34.

Jachmann, H. 2008. Monitoring law-enforcement performance in nine protected areas in Ghana. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):89-99.

Jakobsson, A., Padrón, B., and Traveset, A. 2008. Pollen transfer from invasive Carpobrotus spp. to natives - a study of pollinator behaviour and reproduction success. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):136-145.

Jaramillo-Legorreta, A., Rojas-Bracho, L., Brownell, R.L., Read, A.J., Reeves, R.R., Ralls, K., and Taylor, B.L. 2007. Saving the vaquita: Immediate action, not more data. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1653-1655.

Johnston, E.L., and Clark, G.F. 2007. Recipient environment more important than community composition in determining the success of an experimental sponge transplant. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):638-651.

Kalkman, V.J., Clausnitzer, V., Dijkstra, K.D.B., Orr, A.G., Paulson, D.R., and van Tol, J. 2008. Global diversity of dragonflies (Odonata) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:351-363.

Kemenes, A., and Pezzut, J.C.B. 2007. Estimate of trade traffic of Podocnemis (Testudines, pedocnemididae) from the middle Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(2):259-262.

Khuroo, A.A., Dar, G.H., Khan, Z.S., and Malik, A.H. 2007. Exploring an inherent interface between taxonomy and biodiversity: current problems and future challenges. J. Nature Conserv. 15(4):256-261.

Kideghesho, J.R., Nyahongo, J.W., and Holmern, T. 2007. Wildlife research in Tanzania: capacity building is feasible. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1385-1386.

Kinnison, M.T., Unwin, M.J., and Quinn, T.P. 2008. Eco-evolutionary vs. habitat contributions to invasion in salmon: experimental evaluation in the wild. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):405-414.

Kissling, M.L., Reid, M., Lukacs, P.M., Gende, S.M., and Lewis, S.B. 2007. Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring. Ecol. Appl. 17(8):2164-2174.

Klar, N., Fernández, N., Kramer-Schadt, S., Herrmann, M., Trinzen, M., Büttner, I., and Niemitz, C. 2008. Habitat selection models for European wildcat conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):308-319.

Knight, R.L. 2007. To save the Earth or to save a watershed: optimism versus hope. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1397-1398.

Kobayashi, S. 2007. An overview of techniques for the rehabilitation of degraded tropical forests and biodiversity conservation. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1596-1603.

Kolbe, J.J., Glor, R.E., Schettino, L.R., Lara, A.C., Larson, A., and Losos, J.B. 2007. Multiple sources, admixture, and genetic variation in introduced Anolis lizard populations. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1612-1625.

Kothera, L., Ward, S.M., and Carney, S.E. 2007. Assessing the threat from hybridization to the rare endemic Physaria bellii Mulligan (Brassicaceae). Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):110-118.

Kramer, D.B. 2007. Determinants and efficacy of social capital in lake associations. Environ. Conserv. 34(3):186-194.

Krassoi, F.R., Brown, K.R., Bishop, M.J., Kelaher, B.P., and Summerhayes, S. 2008. Condition-specific competition allows coexistence of competitively superior exotic oysters with native oysters. J. Anim. Ecol. 77(1):5-15.

Kreft, H., and Jetz, W. 2007. Global patterns and determinants of vascular plant diversity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104(14):5925-5930.

Kreft, H., Jetz, W., Mutke, J., Kier, G., and Barthlott, W. 2008. Global diversity of island floras from a macroecological perspective. Ecol. Lett. 11(2):116-127.

Kuchling, G., Rhodin, A.G.J., Ibarrondo, B.R., and Trainor, C.R. 2007. A new subspecies of the snakeneck turtle Chelodina mccordi from Timor-Leste (East Timor) (Testudines: Chelidae). Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(2):213-222.

Laurance, W.F. 2007. Forest destruction in tropical Asia. Curr. Sci. 93(11):1544-1550.

Lebreton, J.D., Gosselin, F., and Niel, C. 2007. Extinction and viability of populations: paradigms and concepts of extinction models. Ecoscience 14(4):472-481.

Letty, J., Marchandeau, S., and Aubineau, J. 2007. Problems encountered by individuals in animal translocations: lessons from field studies. Ecoscience 14(4):420-431.

Lévêque, C., Oberdorff, T., Paugy, D., Stiassny, M.L.J., and Tedesco, P.A. 2008. Global diversity of fish (Pisces) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:545-567.

Levin, N., and Shmida, A. 2007. Determining conservation hotspots across biogeographic regions using rainfall belts: Israel as a case study. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 53(1):33-58.

Lipsey, M.K., and Child, M.F. 2007. Combining the fields of reintroduction biology and restoration ecology. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1387-1388.

List, R., Ceballos, G., Curtin, C., Gogan, P.J.P., Pacheco, J., and Truett, J. 2007. Historic distribution and challenges to bison recovery in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1487-1494.

Liu, Z.M., Li, X.L., Yan, Q.L., and Wu, J.G. 2007. Species richness and vegetation pattern in interdune lowlands of an active dune field in inner Mongolia, China. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):29-39.

Lorite, J., Gómez, F., Mota, J.F., and Valle, F. 2007. Orophilous plant communities of Baetic range in Andalusia (south-eastern Spain): priority altitudinal-islands for conservation. Phytocoenologia 37(3-4):625-644.

Lozada, T., de Koning, G.H.J., Kessler, M., Klein, A.M., and Tscharntke, T. 2008. Geographical range size of tropical plants influences their response to anthropogenic activities. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):59-68.

Lozano, F.D., Saiz, J.C.M., Ollero, H.S., and Schwartz, M.W. 2007. Effects of dynamic taxonomy on rare species and conservation listing: insights from the Iberian vascular flora. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4039-4050.

Mace, G.M., and Baillie, J.E.M. 2007. The 2010 biodiversity indicators: challenges for science and policy. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1406-1413.

Mace, G.M., and Purvis, A. 2008. Evolutionary biology and practical conservation: bridging a widening gap. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):9-19.

Mackie, L.J., and Racey, P.A. 2007. Habitat use varies with reproductive state in noctule bats (Nyctalus noctula): implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):70-77.

Maiorano, L., Falcucci, A., Garton, E.O., and Boitani, L. 2007. Contribution of the natura 2000 network to biodiversity conservation in Italy. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1433-1444.

Malt, J., and Lank, D. 2007. Temporal dynamics of edge effects on nest predation risk for the marbled murrelet. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):160-173.

Mandelik, Y., Dayan, T., Chikatunov, V., and Kravchenko, V. 2007. Reliability of a higher-taxon approach to richness, rarity, and composition assessments at the local scale. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1506-1515.

Martin, S. 2008. Global diversity of crocodiles (Crocodilia, Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:587-591.

Martín-López, B., Montes, C., and Benayas, J. 2007. Influence of user characteristics on valuation of ecosystem services in Doñana Natural Protected Area (south-west Spain). Environ. Conserv. 34(3):215-224.

Maxted, N., Scholten, M., Codd, R., and Ford-Lloyd, B. 2007. Creation and use of a national inventory of crop wild relatives. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):142-159.

McBride, M.F., Wilson, K.A., Bode, M., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Incorporating the effects of socioeconomic uncertainty into priority setting for conservation investment. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1463-1474.

Mccoy, E.D., Mushinsky, H.R., and Lindzey, J. 2007. Conservation strategies and emergent diseases: the case of upper respiratory tract disease in the gopher tortoise. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(2):170-176.

McDonald, R.I., Yuan-Farrell, C., Fievet, C., Moeller, M., Kareiva, P., Foster, D., Gragson, T., Kinzig, A., Kuby, L., and Redman, C. 2007. Estimating the effect of protected lands on the development and conservation of their surroundings. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1526-1536.

McFadden, L. 2007. Vulnerability analysis in environmental management: widening and deepening its approach. Environ. Conserv. 34(3):195-204.

Mendez, M., Gómez, A., Bynum, N., Medellin, R., Porzecanski, A.L., and Sterling, E. 2007. Availability of formal academic programs in conservation biology in Latin America. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1399-1403.

Menke, S.B., Fisher, R.N., Jetz, W., and Holway, D.A. 2007. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales. Ecology 88(12):3164-3173.

Meulebrouck, K., Ameloot, E., Verheyen, K., and Hermy, M. 2007. Local and regional factors affecting the distribution of the endangered holoplarasite Cuscuta epithymum in heathlands. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):8-18.

Michalski, F., and Peres, C.A. 2007. Disturbance-mediated mammal persistence and abundance-area relationships in Amazonian forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1626-1640.

Mikusinski, G., Pressey, R.L., Edenius, L., Kujala, H., Moilanen, A., Niemelä, J., and Ranius, T. 2007. Conservation planning in forest landscapes of Fennoscandia and an approach to the challenge of Countdown 2010. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1445-1454.

Millar, C.I., Stephenson, N.L., and Stephens, S.L. 2007. Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecol. Appl. 17(8):2145-2151.

Moil, R.J., Millspaugh, J.J., Beringer, J., Sartwell, J., and He, Z.H. 2007. A new ' view ' of ecology and conservation through animal-borne video systems. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(12):660-668.

Molloy, P.P., Reynolds, J.D., Gage, M.J.G., Mosqueirac, L., and Côté, I.M. 2008. Links between sex change and fish densities in marine protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):187-197.

Morrison, J.C., Sechrest, W., Dinerstein, E., Wilcove, D.S., and Lamoreux, J.F. 2007. Persistence of large mammal faunas as indicators of global human impacts. J. Mammal. 88(6):1363-1380.

Murphy, R.W., Berry, K.H., Edwards, T., and Mcluckie, A.M. 2007. A genetic assessment of the recovery units for the Mojave population of the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 6(2):229-251.

Murray, J.V., Choy, S.L., McAlpine, C.A., Possingham, H.P., and Goldizen, A.W. 2008. The importance of ecological scale for wildlife conservation in naturally fragmented environments: a case study of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata). Biol. Conserv. 141(1):7-22.

Naidoo, R., and Wamura, T. 2007. Global-scale mapping of economic benefits from agricultural lands: implications for conservation priorities. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):40-49.

Nascimbene, J., Thues, H., Marini, L., and Nimis, P.L. 2007. Freshwater lichens in springs of the eastern Italian Alps: floristics, ecology and potential for bioindication. Ann. Limnol. 43(4):285-292.

Nelson, M.P., Vucetich, J.A., and Phillips, M.K. 2007. Normativity and the meaning of endangered: response to Waples et al. 2007. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1646-1648.

Nordstrom, K.F., Lampez, R., and Jackson, N.L. 2007. Increasing the dynamism of coastal landforms by modifying shore protection methods: examples from the eastern German Baltic Sea Coast. Environ. Conserv. 34(3):205-214.

Nowicki, P., Pepkowska, A., Kudlek, J., Skórka, P., Witek, M., Settele, J., and Woyciechowski, M. 2007. From metapopulation theory to conservation recommendations: lessons from spatial occurrence and abundance patterns of Maculinea butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):119-129.

Nugent, C. 2007. Optimism versus hope. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1396.

Orr, D.W. 2007. Optimism and hope in a hotter time. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1392-1395.

Overbeck, G.E., Müller, S.C., Fidelis, A., Pfadenhauer, J., Pillar, V.D., Blanco, C.C., Boldrini, I.I., Both, R., and Forneck, E.D. 2007. Brazil's neglected biome: the South Brazilian Campos. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 9(2):101-116.

Paini, D.R., Funderburk, J.E., and Reitz, S.R. 2008. Competitive exclusion of a worldwide invasive pest by a native. Quantifying competition between two phytophagous insects on two host plant species. J. Anim. Ecol. 77(1):184-190.

Palmeira, F.B.L., Craivshaw, P.G., Haddad, C.M., Ferraz, K.M.P.M.B., and Verdad, L.M. 2008. Cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) in central-western Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):118-125.

Palomino, D., and Carrascal, L.M. 2007. Threshold distances to nearby cities and roads influence the bird community of a mosaic landscape. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):100-109.

Paquin, P. 2008. Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity in the black spruce succession of eastern Canada. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):261-275.

Pauwels, O.S.G., Wallach, V., and David, P. 2008. Global diversity of snakes (Serpentes; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:599-605.

Pertoldi, C., Bijlsma, R., and Loeschcke, V. 2007. Conservation genetics in a globally changing environment: present problems, paradoxes and future challenges. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4147-4163.

Peterson, A.T., and Martínez-Meyer, E. 2007. Geographic evaluation of conservation status of African forest squirrels (Sciuridae) considering land use change and climate change: the importance of point data. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):3939-3950.

Piha, M., Tiainen, J., Holopainen, J., and Vepsäläinen, V. 2007. Effects of land-use and landscape characteristics on avain disversity and abundance in a boreal agricultural landscape with organic and conventional farms. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):50-61.

Pinto, M.P., Diniz, J.A.F., Bini, L.M., Blamires, D., and Rangel, T.F.L.V.B. 2008. Biodiversity surrogate groups and conservation priority areas: birds of the Brazilian Cerrado. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):78-86.

Pressey, R.L., Cabeza, M., Watts, M.E., Cowling, R.M., and Wilson, K.A. 2007. Conservation planning in a changing world. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22(11):583-592.

Rana, J.C., Pradheep, K., and Verma, V.D. 2007. Naturally occurring wild relatives of temperate fruits in Western Himalayan region of India: an analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):3963-3991.

Ranganathana, J., Chan, K.M.A., Karanth, K.U., and Smith, J.L.D. 2008. Where can tigers persist in the future? A landscape-scale, density-based population model for the Indian subcontinent. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):67-77.

Robert, A., Couvet, D., and Sarrazin, F. 2007. Integration of demography and genetics in population restorations. Ecoscience 14(4):463-471.

Rocha, G.R.A., and Schiavetti, A. 2007. Diversity of fish and fisheries from the Lake Encantada Environmental Protection Area, Ilhéus, Brazil. Aquat. Conserv. 17(7):702-711.

Rondinini, C., and Boitani, L. 2007. Systematic conservation planning and the cost of tackling conservation conflicts with large carnivores in Italy. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1455-1462.

Rondinini, C., and Pressey, R.L. 2007. Systematic conservation planning in the European landscape: conflicts, environmental changes, and the challenge of countdown 2010. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1404-1405.

Roux, D.J., Nel, J.L., Ashton, P.J., Deaconc, A.R., de Moor, F.C., Hardwick, D., Hill, L., Kleynhans, C.J., Maree, G.A., Moolman, J., and Scholes, R.J. 2008. Designing protected areas to conserve riverine biodiversity: lessons from a hypothetical redesign of the Kruger National Park. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):100-117.

Roy, V., and de Blois, S. 2008. Evaluating hedgerow corridors for the conservation of native forest herb diversity. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):298-307.

Sabo, J.L. 2008. Population viability and species interactions: life outside the single-specks vacuum. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):276-286.

Samways, M.J., and Lu, S.S. 2007. Key traits in a threatened butterfly and its common sibling: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4095-4107.

Santos, B.A., Peres, C.A., Oliveira, M.A., Grillo, A., Alves-Costa, C.P., and Tabarelli, M. 2008. Drastic erosion in functional attributes of tree assemblages in Atlantic forest fragments of northeastern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):249-260.

Schelhas, J., and Pfeffer, M.J. 2008. Saving Forests, Protecting People? Environmental Conservation in Central America. Globalization and Environment Series. AltaMira Press. Walnut Creek, CA. 310 pp.

Schoech, S.J., Bridge, E.S., Boughton, R.K., Reynolds, S.J., Atwell, J.W., and Bowman, R. 2008. Food supplementation: a tool to increase reproductive output. A case study in the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):162-173.

Seavy, N.E., and Reynolds, M.H. 2007. Is statistical power to detect trends a good assessment of population monitoring? Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):187-191.

Seddon, P.J., Armstrong, D.P., and Maloney, R.F. 2007. Combining the fields of reintroduction biology and restoration ecology. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1388-1390.

Seehausen, O., Takimoto, G., Roy, D., and Jokela, J. 2008. Speciation reversal and biodiversity dynamics with hybridization in changing environments. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):30-44.

Segura, C., Feriche, M., Pleguezuelos, J.M., and Santos, X. 2007. Specialist and generalist species in habitat use: implications for conservation assessment in snakes. J. Nat. Hist. 41(41-44):2765-2774.

Shono, K., Cadaweng, E.A., and Durst, P.B. 2007. Application of assisted natural regeneration to restore degraded tropical forestlands. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):620-626.

Simmons, M.T., Windhager, S., Power, P., Lott, J., Lyons, R.K., and Schwope, C. 2007. Selective and non-selective control of invasive plants: the short-term effects of growing-season prescribed fire, herbicide, and mowing in two Texas prairies. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):662-669.

Slabbekoorn, H., and Ripmeester, E.A.P. 2008. Birdsong and anthropogenic noise: implications and applications for conservation. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):72-83.

Smith, T.B., and Bernatchez, L. 2008. Evolutionary change in human-altered environments. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):1-8.

Smith, T.B., Milá, B., Grether, G.F., Slabbekoorn, H., Sepil, I., Buermann, W., Saatchi, S., and Pollinger, J.P. 2008. Evolutionary consequences of human disturbance in a rainforest bird species from Central Africa. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):58-71.

Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Peh, K.S.H., Tan, H.T.W., Chazdon, R.L., Corlett, R.T., Lee, T.M., Colwell, R.K., Brook, B.W., Sekercioglu, C.H., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2008. Correlates of extinction proneness in tropical angiosperms. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):1-10.

Soria-Auza, R.W., and Kessler, M. 2008. The influence of sampling intensity on the perception of the spatial distribution of tropical diversity and endemism: a case study of ferns from Bolivia. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):123-130.

Stocks, A., McMahan, B., and Taber, P. 2007. Indigenous, colonist, and government impacts on Nicaragua's Bosawas reserve. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1495-1505.

Strong, E.E., Gargominy, O., Ponder, W.F., and Bouchet, P. 2008. Global diversity of gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:149-166.

Suarez, A.V., and Tsutsui, N.D. 2008. The evolutionary consequences of biological invasions. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):351-360.

Tengo, M., Johansson, K., Rakotondrasoa, F., Lundberg, J., Andriamaherilala, J.A., Rakotoarisoa, J.A., and Elmqvist, T. 2007. Taboos and forest governance: informal protection of hot spot dry forest in southern Madagascar. Ambio 36(8):683-691.

Thomson, D.M. 2007. Do source-sink dynamics promote the spread of an invasive grass into a novel habitat? Ecology 88(12):3126-3134.

Tognelli, M.F., de Arellano, P.I.R., and Marquet, P.A. 2008. How well do the existing and proposed reserve networks represent vertebrate species in Chile? Divers. Distrib. 14(1):148-158.

Toivanen, T., and Kotiaho, J.S. 2007. Burning of logged sites to protect beetles in managed boreal forests. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1562-1572.

Tremolieres, M., Combroux, I., Herrmann, A., and Nobelis, P. 2007. Conservation status assessment of aquatic habitats within the Rhine floodplain using an index based on macrophytes. Ann. Limnol. 43(4):233-244.

Turner, D.S., and List, M.D. 2007. Habitat mapping and conservation analysis to identify critical streams for Arizona's native fish. Aquat. Conserv. 17(7):737-748.

van Amstel, M., de Brauw, C., Driessen, P., and Glasbergen, P. 2007. The reliability of product-specific eco-labels as an agrobiodiversity management instrument. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4109-4129.

van der Heide, T., van Nes, E.H., Geerling, G.W., Smolders, A.J.P., Bouma, T.J., and van Katwijk, M.M. 2007. Positive feedbacks in seagrass ecosystems: implications for success in conservation and restoration. Ecosystems 10(8):1311-1322.

Van der Hoek, D., and Heijmans, M.M.P.D. 2007. Effectiveness of turf stripping as a measure for restoring species-rich fen meadows in suboptimal hydrological conditions. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):627-637.

Van Kleunen, M., and Johnson, S.D. 2007. Effects of self-compatibility on the distribution range of invasive European plants in North America. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1537-1544.

Van Oosterhout, C., Smith, A.M., Hänfling, B., Ramnarine, I.W., Mohammed, R.S., and Cable, J. 2007. The guppy as a conservation model: implications of parasitism and inbreeding for reintroduction success. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1573-1583.

Van Uytvanck, J., Maes, D., Vandenhaute, D., and Hoffmann, M. 2008. Restoration of woodpasture on former agricultural land: the importance of safe sites and time gaps before grazing for tree seedlings. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):78-88.

Vences, M., and Köhler, R. 2008. Global diversity of amphibians (Amphibia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:569-580.

Veron, G., Patterson, B.D., and Reeves, R. 2008. Global diversity of mammals (Mammalia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:607-617.

Vesk, P.A., Nolan, R., Thomson, J.R., Dorrough, J.W., and Mac Nally, R. 2008. Time lags in provision of habitat resources through revegetation. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):174-186.

Vincenzi, S., Crivelli, A.J., Jesensek, D., Rubin, J.F., Poizat, G., and De Leo, G.A. 2008. Potential factors controlling the population viability of newly introduced endangered marble trout populations. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):198-210.

Vogel, J.A., Debinski, D.M., Koford, R.R., and Miller, J.R. 2007. Butterflal, responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing. Biol. Conserv. 140(1-2):78-90.

von der Lippe, M., and Kowarik, I. 2008. Do cities export biodiversity? Traffic as dispersal vector across urban-rural gradients. Divers. Distrib. 14(1):18-25.

Wadt, L.H.O., Kainer, K.A., Staudhammer, C.L., and Serrano, R.O.P. 2008. Sustainable forest use Brazilian extractive reserves: natural regeneradon of Brazil nut in exploited populations. Biol. Conserv. 141(1):332-346.

Wakelin, J., and Hill, T.R. 2007. The impact of land transformation on breeding Blue Swallows Hirundo atrocaerulea Sundevall, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J. Nature Conserv. 15(4):245-255.

Wang, G.M., Jiang, G.M., Zhou, Y.L., Liu, Q.R., Ji, Y.S., Wang, S.X., Chen, S.B., and Liu, H. 2007. Biodiversity conservation in a fast-growing metropolitan area in China: a case study of plant diversity in Beijing. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(14):4025-4038.

Wang, J.Y., Yang, S.C., Hung, S.K., and Jefferson, T.A. 2007. Distribution, abundance and conservation status of the eastern Taiwan Strait population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis. Mammalia 71(4):157-165.

Waples, R.S., Adams, P.B., Bohnsack, J., and Taylor, B.L. 2007. Normativity redux. Conserv. Biol. 21(6):1649-1650.

Waples, R.S., Zabel, R.W., Scheuerell, M.D., and Sanderson, B.L. 2008. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):84-96.

Ward, D.M., Nislow, K.H., and Folt, C.L. 2008. Do native species limit survival of reintroduced Atlantic salmon in historic rearing streams? Biol. Conserv. 141(1):146-152.

Warren, S.D., Holbrook, S.W., Dale, D.A., Whelan, N.L., Elyn, M., Grimm, W., and Jentsch, A. 2007. Biodiversity and the heterogeneous disturbance regime on military training lands. Restor. Ecol. 15(4):606-612.

Winkler, G., Dodson, J.J., and Lee, C.E. 2008. Heterogeneity within the native range: population genetic analyses of sympatric invasive and noninvasive clades of the freshwater invading copepod Eurytemora affinis. Mol. Ecol. 17(1):415-430.

Xue, C.Y., Wang, H., and Li, D.Z. 2007. Female gametophyte and seed development in Musella lasiocarpa (Musaceae), a monotypic genus endemic to Southwestern China. Can. J. Bot. 85(10):964-975.

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