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Department ofBotany

No. 281
May 2008

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In This Issue

Forest Changes 'Explained by Multiple Factors'

By the Science and Development Network (SciDev.Net)

Changes in the growth and species composition of tropical forests cannot be fully explained by global environmental changes, say researchers. Recent studies in the Amazon rainforest have suggested that changes such as the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and other factors such as nutrient deposition, temperature, drought frequency and irradiance are increasing the productivity and biomass of forests. Shifts in the composition of plant species - favoring fast-growing species over slow-growing ones - have also been noted. But the results of research, carried out to find if this was true of other tropical forests, do not fit this theory.

The study, published in PLoS Biology (Chave et al. 2008), found that past human and natural disturbances, as well as changes in resource availability also contribute to forest change. Researchers analyzed data from tropical regions of Africa, America and Asia, covering more than two million trees and 400 hectares in ten large plots over a 20-year period. They found that aboveground biomass only increased in seven out of the ten plots and, at half the sites, slow-growing species increased in dominance over fast-growing plants.

Helene Muller-Landau, from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama and one the authors of the study, says that even though environmental factors such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and other human influences are almost certainly favoring some species over others, these are not the only factors affecting tropical forests at any given site.

"Past and current local human influences, as well as local natural influences, can also lead to increases in some species at the expense of others...The story is more complex," she told SciDev.Net.

Muller-Landau says the discovery that slow-growing species are also thriving "should not be taken as evidence that we can proceed with business as usual."

"There is no question that anthropogenic global change is a problem," she says. "What it does suggest is that we need to be more aware of differences among tropical forests in their trajectories and in the influences of local and global anthropogenic change."

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Hanekom, N. 2008. Invasion of an indigenous Perna perna mussel bed on the south coast of South Africa by an alien mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and its effect on the associated fauna. Biol. Invasions 10(2):233-244.

Hänfling, B. 2007. Understanding the establishment success of non-indigenous fishes: lessons from population genetics. J. Fish Biol. 71:115-135.

Hansson, B., and Westerberg, L. 2008. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations within inbreeding classes: local or genome-wide effects? Conserv. Genet. 9(1):73-83.

Hardcastle, E.L., McElderry, R.M., and Gentry, J.L. 2007. Distribution, habitat, and current population size estimates for Polymnia cossatotensis (Cossatot leafcup) [Asteraceae], a rare Arkansas endemic. Castanea 72(4):194-204.

Harding, L.E., Abu-Eid, O.F., Hamidan, N., and al Sha'lan, A. 2007. Reintroduction of the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx in Jordan: war and redemption. Oryx 41(4):478-487.

Harris, G., and Pimm, S.L. 2008. Range size and extinction risk in forest birds. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):163-171.

Harvey, C.A., Komar, O., Chazdon, R., Ferguson, B.G., Finegan, B., Griffith, D.M., Martínez-Ramos, M., Morales, H., Nigh, R., Soto-Pinto, L., Van Breugel, M., and Wishnie, M. 2008. Integrating agricultural landscapes with biodiversity conservation in the Mesoamerican hotspot. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):8-15.

Hazell, S.P., Vel, T., and Fellowes, M.D.E. 2008. The role of exotic plants in the invasion of Seychelles by the polyphagous insect Aleurodicus dispersus: a phylogenetically controlled analysis. Biol. Invasions 10(2):169-175.

Hedgren, O., and Weslien, J. 2008. Detecting rare species with random or subjective sampling: a case study of red-listed saproxylic beetles in boreal Sweden. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):212-215.

Herrera, M., and Hennessey, B. 2007. Quantifying the illegal parrot trade in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, with emphasis on threatened species. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(4):295-300.

Hinman, S., Brewer, J.S., and Ashley, S.W. 2008. Shrub seedling establishment is limited by dispersal, slow growth, and fire in two wet pine savannahs in Mississippi. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):37-43.

Hoffmann, W.A., and Haridasan, M. 2008. The invasive grass, Melinis minutiflora, inhibits tree regeneration in a Neotropical savanna. Austral Ecol. 33(1):29-36.

Hulme, P.E. 2008. Phenotypic plasticity and plant invasions: is it all Jack? Funct. Ecol. 22(1):3-7.

Ilmonen, J. 2008. Crunoecia irrorata (Curtis) (Trichoptera: Lepidostomatidae) and conservation of boreal springs: indications of clustering of red-listed species. Aquat. Conserv. 18(1):6-18.

Inogwabini, B.I., Matungila, B., Mbende, L., Abokome, M., and Tshimanga, T.W. 2007. Great apes in the Lake Tumba landscape, Democratic Republic of Congo: newly described populations. Oryx 41(4):532-538.

Jachowski, D.S., Millspaugh, J.J., Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M., and Matchett, M.R. 2008. Implications of black-tailed prairie dog spatial dynamics to black-footed ferrets. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):14-25.

Jetz, W., Sekercioglu, C.H., and Watson, J.E.M. 2008. Ecological correlates and conservation implications of overestimating species geographic ranges. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):110-119.

Joe, S.M., and Daehler, C.C. 2008. Invasive slugs as under-appreciated obstacles to rare plant restoration: evidence from the Hawaiian Islands. Biol. Invasions 10(2):245-255.

Johnson, M.P., Crowe, T.P., Mcallen, R., and Allcock, A.L. 2008. Characterizing the marine Natura 2000 network for the Atlantic region. Aquat. Conserv. 18(1):86-97.

Jones, H.P., Tershy, B.R., Zavaleta, E.S., Croll, D.A., Keitt, B.S., Finkelstein, M.E., and Howald, G.R. 2008. Severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):16-26.

Jones, T.C., Gemmill, C.E.C., and Pilditch, C.A. 2008. Genetic variability of New Zealand seagrass (Zostera muelleri) assessed at multiple spatial scales. Aquat. Bot. 88(1):39-46.

Jordan, N.R., Larson, D.L., and Huerd, S.C. 2008. Soil modification by invasive plants: effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies. Biol. Invasions 10(2):177-190.

Kabir, M.E., and Webb, E.L. 2008. Can homegardens conserve biodiversity in Bangladesh? Biotropica 40(1):95-103.

Kaiser, C.N., Hansen, D.M., and Müller, C.B. 2008. Habitat structure affects reproductive success of the rare endemic tree Syzygium mamillatum (Myrtaceae) in restored and unrestored sites in mauritius. Biotropica 40(1):86-94.

Kang, M., Wang, J., and Huang, H.W. 2008. Demographic bottlenecks and low gene flow in remnant populations of the critically endangered Berchemiella wilsonii var. pubipetiolata (Rhamnaceae) inferred from microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 9(1):191-199.

Kapoor, V. 2008. Effects of rainforest fragmentation and shade-coffee plantations on spider communities in the Western Ghats, India. J. Insect Conserv. 12(1):53-68.

Karatayev, A.Y., Mastitsky, S.E., Burlakova, L.E., and Olenin, S. 2008. Past, current, and future of the central European corridor for aquatic invasions in Belarus. Biol. Invasions 10(2):215-232.

Keller, R.P., Frang, K., and Lodge, D.M. 2008. Preventing the spread of invasive species: economic benefits of intervention guided by ecological predictions. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):80-88.

Kelly, J.P., Etienne, K., Strong, C., Mccaustland, M., and Parkes, M.L. 2007. Status, trends, and implications for the conservation of Heron and Egret nesting colonies in the San Francisco Bay area. Waterbirds 30(4):455-478.

Keppel, G., and Tuiwawa, M.V. 2007. Dry zone forests of Fiji: species composition, life history traits, and conservation. New Zeal. J. Bot. 45(4):545-563.

Khan, M.M.H., and Chivers, D.J. 2007. Habitat preferences of tigers Panthera tigris in the Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh, and management recommendations. Oryx 41(4):463-468.

Kidjo, N., Feracci, G., Bideau, E., Gonzalez, G., Mattéi, C., Marchand, B., and Aulagnier, S. 2007. Extirpation and reintroduction of the Corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus in Corsica. Oryx 41(4):488-494.

Komonen, A., Tikkamaki, T., Mattila, N., and Kotiaho, J.S. 2008. Patch size and connectivity influence the population turnover of the threatened chequered blue butterfly, Scolitantides orion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 105(1):131-136.

Koontz, T.M., and Bodine, J. 2008. Implementing ecosystem management in public agencies: lessons from the US Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):60-69.

Kristensen, T.N., Loeschcke, V., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2008. Linking inbreeding effects in captive populations with fitness in the wild: release of replicated Drosophila melanogaster lines under different temperatures. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):189-199.

Kristiansen, J. 2008. Dispersal and biogeography of silica-scaled chrysophytes. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):419-426.

Kurten, E.L., Snyder, C.P., Iwata, T., and Vitousek, P.M. 2008. Morella cerifera invasion and nitrogen cycling on a lowland Hawaiian lava flow. Biol. Invasions 10(1):19-24.

Kushlan, J.A., and Steinkamp, M.J. 2007. Seabird nesting and conservation in the northern Bahamas. Waterbirds 30(4):613-623.

Laich, A.G., and Favero, M. 2007. Spatio-temporal variation in mortality rates of White-chinned Petrels Procellaria aequinoctialis interacting with longliners in the south-west Atlantic. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(4):359-366.

Lalley, J.S., and Viles, H.A. 2008. Recovery of lichen-dominated soil crusts in a hyper-arid desert. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):1-20.

Laurance, W.F. 2008. Adopt a forest. Biotropica 40(1):3-6.

Le, M. 2007. Conservation of turtles in Vietnam: a survey of Cat Tien National Park. Oryx 41(4):544-547.

Leicht-Young, S.A., Pavlovic, N.B., Grundel, R., and Frohnapple, K.J. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134(4):441-450.

Leonard, J.A., and Wayne, R.K. 2008. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored. Biol. Lett. 4(1):95-98.

Link, S.O. 2008. Climate change and natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):5.

Linkie, M., and Christie, S. 2007. The value of wild tiger conservation. Oryx 41(4):415-416.

Lynam, A.J., Laidlaw, R., Noordin, W.S.W., Elagupillay, S., and Bennett, E.L. 2007. Assessing the conservation status of the tiger Panthera tigris at priority sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 41(4):454-462.

Mangas, J.G., Lozano, J., Cabezas-Díaz, S., and Virgós, E. 2008. The priority value of scrubland habitats for carnivore conservation in Mediterranean ecosystems. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):43-51.

Mangla, S., Inderjit, and Callaway, R.M. 2008. Exotic invasive plant accumulates native soil pathogens which inhibit native plants. J. Ecology 96(1):58-67.

Markovchick-Nicholls, L., Regan, H.M., Deutschman, D.H., Widyanata, A., Martin, B., Noreke, L., and Hunt, T.A. 2008. Relationships between human disturbance and wildlife land use in urban habitat fragments. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):99-109.

Mavhunga, C. 2007. Even the rider and a horse are a partnership: a response to Vermeulen & Sheil. Oryx 41(4):441-442.

Mcalpine, K.G., Jesson, L.K., and Kubien, D.S. 2008. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency: a comparison between invasive (exotic) and non-invasive (native) species. Austral Ecol. 33(1):10-19.

McGlashan, D.J., Ponniah, M., Cassey, P., and Viard, F. 2008. Clarifying marine invasions with molecular markers: an illustration based on mtDNA from mistaken calyptraeid gastropod identifications. Biol. Invasions 10(1):51-57.

Mckay, L. 2007. Engaging the public in bird conservation: moving from science to behavior change. Waterbirds 30:177-182.

Medina-Vogel, G., Merino, L.O., Alarcón, R.M., and Vianna, J.D. 2008. Coastal-marine discontinuities, critical patch size and isolation: implications for marine otter conservation. Anim. Conserv. 11(1):57-64.

Meijaard, E., and Sheil, D. 2008. The persistence and conservation of Borneo's mammals in lowland rain forests managed for timber: observations, overviews and opportunities. Ecol. Res. 23(1):21-34.

Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., Marshall, A.J., and Nasi, R. 2008. Phylogenetic age is positively correlated with sensitivity to timber harvest in Bornean mammals. Biotropica 40(1):76-85.

Meinesz, A. 2007. Methods for identifying and tracking seaweed invasions. Bot. Mar. 50(5-6):373-384.

Meyer, C.F.J., Frund, J., Lizano, W.P., and Kalko, E.K.V. 2008. Ecological correlates of vulnerability to fragmentation in Neotropical bats. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(1):381-391.

Milder, J.C., Lassoie, J.P., and Bedford, B.L. 2008. Conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function through limited development: an empirical evaluation. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):70-79.

Mitchell, R.J., and Ashman, T.L. 2008. Predicting evolutionary consequences of pollinator declines: the long and short of floral evolution. New Phytol. 177(3):576-579.

Mitrovski, P., Hoffmann, A.A., Heinze, D.A., and Weeks, A.R. 2008. Rapid loss of genetic variation in an endangered possum. Biol. Lett. 4(1):134-138.

Moles, A.T., Gruber, M.A.M., and Bonser, S.P. 2008. A new framework for predicting invasive plant species. J. Ecology 96(1):13-17.

Morrison, L. 2008. The use of control charts to interpret environmental monitoring data. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):66-73.

Muirhead, J.R., Gray, D.K., Kelly, D.W., Ellis, S.M., Heath, D.D., and Macisaac, H.J. 2008. Identifying the source of species invasions: sampling intensity vs. genetic diversity. Mol. Ecol. 17(4):1020-1035.

Musche, M., Settele, J., and Durka, W. 2008. Genetic population structure and reproductive fitness in the plant Sanguisorba officinalis in populations supporting colonies of an endangered Maculinea butterfly. Int. J. Plant Sci. 169(2):253-262.

Nascimbene, J., and Nimis, P.L. 2007. Freshwater lichens in a small riparian Nature Reserve of Northern Italy: species richness and conservation issues. Cryptogamie Mycol. 28(4):339-342.

Negro, M., Casale, A., Migliore, L., Palestrini, C., and Rolando, A. 2008. Habitat use and movement patterns in the endangered ground beetle species, Carabus olympiae (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 105(1):105-112.

New, T.R. 2008. Legislative inconsistencies and species conservation status: understanding or confusion? The case of Riekoperla darlingtoni (Plecoptera) in Australia. J. Insect Conserv. 12(1):1-2.

Norbury, G., and Heyward, R. 2008. Predictors of clutch predation of a globally significant avifauna in New Zealand's braided river ecosystems. Anim. Conserv. 11(1):17-25.

Norton, A.P., Blair, A.C., Hardin, J.G., Nissen, S.J., and Brunk, G.R. 2008. Herbivory and novel weapons: no evidence for enhanced competitive ability or allelopathy induction of Centaurea diffusa by biological controls. Biol. Invasions 10(1):79-88.

Noske, N.M., Hilt, N., Werner, F.A., Brehm, G., Fiedler, K., Sipman, H.J.M., and Gradstein, S.R. 2008. Disturbance effects on diversity of epiphytes and moths in a montane forest in Ecuador. Basic Appl. Ecol. 9(1):4-12.

Okabe, K., and Goka, K. 2008. Potential impacts on Japanese fauna of canestriniid mites (Acari: Astigmata) accidentally introduced with pet lucanid beetles from Southeast Asia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):71-81.

Okes, N.C., Hockey, P.A.R., and Cumming, G.S. 2008. Habitat use and life history as predictors of bird responses to habitat change. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):151-162.

Oliveira, R., Godinho, R., Randi, E., Ferrand, N., and Alves, P.C. 2008. Molecular analysis of hybridisation between wild and domestic cats (Felis silvestris) in Portugal: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 9(1):1-11.

Palmeirim, J.M., Champion, A., Naikatini, A., Niukula, J., Tuiwawa, M., Fisher, M., Yabaki-Gounder, M., Thorsteinsdóttir, S., Qalovaki, S., and Dunn, T. 2007. Distribution, status and conservation of the bats of the Fiji Islands. Oryx 41(4):509-519.

Pawlowski, J., and Holzmann, M. 2008. Diversity and geographic distribution of benthic foraminifera: a molecular perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):317-328.

Peck, D.R., Faulquier, L., Pinet, P., Jaquemet, S., and Le Corre, M. 2008. Feral cat diet and impact on sooty terns at Juan de Nova Island, Mozambique Channel. Anim. Conserv. 11(1):65-74.

Pelicice, F.M., and Agostinho, A.A. 2008. Fish-passage facilities as ecological traps in large Neotropical rivers. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):180-188.

Perry, D., and Perry, G. 2008. Improving interactions between animal rights groups and conservation biologists. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):27-35.

Pickering, T.D., Skelton, P., and Sulu, R.J. 2007. Intentional introductions of commercially harvested alien seaweeds. Bot. Mar. 50(5-6):338-350.

Predick, K.I., and Turner, M.G. 2008. Landscape configuration and flood frequency influence invasive shrubs in floodplain forests of the Wisconsin River (USA). J. Ecology 96(1):91-102.

Preisser, E.L., Lodge, A.G., Orwig, D.A., and Elkinton, J.S. 2008. Range expansion and population dynamics of co-occurring invasive herbivores. Biol. Invasions 10(2):201-213.

Raghavan, R., Prasad, G., Anvar-Ali, P.H., and Pereira, B. 2008. Exotic fish species in a global biodiversity hotspot: observations from River Chalakudy, part of Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Biol. Invasions 10(1):37-40.

Reid, K., and Clarke, A. 2007. John Croxall and marine conservation biology: an introduction to the symposium. Aquat. Conserv. 17:S2-S5.

Ribeiro, F., Elvira, B., Collares-Pereira, M.J., and Moyle, P.B. 2008. Life-history traits of non-native fishes in Iberian watersheds across several invasion stages: a first approach. Biol. Invasions 10(1):89-102.

Richardson, D.M., Rundel, P.W., Jackson, S.T., Teskey, R.O., Aronson, J., Bytnerowicz, A., Wingfield, M.J., and Proches, S. 2007. Human impacts in pine forests: past, present, and future. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 38:275-297.

Robinson, J.G. 2007. Recognizing differences and establishing clear-eyed partnerships: a response to Vermeulen & Sheil. Oryx 41(4):443-444.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., and Brooks, T.M. 2007. Shortcuts for biodiversity conservation planning: the effectiveness of surrogates. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 38:713-737.

Rönkä, A., Kvist, L., Karvonen, J., Koivula, K., Pakanen, V.M., Schamel, D., and Tracy, D.M. 2008. Population genetic structure in the Temminck's stint Calidris temminckii, with an emphasis on Fennoscandian populations. Conserv. Genet. 9(1):29-37.

Rosas, F.C.W., de Mattos, G.E., and Cabral, M.M.M. 2007. The use of hydroelectric lakes by giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis: Balbina lake in central Amazonia, Brazil. Oryx 41(4):520-524.

Rosen, D., De Steven, D., and Lange, M. 2008. Conservation strategies and vegetation characterization in the Columbia Bottomlands, an under-recognized southern floodplain forest formation. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):74-82.

Russell, L.K., Hepburn, C.D., Hurd, C.L., and Stuart, M.D. 2008. The expanding range of Undaria pinnatifida in southern New Zealand: distribution, dispersal mechanisms and the invasion of wave-exposed environments. Biol. Invasions 10(1):103-115.

Sanders, J.G., Cribbs, J.E., Fienberg, H.G., Hulburd, G.C., Katz, L.S., and Palumbi, S.R. 2008. The tip of the tail: molecular identification of seahorses for sale in apothecary shops and curio stores in California. Conserv. Genet. 9(1):65-71.

Sands, D.P.A., and New, T.R. 2008. Irregular diapause, apparency and evaluating conservation status: anomalies from the Australian butterflies. J. Insect Conserv. 12(1):81-85.

Santos, T., Díaz, J.A., Pérez-Tris, J., Carbonell, R., and Tellería, J.L. 2008. Habitat quality predicts the distribution of a lizard in fragmented woodlands better than habitat fragmentation. Anim. Conserv. 11(1):46-56.

Saunders, D.L., and Heinsohn, R. 2008. Winter habitat use by the endangered, migratory Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) in New South Wales. Emu 108(1):81-89.

Schaffelke, B., and Hewitt, C.L. 2007. Impacts of introduced seaweeds. Bot. Mar. 50(5-6):397-417.

Segers, H., and De Smet, W.H. 2008. Diversity and endemism in Rotifera: a review, and Keratella Bory de St Vincent. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):303-316.

Sekercioglu, C.H., Schneider, S.H., Fay, J.P., and Loarie, S.R. 2008. Climate change, elevational range shifts, and bird extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):140-150.

Shanas, U., Shapira, I., and Sultan, H. 2008. Behavioural alterations as part of an agricultural edge effect. Anim. Conserv. 11(1):15-16.

Shapira, I., Sultan, H., and Shanas, U. 2008. Agricultural farming alters predator-prey interactions in nearby natural habitats. Anim. Conserv. 11(1):1-8.

Shepherd, C.R., and Nijman, V. 2008. The trade in bear parts from Myanmar: an illustration of the ineffectiveness of enforcement of international wildlife trade regulations. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):35-42.

Sheth, S.N., Lohmann, L.G., Consiglio, T., and Jiménez, I. 2008. Effects of detectability on estimates of geographic range size in Bignonieae. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):200-211.

Simcharoen, S., Pattanavibool, A., Karanth, K.U., Nichols, J.D., and Kumar, N.S. 2007. How many tigers Panthera tigris are there in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand? An estimate using photographic capture-recapture sampling. Oryx 41(4):447-453.

Simianer, H. 2008. Accounting for non-independence of extinction probabilities in the derivation of conservation priorities based on Weitzman's diversity concept. Conserv. Genet. 9(1):171-179.

Simon, E.M., Nanney, D.L., and Doerder, F.P. 2008. The "Tetrahymena pyriformis" complex of cryptic species. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):365-380.

Smith, H.G., Bobrov, A., and Lara, E. 2008. Diversity and biogeography of testate amoebae. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):329-343.

Stairnatis, C., Suchentrunk, F., Sert, H., Triantaphyllidis, C., and Marnuris, Z. 2007. Genetic evidence for survival of released captive-bred brown hares Lepus europaeus during restocking operations in Greece. Oryx 41(4):548-551.

Stephenson, S.L., Schnittler, M., and Novozhilov, Y.K. 2008. Myxomycete diversity and distribution from the fossil record to the present. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):285-301.

Stubbendieck, J., and Tunnell, S. 2008. Seventy-eight years of vegetation dynamics in a sandhills grassland. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):58-65.

Taki, H., Viana, B.F., Kevan, P.G., Silva, F.O., and Buck, M. 2008. Does forest loss affect the communities of trap-nesting wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in forests? Landscape vs. local habitat conditions. J. Insect Conserv. 12(1):15-21.

Tallis, H., Ferdaña, Z., and Gray, E. 2008. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):120-130.

Taylor, F.J.R., Hoppenrath, M., and Saldarriaga, J.F. 2008. Dinoflagellate diversity and distribution. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):407-418.

Tepedino, V., Bradley, B., and Griswold, T. 2008. Might flowers of invasive plants increase native bee carrying capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah. Nat. Areas J. 28(1):44-50.

Trebitz, A.S., and Taylor, D.L. 2007. Exotic and invasive aquatic plants in great lakes coastal wetlands: distribution and relation to watershed land use and plant richness and cover. J. Great Lakes Res. 33(4):705-721.

Tyler, G. 2008. The ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of abandoned fields, as related to plant cover, previous management and succession stage. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):155-172.

Tzika, A.C., Koenig, S., Miller, R., Garcia, G., Remy, C., and Milinkovitch, M.C. 2008. Population structure of an endemic vulnerable species, the Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus). Mol. Ecol. 17(2):533-544.

Valentine, J.P., Magierowski, R.H., and Johnson, C.R. 2007. Mechanisms of invasion: establishment, spread and persistence of introduced seaweed populations. Bot. Mar. 50(5-6):351-360.

Vallecillo, S., Brotons, L., and Herrando, S. 2008. Assessing the response of open-habitat bird species to landscape changes in Mediterranean mosaics. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):103-119.

Van Kleunen, M., Manning, J.C., Pasqualetto, V., and Johnson, SD. 2008. Phylogenetically independent associations between autonomous self-fertilization and plant invasiveness. Am. Nat. 171(2):195-201.

Van Rossum, F. 2008. Conservation of long-lived perennial forest herbs in an urban context: Primula elatior as study case. Conserv. Genet. 9(1):119-128.

Vanormelingen, P., Verleyen, E., and Vyverman, W. 2008. The diversity and distribution of diatoms: from cosmopolitanism to narrow endemism. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):393-405.

Vermeulen, S., and Sheil, D. 2007. Partnerships for tropical conservation. Oryx 41(4):434-440.

Vermeulen, S., and Sheil, D. 2007. The possibility of common ground: a reply to Mavhunga and Robinson. Oryx 41(4):445-446.

Wale, E. 2008. Challenges in genetic resources policy making: some lessons from participatory policy research with a special reference to Ethiopia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(1):21-33.

Walker, S., Price, R., and Stephens, R.T.T. 2008. An index of risk as a measure of biodiversity conservation achieved through land reform. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):48-59.

Watari, Y., Takatsuki, S., and Miyashita, T. 2008. Effects of exotic mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native fauna of Amami-Oshima Island, southern Japan, estimated by distribution patterns along the historical gradient of mongoose invasion. Biol. Invasions 10(1):7-17.

Watts, B.D., Therres, G.D., and Byrd, M.A. 2007. Status, distribution, and the future of bald eagles in the Chesapeake Bay area. Waterbirds 30:25-38.

Weisse, T. 2008. Distribution and diversity of aquatic protists: an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(2):243-259.

White, E.M., Sims, N.M., and Clarke, A.R. 2008. Test of the enemy release hypothesis: the native magpie moth prefers a native fireweed (Senecio pinnatifolius) to its introduced congener (S. madagascariensis). Austral Ecol. 33(1):110-116.

Wilke, A.L., Brinker, D.F., Watts, B.D., Traut, A.H., Boettcher, R., McCann, J.M., Truitt, B.R., and Denmon, P.P. 2007. American Oystercatchers in Maryland and Virginia, USA: status and distribution. Waterbirds 30:152-162.

Williams, B., Brinker, D.F., and Watts, B.D. 2007. The status of colonial nesting wading bird populations within the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic barrier island-lagoon system. Waterbirds 30:82-92.

Williams, S.L., and Smith, J.E. 2007. A global review of the distribution, taxonomy, and impacts of introduced seaweeds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 38:327-359.

Wilson, J.W., van Rensburg, B.J., Ferguson, J.W.H., and Keith, M. 2008. The relative importance of environment, human activity and space in explaining species richness of South African bird orders. J. Biogeogr. 35(2):342-352.

Wilson, M.D., Watts, B.D., and Brinker, D.F. 2007. Status review of Chesapeake Bay marsh lands and breeding marsh birds. Waterbirds 30:122-137.

Wood, C.C., and Gross, M.R. 2008. Elemental conservation units: communicating extinction risk without dictating targets for protection. Conserv. Biol. 22(1):36-47.

Xiang, Z.F., Huo, S., Wang, L., Cui, L.W., Xiao, W., Quan, R.C., and Tai, Z. 2007. Distribution, status and conservation of the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus bieti in Tibet. Oryx 41(4):525-531.

Xu, J.L., Zhang, Z.W., Zheng, G.M., Zhang, X.H., Sun, Q.H., and McGowan, P. 2007. Home range and habitat use of Reeves's Pheasant Syrmaticus reevesii in the protected areas created from forest farms in the Dabie Mountains, central China. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(4):319-330.

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