Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany

No. 283
July 2008

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

A Baseline for the Study of Coral Reefs

In an essay recently published in PLoS Biology, co-authors Nancy Knowlton (National Museum of Natural History) and Jeremy Jackson (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) pose a thought-provoking scenario: ""Imagine trying to understand the ecology of tropical rainforests by studying environmental changes and interactions among the surviving plants and animals on a vast cattle ranch in the center of a deforested Amazon, without any basic data on how the forest worked before it was cleared and burned." This, the authors note, is similar to the situation now faced by coral reef researchers.

Most marine ecosystems have been degraded for decades, but systematic underwater observations began relatively recently. In 2005, to help build a baseline for comparison and fill in gaps in knowledge about how pristine reefs function, Knowlton and Jackson joined an expedition led by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

The team's research on a chain of islands in the central Pacific Ocean has yielded an unprecedented wealth of information about coral reefs and threats from human activities. The results are published in two papers in the journal PLoS ONE and a companion essay in PLoS Biology.

The exploration of four atolls in the Line Islands, approximately a thousand miles south of Hawaii, has produced the first study of coral reefs, comprehensively spanning organisms from microbes to sharks across a gradient of human impacts, from uninhabited Kingman Reef to Kiritimati, which has a population of 5,000 people.

In the first PLoS ONE paper, the researchers, led by Stuart Sandin of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, document one of Earth's most pristine coral reefs. In Kingman's atypical food web, predators such as sharks accounted for 85 percent of the total fish biomass. This inverted pyramid is the opposite of the bottom-heavy pyramids seen in other parts of the world where top predators have been fished out. Kingman also exhibited healthy coral populations, and had little seaweed and low microbe concentrations, evidence of disturbed reefs seen elsewhere.

A comparison of Kingman with other reefs in the Line Islands revealed increasing levels of human impacts, including declining coral health, fewer and smaller fish, and an increase in microbes.

The Kingman baseline will be essential for comparisons against degraded reefs elsewhere and for evaluating the efficacy of current conservation actions. The data will stimulate new ideas for conserving reefs against threats such as pollution, global warming and overfishing.

The second PLoS ONE paper describes the ecology of microbes across the four atolls. The researchers, led by Elizabeth Dinsdale and Forest Rohwer of San Diego State University, found 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column at Kiritimati compared with that at Kingman. The microbes around Kiritimati's reefs, which had the highest percentage of coral disease and smallest coverage of corals, contained a large percentage of potential pathogens.

Knowlton and Jackson's companion essay puts the findings into perspective by analyzing the importance of establishing baselines for understanding reef ecology in the face of global threats.

They argue that so-called "shifting baselines," when ecosystems degrade and baselines are downgraded from one generation to the next, is at the root of understanding the factors driving coral reef decline and what, if anything can be done to stop it.

Current Literature

Aguirre-Muñoz, A., Croll, D.A., Donlan, C.J., Henry, R.W., Hermosillo, M.A., Howald, G.R., Keitt, B.S., Luna-Mendoza, L., Rodríguez-Malagón, M., Salas-Flores, L.M., Samaniego-Herrera, A., Sanchez-Pacheco, J.A., Sheppard, J., Tershy, B.R., Toro-Benito, J., Wolf, S., and Wood, B. 2008. High-impact conservation: invasive mammal eradications from the islands of western Mexico. Ambio 37(2):101-107.

Ainsworth, C.H., Pitcher, T.J., and Rotinsulu, C. 2008. Evidence of fishery depletions and shifting cognitive baselines in Eastern Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):848-859.

Aizen, M.A., Morales, C.L., and Morales, J.M. 2008. Invasive mutualists erode native pollination webs. PLoS Biol. 6(2):396-403.

Ale, S.B., and Whelan, C.J. 2008. Reappraisal of the role of big, fierce predators! Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):685-690.

Barbiero, R.P., and Rockwell, D.C. 2008. Changes in the crustacean communities of the central basin of Lake Erie during the first full year of the Bythotrephes longimanus invasion. J. Great Lakes Res. 34(1):109-121.

Barrionuevo, J.S., and Ponssa, M.L. 2008. Decline of three species of the genus Telmatobius (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Tucumán Province, Argentina. Herpetologica 64(1):47-62.

Bartomeus, I., Vilà, M., and Santamaría, L. 2008. Contrasting effects of invasive plants in plant-pollinator networks. Oecologia 155(4):761-770.

Bateman, H.L., Chung-MacCoubrey, A., and Snell, H.L. 2008. Impact of non-native plant removal on lizards in riparian habitats in the Southwestern United States. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):180-190.

Bauer, A.M., Jackman, T.R., Sadlier, R.A., Shea, G., and Whitaker, A.H. 2008. A new small-bodied species of Bavayia (Reptilia: Squamata: Diplodactylidae) from southeastem New Caledonia. Pacific Sci. 62(2):247-256.

Bay, R.F., and Sher, A.A. 2008. Success of active revegetation after Tamarix removal in riparian ecosytems of the southwestern United States: a quantitiative assessment of past restoration projects. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):113-128.

Bearzi, G., Agazzi, S., Bonizzoni, S., Costa, M., and Azzellino, A. 2008. Dolphins in a bottle: abundance, residency patterns and conservation of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the semi-closed eutrophic Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece. Aquat. Conserv. 18(2):130-146.

Berger, J. 2008. Undetected species losses, food webs, and ecological baselines: a cautionary tale from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Oryx 42(1):139-142.

Beroiz, B., Callejas, C., Alonso, F., and Ochando, M.D. 2008. Genetic structure of Spanish white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) populations as determined by RAPD analysis: reasons for optimism. Aquat. Conserv. 18(2):190-201.

Bihn, O.H., Verhaagh, M., Brändle, M., and Brandl, R. 2008. Do secondary forests act as refuges for old growth forest animals? Recovery of ant diversity in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):733-743.

Bleeker, W., Klausmeyer, S., Peintinger, M., and Dienst, M. 2008. DNA sequences identify invasive alien Cardamine at Lake Constance. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):692-698.

Bollache, L., Dick, J.T.A., Farnsworth, K.D., and Montgomery, W.I. 2008. Comparison of the functional responses of invasive and native amphipods. Biol. Lett. 4(2):166-169.

Bontadina, F., Schmied, S.F., Beck, A., and Arlettaz, R. 2008. Changes in prey abundance unlikely to explain the demography of a critically endangered Central European bat. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):641-648.

Buckley, Y.M. 2008. The role of research for integrated management of invasive species, invaded landscapes and communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):397-402.

Burgin, S. 2008. BioBanking: an environmental scientist's view of the role of biodiversity banking offsets in conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):807-816.

Burns, J.H. 2008. Demographic performance predicts invasiveness of species in the Commelinaceae under high-nutrient conditions. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):335-346.

Cagle, N.L. 2008. Snake species distributions and temperate grasslands: a case study from the American tallgrass prairie. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):744-755.

Cardoni, D.A., Favero, M., and Isacch, J.P. 2008. Recreational activities affecting the habitat use by birds in Pampa's wetlands, Argentina: implications for waterbird conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):797-806.

Caut, S., Angulo, E., and Courchamp, F. 2008. Dietary shift of an invasive predator: rats, seabirds and sea turtles. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):428-437.

Chadwell, T.B., and Engelhardt, K.A.M. 2008. Effects of pre-existing submersed vegetation and propagule pressure on the invasion success of Hydrilla verticillata. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):515-523.

Chaloupka, M., Kamezaki, N., and Limpus, C. 2008. Is climate change affecting the population dynamics of the endangered Pacific loggerhead sea turtle? J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 356(1-2):136-143.

Chien, P.D., Zuidema, P.A., and Nghia, N.H. 2008. Conservation prospects for threatened Vietnamese tree species: results from a demographic study. Pop. Ecol. 50(2):227-237.

Chown, S.L., Sinclair, B.J., and van Vuuren, B.J. 2008. DNA barcoding and the documentation of alien species establishment on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biol. 31(5):651-655.

Chytrý, M., Maskell, L.C., Pino, J., Pyšek, P., Vilà, M., Font, X., and Smart, S.M. 2008. Habitat invasions by alien plants: a quantitative comparison among Mediterranean, subcontinental and oceanic regions of Europe. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):448-458.

Clements, D.R., Feenstra, K.R., Jones, K., and Staniforth, R. 2008. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 9. Impatiens glandulifera Royle. Can. J. Plant Sci. 88(2):403-417.

Corser, J.D. 2008. The Cumberland Plateau disjunct paradox and the biogeography and conservation of pond-breeding amphibians. Am. Midl. Nat. 159(2):498-503.

Coulon, A., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Bowman, R., Stith, B.M., Makarewich, C.A., Stenzler, L.M., and Lovette, I.J. 2008. Congruent population structure inferred from dispersal behaviour and intensive genetic surveys of the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). Mol. Ecol. 17(7):1685-1701.

Cox, R.D., and Allen, E.B. 2008. Stability of exotic annual grasses following restoration efforts in southern California coastal sage scrub. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):495-504.

Cruz, J.B., Kremer, S.R., Martin, G., Williams, L.L., and Camacho, V.A. 2008. Relative abundance and distribution of Mariana Swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae) in the Northern Mariana Islands. Pacific Sci. 62(2):233-246.

Culver, M., Hedrick, P.W., Murphy, K., O'Brien, S., and Hornocker, M.G. 2008. Estimation of the bottleneck size in Florida panthers. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):104-110.

De Lange, P.J., Heenan, P.B., Keeling, D.J., Murray, B.G., Smissen, R., and Sykes, W.R. 2008. Biosystematics and conservation: a case study with two enigmatic and uncommon species of Crassula from new zealand. Ann. Botany 101(6):881-899.

de Sherbinin, A. 2008. Is poverty more acute near parks? An assessment of infant mortality rates around protected areas in developing countries. Oryx 42(1):26-35.

Devin, S., and Beisel, J.N. 2008. Geographic patterns in freshwater gammarid invasions: an analysis at the pan-European scale. Aquat. Sci. 70(1):100-106.

Dinata, Y., Nugroho, A., Haidir, I.A., and Linkie, M. 2008. Camera trapping rare and threatened avifauna in west-central Sumatra. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):30-37.

Ding, J.Q., Mack, R.N., Lu, P., Ren, M.X., and Huang, H.W. 2008. China's booming economy is sparking and accelerating biological invasions. BioScience 58(4):317-324.

Dinsdale, E.A., Pantos, O., Smriga, S., Edwards, R.A., Angly, F., Wegley, L., Hatay, M., Hall, D., Brown, E., Haynes, M., Krause, L., Sala, E., Sandin, S.A., Thurber, R.V., Willis, B.L., Azam, F., Knowlton, N., and Rohwer, F. 2008. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the northern Line Islands. PLoS ONE 3(2):e1584.

Dobson, A., and Lynes, L. 2008. How does poaching affect the size of national parks? Trends Ecol. Evol. 23(4):177-180.

Drever, M.C., Aitken, K.E.H., Norris, A.R., and Martin, K. 2008. Woodpeckers as reliable indicators of bird richness, forest health and harvest. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):624-634.

Duncan, R.S., Anderson, C.B., Sellers, H.N., and Robbins, E.E. 2008. The effect of fire reintroduction on endemic and rare plants of a southeastern glade ecosystem. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):39-49.

Dunham, K.M. 2008. Detection of anthropogenic mortality in elephant Loxodonta africana populations: a long-term case study from the Sebungwe region of Zimbabwe. Oryx 42(1):36-48.

Echeverria, C., Coomes, D.A., Hall, M., and Newton, A.C. 2008. Spatially explicit models to analyze forest loss and fragmentation between 1976 and 2020 in southern Chile. Ecol. Model. 212(3-4):439-449.

Eschtruth, A.K., and Battles, J.J. 2008. Deer herbivory alters forest response to canopy decline caused by an exotic insect pest. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):360-376.

Estrada, A., Real, R., and Vargas, J.M. 2008. Using crisp and fuzzy modelling to identify favourability hotspots useful to perform gap analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):857-871.

Etterson, J.R., Delf, D.E., Craig, T.P., Ando, Y., and Ohgushi, T. 2008. Parallel patterns of clinal variation in Solidago altissima in its native range in central USA and its invasive range in Japan. Botany 86(1):91-97.

Ewers, R.M., and Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2008. Estimates of reserve effectiveness are confounded by leakage. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23(3):113-116.

Faria, P.J., Guedes, N.M.R., Yamashita, C., Martuscelli, P., and Miyaki, C.Y. 2008. Genetic variation and population structure of the endangered Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus): implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):765-779.

Farwig, N., Bleher, B., von der Gönna, S., and Böhning-Gaese, K. 2008. Does forest fragmentation and selective logging affect seed predators and seed predation rates of Prunus africana (Rosaceae)? Biotropica 40(2):218-224.

Feenstra, K.R., and Clements, D.R. 2008. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 4. Verbesina encelioides, golden crownbeard (Magnoliopsida: Asteraceae). Pacific Sci. 62(2):161-176.

Fischer, J.R., and Paukert, C.P. 2008. Historical and current environmental influences on an endemic Great Plains fish. Am. Midl. Nat. 159(2):364-377.

Fitzsimons, J.A., and Wescott, G. 2008. The role of multi-tenure reserve networks in improving reserve design and connectivity. Landscape Urban Plan. 85(3-4):163-173.

Fossette, S., Kelle, L., Girondot, M., Goverse, E., Hilterman, M.L., Verhage, B., de Thoisy, B., and Georges, J.Y. 2008. The world's largest leatherback rookeries: a review of conservation-oriented research in French Guiana/Suriname and Gabon. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 356(1-2):69-82.

Fowler, C.W. 2008. Maximizing biodiversity, information and sustainability. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):841-855.

Fritz, Ö., Gustafsson, L., and Larsson, K. 2008. Does forest continuity matter in conservation? A study of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in beech forests of southern Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):655-668.

Fuentes, M. 2008. Biological conservation and global poverty. Biotropica 40(2):139-140.

Galbraith, H.S., Spooner, D.E., and Vaughn, C.C. 2008. Status of rare and endangered freshwater mussels in Southeastern Oklahoma. Southwest. Nat. 53(1):45-50.

Game, E.T., Watts, M.E., Wooldridge, S., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. Planning for persistence in marine reserves: a question of catastrophic importance. Ecol. Appl. 18(3):670-680.

Garcia-Serrano, H., Escarré, J., Caño, L., and Sans, F.X. 2008. Comparing the effect of habitat on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in the Mediterranean native Senecio malacitanus and the alien S.inaequidens: consequences for invasive ability. Botany 86(1):63-75.

Gavashelishvili, A., and Lukarevskiy, V. 2008. Modelling the habitat requirements of leopard Panthera pardus in west and central Asia. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):579-588.

Geneletti, D., and van Duren, I. 2008. Protected area zoning for conservation and use: a combination of spatial multicriteria and multiobjective evaluation. Landscape Urban Plan. 85(2):97-110.

Gerber, E., Krebs, C., Murrell, C., Moretti, M., Rocklin, R., and Schaffner, U. 2008. Exotic invasive knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) negatively affect native plant and invertebrate assemblages in European riparian habitats. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):646-654.

Gibbs, J.P., Marquez, C., and Sterling, E.J. 2008. The role of endangered species reintroduction in ecosystem restoration: tortoise-cactus interactions on Española island, Galápagos. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):88-93.

Giordano, P.F., Bellis, L.M., Navarro, J.L., and Martella, M.B. 2008. Abundance and spatial distribution of Greater Rhea Rhea americana in two sites on the pampas grasslands with different land use. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):63-70.

Glen, A.S., and Dickman, C.R. 2008. Niche overlap between marsupial and eutherian carnivores: does competition threaten the endangered spotted-tailed quoll? J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):700-707.

Gomes, L.G.L., Ostra, V., Nijman, V., Cleef, A.M., and Kappelle, M. 2008. Tolerance of frugivorous birds to habitat disturbance in a tropical cloud forest. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):860-871.

Goulder, R. 2008. Conservation of aquatic plants in artificial watercourses: are main drains a substitute for vulnerable navigation canals? Aquat. Conserv. 18(2):163-174.

Gove, A.D., Dunn, R.R., and Majer, J.D. 2008. The importance of species range attributes and reserve configuration for the conservation of angiosperm diversity in Western Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):817-831.

Graham, J., Simpson, A., Crall, A., Jarnevich, C., Newman, G., and Stohlgren, T.J. 2008. Vision of a cyberinfrastructure for nonnative, invasive species management. BioScience 58(3):263-268.

Graham, MD., and Ochieng, T. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42(1):76-82.

Guichon, M.L., and Doncaster, C.P. 2008. Invasion dynamics of an introduced squirrel in Argentina. Ecography 31(2):211-220.

Guidetti, P., Milazzo, M., Bussotti, S., Molinari, A., Murenu, M., Pais, A., Spanò, N., Balzano, R., Agardy, T., Boero, F., Carrada, G., Cattaneo-Vietti, R., Cau, A., Chemello, R., Greco, S., Manganaro, A., di Sciara, G.N., Russo, G.F., and Tunesi, L. 2008. Italian marine reserve effectiveness: does enforcement matter? Biol. Conserv. 141(3):699-709.

Gundale, M.J., Sutherland, S., and DeLuca, T.H. 2008. Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio-temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum. Ecography 31(2):201-210.

Gutzwiller, KJ., and Riffell, SK. 2008. Does repeated human intrusion alter use of wildland sites by red squirrels? Multiyear experimental evidence. J. Mammal. 89(2):374-380.

Hale, C.M., Frelich, L.E., Reich, P.B., and Pastor, J. 2008. Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability and native plants: a mesocosm study. Oecologia 155(3):509-518.

Hansbauer, M.M., Storch, I., Leu, S., Nieto-Holguin, J.P., Pimentel, R.G., Knauer, F., and Metzger, J.P.W. 2008. Movements of neotropical understory passerines affected by anthropogenic forest edges in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):782-791.

Harper, G.J., Steininger, M.K., Tucker, C.J., Juhn, D., and Hawkins, F. 2007. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):325-333.

Harris, G.M., Russell, G.J., van Aarde, R.I., and Pimm, S.L. 2008. Rules of habitat use by elephants Loxodonta africana in southern Africa: insights for regional management. Oryx 42(1):66-75.

Harrison, S. 2008. Commentary on Stohlgren et al. (2008): The myth of plant species saturation. Ecol. Lett. 11(4):322-324.

Hartig, T., Kaiser, F.G., and Strumse, E. 2007. Psychological restoration in nature as a source of motivation for ecological behaviour. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):291-299.

Hays, G.C. 2008. Sea turtles: a review of some key recent discoveries and remaining questions. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 356(1-2):1-7.

Hazen, H.D., and Harris, L.M. 2007. Limits of territorially-focused conservation: a critical assessment based on cartographic and geographic approaches. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):280-290.

Hedenås, H., and Ericson, L. 2008. Species occurrences at stand level cannot be understood without considering the landscape context: cyanolichens on aspen in boreal Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):710-718.

Helgen, K.M., Maldonado, J.E., Wilson, D.E., and Buckner, S.D. 2008. Molecular confirmation of the origin and invasive status of West Indian raccoons. J. Mammal. 89(2):282-291.

Hernández, H.M., Goettsch, B., Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., and Arita, H.T. 2008. Cactus species turnover and diversity along a latitudinal transect in the Chihuahuan Desert Region. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):703-720.

Hines, E., Adulyanukosol, K., Somany, P., Ath, L.S., Cox, N., Boonyanate, P., and Hoa, N.X. 2008. Conservation needs of the dugong Dugong dugon in Cambodia and Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam. Oryx 42(1):113-121.

Hoogesteijn, R., and Hoogesteijn, A. 2008. Conflicts between cattle ranching and large predators in Venezuela: could use of water buffalo facilitate felid conservation? Oryx 42(1):132-138.

Hufford, K.M., Mazer, S.J., and Camara, M.D. 2008. Local adaptation and effects of grazing among seedlings of two native California bunchgrass species: implications for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):59-69.

Hulme, P.E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Minchin, D., Nentwig, W., Olenin, S., Panov, V., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Roques, A., Sol, D., Solarz, W., and Vilà, M. 2008. Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):403-414.

Irwin, M.T. 2008. Diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) ranging and habitat use in continuous and fragmented forest: higher density but lower viability in fragments? Biotropica 40(2):231-240.

Jackson, S.F., and Gaston, K.J. 2008. The unpredictability of favourability: condition assessment and protected areas in England. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):749-764.

Jackson, T.R., Mosojane, S., Ferreira, S.M., and van Aarde, R.J. 2008. Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: moving away from symptomatic approaches. Oryx 42(1):83-91.

Jennings, M.D., Hoekstra, J., Higgins, J., and Boucher, T. 2008. A comparative measure of biodiversity based on species composition. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):833-840.

Jodoin, Y., Lavoie, C., Villeneuve, P., Theriault, M., Beaulieu, J., and Belzile, F. 2008. Highways as corridors and habitats for the invasive common reed Phragmites australis in Quebec, Canada. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):459-466.

Johnson, C.J., and Seip, D.R. 2008. Relationship between resource selection, distribution, and abundance: a test with implications to theory and conservation. Pop. Ecol. 50(2):145-157.

Johnson, M.P., Pye, S., and Allcock, L. 2008. Dispersal mode and assessments of recovery on the shores of Gruinard, the 'anthrax island'. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):721-732.

Jorge, M.L.S.P. 2008. Effects of forest fragmentation on two sister genera of Amazonian rodents (Myoprocta acouchy and Dasyprocta leporina). Biol. Conserv. 141(3):617-623.

Junker, J., van Aarde, R.J., and Ferreira, S.M. 2008. Temporal trends in elephant Loxodonta africana numbers and densities in northern Botswana: is the population really increasing? Oryx 42(1):58-65.

Kaiser, C.N., Hansen, D.M., and Mueller, C.B. 2008. Exotic pest insects: another perspective on coffee and conservation. Oryx 42(1):143-146.

Karlsson, J., and Sjöström, M. 2008. Direct use values and passive use values: implications for conservation of large carnivores. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):883-891.

Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Edwards-Jones, G., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2008. The sleeping policeman: understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):75-82.

Keller, C., and Schradin, C. 2008. Plant and small mammal richness correlate positively in a biodiversity hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):911-923.

Kesavaraju, B., Damal, K., and Juliano, S.A. 2008. Do natural container habitats impede invader dominance? Predator-mediated coexistence of invasive and native container-dwelling mosquitoes. Oecologia 155(3):631-639.

Killeen, T.J., and Solorzano, L.A. 2008. Conservation strategies to mitigate impacts from climate change in Amazonia. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 363(1498):1881-1888.

Knop, E., Schmid, B., and Herzog, F. 2008. Impact of regional species pool on grasshopper restoration in hay meadows. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):34-38.

Knowlton, N., and Jackson, J.B.C. 2008. Shifting baselines, local impacts, and global change on coral reefs. PLoS Biol. 6(2):215-220.

Koenig, W.D., and Walters, E.L. 2008. A tale of two worlds: molecular ecology and population structure of the threatened Florida scrub-jay. Mol. Ecol. 17(7):1632-1633.

Korb, J.E., and Fulé, P.Z. 2008. Intra- and interannual vegetation change: implications for long-term research. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):5-11.

Krüger, O., and Radford, A.N. 2008. Doomed to die? Predicting extinction risk in the true hawks Accipitridae. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):83-91.

Kuefler, D., Haddad, N.M., Hall, S., Hudgens, B., Bartel, B., and Hoffman, E. 2008. Distribution, population structure and habitat use of the endangered Saint Francis Satyr butterfly, Neonympha mitchellii francisci. Am. Midl. Nat. 159(2):298-320.

Kunte, K. 2008. The Wildlife (Protection) Act and conservation prioritization of butterflies of the Western Ghats, southwestern India. Curr. Sci. 94(6):729-735.

Laikre, L., Larsson, L.C., Palmé, A., Charlier, J., Josefsson, M., and Ryman, N. 2008. Potentials for monitoring gene level biodiversity: using Sweden as an example. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):893-910.

Lavoie, C., and Saint-Louis, A. 2008. Can a small park preserve its flora? A historical study of Bic National Park, Quebec. Botany 86(1):26-35.

Leech, T.J., Gormley, A.M., and Seddon, P.J. 2008. Estimating the minimum viable population size of kaka (Nestor meridionalis), a potential surrogate species in New Zealand lowland forest. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):681-691.

Lees, A.C., and Peres, C.A. 2008. Avian life-history determinants of local extinction risk in a hyper-fragmented neotropical forest landscape. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):128-137.

Leprieur, F., Beauchard, O., Blanchet, S., Oberdorff, T., and Brosse, S. 2008. Fish invasions in the world's river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities. PLoS Biol. 6(2):404-410.

Linares, C., Coma, R., Garrabou, J., Díaz, D., and Zabala, M. 2008. Size distribution, density and disturbance in two Mediterranean gorgonians: Paramuricea clavata and Eunicella singularis. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):688-699.

Lobo, J.M. 2008. Database records as a surrogate for sampling effort provide higher species richness estimations. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):873-881.

Lohse, K.A., Newburn, D.A., Opperman, J.J., and Merenlender, A.M. 2008. Forecasting relative impacts of land use on anadromous fish habitat to guide conservation planning. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):467-482.

Long, P.R., Zefania, S., ffrench-Constant, R.H., and Székely, T. 2008. Estimating the population size of an endangered shorebird, the Madagascar plover, using a habitat suitability model. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):118-127.

Lopes, L.E., Maldonado-Coelho, M., Hoffmann, D., Luiz, E.R., and D'Angelo, S. 2008. Geographic distribution, habitat association, and conservation status of the critically endangered Minas Gerais Tyrannulet Phylloscartes roquettei. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):53-62.

Maes, J., Musters, C.J.M., and De Snoo, G.R. 2008. The effect of agri-environment schemes on amphibian diversity and abundance. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):635-645.

Malcolm, G.M., Bush, D.S., and Rice, S.K. 2008. Soil nitrogen conditions approach preinvasion levels following restoration of nitrogen-fixing black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) stands in a pine-oak ecosystem. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):70-78.

Mameli, G., Filigheddu, R., Binelli, G., and Meloni, M. 2008. The genetic structure of the remnant populations of Centaurea horrida in Sardinia and associated islands. Ann. Botany 101(5):633-640.

Margalida, A., Donázar, J.A., Bustamante, J., Hernández, F.J., and Romero-Pujante, M. 2008. Application of a predictive model to detect long-term changes in nest-site selection in the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus: conservation in relation to territory shrinkage. Ibis 150(2):242-249.

Margalida, A., Heredia, R., Razin, M., and Hernández, M. 2008. Sources of variation in mortality of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Europe. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):1-10.

Marshall, J.M., and Storer, A.J. 2008. Comparative analysis of plant and ground dwelling arthropod communities in lacustrine dune areas with and without Centaurea biebersteinii (Asteraceae). Am. Midl. Nat. 159(2):261-274.

Martínez, J.A., Calvo, J.F., Martínez, J.E., Zuberogoitia, I., Zabala, J., and Redpath, S.M. 2008. Breeding performance, age effects and territory occupancy in a Bonelli's Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus population. Ibis 150(2):223-233.

Masero, J.A., Castro, M., Estrella, S.M., and Pérez-Hurtado, A. 2008. Evaluating impacts of shellfish and baitworm digging on bird populations: short-term negative effects on the availability of the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae to shorebirds. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):691-701.

Matiku, P. 2008. Poverty and mortality indicators: data for the poverty-conservation debate. Oryx 42(1):1.

McAlpine, C.A., Rhodes, J.R., Bowen, M.E., Lunney, D., Callaghan, J.G., Mitchell, D.L., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. Can multiscale models of species' distribution be generalized from region to region? A case study of the koala. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):558-567.

McGowan, A., Broderick, A.C., Frett, G., Gore, S., Hastings, M., Pickering, A., Wheatley, D., White, J., Witt, M.J., and Godley, B.J. 2008. Down but not out: marine turtles of the British Virgin Islands. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):92-103.

Meentemeyer, R.K., Anacker, B.L., Mark, W., and Rizzo, D.M. 2008. Early detection of emerging forest disease using dispersal estimation and ecological niche modeling. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):377-390.

Moffatt, C., Morton, A.J., and McNeill, S. 2008. Has botanical enhancement of broad-leaved plantations in Milton Keynes, United kingdom, regulated in more woodland-like insect assemblages? Restor. Ecol. 16(1):50-58.

Nagler, P.L., Glenn, E.P., Didan, K., Osterberg, J., Jordan, F., and Cunningham, J. 2008. Wide-area estimates of stand structure and water use of Tamarix spp. on the Lower Colorado River: implications for restoration and water management projects. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):136-145.

Namgail, T., Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., and Bhatnagar, Y.V. 2008. Distributional correlates of the Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata in Ladakh, northern India: towards a recovery programme. Oryx 42(1):107-112.

Nekaris, K.A.I., Blackham, G.V., and Nijman, V. 2008. Conservation implications of low encounter rates of five nocturnal primate species (Nycticebus spp.) in Asia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):733-747.

Nelson, S.M., and Wydoski, R. 2008. Riparian butterfly (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) assemblages associated with Tamarix-dominated, native vegetation-dominated, and Tamarix removal sites along the Arkansas River, Colorado USA. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):168-179.

Ness, J.H., and Morin, D.F. 2008. Forest edges and landscape history shape interactions between plants, seed-disperrsing ants and seed predators. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):838-847.

Nguyen, T.T.T. 2008. Population structure in the highly fragmented range of Tor douronensis (Cyprinidae) in Sarawak, Malaysia revealed by microsatellite DNA markers. Freshwater Biol. 53(5):924-934.

Nichols, E., Spector, S., Larsen, T., Davis, A.L., Escobar, F., Favila, M.E., and Vulinec, K. 2008. Forest fragment size effects on dung beetle communities? Response. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):615-616.

Olden, J.D., Poff, N.L., and Bestgen, K.R. 2008. Trait synergisms and the rarity, extirpation, and extinction risk of desert fishes. Ecology 89(3):847-856.

Oneal, B.J., Heske, E.J., and Stafford, J.D. 2008. Waterbird response to wetlands restored through the conservation reserve enhancement program. J. Wildlife Manag. 72(3):654-664.

Oostra, V., Gomes, L.G.L., and Nijman, V. 2008. Implications of deforestation for the abundance of restricted-range bird species in a Costa Rican cloud-forest. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):11-19.

Parham, J.F., Outerbridge, M.E., Stuart, B.L., Wingate, D.B., Erlenkeuser, H., and Papenfuss, T.J. 2008. Introduced delicacy or native species? A natural origin of Bermudian terrapins supported by fossil and genetic data. Biol. Lett. 4(2):216-219.

Patrick, D.A., Calhoun, A.J.K., and Hunter, M.L. 2008. The importance of understanding spatial population structure when evaluating the effects of silviculture on spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). Biol. Conserv. 141(3):807-814.

Patterson, B.R., and Murray, D.L. 2008. Flawed population viability analysis can result in misleading population assessment: a case study for wolves in Algonquin park, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):669-680.

Pearson, D.E., and Fletcher, R.J. 2008. Mitigating exotic impacts: restoring deer mouse populations elevated by an exotic food subsidy. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):321-334.

Peignot, P., Charpentier, M.J.E., Bout, N., Bourry, O., Massima, U., Dosimont, O., Terramorsi, R., and Wickings, E.J. 2008. Learning from the first release project of captive-bred mandrills Mandrillus sphinx in Gabon. Oryx 42(1):122-131.

Pilger, T.J., Franssen, N.R., and Gido, K.B. 2008. Consumption of native and nonnative fishes by introduced largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the San Juan River, New Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 53(1):105-108.

Pimm, S.L. 2008. Imagine immortal elephants. Oryx 42(1):2.

Pizo, M.A., Donatti, C.I., Guedes, N.M.R., and Galetti, M. 2008. Conservation puzzle: endangered hyacinth macaw depends on its nest predator for reproduction. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):792-796.

Plieninger, T., and Bens, O. 2007. How the emergence of biofuels challenges environmental conservation. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):273-275.

Podgorski, T., Schmidt, K., Kowalczyk, R., and Gulczynska, A. 2008. Microhabitat selection by Eurasian lynx and its implications for species conservation. Acta Theriol. 53(2):97-110.

Posa, M.R.C., Diesmos, A.C., Sodhi, N.S., and Brooks, T.M. 2008. Hope for threatened tropical biodiversity: lessons from the Philippines. BioScience 58(3):231-240.

Rader, R.B., Voelz, N.J., and Ward, J.V. 2008. Post-flood recovery of a macroinvertebrate community in a regulated river: resilience of an anthropogenically altered ecosystem. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):24-33.

Radtke, M.G., da Fonseca, C.R.V., and Williamson, G.B. 2008. Forest fragment size effects on dung beetle communities? Biol. Conserv. 141(3):613-614.

Ragen, T.J., Huntington, H.P., and Hovelsrud, G.K. 2008. Conservation of Arctic marine mammals faced with climate change. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):S166-S174.

Reynolds, M.H., Seavy, N.E., Vekasy, M.S., Klavitter, J.L., and Laniawe, L.P. 2008. Translocation and early post-release demography of endangered Laysan teal. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):160-168.

Rhodes, J.R., Callaghan, J.G., McAlpine, C.A., De Jong, C., Bowen, M.E., Mitchell, D.L., Lunney, D., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. Regional variation in habitat-occupancy thresholds: a warning for conservation planning. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(2):549-557.

Rice, K.J., and Knapp, E.E. 2008. Effects of competition and life history stage on the expression of local adaptation in two native bunchgrasses. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):12-23.

Rich, T.C.G., Mcdonnell, E.J., and Lledo, M.D. 2008. Conservation of Britain's biodiversity: the case of Hieracium cyathis (Asteraceae) and its relation to other apomictic taxa. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 156(4):669-680.

Ricketts, T.H., Regetz, J., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cunningham, S.A., Kremen, C., Bogdanski, A., Gemmill-Herren, B., Greenleaf, S.S., Klein, A.M., Mayfield, M.M., Morandin, L.A., Ochieng, A., and Viana, B.F. 2008. Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns? Ecol. Lett. 11(5):499-515.

Ridder, B. 2008. Questioning the ecosystem services argument for biodiversity conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):781-790.

Romañach, S.S., and Lindsey, P.A. 2008. Conservation implications of prey responses to wild dogs Lycaon pictus during the denning season on wildlife ranches. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):111-117.

Rönnbäck, P., Crona, B., and Ingwall, L. 2007. The return of ecosystem goods and services in replanted mangrove forests: perspectives from local communities in Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):313-324.

Roques, L., Roques, A., Berestycki, H., and Kretzschmar, A. 2008. A population facing climate change: joint influences of Allee effects and environmental boundary geometry. Pop. Ecol. 50(2):215-225.

Ross, J.V., Sirl, D.J., Pollett, P.K., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. Metapopulation persistence in a dynamic landscape: more habitat or better stewardship? Ecol. Appl. 18(3):590-598.

Round, P.D., and Gale, G.A. 2008. Changes in the status of Lophura pheasants in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand: a response to warming climate? Biotropica 40(2):225-230.

Rozzi, R., Armesto, J.J., Goffinet, B., Buck, W., Massardo, F., Silander, J., Arroyo, M.T., Russell, S., Anderson, C.B., Cavieres, L.A., and Callicott, J.B. 2008. Changing lenses to assess biodiversity: patterns of species richness in sub-Antarctic plants and implications for global conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(3):131-137.

Ryan, P.G. 2008. Taxonomic and conservation implications of ecological speciation in Nesospiza buntings on Tristan da Cunha. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):20-29.

Sandin, S.A., Smith, J.E., DeMartini, E.E., Dinsdale, E.A., Donner, S.D., Friedlander, A.M., Konotchick, T., Malay, M., Maragos, J.E., Obura, D., Pantos, O., Paulay, G., Richie, M., Rohwer, F., Schroeder, R.E., Walsh, S., Jackson, J.B.C., Knowlton, N., and Sala, E. 2008. Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the northern Line Islands. PLoS ONE 3(2):e1548.

Sato, T., and Harada, Y. 2008. Loss of genetic variation and effective population size of Kirikuchi charr: implications for the management of small, isolated salmonid populations. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):153-159.

Schaller, G.B., and Kang, A. 2008. Status of Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammon polii in China and adjacent countries: conservation of a Vulnerable subspecies. Oryx 42(1):100-106.

Schielzeth, H., Eichhorn, G., Heinicke, T., Kamp, J., Koshkin, M.A., Koshkin, A.V., and Lachmann, L. 2008. Waterbird population estimates for a key staging site in Kazakhstan: a contribution to wetland conservation on the Central Asian flyway. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):71-86.

Schilling, E.G., Loftin, C.S., Degoosh, K.E., Huryn, A.D., and Webster, K.E. 2008. Predicting the locations of naturally fishless lakes. Freshwater Biol. 53(5):1021-1035.

Schmitz, M.F., de Aranzabal, I., and Pineda, F.D. 2007. Spatial analysis of visitor preferences in the outdoor recreational niche of Mediterranean cultural landscapes. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):300-312.

Schnell, G.D., Kennedy, M.L., Sánchez-Hernández, C., Romero-Almaraz, M.D.L., Estevez, B.D.N., Guerrero, J.A., Best, T.L., Wooten, M.C., and Owen, R.D. 2008. Habitat preference of the endemic tawny deermouse (Peromyscus perfulvus), a species of conservation concern. Southwest. Nat. 53(1):9-20.

Schröder, B., Rudner, M., Biedermann, R., Kögl, H., and Kleyer, M. 2008. A landscape model for quantifying the trade-off between conservation needs and economic constraints in the management of a semi-natural grassland community. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):719-732.

Seminoff, J.A., and Shanker, K. 2008. Marine turtles and IUCN Red Listing: a review of the process, the pitfalls, and novel assessment approaches. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 356(1-2):52-68.

Semlitsch, R.D., Conner, C.A., Hocking, D.J., Rittenhouse, T.A.G., and Harper, E.B. 2008. Effects of timber harvesting on pond-breeding amphibian persistence: testing the evacuation hypothesis. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):283-289.

Shafroth, P.B., Beauchamp, V.B., Briggs, M.K., Lair, K., Scott, M.L., and Sher, A.A. 2008. Planning riparian restoration in the context of Tamarix control in western North America. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):97-112.

Shafroth, P.B., and Briggs, M.K. 2008. Restoration ecology and invasive riparian plants: an introduction to the special section on Tamarix spp. in western North America. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):94-96.

Sher, A.A., Gieck, S., Brown, C.S., and Nissen, S.J. 2008. First-year responses of cheatgrass following Tamarix spp. control and restoration-related disturbances. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):129-135.

Shi, H.T., Parham, J.F., Fan, Z.Y., Hong, M.L., and Yin, F. 2008. Evidence for the massive scale of turtle farming in China. Oryx 42(1):147-150.

Shih, J.G., and Finkelstein, S.A. 2008. Range dynamics and invasive tendencies in Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia in Eastern North America derived from herbarium and pollen records. Wetlands 28(1):1-16.

Silva, C.A., and Saavedra, B. 2008. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 81(1):123-136.

Slaght, J.C., and Surmach, S.G. 2008. Biology and conservation of Blakiston's Fish-Owls (Ketupa blakistoni) in Russia: a review of the primary literature and an assessment of the secondary literature. J. Raptor Res. 42(1):29-37.

Sogge, M.K., Sferra, S.J., and Paxton, E.H. 2008. Tamarix as habitat for birds: implications for riparian restoration in the southwestern United States. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):146-154.

Sotiropoulos, K., Eleftherakos, K., Kalezic, M.L., Legakis, A., and Polymeni, R.M. 2008. Genetic structure of the alpine newt, Mesotriton alpestris (Salamandridae, Caudata), in the southern limit of its distribution: implications for conservation. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 36(4):297-311.

Spitzer, L., Konvicka, M., Benes, J., Tropek, R., Tuf, I.H., and Tufova, J. 2008. Does closure of traditionally managed open woodlands threaten epigeic invertebrates? Effects of coppicing and high deer densities. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):827-837.

Sridhar, H., Raman, T.R.S., and Mudappa, D. 2008. Mammal persistence and abundance in tropical rainforest remnants in the southern Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 94(6):748-757.

Stein, B.A., Scott, C., and Benton, N. 2008. Federal lands and endangered species: the role of military and other federal lands in sustaining biodiversity. BioScience 58(4):339-347.

Stevenson, P.R., and Aldana, A.M. 2008. Potential effects of ateline extinction and forest fragmentation on plant diversity and composition in the western Orinoco Basin, Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 29(2):365-377.

Stohigren, T.J., Barnett, D.T., Jarnevich, C.S., Flather, C., and Kartesz, J. 2008. The myth of plant species saturation. Ecol. Lett. 11(4):313-322.

Stringer, L.D., and Lester, P.J. 2008. The ant community response to the arrival of Monomorium sydneyense Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at Sulphur Point, Tauranga, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 35(1):53-61.

Sunderland, T.C.H., Ehringhaus, C., and Campbell, B.M. 2007. Conservation and development in tropical forest landscapes: a time to face the trade-offs? Environ. Conserv. 34(4):276-279.

Surrette, S.B., and Brewer, J.S. 2008. Inferring relationships between native plant diversity and Lonicera japonica in upland forests in north Mississippi, USA. Appl. Veg. Sci. 11(2):205-214.

Syartinilia, and Tsuyuki, S. 2008. GAS-based modeling of Javan Hawk-Eagle distribution using logistic and autologistic regression models. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):756-769.

Tamaki, I., Setsuko, S., and Tomaru, N. 2008. Genetic variation and differentiation in populations of a threatened tree, Magnolia stellata: factors influencing the level of within-population genetic variation. Heredity 100(4):415-423.

Tibby, J., Lane, M.B., and Gell, P.A. 2007. Local knowledge and environmental management: a cautionary tale from Lake Ainsworth, New South Wales, Australia. Environ. Conserv. 34(4):334-341.

Tordoff, A.W., Appleton, T., Eames, J.C., Eberhardt, K., Hla, H., Thwin, K.M.M., Zaw, S.M., Moses, S., and Aung, S.M. 2008. The historical and current status of pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea in Myanmar. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(1):38-52.

Trinkel, M., Ferguson, N., Reid, A., Reid, C., Somers, M., Turelli, L., Graf, J., Szykman, M., Cooper, D., Haverman, P., Kastberger, G., Packer, C., and Slotow, R. 2008. Translocating lions into an inbred lion population in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):138-143.

Upton, C., Ladle, R., Hulme, D., Jiang, T., Brockington, D., and Adams, W.M. 2008. Are poverty and protected area establishment linked at a national scale? Oryx 42(1):19-25.

Vaidya, G.S., Shrestha, K., Khadge, B.R., Johnson, N.C., and Wallander, H. 2008. Organic matter stimulates bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia plantations on eroded slopes in Nepal. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):79-87.

Valero, A., Garcia, C.M., and Magurran, A.E. 2008. Heterospecific harassment of native endangered fishes by invasive guppies in Mexico. Biol. Lett. 4(2):149-152.

van Riper, C., Paxton, K.L., O'Brien, C., Shafroth, P.B., and McGrath, L.J. 2008. Rethinking avian response to Tamarix on the lower Colorado River: a threshold hypothesis. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):155-167.

Varma, S., Dang, N.X., Van Thanh, T., and Sukumar, R. 2008. The elephants Elephas maximus of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: status and conservation of a vanishing population. Oryx 42(1):92-99.

Viers, JH. 2008. Objective classification of Navarro River salmon habitat: a watershed-based critical habitat case study. Aquat. Conserv. 18(2):147-162.

von Hippel, FA. 2008. Conservation of threespine and ninespine stickleback radiations in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska. Behaviour 145:693-724.

Warren, S.D., and Buttner, R. 2008. Relationship of endangered amphibians to landscape disturbance. J. Wildlife Manag. 72(3):738-744.

Webb, A., Buddle, C.M., Drapeau, P., and Saint-Germain, M. 2008. Use of remnant boreal forest habitats by saproxylic beetle assemblages in even-aged managed landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):815-826.

Weesie, P.D.M., and van Andel, J. 2008. An integrated framework for the instrumental valuation of nature. Restor. Ecol. 16(1):1-4.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., and Whitehead, S. 2008. Long-term increase in the fecundity of hen harriers in Wales is explained by reduced human interference and warmer weather. Anim. Conserv. 11(2):144-152.

Wiens, J.A., Hayward, G.D., Holthausen, R.S., and Wisdom, M.J. 2008. Using surrogate species and groups for conservation planning and management. BioScience 58(3):241-252.

Wilhere, G.F., Goering, M., and Wang, H. 2008. Average optimacity: an index to guide sate prioritization for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):770-781.

Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., and Morgan, J.W. 2008. A dispersal-constrained habitat suitability model for predicting invasion of alpine vegetation. Ecol. Appl. 18(2):347-359.

Woolley, L.A., Mackey, R.L., Page, B.R., and Slotow, R. 2008. Modelling the effect of age-specific mortality on elephant Loxodonta africana populations: can natural mortality provide regulation? Oryx 42(1):49-57.

Yao, X.H., Ye, Q.G., Fritsch, P.W., Cruz, B.C., and Huang, H.W. 2008. Phylogeny of Sinojackia (Styracaceae) based on DNA sequence and microsatellite data: implications for taxonomy and conservation. Ann. Botany 101(5):651-659.

Zador, S.G., Punt, A.E., and Parrish, J.K. 2008. Population impacts of endangered short-tailed albatross bycatch in the Alaskan trawl fishery. Biol. Conserv. 141(3):872-882.

Zhang, W.G., Hu, Y.M., Hu, J.C., Yu, C., Jing, Z., and Miao, L. 2008. Impacts of land-use change on mammal diversity in the upper reaches of Minjiang River, China: implications for biodiversity conservation planning. Landscape Urban Plan. 85(3-4):195-204.

Zino, F., Hounsome, M.V., Buckle, A.P., and Biscoito, M. 2008. Was the removal of rabbits and house mice from Selvagem Grande beneficial to the breeding of Cory's shearwaters Calonectris diomedea borealis? Oryx 42(1):151-154.

Zortea, M., and Alho, C.J.R. 2008. Bat diversity of a Cerrado habitat in central Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(4):791-805.

**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]