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Department ofBotany

No. 285
September 2008

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In This Issue

Lessons from the Extinct Koa-Finches

Why does one species become extinct and another survive? The forces that lead to extinction (habitat loss, predation, disease, competition from invasive species, genetic bottlenecks, and climate change are often cited) usually act over a long period of time to ultimately produce a lethal outcome. To understand the causes of extinction, then, we need deep chronological records that allow us to compare the timing of a species' decline with the times when the different candidate forces were in action.

In a recent paper in the journal Diversity and Distributions, Smithsonian scientist Helen James and former Smithsonian post-doctoral fellow Jonathan Price (now an Assistant Professor at the University of Hawaii, Hilo) present an integrative approach to the extinction problem. They take the extinct Hawaiian koa-finches (Rhodacanthis) as a case study. Koa-finches were discovered by ornithological collectors on the island of Hawaii in the 1890s. Two species were described, but both vanished almost without a trace in the same decade. These were large, heavy-billed finches, with the adult males mantled in brilliant red or yellow plumage. Both species specialized in feeding on the green pods of an ecologically-dominant leguminous tree, the native koa (Acacia koa).

Fossils reveal that the decline of koa-finches began well before the 1890s. Two fossil species extend the distribution of the genus across the entire length of the main chain of islands, from Hawaii to Kauai. James and Price tackle the question of what caused the decline of koa-finches by integrating chronological data from fossil bones, museum specimens, historical records, and studies of local paleoecology, archaeology, and ethnography. They also model changes in the distribution of koa-finch habitat through time using Geographic Information System software.

The authors conclude that koa-finches became extinct largely because of the loss of their lowland habitat, an unlikely answer considering that the birds were observed in life only on high mountain slopes. The importance of lowland range could not be guessed at without the deeper chronological data compiled in the study. While it is too late to save koa-finches, their history could have implications for protecting Hawaiian plants and animals that are currently endangered. As the authors comment, "If we are correct about the importance of lowland range, other Hawaiian species that are currently restricted to uplands may be in decline for the same reason." To preserve such species, it may be essential to restore large swaths of native lowland habitat in the islands.

Current Literature

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Fisher, B., and Turner, R.K. 2008. Ecosystem services: classification for valuation. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1167-1169.

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Garcia, C.A., and Lescuyer, G. 2008. Monitoring, indicators and community based forest management in the tropics: pretexts or red herrings? Biodivers. Conserv. 17(6):1303-1317.

Garcillán, P.P., Ezcurra, E., and Vega, E. 2008. Guadalupe Island: Lost paradise recovered? Overgrazing impact on extinction in a remote oceanic island as estimated through accumulation functions. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1613-1625.

Garraway, E., Bailey, A.J.A., Freeman, B.E., Parnell, J.R., and Emmel, T.C. 2008. Population studies and conservation of Jamaica's endangered swallowtail butterfly Papilio (Pterourus) homerus. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):383-397.

Gerlach, J. 2008. Preliminary conservation status and needs of an oceanic island fauna: the case of Seychelles insects. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):293-305.

Goldman, R.L., Goldstein, L.P., and Daily, G.C. 2008. Assessing the conservation value of a human-dominated island landscape: plant diversity in Hawaii. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1765-1781.

Greenslade, P. 2008. Climate variability, biological control and an insect pest outbreak on Australia's Coral Sea islets: lessons for invertebrate conservation. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):333-342.

Griffin, S.C., Taper, M.L., Hoffman, R., and Mills, L.S. 2008. The case of the missing marmots: are metapopulation dynamics or range-wide declines responsible? Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1293-1309.

Grilo, C., Bissonette, J.A., and Santos-Reis, M. 2008. Response of carnivores to existing highway culverts and underpasses: implications for road planning and mitigation. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1685-1699.

Hamer, A.J., Lane, S.J., and Mahony, M.J. 2008. Movement patterns of adult Green and Golden Bell Frogs Litoria aurea and the implications for conservation management. J. Herpetol. 42(2):397-407.

Hansen, M.M., Fraser, D.J., Als, T.D., and Mensberg, K.L.D. 2008. Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: the case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.). BMC Evol. Biol. 8:137.

Haugaasen, T., and Peres, C.A. 2008. Population abundance and biomass of large-bodied birds in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(2):87-101.

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Herzog, S.K., Kessler, M., and Balderrama, J.A. 2008. A new species of tyrannulet (Tyrannidae: Phyllomyias) from Andean foothills in northwest Bolivia and adjacent Peru. Auk 125(2):265-276.

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Hu, G.W., Long, C.L., and Jin, X.H. 2008. Dendrobium wangliangii (Orchidaceae), a new species belonging to section Dendrobium from Yunnan, China. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157(2):217-221.

Illoldi-Rangel, P., Fuller, T., Linaje, M., Pappas, C., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2008. Solving the maximum representation problem to prioritize areas for the conservation of terrestrial mammals at risk in Oaxaca. Divers. Distrib. 14(3):493-508.

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James, H.F., and Price, J.P. 2008. Integration of palaeontological, historical, and geographical data on the extinction of koa-finches. Divers. Distrib. 14(3):441-451.

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Kim, C., Na, H.R., and Choi, H.K. 2008. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Isoetes coreana in South Korea based on RAPD analysis. Aquat. Bot. 89(1):43-49.

Kirkham, F.W., Tallowin, J.R.B., Sanderson, R.A., Bhogal, A., Chambers, B.J., and Stevens, D.P. 2008. The impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers and lime on the species-richness and plant functional characteristics of hay meadow communities. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1411-1427.

Klemann, L., Neto, P.S., Monteiro, T.V., Ramos, F.M., and de Almeida, R. 2008. Mapping the distribution and conservation of the Red-browed Parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:183-196.

Knapp, S., Kühn, I., Mosbrugger, V., and Klotz, S. 2008. Do protected areas in urban and rural landscapes differ in species diversity? Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1595-1612.

Knight, K.S., Oleksyn, J., Jagodzinski, A.M., Reich, P.B., and Kasprowicz, M. 2008. Overstorey tree species regulate colonization by native and exotic plants: a source of positive relationships between understorey diversity and invasibility. Divers. Distrib. 14(4):666-675.

Koivula, K., Pakanen, V.M., Rönkä, A., and Belda, E.J. 2008. Steep past and future population decline in an arctic wader: dynamics and viability of Baltic Temminck's stints Calidris temminckii. J. Avian Biol. 39(3):329-340.

Kolehmainen, J., and Korpelainen, H. 2008. Morphotypes, varieties, or subspecies?: genetic diversity and differentiation of four Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) morphotypes from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157(2):347-355.

Kotze, D.J. 2008. The occurrence and distribution of carabid beetles (Carabidae) on islands in the Baltic Sea: a review. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):265-276.

Kremen, C., Cameron, A., Razafimpahanana, A., Moilanen, A., Thomas, C.D., Beentje, H., Dransfield, J., Fisher, B.L., Glaw, F., Good, T.C., Harper, G.J., Hijmans, R.J., Lees, D.C., Louis, E., Nussbaum, R.A., Phillips, S.J., Raxworthy, C.J., Schatz, G.E., Vences, M., Vieites, D.R., Wright, P.C., and Zjhra, M.L. 2008. Conservation with caveats - response. Science 321(5887):341-342.

Kuehn, E., Feldmann, R., Harpke, A., Hirneisen, N., Musche, M., Leopold, P., and Settele, J. 2008. Getting the public involved in butterfly conservation: lessons learned from a new monitoring scheme in Germany. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 54(1):89-103.

Laliberté, E., Bouchard, A., and Cogliastro, A. 2008. Optimizing hardwood reforestation in old fields: the effects of treeshelters and environmental factors on tree seedling growth and physiology. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):270-280.

Lara-Ruiz, P., Chiarello, A.G., and Santos, F.R. 2008. Extreme population divergence and conservation implications for the rare endangered Atlantic Forest sloth, Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa: Bradypodidae). Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1332-1342.

Latch, E.K., Amann, R.P., Jacobson, J.P., and Rhodes, O.E. 2008. Competing hypotheses for the etiology of cryptorchidism in Sitka black-tailed deer: an evaluation of evolutionary alternatives. Anim. Conserv. 11(3):234-246.

Latchininsky, A.V. 2008. Grasshopper outbreak challenges conservation status of a small Hawaiian Island. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):343-357.

Lawton, K., Kirkwood, R., Robertson, G., and Raymond, B. 2008. Preferred foraging areas of Heard Island albatrosses during chick raising and implications for the management of incidental mortality in fisheries. Aquat. Conserv. 18(3):309-320.

Leimgruber, P., Senior, B., Uga, Aung, M., Songer, M.A., Mueller, T., Wemmer, C., and Ballou, J.D. 2008. Modeling population viability of captive elephants in Myanmar (Burma): implications for wild populations. Anim. Conserv. 11(3):198-205.

Lethbridge, M.R., and Alexander, P.J. 2008. Comparing population growth rates using weighted bootstrapping: guiding the conservation management of Petrogale xanthopus xanthopus (yellow-footed rock-wallaby). Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1185-1195.

Levine, J.M., McEachern, A.K., and Cowan, C. 2008. Rainfall effects on rare annual plants. J. Ecology 96(4):795-806.

Lim, Y., Na, S.T., Lee, S.J., Cho, K.H., and Shin, H. 2008. Spatial distribution patterns and implications for conservation of Scrophularia takesimensis (Scrophulariaceae), an endangered endemic species on Ulleung Island, Korea. J. Plant Biol. 51(3):213-220.

Lindell, C.A. 2008. The value of animal behavior in evaluations of restoration success. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):197-203.

Lloyd, H. 2008. Abundance and patterns of rarity of Polylepis birds in the Cordillera Vilcanota, southern Perú: implications for habitat management strategies. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(2):164-180.

Lockwood, J.A., and Latchininsky, A.V. 2008. Philosophical justifications for the extirpation of non-indigenous species: the case of the grasshopper Schistocerca nitens (Orthoptera) on the Island of Nihoa, Hawaii. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):429-445.

Lõhmus, A., and Lõhmus, P. 2008. First-generation forests are not necessarily worse than long-term managed forests for lichens and bryophytes. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):231-239.

Lubell, J.D., Brand, M.H., Lehrer, J.M., and Holsinger, K.E. 2008. Detecting the influence of ornamental Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea in invasive populations of Berberis thunbergii (Berberidaceae) using AFLP. Am. J. Bot. 95(6):700-705.

Lucherini, M., Vidal, E.L., and Merino, M.J. 2008. How rare is the rare Andean cat? Mammalia 72(2):95-101.

Lyra-Jorge, M.C., Ciocheti, G., and Pivello, V.R. 2008. Carnivore mammals in a fragmented landscape in northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1573-1580.

Lysne, S.J., Perez, K.E., Brown, K.M., Minton, R.L., and Sides, J.D. 2008. A review of freshwater gastropod conservation: challenges and opportunities. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 27(2):463-470.

Magura, T., Baldi, A., and Horvath, R. 2008. Break-down of the species-area relationship in exotic but not in native forest patches. Acta Oecol. 33(3):272-279.

Marcora, P., Hensen, I., Renison, D., Seltmann, P., and Wesche, K. 2008. The performance of Polylepis australis trees along their entire altitudinal range: implications of climate change for their conservation. Divers. Distrib. 14(4):630-636.

Maron, J.L., and Marler, M. 2008. Effects of native species diversity and resource additions on invader impact. Am. Nat. 172:S18-S33.

Marshall, J.D., Blair, J.M., Peters, D.PC., Okin, G., Rango, A., and Williams, M. 2008. Predicting and understanding ecosystem responses to climate change at continental scales. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(5):273-280.

Martínez-Harms, M.J., and Gajardo, R. 2008. Ecosystem vague in the Western Patagonia protected areas. J. Nature Conserv. 16(2):72-87.

McAlpine, K.G., and Jesson, L.K. 2008. Linking seed dispersal, germination and seedling recruitment in the invasive species Berberis darwinii (Darwin's barberry). Plant Ecol. 197(1):119-129.

McKelvey, K.S., Aubry, K.B., and Schwartz, M.K. 2008. Using anecdotal occurrence data for rare or elusive species: the illusion of reality and a call for evidentiary standards. BioScience 58(6):549-555.

Melman, T.C.P., Schotman, A.G.M., Hunink, S., and de Snoo, G.R. 2008. Evaluation of meadow bird management, especially black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa L.), in the Netherlands. J. Nature Conserv. 16(2):88-95.

Méndez, M., García, D., Maestre, F.T., and Escudero, A. 2008. More ecology is needed to restore Mediterranean ecosystems: a reply to Valladares and Gianoli. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):210-216.

Miller, H.C., Miller, K.A., and Daugherty, C.H. 2008. Reduced MHC variation in a threatened tuatara species. Anim. Conserv. 11(3):206-214.

Miro, R.R., and Kaufmann, K.W. 2008. Panama: conservation with government collaboration. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:321-327.

Mollot, L.A., and Bilby, R.E. 2008. The use of geographic information systems, remote sensing, and suitability modeling to identify conifer restoration sites with high biological potential for anadromous fish at the Cedar River Municipal Watershed in western Washington, USA. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):336-347.

Mozdzer, T.J., Hutto, C.J., Clarke, P.A., and Field, D.P. 2008. Efficacy of imazapyr and glyphosate in the control of non-native Phragmites australis. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):221-224.

Mykrä, H., Heino, J., and Muotka, T. 2008. Concordance of stream macroinvertebrate assemblage classifications: how general are patterns from single-year surveys? Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1218-1223.

Nelson, C.R., Schoennagel, T., and Gregory, E.R. 2008. Opportunities for academic training in the science and practice of restoration within the United States and Canada. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):225-230.

Nemec, K.T., and Bragg, T.B. 2008. Plant-feeding Hemiptera and Orthoptera communities in native and restored mesic tallgrass prairies. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):324-335.

Neville, P.J., O'Dowd, D.J., and Yen, A.L. 2008. Issues and implications for research on disturbed oceanic islands illustrated through an ant survey of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):313-323.

New, T.R. 2008. Insect conservation in early succession on islands: lessons from Surtsey, Iceland, and the Krakatau Archipelago, Indonesia. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):307-312.

New, T.R. 2008. Insect conservation on islands: setting the scene and defining the needs. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):197-204.

Nitschke, C.R. 2008. The cumulative effects of resource development on biodiversity and ecological integrity in the Peace-Moberly region of Northeast British Columbia, Canada. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1715-1740.

O'Brien, T.G. 2008. On the use of automated cameras to estimate species richness for large- and medium-sized rainforest mammals. Anim. Conserv. 11(3):179-181.

O'Shea, T.J., and Odell, D.K. 2008. Large-scale marine ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals. J. Mammal. 89(3):529-533.

Olivieri, G.L., Sousa, V., Chikhi, L., and Radespiel, U. 2008. From genetic diversity and structure to conservation: genetic signature of recent population declines in three mouse lemur species (Microcebus spp.). Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1257-1271.

Österling, E.M., Greenberg, L.A., and Arvidsson, B.L. 2008. Relationship of biotic and abiotic factors to recruitment patterns in Margaritifera margaritifera. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1365-1370.

Ottema, O.H., and Spaans, A.L. 2008. Challenges and advances in shorebird conservation in the Guianas, with a focus on Suriname. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:339-346.

Pandey, S. 2008. Linking ecodevelopment and biodiversity conservation at the Great Himalayan National Park, India: lessons learned. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1543-1571.

Parker, K.A. 2008. Translocations: providing outcomes for wildlife, resource managers, scientists, and the human community. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):204-209.

Paton, A.J., Brummitt, N., Govaerts, R., Harman, K., Hinchcliffe, S., Allkin, B., and Lughadha, E.N. 2008. Towards Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: a working list of all known plant species - progress and prospects. Taxon 57(2):602-611.

Pe'er, G., and Benyamini, D. 2008. A template for publishing the "conservation chain" from problem identification to practical action, exemplified through the campaign for butterfly protection in Israel. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 54(1):19-39.

Pe'er, G., and Setrele, J. 2008. The rare butterfly Tomares nesimachus (Lycaenidae) as a bioindicator for pollination services and ecosystem functioning in northern Israel. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 54(1):111-136.

Pe'er, G., and Settele, J. 2008. Butterflies in and for conservation: trends and prospects. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 54(1):7-17.

Pennington, D.N., Hansel, J., and Blair, R.B. 2008. The conservation value of urban riparian areas for landbirds during spring migration: land cover, scale, and vegetation effects. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1235-1248.

Pérez-Collazos, E., and Catalán, P. 2008. Conservation genetics of the endangered Iberian steppe plant Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae). Plant Biol. 10(4):492-501.

Pérez-Collazos, E., Segarra-Moragues, J.G., and Catalán, P. 2008. Two approaches for the selection of Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation in the narrow European endemic steppe plant Boleum asperum (Brassicaceae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 94(2):341-354.

Perez, K.E., and Minton, R.L. 2008. Practical applications for systematics and taxonomy in North American freshwater gastropod conservation. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 27(2):471-483.

Phillimore, A.B., Owens, P.F., Black, R.A., Chittock, J., Burke, T., and Clegg, S.M. 2008. Complex patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an island bird and the consequences for delimiting conservation units. Mol. Ecol. 17(12):2839-2853.

Pickering, C., Hill, W., and Green, K. 2008. Vascular plant diversity and climate change in the alpine zone of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1627-1644.

Picos, X.V., Nieto, M.A.C., and Loa, M.M. 2008. Private land conservation: a new and practical legal mechanism to protect shorebirds in Mexico. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:305-309.

Plata, E.R., Lucking, R., and Lumbsch, H.T. 2008. When family matters: an analysis of Thelotremataceae (Lichenized Ascomycota : Ostropales) as bioindicators of ecological continuity in tropical forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(6):1319-1351.

Pohjamo, M., Korpelainen, H., and Kalinauskaite, N. 2008. Restricted gene flow in the clonal hepatic Trichocolea tomentella in fragmented landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1204-1217.

Pope, K.L., Garwood, J.M., Welsh, H.H., and Lawler, S.P. 2008. Evidence of indirect impacts of introduced trout on native amphibians via facilitation of a shared predator. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1321-1331.

Poquet, J.M., Mezquita, F., Rueda, J., and Miracle, M.R. 2008. Loss of Ostracoda biodiversity in Western Mediterranean wetlands. Aquat. Conserv. 18(3):280-296.

Pratolongo, F.A. 2008. Current status and conservation of wild and reintroduced White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis) populations. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:279-286.

Qian, H. 2008. A latitudinal gradient of beta diversity for exotic vascular plant species in North America. Divers. Distrib. 14(3):556-560.

Qu, J.H., Yuan, H.L., Wang, E.T., Li, C., and Huang, H.Z. 2008. Bacterial diversity in sediments of the eutrophic Guanting Reservoir, China, estimated by analyses of 16S rDNA sequence. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1667-1683.

Quacchia, A., Ferracini, C., Bonelli, S., Balletto, E., and Alma, A. 2008. Can the Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli, become a threat for European biodiversity? Biodivers. Conserv. 17(6):1429-1437.

Read, A.J. 2008. The looming crisis: Interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. J. Mammal. 89(3):541-548.

Reddy, C.S., and Pattanaik, C. 2008. Status of the endemic plant Hypericum gaitii (Hypericaceae) in Similipal Biosphere Reserve of Orissa: a need for conservation. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 31(3-4):75-79.

Regan, H.M., Hierl, L.A., Franklin, J., Deutschman, D.H., Schmalbach, H.L., Winchell, C.S., and Johnson, B.S. 2008. Species prioritization for monitoring and management in regional multiple species conservation plans. Divers. Distrib. 14(3):462-471.

Rehounková, K., and Prach, K. 2008. Spontaneous vegetation succession in gravel-sand pits: a potential for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):305-312.

Reid, T.A., and Huin, N. 2008. Census of the Southern Giant Petrel population of the Falkland Islands 2004/2005. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(2):118-128.

Rendón, M.A., Green, A.J., Aquilera, E., and Almaraz, P. 2008. Status, distribution and long-term changes in the waterbird community wintering in Doñana, south-west Spain. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1371-1388.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. 2008. Trophic cascades involving cougar, mule deer, and black oaks in Yosemite National Park. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1249-1256.

Rodríguez, C., and Bustamante, J. 2008. Patterns of Orthoptera abundance and lesser kestrel conservation in arable landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1753-1764.

Roth, J.D., Murray, D.L., and Steury, T.D. 2008. Spatial dynamics of sympatric canids: modeling the impact of coyotes on red wolf recovery. Ecol. Model. 214(2-4):391-403.

Rowcliffe, J.M., and Carbone, C. 2008. Surveys using camera traps: are we looking to a brighter future? Anim. Conserv. 11(3):185-186.

Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V., Gavin, T.A., and Dhondt, A.A. 2008. Habitat fragmentation lowers survival of a tropical forest bird. Ecol. Appl. 18(4):838-846.

Salvador, C.H., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2008. Population dynamics and conservation status of the insular cavy Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae). J. Mammal. 89(3):721-729.

Samu, F., Csontos, P., and Szinetár, C. 2008. From multi-criteria approach to simple protocol: assessing habitat patches for conservation value using species rarity. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1310-1320.

Sands, D.P.A., and New, T.R. 2008. Conservation status and needs of butterflies (Lepidoptera) on the Torres Strait Islands. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):325-332.

Sangay, T., and Vernes, K. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1272-1282.

Schmidt, C.D., Hickman, K.R., Channell, R., Harmoney, K., and Stark, W. 2008. Competitive abilities of native grasses and non-native (Bothriochloa spp.) grasses. Plant Ecol. 197(1):69-80.

Schmidt, M., Wei, W., Polthanee, A., Lam, N.T., Chuong, S., Qiu, L.J., Banterng, P., Dung, P.T., Glaser, S., Gretzmacher, R., Hager, V., de Korte, E., Li, Y.H., Phuong, N.T., Ro, S., Zhang, Z.Y., and Zhou, H.F. 2008. Ambiguity in a trans-disciplinary stakeholder assessment of neglected and underutilized species in China, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1645-1666.

Schmitter-Soto, J.J., Valdez-Moreno, M.E., Rodiles-Hernández, R., and González-Díaz, A.A. 2008. Astyanax armandoi, a junior synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Teleostei: Characidae). Copeia 2008(2):409-413.

Schultz, C.B., and Crone, E.E. 2008. Using ecological theory to advance butterfly conservation. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 54(1):63-68.

Schultz, C.B., Russell, C., and Wynn, L. 2008. Restoration, reintroduction, and captive propagation for at-risk butterflies: a review of British and American conservation efforts. Israel J. Ecol. Evol. 54(1):41-61.

Senner, N.R. 2008. The status and conservation of Hudsonian Godwits (Limosa haemastica) during the non-breeding season. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:623-631.

Serrano, I.L. 2008. Challenges and advances at the Brazilian WHSRN sites. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:329-337.

Shi, H.Q., Cao, L., Barter, M.A., and Liu, N.F. 2008. Status of the East Asian population of the Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus: the need for urgent conservation action. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(2):181-193.

Silvano, R.A.M., Silva, A.L., Ceroni, M., and Begossi, A. 2008. Contributions of ethnobiology to the conservation of tropical rivers and streams. Aquat. Conserv. 18(3):241-260.

Silveira, P., Schuiteman, A., Vermeulen, J.J., Sousa, A.J., Silva, H., Paiva, J., and De Vogel, E. 2008. The orchids of Timor: checklist and conservation status. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157(2):197-215.

Skartsi, T., Elorriaga, J.N., Vasilakis, D.P., and Poirazidis, K. 2008. Population size, breeding rates and conservation status of Eurasian black vulture in the Dadia National Park, Thrace, NE Greece. J. Nat. Hist. 42(5-8):345-353.

Smith, R.K., Marais, A., Chadwick, P., Lloyd, P.H., and Hill, R.A. 2008. Monitoring and management of the endangered Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra in the Western Cape, South Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 46(2):207-213.

Smolders, A.J.P., Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T., van der Aalst, M., Lamers, L.P.M., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2008. Decreasing the abundance of Juncus effusus on former agricultural lands with noncalcareous sandy soils: possible effects of liming and soil removal. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):240-248.

Soos, C., Padilla, L., Iglesias, A., Gottdenker, N., Bédon, M.C., Rios, A., and Parker, P.G. 2008. Comparison of pathogens in broiler and backyard chickens on the Galápagos Islands: implications for transmission to wildlife. Auk 125(2):445-455.

Soutullo, A., De Castro, M., and Urios, V. 2008. Linking political and scientifically derived targets for global biodiversity conservation: implications for the expansion of the global network of protected areas. Divers. Distrib. 14(4):604-613.

Stahala, C. 2008. Seasonal movements of the Bahama Parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) between pine and hardwood forests: implications for habitat conservation. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:165-171.

Steiner, F.M., Schlick-Steiner, B.C., VanDerWal, J., Reuther, K.D., Christian, E., Stauffer, C., Suarez, A.V., Williams, S.E., and Crozier, R.H. 2008. Combined modelling of distribution and niche in invasion biology: a case study of two invasive Tetramorium ant species. Divers. Distrib. 14(3):538-545.

Stokes, K.E. 2008. Exotic invasive black willow (Salix nigra) in Australia: influence of hydrological regimes on population dynamics. Plant Ecol. 197(1):91-105.

Stringer, I.A.N., and Chappell, R. 2008. Possible rescue from extinction: transfer of a rare New Zealand tusked weta to islands in the Mercury group. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):371-382.

Suarez, A.V., Holway, D.A., and Tsutsui, N.D. 2008. Genetics and behavior of a colonizing species: the invasive Argentine ant. Am. Nat. 172:S72-S84.

Suzán, G., Armién, A., Mills, J.N., Marcé, E., Ceballos, G., Ávila, M., Salazar-Bravo, J., Ruedas, L., Armién, B., and Yates, T.L. 2008. Epidemiological considerations of rodent community composition in fragmented landscapes in Panama. J. Mammal. 89(3):684-690.

Tabak, N.M., and von Wettberg, E. 2008. Native and introduced jewelweeds of the Northeast. Northeastern Nat. 15(2):159-176.

Terry, I., Forster, P.I., Moore, C.J., Roemer, R.B., and Machin, P.J. 2008. Demographics, pollination syndrome and conservation status of Macrozamia platyrhachis (Zamiaceae), a geographically restricted Queensland cycad. Aust. J. Bot. 56(4):321-332.

Thiele, J., and Otte, A. 2008. Invasion patterns of Heracleum mantegazzianum in Germany on the regional and landscape scales. J. Nature Conserv. 16(2):61-71.

Thomaes, A., Kervyn, T., and Maes, D. 2008. Applying species distribution modelling for the conservation of the threatened saproxylic Stag Beetle (Lucanus cervus). Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1400-1410.

Tjelmeland, A.D., Fulbright, T.E., and Lloyd-Reilley, J. 2008. Evaluation of herbicides for restoring native grasses in buffelgrass-dominated grasslands. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):263-269.

Tobler, M.W., Carrillo-Percastegui, S.E., Pitman, R.L., Mares, R., and Powell, G. 2008. An evaluation of camera traps for inventorying large- and medium-sized terrestrial rainforest mammals. Anim. Conserv. 11(3):169-178.

Tobler, M.W., Carrillo-Percastegui, S.E., Pitman, R.L., Mares, R., and Powell, G. 2008. Further notes on the analysis of mammal inventory data collected with camera traps. Anim. Conserv. 11(3):187-189.

Topp, C.M., and Winker, K. 2008. Genetic patterns of differentiation among five landbird species from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Auk 125(2):461-472.

Toribio, M., and Peterson, A.T. 2008. Prioritisation of Mexican lowland rain forests for conservation using modelled geographic distributions of birds. J. Nature Conserv. 16(2):109-116.

Tushabe, H., and Fjeldså, J. 2008. Identifying suitable conservation targets: can GIS-based modelling serve to link coarse-scale complementarity to local selection of conservation sites? Afr. J. Ecol. 46:109-117.

Tuxen, K.A., Schile, L.M., Kelly, M., and Siegel, S.W. 2008. Vegetation colonization in a restoring tidal marsh: a remote sensing approach. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):313-323.

Uyehara, K.J., Engilis, A., and Dugger, B.D. 2008. Wetland features that influence occupancy by the endangered Hawaiian Duck. Wilson J. Ornithol. 120(2):311-319.

Valderrama, S., Parra, J., Dávila, N., and Mennill, D.J. 2008. Vocal behavior of the critically endangered Niceforo's Wren (Thryothorus nicefori). Auk 125(2):395-401.

Van Beest, F., Van Den Bremer, L., De Boer, W.F., Heitkönig, I.M.A., and Monteiro, A.E. 2008. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Portugal. Bird Conserv. Int. 18(2):102-117.

van der Valk, A.G., Wetzel, P., Cline, E., and Sklar, F.H. 2008. Restoring tree islands in the Everglades: experimental studies of tree seedling survival and growth. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):281-289.

Vazquez, L.B., Rodríguez, P., and Arita, H.T. 2008. Conservation planning in a subdivided world. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(6):1367-1377.

Vidra, R.L., and Shear, T.H. 2008. Thinking locally for urban forest restoration: a simple method links exotic species invasion to local landscape structure. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):217-220.

Virkkala, R., Heikkinen, R.K., Leikola, N., and Luoto, M. 2008. Projected large-scale range reductions of northern-boreal land bird species due to climate change. Biol. Conserv. 141(5):1343-1353.

Vovides, A.P., Pérez-Farrera, M.A., González-Astorga, J.A., and Iglesias, C. 2008. A new species of Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae) from Oaxaca, Mexico with comments on habitat and relationships. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157(2):169-175.

Walker, B.G., Wingfield, J.C., and Boersma, P.D. 2008. Tourism and Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus): an example of applying field endocrinology to conservation problems. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19:219-228.

Watts, C., Stringer, I., Sherley, G., Gibbs, G., and Green, C. 2008. History of weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) translocation in New Zealand: lessons learned, islands as sanctuaries and the future. J. Insect Conserv. 12(3-4):359-370.

Whitney, K.D., and Gabler, C.A. 2008. Rapid evolution in introduced species, 'invasive traits' and recipient communities: challenges for predicting invasive potential. Divers. Distrib. 14(4):569-580.

Wittemyer, G., Elsen, P., Bean, W.T., Burton, A.C.O., and Brashares, J.S. 2008. Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science 321(5885):123-126.

Wolfe, B.E., Rodgers, V.L., Stinson, K.A., and Pringle, A. 2008. The invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) inhibits ectomycorrhizal fungi in its introduced range. J. Ecology 96(4):777-783.

Zedler, J.B., and West, J.M. 2008. Declining diversity in natural and restored salt marshes: a 30-year study of Tijuana Estuary. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):249-262.

Zhang, L., Hua, N., and Sun, S. 2008. Wildlife trade, consumption and conservation awareness in southwest China. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(6):1493-1516.

Zhang, Y.B., and Ma, K.P. 2008. Geographic distribution patterns and status assessment of threatened plants in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(7):1783-1798.

Zhou, P., Luukkanen, O., Tokola, T., and Nieminen, J. 2008. Vegetation dynamics and forest landscape restoration in the Upper Min River watershed, Sichuan, China. Restor. Ecol. 16(2):348-358.

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