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Department ofBotany

No. 287
November 2008

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In This Issue

Red List Reveals World's Mammals in Crisis


The most comprehensive assessment of the world's mammals has confirmed an extinction crisis, with almost one in four at risk of disappearing forever, according to The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM, revealed at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Barcelona, Spain, on 6 October 2008. The new study to assess the world's mammals shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction. At least 76 mammals have become extinct since 1500. The results also show conservation can bring species back from the brink of extinction, with five percent of currently threatened mammals showing signs of recovery in the wild.

"The reality is that the number of threatened mammals could be as high as 36 percent," says Jan Schipper, of Conservation International and lead author in an article in Science, which includes co-authors Louise Emmons, Kristofer Helgen, and Monik Oprea of the National Museum of Natural History.

The results show 188 mammals are in the highest threat category of Critically Endangered, including the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus), which has a population of just 84-143 adults and has continued to decline due to a shortage of its primary prey, the European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

China's Père David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus), is listed as Extinct in the Wild. However, the captive and semi-captive populations have increased in recent years and it is possible that truly wild populations could be re-established soon. It may be too late, however, to save the additional 29 species that have been flagged as Critically Endangered Possibly Extinct, including Cuba's Little Earth Hutia (Mesocapromys sanfelipensis), which has not been seen in nearly 40 years.

Nearly 450 mammals have been listed as Endangered, including the Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), which moved from Least Concern to Endangered after the global population declined by more than 60 percent in the last 10 years due to a fatal infectious facial cancer.

Habitat loss and degradation affect 40 percent of the world's mammals. It is most extreme in Central and South America, West, East and Central Africa, Madagascar, and in South and Southeast Asia. Over harvesting is wiping out larger mammals, especially in Southeast Asia, but also in parts of Africa and South America.

But it is not all bad news. The assessment of the world's mammals shows that species can recover with concerted conservation efforts. The Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) moved from Extinct in the Wild to Endangered after a successful reintroduction by the US Fish and Wildlife Service into eight western states and Mexico from 1991-2008.

The project to assess the world's mammals was conducted with help from more than 1,800 scientists from over 130 countries.

Current Literature

Abhilasha, D., Quintana, N., Vivanco, J., and Joshi, J. 2008. Do allelopathic compounds in invasive Solidago canadensis s.l. restrain the native European flora? J. Ecology 96(5):993-1001.

Alda, F., Inogés, J., Alcaraz, L., Oria, J., Aranda, A., and Doadrio, I. 2008. Looking for the Iberian lynx in central Spain: a needle in a haystack? Anim. Conserv. 11(4):297-305.

Altwegg, R., Crawford, R.J.M., Underhill, L.G., and Williams, A.J. 2008. Long-term survival of de-oiled Cape gannets Morus capensis after the Castillo de Belluer oil spill of 1983. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1924-1929.

Awoyemi, S.M. 2008. The role of religion in the HIV/AIDS intervention in Africa: a possible model for conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):811-813.

Baiser, B., Lockwood, J.L., La Puma, D., and Aronson, M.F.J. 2008. A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests of New Jersey. Biol. Invasions 10(6):785-795.

Bancroft, B.A., Baker, N.J., and Blaustein, A.R. 2008. A meta-analysis of the effects of ultraviolet B radiation and its synergistic interactions with pH, contaminants, and disease on amphibian survival. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):987-996.

Barrows, C.W., Preston, K.L., Rotenberry, J.T., and Allen, M.F. 2008. Using occurrence records to model historic distributions and estimate habitat losses for two psammophilic lizards. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1885-1893.

Bartomeus, I., Bosch, J., and Vilà, M. 2008. High invasive pollen transfer, yet low deposition on native stigmas in a Carpobrotus-invaded community. Ann. Botany 102(3):417-424.

Beck, J., and Chapman, H. 2008. A population estimate of the Endangered chimpanzee Pan troglodytes vellerosus in a Nigerian montane forest: implications for conservation. Oryx 42(3):448-451.

Beier, P., Majka, D.R., and Spencer, W.D. 2008. Forks in the road: choices in procedures for designing wildland linkages. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):836-851.

Benayas, J.M.R., Bullock, J.M., and Newton, A.C. 2008. Creating woodland islets to reconcile ecological restoration, conservation, and agricultural land use. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(6):329-336.

Benkendorff, K., and Przeslawski, R. 2008. Multiple measures are necessary to assess rarity in macro-molluscs: a case study from southeastern Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2455-2478.

Berry, K.H., Keith, K., and Bailey, T. 2008. Status of the desert tortoise in Red Rock Canyon State Park. Calif. Fish Game 94(2):98-118.

Blanchet, S., Loot, G., and Dodson, J.J. 2008. Competition, predation and flow rate as mediators of direct and indirect effects in a stream food chain. Oecologia 157(1):93-104.

Blomley, T., Pfliegner, K., Isango, J., Zahabu, E., Ahrends, A., and Burgess, N. 2008. Seeing the wood for the trees: an assessment of the impact of participatory forest management on forest condition in Tanzania. Oryx 42(3):380-391.

Boeckman, C.J., and Bidwell, J.R. 2008. Status of freshwater native mussels (Unionidae) in the Oklahoma section of the Verdigris River after introduction of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771). Am. Malacol. Bull. 25(1-2):1-8.

Boulant, N., Kunstler, G., Rambal, S., and Lepart, J. 2008. Seed supply, drought, and grazing determine spatio-temporal patterns of recruitment for native and introduced invasive pines in grasslands. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):862-874.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., Fitzpatrick, B.M., Steinberg, C.C., Brook, B.W., and Meekan, M.G. 2008. Decline in whale shark size and abundance at Ningaloo Reef over the past decade: the world's largest fish is getting smaller. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1894-1905.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., Giam, X.L., Tan, H.T.W., Brook, B.W., and Sodhi, N.S. 2008. Threat or invasive status in legumes is related to opposite extremes of the same ecological and life-history attributes. J. Ecology 96(5):869-883.

Brand, L.A., White, G.C., and Noon, B.R. 2008. Factors influencing species richness and community composition of breeding birds in a desert riparian corridor. Condor 110(2):199-210.

Bresciaa, F.M., Pollabauer, C.M., Potter, M.A., and Robertson, A.W. 2008. A review of the ecology and conservation of Placostylus (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) in New Caledonia. Moll. Res. 28(2):111-122.

Broadbent, E.N., Asner, G.P., Keller, M., Knapp, D.E., Oliveira, P.J.C., and Silva, J.N. 2008. Forest fragmentation and edge effects from deforestation and selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1745-1757.

Brook, B.W., Sodhi, N.S., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2008. Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23(8):453-460.

Burmeier, S., and Jensen, K. 2008. Is the endangered Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag. rare because of a narrow regeneration niche? Plant Species Biol. 23(2):111-118.

Cameron, S.E., Williams, K.J., and Mitchell, D.K. 2008. Efficiency and concordance of alternative methods for minimizing opportunity costs in conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):886-896.

Carroll, C., and Johnson, D.S. 2008. The importance of being spatial (and reserved): assessing Northern Spotted Owl habitat relationships with hierarchical Bayesian models. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1026-1036.

Carvalho, E.A.R., Lima, A.P., Magnusson, W.E., and Albernaz, A.L.K.M. 2008. Long-term effect of forest fragmentation on the Amazonian gekkonid lizards, Coleodactylus amazonicus and Gonatodes humeralis. Austral Ecol. 33(6):723-729.

Caujapé-Castells, J., Marrero-Rodríguez, A., Baccarani-Rosas, M., Cabrera-García, N., and Vilches-Navarrete, B. 2008. Population genetics of the endangered Canarian endemic Atractylis arbuscula (Asteraceae): implications for taxonomy and conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 274(1-2):99-109.

Chucholl, C., Stich, H.B., and Maier, G. 2008. Aggressive interactions and competition for shelter between a recently introduced and an established invasive crayfish: Orconectes immunis vs. O. limosus. Fund. Appl. Limnol. 172(1):27-36.

Costea, M., Aiston, F., and Stefanovic, S. 2008. Species delimitation, phylogenetic relationships, and two new species in the Cuscuta gracillima complex (Convolvulaceae). Botany 86(7):670-681.

Cox, R.D., and Allen, E.B. 2008. Composition of soil seed banks in southern California coastal sage scrub and adjacent exotic grassland. Plant Ecol. 198(1):37-46.

Croxall, J.P. 2008. Seabird mortality and trawl fisheries. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):255-256.

Curtin, C., and Western, D. 2008. Grasslands, people, and conservation: over-the-horizon learning exchanges between African and American pastoralists. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):870-877.

D'Elia, J., Zwartjes, M., and McCarthy, S. 2008. Considering legal viability and societal values when deciding what to conserve under the US Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1072-1074.

Da Costa, D.P., and De Faria, C.P. 2008. Conservation priorities for the bryophytes of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. J. Bryol. 30:133-142.

Dassonville, N., Vanderhoeven, S., Vanparys, V., Hayez, M., Gruber, W., and Meerts, P. 2008. Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe. Oecologia 157(1):131-140.

Davenport, T.R.B., De Luca, D.W., Jones, T., Mpunga, N.E., Machaga, S.J., Kitegile, A., and Phillipps, G.P. 2008. The Critically Endangered kipunji Rungwecebus kipunji of southern Tanzania: first census and conservation status assessment. Oryx 42(3):352-359.

Davidar, P., Arjunan, M., and Puyravaud, J.P. 2008. Why do local households harvest forest products? A case study from the southern Western Ghats, India. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1876-1884.

Delord, K., Besson, D., Barbraud, C., and Weimerskirch, H. 2008. Population trends in a community of large Procellariiforms of Indian Ocean: potential effects of environment and fisheries interactions. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1840-1856.

Devos, C., Walsh, P.D., Arnhem, E., and Huynen, M.C. 2008. Monitoring population decline: can transect surveys detect the impact of the Ebola virus on apes? Oryx 42(3):367-374.

Di Bitetti, M.S., Paviolo, A., Ferrari, C.A., De Angelo, C., and Di Blanco, Y. 2008. Differential responses to hunting in two sympatric species of brocket deer (Mazama americana and M. nana). Biotropica 40(5):636-645.

Dietrich, K.S., Meluin, E.F., and Conquest, L. 2008. Integrated weight longlines with paired streamer lines - best practice to prevent seabird bycatch in demersal longline fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1793-1805.

Dillingham, P.W., and Fletcher, D. 2008. Estimating the ability of birds to sustain additional human-caused mortalities using a simple decision rule and allometric relationships. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1783-1792.

Domènech, R., and Vilà, M. 2008. Response of the invader Cortaderia selloana and two coexisting natives to competition and water stress. Biol. Invasions 10(6):903-912.

Drew, J., Allen, G.R., Kaufman, L., and Barber, P.H. 2008. Endemism and regional color and genetic differences in five putatively cosmopolitan reef fishes. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):965-975.

Durst, S.L., Theimer, T.C., Paxton, E.H., and Sogge, M.K. 2008. Temporal variation in the arthropod community of desert riparian habitats with varying amounts of saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). J. Arid Environ. 72(9):1644-1653.

Escós, J.M., Alados, C.L., Pulido, A., Romera, J., González-Sánchez, N., and Martínez, F. 2008. Estimating population trends using population viability analyses for the conservation of Capra pyrenaica. Acta Theriol. 53(3):275-286.

Esfeld, K., Hensen, I., Wesche, K., Jakob, S.S., Tischew, S., and Blattner, F.R. 2008. Molecular data indicate multiple independent colonizations of former lignite mining areas in Eastern Germany by Epipactis palustris (Orchidaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2441-2453.

Evangelista, P.H., Kumar, S., Stohlgren, T.J., Jarnevich, C.S., Crall, A.W., Norman, J.B., and Barnett, D.T. 2008. Modelling invasion for a habitat generalist and a specialist plant species. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):808-817.

Evans, S.R., and Sheldon, B.C. 2008. Interspecific patterns of genetic diversity in birds: correlations with extinction risk. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1016-1025.

Fadda, S., Orgeas, J., Ponel, P., Buisson, E., and Dutoit, T. 2008. Conservation of grassland patches failed to enhance colonization of ground-active beetles on formerly cultivated plots. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):109-116.

Farnsworth, E.J., and Ogurcak, D.E. 2008. Functional groups of rare plants differ in levels of imperilment. Am. J. Bot. 95(8):943-953.

Felten, V., Dolédec, S., and Statzner, B. 2008. Coexistence of an invasive and a native gammarid across an experimental flow gradient: flow-refuge use, -mortality, and leaf-litter decay. Fund. Appl. Limnol. 172(1):37-48.

Feng, Y.L., and Fu, G.L. 2008. Nitrogen allocation, partitioning and use efficiency in three invasive plant species in comparison with their native congeners. Biol. Invasions 10(6):891-902.

Ferreras, A.E., Torres, C., and Galetto, L. 2008. Fruit removal of an invasive exotic species (Ligustrum lucidum) in a fragmented landscape. J. Arid Environ. 72(9):1573-1580.

Ferretti, F., Myers, R.A., Serena, F., and Lotze, H.K. 2008. Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):952-964.

Flaquer, C., Puig-Montserrat, X., Burgas, A., and Russo, D. 2008. Habitat selection by Geoffroy's bats (Myotis emarginatus) in a rural Mediterranean landscape: implications for conservation. Acta Chiropterol. 10(1):61-67.

Franceschini, M.D., Rubenstein, D.I., Low, B., and Romero, L.M. 2008. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis as an indicator of stress during translocation and acclimation in an endangered large mammal, the Grevy's zebra. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):263-269.

Gallego-García, N., and Castaño-Mora, O.V. 2008. Ecology and status of the Magdalena river turtle, Podocnemis lewyana, a Colombian endemic. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(1):37-44.

Ganatsas, P., Tsakaldimi, M., and Thanos, C. 2008. Seed and cone diversity and seed germination of Pinus pinea in Strofylia Site of the Natura 2000 Network. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2427-2439.

Gerlach, J. 2008. Fragmentation and demography as causes of population decline in Seychelles freshwater turtles (genus Pelusios). Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(1):78-87.

Gertzen, E., Familiar, O., and Leung, B. 2008. Quantifying invasion pathways: fish introductions from the aquarium trade. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65(7):1265-1273.

Gilman, E.L., Ellison, J., Duke, N.C., and Field, C. 2008. Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: a review. Aquat. Bot. 89(2):237-250.

Glos, J., Wegner, F., Dausmann, K.H., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2008. Oviposition-site selection in an endangered Madagascan frog: experimental evaluation of a habitat model and its implications for conservation. Biotropica 40(5):646-652.

Godet, L., Toupoint, N., Olivier, F., Fournier, J., and Retière, C. 2008. Considering the functional value of common marine species as a conservation stake: The case of sandmason worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) beds. Ambio 37(5):347-355.

Gonzalez, A., Lambert, A., and Ricciardi, A. 2008. When does ecosystem engineering cause invasion and species replacement? Oikos 117(8):1247-1257.

Griffiths, R.A., and Pavajeau, L. 2008. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):852-861.

Guo, S.T., Ji, W.H., Li, B.G., and Li, M. 2008. Response of a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys to commercial logging in the Qinling Mountains, China. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1055-1064.

Gurevitch, J., Howard, T.G., Ashton, I.W., Leger, E.A., Howe, K.M., Woo, E., and Lerdau, M. 2008. Effects of experimental manipulation of light and nutrients on establishment of seedlings of native and invasive woody species in Long Island, NY forests. Biol. Invasions 10(6):821-831.

Haddad, N.M., Hudgens, B., Damiani, C., Gross, K., Kuefler, D., and Pollock, K. 2008. Determining optimal population monitoring for rare butterflies. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):929-940.

Harkonen, T., Jüssi, M., Baimukanov, M., Bignert, A., Dmitrieva, L., Kasimbekov, Y., Verevkin, M., Wilson, S., and Goodman, S. 2008. Pup production and breeding distribution of the Caspian seal (Phoca caspica) in relation to human impacts. Ambio 37(5):356-361.

Harmelin-Vivien, M., Le Diréach, L., Bayle-Sempere, J., Charbonnel, E., García-Charton, J.A., Ody, D., Pérez-Ruzafa, A., Reñones, O., Sánchez-Jerez, P., and Valle, C. 2008. Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: evidence of fish spillover? Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1829-1839.

Hegazy, A.K., Hammouda, O., Lovett-Doust, J., and Gomaa, N.H. 2008. Population dynamics of Moringa peregrina along altitudinal gradient in the northwestern sector of the Red Sea. J. Arid Environ. 72(9):1537-1551.

Henderson, L.E., Farrow, L.J., and Broders, H.G. 2008. Intra-specific effects of forest loss on the distribution of the forest-dependent northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis). Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1819-1828.

Hu, M.H., Wang, Y.J., Cao, L., and Xiong, B.X. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Hucho bleekeri Kimura, 1934 (Salmonidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 82(4):385-386.

Huang, C.Y., and Geiger, E.L. 2008. Climate anomalies provide opportunities for large-scale mapping of non-native plant abundance in desert grasslands. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):875-884.

Hugo, S., and van Rensburg, B.J. 2008. The maintenance of a positive spatial correlation between South African bird species richness and human population density. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 17(5):611-621.

Hulme, P.E. 2008. Contrasting alien and native plant species-area relationships: the importance of spatial grain and extent. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 17(5):641-647.

Hutchins, M. 2008. Animal rights and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):815-816.

Inderjit. 2008. Biology, ecology and management of the world's worst plant invasive species - preface. Biol. Invasions 10(6):781-783.

Inderjit, Seastedt, T.R., Callaway, R.M., Pollock, J.L., and Kaur, J. 2008. Allelopathy and plant invasions: traditional, congeneric, and bio-geographical approaches. Biol. Invasions 10(6):875-890.

Indrawan, M., and Rasmussen, P.C. 2008. A new White-eye (Zosterops) from the Togian Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Wilson J. Ornithol. 120(1):1-9.

Isaac, J.L., De Gabriel, J.L., and Goodman, B.A. 2008. Microclimate of daytime den sites in a tropical possum: implications for the conservation of tropical arboreal marsupials. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):281-287.

Jachmann, H. 2008. Illegal wildlife use and protected area management in Ghana. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1906-1918.

Jacquet, J., and Pauly, D. 2008. Funding priorities: big barriers to small-scale fisheries. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):832-835.

Jenkins, C.N., and Giri, C. 2008. Protection of mammal diversity in Central America. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1037-1044.

Jensen, R.A., Wisz, M.S., and Madsen, J. 2008. Prioritizing refuge sites for migratory geese to alleviate conflicts with agriculture. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1806-1818.

Jiang, H., Cheng, H.Q., Le Quesne, W.M.I.F., Xu, H.G., Wu, J., Ding, H., and Arreguín-Sánchez, F. 2008. Ecosystem model predictions of fishery and conservation trade-offs resulting from marine protected areas in the East China Sea. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):137-146.

Jogesh, T., Carpenter, D., and Cappuccino, N. 2008. Herbivory on invasive exotic plants and their non-invasive relatives. Biol. Invasions 10(6):797-804.

Jones, J.PG., Andriamarovololona, M.M., and Hockley, N. 2008. The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):976-986.

Joseph, L.N., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. Grid-based monitoring methods for detecting population declines: sensitivity to spatial scale and consequences of scale correction. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1868-1875.

Kaneko, S., Isagi, Y., and Nobushima, F. 2008. Genetic differentiation among populations of an oceanic island: the case of Metrosideros boninensis, an endangered endemic tree species in the Bonin Islands. Plant Species Biol. 23(2):119-128.

Kang, M., Huang, H.W., Jiang, M.X., and Lowe, A.J. 2008. Understanding population structure and historical demography in a conservation context: population genetics of an endangered fern. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):799-807.

Kaplan, R., and Kaplan, S. 2008. Bringing out the best in people: a psychological perspective. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):826-829.

Karubian, J., and Carrasco, L. 2008. Home range and habitat preferences of the Banded Ground-cuckoo (Neomorphus radiolosits). Wilson J. Ornithol. 120(1):205-209.

Kaur, J., Nair, A., and Choudhury, B.C. 2008. Conservation of the Vulnerable sarus crane Grus antigone antigone in Kota, Rajasthan, India: a case study of community involvement. Oryx 42(3):452-455.

Keith, D.A., and Simpson, C.C. 2008. A protocol for assessment and integration of vegetation maps, with an application to spatial data sets from south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecol. 33(6):761-774.

Keith, K., Berry, K.H., and Weigand, J.F. 2008. When desert tortoises are rare: testing a new protocol for assessing status. Calif. Fish Game 94(2):75-97.

Koike, H., Echelle, A.A., Loftis, D., and Van Den Bussche, R.A. 2008. Microsatellite DNA analysis of success in conserving genetic diversity after 33 years of refuge management for the desert pupfish complex. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):321-329.

Kramer, A.T., Ison, J.L., Ashley, M.V., and Howe, H.F. 2008. The paradox of forest fragmentation genetics. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):878-885.

Kreyling, J., Schmiedinger, A., Macdonald, E., and Beierkuhnlein, C. 2008. Slow understory redevelopment after clearcutting in high mountain forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2339-2355.

Kumar, R.S., Gama, N., Raghunath, R., Sinha, A., and Mishra, C. 2008. In search of the munzala: distribution and conservation status of the newly-discovered Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala. Oryx 42(3):360-366.

Laikre, L., Jonsson, B.G., Ihse, M., Marissink, M., Gustavsson, A.M.D., Ebenhard, T., Hagberg, L., Stål, P.O., von Walter, S., and Wramner, P. 2008. Wanted: scientists in the CBD process. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):814-815.

Lambdon, P.W., Lloret, F., and Hulme, P.E. 2008. Do non-native species invasions lead to biotic homogenization at small scales? The similarity and functional diversity of habitats compared for alien and native components of Mediterranean floras. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):774-785.

Lambdon, P.W., Lloret, F., and Hulme, P.E. 2008. How do introduction characteristics influence the invasion success of Mediterranean alien plants? Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 10(3):143-159.

Laurance, W.F. 2008. Theory meets reality: how habitat fragmentation research has transcended island biogeographic theory. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1731-1744.

Lawler, J.J., and White, D. 2008. Assessing the mechanisms behind successful surrogates for biodiversity in conservation planning. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):270-280.

Lawson, D.M., Lamar, C.K., and Schwartz, M.W. 2008. Quantifying plant population persistence in human-dominated landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):922-928.

Le Maitre, D.C., Thuiller, W., and Schonegevel, L. 2008. Developing an approach to defining the potential distributions of invasive plant species: a case study of Hakea species in South Africa. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 17(5):569-584.

Leeney, R.H., Amies, R., Broderick, A.C., Witt, M.J., Loveridge, J., Doyle, J., and Godley, B.J. 2008. Spatio-temporal analysis of cetacean strandings and bycatch in a UK fisheries hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2323-2338.

Leon, V.Y. 2008. Some species of the family Cryphaeaceae (Musci) proposed for inclusion in the South American Red List of Bryophytes (in Spanish). Cryptogamie Bryol. 29(3):211-214.

Letnic, M., Webb, J.K., and Shine, R. 2008. Invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1773-1782.

Lieb, D.A., Carline, R.F., Rosenberger, J.L., and Mengel, V.M. 2008. The discovery and ecology of a member of the Cambarus acuminatus complex (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in Valley Creek, southeastern Pennsylvania. J. Crustacean Biol. 28(3):439-450.

Loh, R.K., and Daehler, C.C. 2008. Influence of woody invader control methods and seed availability on native and invasive species establishment in a Hawaiian forest. Biol. Invasions 10(6):805-819.

Lopes, C.G.R., Ferraz, E.M.N., and Araújo, E.D. 2008. Physiognomic-structural characterization of dry- and humid-forest fragments (Atlantic Coastal Forest) in Pernambuco State, NE Brazil. Plant Ecol. 198(1):1-18.

López-Bao, J.V., Rodríguez, A., and Palomares, F. 2008. Behavioural response of a trophic specialist, the Iberian lynx, to supplementary food: patterns of food use and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1857-1867.

Loucks, C., Ricketts, T.H., Naidoo, R., Lamoreux, J., and Hoekstra, J. 2008. Explaining the global pattern of protected area coverage: relative importance of vertebrate biodiversity, human activities and agricultural suitability. J. Biogeogr. 35(8):1337-1348.

Mahaney, W.M., Smemo, K.A., and Gross, K.L. 2008. Impacts of C-4 grass introductions on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in C-3-dominated successional systems. Oecologia 157(2):295-305.

Manor, R., and Saltz, D. 2008. Conservation implications of competition between generalist and specialist rodents in Mediterranean afforested landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2513-2523.

Martínez-Abraín, A., Oro, D., Conesa, D., and Jiménez, J. 2008. Compromise between seabird enjoyment and disturbance: the role of observed and observers. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):104-108.

Marushia, R.G., and Holt, J.S. 2008. Reproductive strategy of an invasive thistle: effects of adults on seedling survival. Biol. Invasions 10(6):913-924.

Mason, R.A.B., Cooke, J., Moles, A.T., and Leishman, M.R. 2008. Reproductive output of invasive versus native plants. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 17(5):633-640.

Mason, T.J., and French, K. 2008. Impacts of a woody invader vary in different vegetation communities. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):829-838.

Mayer, F.S., and Frantz, C.M. 2008. Framing the question of survival: psychological insights and limitations. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):823-825.

Mazaris, A.D., Mamakis, Y., Kalpakis, S., Poulopoulos, Y., and Matsinos, Y.G. 2008. Evaluating potential threats to birds in Greece: an analysis of a 10-year data set from a rehabilitation centre. Oryx 42(3):408-414.

Mcelwee, P.D. 2008. Forest environmental income in Vietnam: household socioeconomic factors influencing forest use. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):147-159.

Mcgowan, A., Broderick, A.C., and Godley, B.J. 2008. Seabird populations of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean: an evaluation of IBA sites. Oryx 42(3):424-429.

McMahon, S.M., and Metcalf, C.J.E. 2008. Transient sensitivities of non-indigenous shrub species indicate complicated invasion dynamics. Biol. Invasions 10(6):833-846.

Meijer, T., Norén, K., Hellström, P., Dalén, L., and Angerbjörn, A. 2008. Estimating population parameters in a threatened arctic fox population using molecular tracking and traditional field methods. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):330-338.

Michalski, F., Peres, C.A., and Lake, I.R. 2008. Deforestation dynamics in a fragmented region of southern Amazonia: evaluation and future scenarios. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):93-103.

Mistry, J., Berardi, A., and Simpson, M. 2008. Birds as indicators of wetland status and change in the North Rupununi, Guyana. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2383-2409.

Moilanen, A. 2008. Two paths to a suboptimal solution - once more about optimality in reserve selection. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1919-1923.

Moore, J.E., and Žydelis, R.Z. 2008. Quantifying seabird bycatch: where do we go from here? Anim. Conserv. 11(4):257-259.

Morgan, M.J., Hunter, D., Pietsch, R., Osborne, W., and Keogh, J.S. 2008. Assessment of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Australian corroboree frogs, Pseudophryne corroboree and Pseudophryne pengilleyi, identifies four evolutionarily significant units for conservation. Mol. Ecol. 17(15):3448-3463.

Moritz, C., Patton, J.L., Conroy, C.J., Parra, J.L., White, G.C., and Beissinger, S.R. 2008. Impact of a century of climate change on small-mammal communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science 322(5899):261-264.

Müller-Schärer, H., and Schaffner, U. 2008. Classical biological control: exploiting enemy escape to manage plant invasions. Biol. Invasions 10(6):859-874.

Mumby, P.J., Broad, K., Brumbaugh, D.R., Dahlgren, C.P., Harborne, A.R., Hastings, A., Holmes, K.E., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F., and Sanchirico, J.N. 2008. Coral reef habitats as surrogates of species, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):941-951.

Murphy, H.T., Hardesty, B.D., Fletcher, C.S., Metcalfe, D.J., Westcott, D.A., and Brooks, S.J. 2008. Predicting dispersal and recruitment of Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) in Australian tropical rainforests. Biol. Invasions 10(6):925-936.

Mworia, J.K., Kinyamario, J.I., and Githaiga, J.M. 2008. Influence of cultivation, settlements and water sources on wildlife distribution and habitat selection in south-east Kajiado, Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):117-124.

Nagendra, H. 2008. Do parks work? Impact of protected areas on land cover clearing. Ambio 37(5):330-337.

Neale, J.M.R., Ranker, T.A., and Collinge, S.K. 2008. Conservation of rare species with island-like distributions: a case study of Lasthenia conjugens (Asteraceae) using population genetic structure and the distribution of rare markers. Plant Species Biol. 23(2):97-110.

Nehring, S., and Hesse, K.J. 2008. Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea. Biol. Invasions 10(6):937-950.

Newmark, W.D. 2008. Isolation of African protected areas. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(6):321-328.

Norgaard, R.B. 2008. Finding hope in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):862-869.

Olayemi, A., and Akinpelu, A. 2008. Diversity and distribution of murid rodent populations between forest and derived savanna sites within south western Nigeria. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2411-2425.

Oliveira, R., Godinho, R., Randi, E., and Alves, P.C. 2008. Hybridization versus conservation: are domestic cats threatening the genetic integrity of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Iberian Peninsula? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 363(1505):2953-2961.

Orr, D.W. 2008. The psychology of survival. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):819-822.

Ou, H., Lu, C.Y., and O'Toole, D.K. 2008. A risk assessment system for alien plant bio-invasion in Xiamen, China. J. Environ. Sci-China 20(8):989-997.

Pemberton, R.W., and Liu, H. 2008. Potential of invasive and native solitary specialist bee pollinators to help restore the rare cowhorn orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) in Florida. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1758-1764.

Pennisi, E. 2008. Comprehensive conservation database details threats to mammals. Science 322(5899):178-179.

Perry, G., and Perry, D. 2008. Animal rights and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):816-818.

Peterson, M.N., Chen, X.D., and Liu, J.G. 2008. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):912-921.

Pfueller, S.L. 2008. Role of bioregionalism in bookmark biosphere reserve, Australia. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):173-186.

Prager, M.H., and Rosenberg, A.A. 2008. Closing the loop in fishery management: the importance of instituting regular independent management review. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):830-831.

Ramírez-Bastida, P., Navarro-Sigüenza, A.G., and Peterson, A.T. 2008. Aquatic bird distributions in Mexico: designing conservation approaches quantitatively. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2525-2558.

Ranius, T., Eliasson, P., and Johansson, P. 2008. Large-scale occurrence patterns of red-listed lichens and fungi on old oaks are influenced both by current and historical habitat density. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2371-2381.

Raxworthy, C.J., Pearson, R.G., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotondrazafy, A.M., Ramanamanjato, J.B., Raselimanana, A.P., Wu, S., Nussbaum, R.A., and Stone, D.A. 2008. Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar. Global Change Biol. 14(8):1703-1720.

Rees, A.F., Saad, A., and Jony, M. 2008. Discovery of a regionally important green turtle Chelonia mydas rookery in Syria. Oryx 42(3):456-459.

Restrepo, A., Páez, V.P., López, C., and Bock, B.C. 2008. Distribution and status of Podocnemis lewyana in the Magdalena River drainage of Colombia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(1):45-51.

Richardson, D.M., and Kluge, R.L. 2008. Seed banks of invasive Australian Acacia species in South Africa: role in invasiveness and options for management. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 10(3):161-177.

Rius, M., Pascual, M., and Turon, X. 2008. Phylogeography of the widespread marine invader Microcosmus squamiger (Ascidiacea) reveals high genetic diversity of introduced populations and non-independent colonizations. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):818-828.

Roberge, J.M., Mikusin'ski, G., and Svensson, S. 2008. The white-backed woodpecker: umbrella species for forest conservation planning? Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2479-2494.

Robles, M.D., Flather, C.H., Stein, S.M., Nelson, M.D., and Cutko, A. 2008. The geography of private forests that support at-risk species in the conterminous United States. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(6):301-307.

Rodriguez-Cabal, M.A., Nuñez, M.A., and Martínez, A.S. 2008. Quantity versus quality: endemism and protected areas in the temperate forest of South America. Austral Ecol. 33(6):730-736.

Rodríguez-Herrera, B., Medellín, R.A., and Gamba-Rios, M. 2008. Roosting requirements of white tent-making bat Ectophylla alba (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Acta Chiropterol. 10(1):89-95.

Rossi, G., and Gentili, R. 2008. A partnership project for a new Red List of the Italian Flora. Plant Biosyst. 142(2):302-304.

Ruebhart, D.R., Cock, I.E., and Shaw, G.R. 2008. Invasive character of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906 (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) and its potential impact on Australian inland hypersaline waters. Mar. Freshwater Res. 59(7):587-595.

Russello, M.A., Avery, M.L., and Wright, T.F. 2008. Genetic evidence links invasive monk parakeet populations in the United States to the international pet trade. BMC Evol. Biol. 8:217.

Ryan, P.G., and Watkins, B.P. 2008. Estimating seabird bycatch by fisheries and its impact on seabird populations. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):260-262.

Rylands, A.B., Williamson, E.A., Hoffmann, M., and Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Primate surveys and conservation assessments. Oryx 42(3):313-314.

Salafsky, N., Salzer, D., Stattersfield, A.J., Hilton-Taylor, C., Neugarten, R., Butchart, S.H.M., Collen, B., Cox, N., Master, L.L., O'Connor, S., and Wilkie, D. 2008. A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: unified classifications of threats and actions. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):897-911.

Sánchez-Mercado, A., Ferrer-Paris, J.R., Yerena, E., García-Rangel, S., and Rodríguez-Clark, K.M. 2008. Factors affecting poaching risk to Vulnerable Andean bears Tremarctos ornatus in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela: space, parks and people. Oryx 42(3):437-447.

Santos, J.M., and Ferreira, M.T. 2008. Microhabitat use by endangered Iberian cyprinids nase Iberochondrostoma almacai and chub Squalius aradensis. Aquat. Sci. 70(3):272-281.

Sarasola, J.H., Bustamante, J., Negro, J.J., and Travaini, A. 2008. Where do Swainson's hawks winter? Satellite images used to identify potential habitat. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):742-753.

Sarkar, U.K., Pathak, A.K., and Lakra, W.S. 2008. Conservation of freshwater fish resources of India: new approaches, assessment and challenges. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2495-2511.

Scales, B.R., and Marsden, S.J. 2008. Biodiversity in small-scale tropical agroforests: a review of species richness and abundance shifts and the factors influencing them. Environ. Conserv. 35(2):160-172.

Schipper, J., Chanson, J.S., Chiozza, F., Cox, N.A., Hoffmann, M., Katariya, V., Lamoreux, J., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Stuart, S.N., Temple, H.J., Baillie, J., Boitani, L., Lacher, T.E., Mittermeier, R.A., Smith, A.T., Absolon, D., Aguiar, J.M., Amori, G., Bakkour, N., Baldi, R., Berridge, R.J., Bielby, J., Black, P.A., Blanc, J.J., Brooks, T.M., Burton, J.A., Butynski, T.M., Catullo, G., Chapman, R., Cokeliss, Z., Collen, B., Conroy, J., Cooke, J.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Derocher, A.E., Dublin, H.T., Duckworth, J.W., Emmons, L., Emslie, R.H., Festa-Bianchet, M., Foster, M., Foster, S., Garshelis, D.L., Gates, C., Gimenez-Dixon, M., Gonzalez, S., Gonzalez-Maya, J.F., Good, T.C., Hammerson, G., Hammond, P.S., Happold, D., Happold, M., Hare, J., Harris, R.B., Hawkins, C.E., Haywood, M., Heaney, L.R., Hedges, S., Helgen, K.M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hussain, S.A., Ishii, N., Jefferson, T.A., Jenkins, R.K.B., Johnston, C.H., Keith, M., Kingdon, J., Knox, D.H., Kovacs, K.M., Langhammer, P., Leus, K., Lewison, R., Lichtenstein, G., Lowry, L.F., Macavoy, Z., Mace, G.M., Mallon, D.P., Masi, M., McKnight, M.W., Medellín, R.A., Medici, P., Mills, G., Moehlman, P.D., Molur, S., Mora, A., Nowell, K., Oates, J.F., Olech, W., Oliver, W.R.L., Oprea, M., Patterson, B.D., Perrin, W.F., Polidoro, B.A., Pollock, C., Powel, A., Protas, Y., Racey, P., Ragle, J., Ramani, P., Rathbun, G., Reeves, R.R., Reilly, S.B., Reynolds, J.E., Rondinini, C., Rosell-Ambal, R.G., Rulli, M., Rylands, A.B., Savini, S., Schank, C.J., Sechrest, W., Self-Sullivan, C., Shoemaker, A., Sillero-Zubiri, C., De Silva, N., Smith, D.E., Srinivasulu, C., Stephenson, P.J., van Strien, N., Talukdar, B.K., Taylor, B.L., Timmins, R., Tirira, D.G., Tognelli, M.F., Tsytsulina, K., Veiga, L.M., Vié, J.C., Williamson, E.A., Wyatt, S.A., Xie, Y., and Young, B.E. 2008. The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science 322(5899):225-230.

Schumacher, E., Kueffer, C., Tobler, M., Gmür, V., Edwards, P.J., and Dietz, H. 2008. Influence of drought and shade on seedling growth of native and invasive trees in the Seychelles. Biotropica 40(5):543-549.

Searcy, C.A., and Shaffer, H.B. 2008. Calculating biologically accurate mitigation credits: insights from the California tiger salamander. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):997-1005.

Selebatso, M., Moe, S.R., and Swenson, J.E. 2008. Do farmers support cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in Botswana despite livestock depredation? Oryx 42(3):430-436.

Shepard, D.B., Kuhns, A.R., Dreslik, M.J., and Phillips, C.A. 2008. Roads as barriers to animal movement in fragmented landscapes. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):288-296.

Shrestha, R., and Wegge, P. 2008. Wild sheep and livestock in Nepal Trans-Himalaya: coexistence or competition? Environ. Conserv. 35(2):125-136.

Smart, J., Amar, A., O'Brien, M., Grice, P., and Smith, K. 2008. Changing land management of lowland wet grasslands of the UK: impacts on snipe abundance and habitat quality. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):339-351.

Southwell, D.M., Lechner, A.M., Coates, T., and Wintle, B.A. 2008. The sensitivity of population viability analysis to uncertainty about habitat requirements: implications for the management of the endangered southern brown bandicoot. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1045-1054.

Speziale, K.L., Lambertucci, S.A., and Olsson, O. 2008. Disturbance from roads negatively affects Andean condor habitat use. Biol. Conserv. 141(7):1765-1772.

Stokstad, E. 2008. New regulation would lessen influence of fish and wildlife experts. Science 321(5892):1030.

Taylor, K., and Woodell, S.R.J. 2008. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Primula elatior (L.) Hill. J. Ecology 96(5):1098-1116.

Tiébré, M.S., Saad, L., and Mahy, G. 2008. Landscape dynamics and habitat selection by the alien invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae) in Belgium. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2357-2370.

Timmins, R.J., and Duckworth, J.W. 2008. Diurnal squirrels (Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae) in Lao PDR: distribution, status and conservation. Trop. Zool. 21(1):11-56.

Tobias, J.A., Lebbin, D.J., Aleixo, A., Andersen, M.J., Guilherme, E., Hosner, P.A., and Seddon, N. 2008. Distribution, behavior, and conservation status of the Rufous Twistwing (Cnipodectes superrufus). Wilson J. Ornithol. 120(1):38-49.

Tolley, K.A., Chase, B.M., and Forest, F. 2008. Speciation and radiations track climate transitions since the Miocene Climatic Optimum: a case study of southern African chameleons. J. Biogeogr. 35(8):1402-1414.

Traveset, A., Brundu, G., Carta, L., Mprezetou, I., Lambdon, P., Manca, M., Médail, F., Moragues, E., Rodríguez-Pérez, J., Siamantziouras, A.S.D., Suehs, C.M., Troumbis, A.Y., Vilà, M., and Hulme, P.E. 2008. Consistent performance of invasive plant species within and among islands of the Mediterranean basin. Biol. Invasions 10(6):847-858.

Turner, P.J., Scott, J.K., and Spafford, H. 2008. The ecological barriers to the recovery of bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce) infested sites: impacts on vegetation and the potential increase in other exotic species. Austral Ecol. 33(6):713-722.

Vale, M.M., Cohn-Haft, M., Bergen, S., and Pimm, S.L. 2008. Effects of future infrastructure development on threat status and occurrence of Amazonian birds. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1006-1015.

Van Calster, H., Vandenberghe, R., Ruysen, M., Verheyen, K., Hermy, M., and Decocq, G. 2008. Unexpectedly high 20th century floristic losses in a rural landscape in northern France. J. Ecology 96(5):927-936.

Van Coillie, S., Galbusera, P., Roeder, A.D., Schempp, W., Stevens, J.M.G., Leus, K., Reinartz, G., and Pereboom, Z. 2008. Molecular paternity determination in captive bonobos and the impact of inbreeding on infant mortality. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):306-312.

Van Den Eynden, V., Oatham, M.P., and Johnson, W. 2008. How free access internet resources benefit biodiversity and conservation research: Trinidad and Tobago's endemic plants and their conservation status. Oryx 42(3):400-407.

Van Vliet, N., and Nasi, R. 2008. Why do models fail to assess properly the sustainability of duiker (Cephalophus spp.) hunting in Central Africa? Oryx 42(3):392-399.

Vane-Wright, R.I., and Liseki, S. 2008. The type material, taxonomy and conservation of Horniman's Swallowtail, Papilio hornimani (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). J. Nat. Hist. 42(19-20):1333-1348.

Vieira, F.D., and de Carvalho, D. 2008. Genetic structure of an insect-pollinated and bird-dispersed tropical tree in vegetation fragments and corridors: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(10):2305-2321.

Vilà, M., Siamantziouras, A.S.D., Brundu, G., Camarda, I., Lambdon, P., Médail, F., Moragues, E., Suehs, C.M., Traveset, A., Troumbis, A.Y., and Hulme, P.E. 2008. Widespread resistance of Mediterranean island ecosystems to the establishment of three alien species. Divers. Distrib. 14(5):839-851.

Wagner, P., Kohler, J., Schmitz, A., and Bohme, W. 2008. The biogeographical assignment of a west Kenyan rain forest remnant: further evidence from analysis of its reptile fauna. J. Biogeogr. 35(8):1349-1361.

Walker, H.A. 2008. Floristics and physiognomy determine migrant landbird response to Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion in riparian areas. Auk 125(3):520-531.

Waltert, M., Abegg, C., Ziegler, T., Hadi, S., Priata, D., and Hodges, K. 2008. Abundance and community structure of Mentawai primates in the Peleonan forest, north Siberut, Indonesia. Oryx 42(3):375-379.

Wang, W., Ren, G.P., He, Y.H., and Zhu, J.G. 2008. Habitat degradation and conservation status assessment of gallinaceous birds in the Trans-Himalayas, China. J. Wildlife Manag. 72(6):1335-1341.

Waples, R.S., Adams, P.B., Bohnsack, J., and Taylor, B.L. 2008. Legal viability, societal values, and SPOIR: response to D'Elia et al. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1075-1077.

Wasser, S.K., Clark, W.J., Drori, O., Kisamo, E.S., Mailand, C., Mutayoba, B., and Stephens, M. 2008. Combating the illegal trade in African elephant ivory with DNA forensics. Conserv. Biol. 22(4):1065-1071.

Watkins, B.P., Petersen, S.L., and Ryan, P.G. 2008. Interactions between seabirds and deep-water hake trawl gear: an assessment of impacts in South African waters. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):247-254.

Wich, S.A., Meijaard, E., Marshall, A.J., Husson, S., Ancrenaz, M., Lacy, R.C., van Schaik, C.P., Sugardjito, J., Simorangkir, T., Traylor-Holzer, K., Doughty, M., Supriatna, J., Dennis, R., Gumal, M., Knott, C.D., and Singleton, I. 2008. Distribution and conservation status of the orang-utan (Pongo spp.) on Borneo and Sumatra: how many remain? Oryx 42(3):329-339.

Williams, D.E., Miller, M.W., and Kramer, K.L. 2008. Recruitment failure in Florida Keys Acropora palmata, a threatened Caribbean coral. Coral Reefs 27(3):697-705.

Winchell, C.S., and Doherty, P.F. 2008. Using California gnatcatcher to test underlying models in habitat conservation plans. J. Wildlife Manag. 72(6):1322-1327.

Wood, L.J., Fish, L., Laughren, J., and Pauly, D. 2008. Assessing progress towards global marine protection targets: shortfalls in information and action. Oryx 42(3):340-351.

Xu, A.H., Jiang, Z.G., Li, C.W., Guo, J.X., Da, S.L., Cui, Q.H., Yu, S.Y., and Wu, G.S. 2008. Status and conservation of the snow leopard Panthera uncia in the Gouli Region, Kunlun Mountains, China. Oryx 42(3):460-463.

Yasué, M., Dearden, P., and Moore, A. 2008. An approach to assess the potential impacts of human disturbance on wintering tropical shorebirds. Oryx 42(3):415-423.

Yumnam, J. 2008. Rich biodiversity of northeast India needs conservation. Curr. Sci. 95(3):297.

Zanden, M.J.V., and Olden, J.D. 2008. A management framework for preventing the secondary spread of aquatic invasive species. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65(7):1512-1522.

Zelkowitz, R. 2008. Pacific Northwest sea bird may lose 'threatened' status. Science 322(5899):177.

Zhou, Z.H., and Jiang, Z.G. 2008. Characteristics and risk assessment of international trade in tortoises and freshwater turtles in China. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(1):28-36.

Zuberogoitia, I., Zabala, J., Martínez, J.A., Martínez, J.E., and Azkona, A. 2008. Effect of human activities on Egyptian vulture breeding success. Anim. Conserv. 11(4):313-320.

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