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Department ofBotany

No. 290
February 2009

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In This Issue

Will Tropical Species Survive?

The ongoing debate about the future of the world's tropical rain forests was the central theme of a symposium at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, on January 12, 2009. The debate featured two senior scientists from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), William Laurance and Joseph Wright, who took opposing views of the tropical extinction crisis, and other international experts Elizabeth Bennet, Thomas Rudel, Robin Chazdon, Greg Asner, Claudio Padua and Nigel Stork. SI secretary G. Wayne Clough and Cristián Samper, director of the National Museum of Natural History, gave welcoming remarks.

Laurance and Wright have studied the threats to tropical biodiversity for a quarter century. Laurance is perhaps best known for his efforts to predict the impacts of development on the Brazilian Amazon. His computer models of the future of Amazonia attracted worldwide attention to the rapidly growing threats to the region.

Many scientists are direly concerned about the future of tropical biodiversity, and some have claimed that as much as 50-75% of all tropical species could vanish (or be committed to extinction because their populations have collapsed) by the end of this century. Such alarming predictions, however, were challenged by Joseph Wright and Helene Muller-Landau, who used estimates of future population growth and urbanization trends to suggest that increasing forest regeneration would help to buffer species losses in the tropics. This friendly disagreement within STRI became even more relevant with the discovery that devastated lands were recovering more rapidly than expected, at least in some parts of the tropics, giving the impression that the apocalypse of extinctions would be delayed.

The debate was promoted by the Smithsonian and sponsored by the Science Committee of the National Board and by the Office of the Undersecretary for Science. It was presented before 500 scientists, politicians, and representatives from international non-governmental organizations.

Tropical forests are still being lost at a rate of 13 million hectares each year--or 50 football fields a minute. But aerial and satellite photographs presented at the debate showed that trees have regrown in up to a third of tropical forests wiped out by loggers and slash-and-burn agriculture.

Researchers at the conference differed on how many tropical rain forest species can be expected to die out. STRI director Eldredge Bermingham, said that "It's a question of whether or not the biodiversity crisis has been over hyped... The increase in secondary forest that we are observing may provide a buffer against extinction. If so, the extinction crisis isn't as serious as had been touted by some."

Another key contribution of the debate, as outlined by Wright, is the growing view that climate change could have very serious impacts on tropical species, many of which are believed to be thermal specialists. Most who viewed the debate concluded that we must combat both habitat destruction and climate change in order to stave off tropical extinctions.

Samper commented that "By bringing together the world's foremost authorities on different aspects of rain forest science, we hope to achieve new insights into a situation with potentially profound implications for all species--ours included."

The symposium papers will be published in a special volume of Conservation Biology. The debate can be viewed at


The Wilderness Society is now accepting applications for the 2009 Gloria Barron Wilderness Society Scholarship. This $10,000 scholarship is awarded annually to a graduate student in natural resources management, law or policy programs. The scholarship seeks to encourage individuals who have the potential to make a significant positive difference in the long-term protection of wilderness in North America. The award is made in support of research and preparation of a paper on an aspect of wilderness establishment, protection, or management. The work may apply to a particular landscape or it may address issues broadly. TWS strongly encourage proposals relating to climate change, as well as other topics regarding wilderness conservation. For more information and application instructions, please visit The application deadline is March 31, 2009.

Current Literature

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Best, R.J. 2008. Exotic grasses and feces deposition by an exotic herbivore combine to reduce the relative abundance of native forbs. Oecologia 158(2):319-327.

Bizoux, J.P., Dainou, K., Raspe, O., Lutts, S., and Mahy, G. 2008. Fitness and genetic variation of Viola calaminaria, an endemic metallophyte: implications of population structure and history. Plant Biol. 10(6):684-693.

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Bony, Y., Kouassi, N., Diomandé, D., Gourene, G., Verdoit-Jarraya, M., and Pointier, J. 2008. Ecological conditions for spread of the invasive snail Physa marmorata (Pulmonata: Physidae) in the Ivory Coast. Afr. Zool. 43(1):53-60.

Bos, M.M., Tylianakis, J.M., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2008. The invasive Yellow Crazy Ant and the decline of forest ant diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforests. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1399-1409.

Bouchard, A.M., McNeil, J.N., and Brodeur, J. 2008. Invasion of American native lily populations by an alien beetle. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1365-1372.

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Cabrera-Toledo, D., González-Astorga, J., and Vovides, A. 2008. Heterozygote excess in ancient populations of the critically endangered Dioon caputoi (Zamiaceae, Cycadales) from central Mexico. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 158(3):436-447.

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Castillo, I., Elorriaga, J., Zuberogoitia, I., Azkona, A., Hidalgo, S., Astorkia, L., Iraeta, A., and Ruiz, F. 2008. Influence of quarries on the cliff-nesting birds and management implications. Ardeola 55(1):103-110.

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Celliers, L., and Schleyer, M.H. 2008. Coral community structure and risk assessment of high-latitude reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3097-3117.

Chapron, G., Miquelle, D.G., Lambert, A., Goodrich, J.M., Legendre, S., and Clobert, J. 2008. The impact on tigers of poaching versus prey depletion. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1667-1674.

Chiarello, A.G., Srbek-Araujo, A.C., Del Duque, H.J., and Coelho, E.D. 2008. Ground nest predation might not be higher along edges of Neotropical forest remnants surrounded by pastures: evidence from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3209-3221.

Chiarucci, A., Bacaro, G., and Rocchini, D. 2008. Quantifying plant species diversity in a Natura 2000 network: old ideas and new proposals. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2608-2618.

Christenhusz, M.J.M., and Toivonen, T.K. 2008. Giants invading the tropics: the oriental vessel fern, Angiopteris evecta (Marattiaceae). Biol. Invasions 10(8):1215-1228.

Chwedorzewska, K., Galera, H., and Kosinski, I. 2008. Plantations of Convallaria majalis L. as a threat to the natural stands of the species: genetic variability of the cultivated plants and natural populations. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2619-2624.

Clements, R., Ng, P., Lu, X., Ambu, S., Schilthuizen, M., and Bradshaw, C. 2008. Using biogeographical patterns of endemic land snails to improve conservation planning for limestone karsts. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2751-2764.

Clynick, B. 2008. Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):483-492.

Constantino, P., Fortini, L., Kaxinawa, F., Kaxinawa, A., Kaxinawa, E., Kaxinawa, A., Kaxinawa, L., Kaxinawa, J., and Kaxinawa, J. 2008. Indigenous collaborative research for wildlife management in Amazonia: the case of the Kaxinawá, Acre, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2718-2729.

Cook, B., Page, T., and Hughes, J. 2008. Importance of cryptic species for identifying 'representative' units of biodiversity for freshwater conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2821-2831.

Cooke, S., and Suski, C. 2008. Ecological restoration and physiology: an overdue integration. BioScience 58(10):957-968.

Crompton, A., Obbard, M., Petersen, S., and Wilson, P. 2008. Population genetic structure in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Hudson Bay, Canada: implications of future climate change. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2528-2539.

Dantzler, D., Geringi, L., Straka, T., and Yarrow, G. 2008. Creating a destination for tourism, recreation, and education on an active solid waste landfill site. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):410-413.

Daugherty, D., Sutton, T., and Elliott, R. 2008. Potential for reintroduction of lake sturgeon in five northern Lake Michigan tributaries: a habitat suitability perspective. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):692-702.

Davis, A., and Rakotonasolo, F. 2008. A taxonomic revision of the baracoffea alliance: nine remarkable Coffea species from western Madagascar. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 158(3):355-390.

DeLuca, W., Studds, C., King, R., and Marra, P. 2008. Coastal urbanization and the integrity of estuarine waterbird communities: threshold responses and the importance of scale. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2669-2678.

Demars, B., and Thiébaut, G. 2008. Distribution of aquatic plants in the Northern Vosges rivers: implications for biomonitoring and conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):619-632.

DeMatteo, K., and Loiselle, B. 2008. New data on the status and distribution of the bush dog (Speothos venaticus): evaluating its quality of protection and directing research efforts. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2494-2505.

Denoël, M., and Ficetola, G. 2008. Conservation of newt guilds in an agricultural landscape of Belgium: the importance of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):714-728.

Dickson, B. 2008. CITES and the livelihoods of the poor. Oryx 42(4):548-553.

Diniz, J., Bini, L., Pinto, M., Terribile, L., de Oliveira, G., Vieira, C., Blamires, D., Barreto, B., Carvalho, P., Rangel, T., Tôrres, N., and Bastos, R. 2008. Conservation planning: a macroecological approach using the endemic terrestrial vertebrates of the Brazilian Cerrado. Oryx 42(4):567-577.

Dlugosch, K.M., and Hays, C.G. 2008. Genotypes on the move: some things old and some things new shape the genetics of colonization during species invasions. Mol. Ecol. 17(21):4583-4585.

Dohzono, I., Kunitake, Y., Yokoyama, J., and Goka, K. 2008. Alien bumble bee affects native plant reproduction through interactions with native bumble bees. Ecology 89(11):3082-3092.

Dulvy, N., Baum, J., Clarke, S., Compagno, L., Cortés, E., Domingo, A., Fordham, S., Fowler, S., Francis, M., Gibson, C., Martínez, J., Musick, J., Soldo, A., Stevens, J., and Valenti, S. 2008. You can swim but you can't hide: the global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):459-482.

Eigenbrode, S.D., Andreas, J.E., Cripps, M.G., Ding, H., Biggam, R.C., and Schwarzländer, M. 2008. Induced chemical defenses in invasive plants: a case study with Cynoglossum officinale L. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1373-1379.

Elliott, J., Holmes, K., Chambers, R., Leon, K., and Wimberger, P. 2008. Differences in morphology and habitat use among the native mussel Mytilus trossulus, the non-native M. galloprovincialis, and their hybrids in Puget Sound, Washington. Mar. Biol. 156(1):39-53.

Engelkes, T., Morrien, E., Verhoeven, K.J.F., Bezemer, T.M., Biere, A., Harvey, J.A., McIntyre, L.M., Tamis, W.L.M., and van der Putten, W.H. 2008. Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact. Nature 456(7224):946-948.

Enquist, C., and Gori, D. 2008. Application of an expert system approach for assessing grassland status in the US-Mexico borderlands: implications for conservation and management. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):414-428.

Escobar, F., Halffter, G., Solís, Á., Halffter, V., and Navarrete, D. 2008. Temporal shifts in dung beetle community structure within a protected area of tropical wet forest: a 35-year study and its implications for long-term conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1584-1592.

Fearnside, P. 2008. Will urbanization cause deforested areas to be abandoned in Brazilian Amazonia? Environ. Conserv. 35(3):197-199.

Figueroa, F., and Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2008. Effectiveness of natural protected areas to prevent land use and land cover change in Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3223-3240.

Filippi-Codaccioni, O., Devictor, V., Clobert, J., and Julliard, R. 2008. Effects of age and intensity of urbanization on farmland bird communities. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2698-2707.

Franch, N., Clavero, M., Garrido, M., Gaya, N., López, V., Pou-Rovira, Q., and Queral, J.M. 2008. On the establishment and range expansion of oriental weatherfish (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in NE Iberian Peninsula. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1327-1331.

Funk, J.L. 2008. Differences in plasticity between invasive and native plants from a low resource environment. J. Ecology 96(6):1162-1173.

Gahl, M., and Calhoun, A. 2008. Landscape setting and risk of Ranavirus mortality events. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2679-2689.

Galvánek, D., and Lepš, J. 2008. Changes of species richness pattern in mountain grasslands: abandonment versus restoration. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3241-3253.

Gao, Z.X., Li, Y., and Wang, W.M. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker 1864 (Catostomidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):345-346.

García, J., Suárez, F., Garza, V., Justribó, J., Oñate, J., Hervás, I., Calero, M., and de la Morena, E. 2008. Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti in Morocco: lessons for conservation. Oryx 42(4):592-599.

Garrido, J., and Munilla, I. 2008. Aquatic Coleoptera and Hemiptera assemblages in three coastal lagoons of the NW Iberian Peninsula: assessment of conservation value and response to environmental factors. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):557-569.

Gaublomme, E., Hendrickx, F., Dhuyvetter, H., and Desender, K. 2008. The effects of forest patch size and matrix type on changes in carabid beetle assemblages in an urbanized landscape. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2585-2596.

Gibbons, P., Briggs, S., Ayers, D., Doyle, S., Seddon, J., McElhinny, C., Jones, N., Sims, R., and Doody, J. 2008. Rapidly quantifying reference conditions in modified landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2483-2493.

Gómez, I., and Araujo, R. 2008. Channels and ditches as the last shelter for freshwater mussels: the case of Margaritifera auricularia and other naiads inhabiting the mid Ebro River Basin, Spain. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):658-670.

Goulson, D., Lye, G.C., and Darvill, B. 2008. Diet breadth, coexistence and rarity in bumblebees. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3269-3288.

Goßner, M., Engel, K., and Jessel, B. 2008. Plant and arthropod communities in young oak stands: are they determined by site history? Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3165-3180.

Groom, R., and Harris, S. 2008. Conservation on community lands: the importance of equitable revenue sharing. Environ. Conserv. 35(3):242-251.

Guest, J., Todd, P., Goh, E., Sivaloganathan, B., and Reddy, K. 2008. Can giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) populations be restored on Singapore's heavily impacted coral reefs? Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):570-579.

Hamer, A., and McDonnell, M. 2008. Amphibian ecology and conservation in the urbanising world: a review. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2432-2449.

Hamer, D., Ward, T., and McGarvey, R. 2008. Measurement, management and mitigation of operational interactions between the South Australian Sardine Fishery and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2865-2878.

Hanley, N., Davies, A., Angelopoulos, K., Hamilton, A., Ross, A., Tinch, D., and Watson, F. 2008. Economic determinants of biodiversity change over a 400-year period in the Scottish uplands. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1557-1565.

Hartig, F., and Drechsler, M. 2008. The time horizon and its role in multiple species conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2625-2631.

Hastie, L., and Toy, K. 2008. Changes in density, acre structure and que-specific mortality in two western pearlshell (Margaritifera faleata) populations in Washington (1995-2006). Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):671-678.

He, C.L., Zhang, X.Y., Hou, F.X., Zhang, X.F., and Song, Z.B. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Triplophysa siluroides (Herzenstein 1888) (Balitoridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):305.

Heath, S., Kershner, E., Cooper, D., Lynn, S., Turner, J., Warnock, N., Farabaugh, S., Brock, K., and Garcelon, D. 2008. Rodent control and food supplementation increase productivity of endangered San Clemente Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi). Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2506-2515.

Hodges, K., and Elder, J. 2008. Critical habitat designation under the US Endangered Species Act: how are biological criteria used? Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2662-2668.

Hopwood, J. 2008. The contribution of roadside grassland restorations to native bee conservation. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2632-2640.

Hyvönen, T., and Huusela-Veistola, E. 2008. Arable weeds as indicators of agricultural intensity - a case study from Finland. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2857-2864.

Ingraham, M.W., and Foster, S.G. 2008. The value of ecosystem services provided by the US National Wildlife Refuge System in the contiguous US. Ecol. Econ. 67(4):608-618.

Irz, P., De Bortoli, J., Michonneau, F., Whittier, T., Oberdorff, T., and Argillier, C. 2008. Controlling for natural variability in assessing the response of fish metrics to human pressures for lakes in north-east USA. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):633-646.

Ishii, H., Kadoya, T., Kikuchi, R., Suda, S., and Washitani, I. 2008. Habitat and flower resource partitioning by an exotic and three native bumble bees in central Hokkaido, Japan. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2597-2607.

Jay-Robert, P., Niogret, J., Errouissi, F., Labarussias, M., Paoletti, É., Luis, M., and Lumaret, J. 2008. Relative efficiency of extensive grazing vs. wild ungulates management for dung beetle conservation in a heterogeneous landscape from Southern Europe (Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae, Geotrupinae). Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2879-2887.

Keller, K., and Brown, C. 2008. Behavioural interactions between the introduced plague minnow Gambusia holbrooki and the vulnerable native Australian ornate rainbowfish Rhadinocentrus ornatus, under experimental conditions. J. Fish Biol. 73(7):1714-1729.

Khan, A., Khaliq, I., Choudhry, M., Farooq, A., and Hussain, N. 2008. Status, threats and conservation of the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Vigors) in Pakistan. Curr. Sci. 95(8):1079-1082.

Khuroo, A.A., Reshi, Z., Rashid, I., Dar, G.H., and Khan, Z.S. 2008. Operational characterization of alien invasive flora and its management implications. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3181-3194.

Kivinen, S., Luoto, M., Heikkinen, R.K., Saarinen, K., and Ryttäri, T. 2008. Threat spots and environmental determinants of red-listed plant, butterfly and bird species in boreal agricultural environments. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3289-3305.

Klimek, S., Kemmermann, A., Steinmann, H., Freese, J., and Isselstein, J. 2008. Rewarding farmers for delivering vascular plant diversity in managed grasslands: a transdisciplinary case-study approach. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2888-2897.

Koenig, R. 2008. Rangers assess toll of Congo conflict on threatened mountain gorillas. Science 322(5909):1778.

Koh, L., and Ghazoul, J. 2008. Biofuels, biodiversity, and people: understanding the conflicts and finding opportunities. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2450-2460.

Kolb, A. 2008. Habitat fragmentation reduces plant fitness by disturbing pollination and modifying response to herbivory. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2540-2549.

Kong, D.P., PuiLok, C.B., and Yang, J.X. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Protomyzon pachychilus Chen, 1980 (Balitoridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):243-244.

Koster, J. 2008. The impact of hunting with dogs on wildlife harvests in the Bosawas Reserve, Nicaragua. Environ. Conserv. 35(3):211-220.

Lambeets, K., Hendrickx, F., Vanacker, S., Van Looy, K., Maelfait, J.P., and Bonte, D. 2008. Assemblage structure and conservation value of spiders and carabid beetles from restored lowland river banks. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3133-3148.

Lee, T., Meyer, J., Burch, J., Pearce-Kelly, P., and Foighil, D. 2008. Not completely lost: two partulid tree snail species persist on the highest peak of Raiatea, French Polynesia. Oryx 42(4):615-619.

Lester, S.E., and Halpern, B.S. 2008. Biological responses in marine no-take reserves versus partially protected areas. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 367:49-56.

Li, J., and Hilbert, D.W. 2008. LIVES: a new habitat modelling technique for predicting the distribution of species' occurrences using presence-only data based on limiting factor theory. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3079-3095.

Link, S. 2008. Restoring highly diverse native plant communities in natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):329.

Lombardo, J., and McCarthy, B. 2008. Forest management and Curculionid weevil diversity in mixed oak forests of southeastern Ohio. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):363-369.

MacKay, J., and Kotanen, P.M. 2008. Local escape of an invasive plant, common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), from above-ground and below-ground enemies in its native area. J. Ecology 96(6):1152-1161.

MacNeil, M. 2008. Making empirical progress in observational ecology. Environ. Conserv. 35(3):193-196.

Maguire, L., and Justus, J. 2008. Why intrinsic value is a poor basis for conservation decisions. BioScience 58(10):910-911.

Maron, J.L., and Marler, M. 2008. Field-based competitive impacts between invaders and natives at varying resource supply. J. Ecology 96(6):1187-1197.

Marr, S.R., Mautz, W.J., and Hara, A.H. 2008. Parasite loss and introduced species: a comparison of the parasites of the Puerto Rican tree frog, (Eleutherodactylus coqui), in its native and introduced ranges. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1289-1298.

Martone, R.G., and Wasson, K. 2008. Impacts and interactions of multiple human perturbations in a California salt marsh. Oecologia 158(1):151-163.

Martínez-Abrain, A., Crespo, J., Jiménez, J., Pullin, A., Stewart, G., and Oro, D. 2008. Friend or foe: societal shifts from intense persecution to active conservation of top predators. Ardeola 55(1):111-119.

McCallum, H. 2008. Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease: lessons for conservation biology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23(11):631-637.

McDonald-Madden, E., Baxter, P.W.J., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. Making robust decisions for conservation with restricted money and knowledge. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1630-1638.

McDonald-Madden, E., Bode, M., Game, E.T., Grantham, H., and Possingham, H.P. 2008. The need for speed: informed land acquisitions for conservation in a dynamic property market. Ecol. Lett. 11(11):1169-1177.

McDonald-Madden, E., Gordon, A., Wintle, B.A., Walker, S., Grantham, H., Carvalho, S., Bottrill, M., Joseph, L., Ponce, R., Stewart, R., and Possingham, H.P. 2009. "True" conservation progress. Science 323(5910):43-44.

Meentemeyer, R.K., Rank, N.E., Shoemaker, D.A., Oneal, C.B., Wickland, A.C., Frangioso, K.M., and Rizzo, D.M. 2008. Impact of sudden oak death on tree mortality in the Big Sur ecoregion of California. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1243-1255.

Michael, D.R., Cunningham, R.B., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2008. A forgotten habitat? Granite inselbergs conserve reptile diversity in fragmented agricultural landscapes. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1742-1752.

Molnar, J., Gamboa, R., Revenga, C., and Spalding, M. 2008. Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(9):485-492.

Morton, B. 2008. Attack responses of the southern Australian whelk, Lepsiella vinosa (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Muricidae), to novel bivalve prey: an experimental approach. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1265-1275.

New, T., and Xie, Z.Q. 2008. Impacts of large dams on riparian vegetation: applying global experience to the case of China's Three Gorges Dam. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3149-3163.

Nielsen, C., Heimes, C., and Kollmann, J. 2008. Little evidence for negative effects of an invasive alien plant on pollinator services. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1353-1363.

Novillo, A., and Ojeda, R.A. 2008. The exotic mammals of Argentina. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1333-1344.

Nuñez, M.A., Simberloff, D., and Relva, M.A. 2008. Seed predation as a barrier to alien conifer invasions. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1389-1398.

O'Neill, S.J., Osborn, T.J., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., and Watkinson, A.R. 2008. Using expert knowledge to assess uncertainties in future polar bear populations under climate change. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1649-1659.

Ogada, D., and Kibuthu, P. 2008. Conserving Mackinder's eagle owls in farmlands of Kenya: assessing the influence of pesticide use, tourism and local knowledge of owl habits in protecting a culturally loathed species. Environ. Conserv. 35(3):252-260.

Özcan, G. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Chondrostoma meandrense Elvira, 1987 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):297-298.

Palacín, C., and Alonso, R. 2008. An updated estimate of the world status and population trends of the great bustard Otis tarda. Ardeola 55(1):13-25.

Palmé, A., Laikre, L., Ryman, N., and Utter, F. 2008. The genetic structure of harbour porpoises in the Baltic Sea relative to adjacent waters remains to be clarified: a reply to Berggren & Wang. Oryx 42(4):490.

Pande, A., MacDiarmid, A.B., Smith, P.J., Davidson, R.J., Cole, R.G., Freeman, D., Kelly, S., and Gardner, J.P.A. 2008. Marine reserves increase the abundance and size of blue cod and rock lobster. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 366:147-158.

Parks, C., Endress, B., Vavra, M., McInnis, M., and Naylor, B. 2008. Cattle, deer, and elk grazing of the invasive plant sulfur cinquefoil. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):404-409.

Parsons, R.F. 2008. Threatened plants of the Murray-Darling Basin, South Australia: some further data. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 132:14-17.

Patricio, G.B., and Gomig, E.G. 2008. Habitat heterogeneity and pollinators: bees in fragmented landscapes (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Sociobiology 52(3):605-618.

Patrick, W., and Damon-Randall, K. 2008. Using a five-factored structured decision analysis to evaluate the extinction risk of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2906-2911.

Pattanaik, C., Prasad, S., Murthy, E., and Reddy, C. 2008. Conservation of Painted Stork habitats in Andhra Pradesh. Curr. Sci. 95(8):1001.

Patthey, P., Wirthner, S., Signorell, N., and Arlettaz, R. 2008. Impact of outdoor winter sports on the abundance of a key indicator species of alpine ecosystems. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1704-1711.

Paviolo, A., de Angelo, C., Di Blanco, Y., and Di Bitetti, M. 2008. Jaguar Panthera onca population decline in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest of Argentina and Brazil. Oryx 42(4):554-561.

Peccoud, J., Figueroa, C.C., Silva, A.X., Ramirez, C.C., Mieuzet, L., Bonhomme, J., Stoeckel, S., Plantegenest, M., and Simon, J.C. 2008. Host range expansion of an introduced insect pest through multiple colonizations of specialized clones. Mol. Ecol. 17(21):4608-4618.

Peck, R.W., Banko, P.C., Schwarzfeld, M., Euaparadorn, M., and Brinck, K.W. 2008. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1441-1455.

Phoonjampa, R., and Brockelman, W. 2008. Survey of pileated gibbon Hylobates pileatus in Thailand: populations threatened by hunting and habitat degradation. Oryx 42(4):600-606.

Pilollo, F., Free, G., Crosa, G., Sena, F., Ghiani, M., and Cardoso, A. 2008. The invasive crayfish Orconectes limosus in Lake Varese: estimating abundance and population size structure in the context of habitat and methodological constraints. J. Crustacean Biol. 28(4):633-640.

Pintor, L., Sih, A., and Bauer, M. 2008. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish. Oikos 117(11):1629-1636.

Playford, T., and Walker, K. 2008. Status of the endangered Glenelg River Mussel Hyridella glenelgensis (Unionoida: Hyrudae) in Australia. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):679-691.

Possley, J., Woodmansee, S., and Maschinski, J. 2008. Patterns of plant composition in fragments of globally imperiled pine rockland forest: effects of soil type, recent fire frequency, and fragment size. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):379-394.

Prasanthkumar, M., and Sujanapal, P. 2008. Conservation status and distribution range of Ixora johnsoni Hook. f. (Rubiaceae). Curr. Sci. 95(8):1004-1005.

Preston, K., Rotenberry, J.T., Redak, R.A., and Allen, M.F. 2008. Habitat shifts of endangered species under altered climate conditions: importance of biotic interactions. Global Change Biol. 14(11):2501-2515.

Quinn, L., Kolipinski, M., Coelho, V., Davis, B., Vianney, J., Batjargal, O., Alas, M., and Ghosh, S. 2008. Germination of invasive plant seeds after digestion by horses in California. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):356-362.

Raghavan, R., Prasad, G., Ali, P.H.A., and Pereira, B. 2008. Fish fauna of Chalakudy River, part of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, Kerala, India: patterns of distribution, threats and conservation needs. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3119-3131.

Ramsay, A., Davidson, J., Landry, T., and Arsenault, G. 2008. Process of invasiveness among exotic tunicates in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1311-1316.

Randrianantoandro, J., Randrianavelona, R., Andriantsimanarilafy, R., Hantalalaina, E., Rakotondravony, D., Randrianasolo, M., Ravelomanantsao, H., and Jenkins, R. 2008. Identifying important areas for the conservation of dwarf chameleons (Brookesia spp.) in Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, western Madagascar. Oryx 42(4):578-583.

Redford, K., Levy, M., Sanderson, E., and de Sherbinin, A. 2008. What is the role for conservation organizations in poverty alleviation in the world's wild places? Oryx 42(4):516-528.

Reed, J., Leng, M., Ryan, S., Black, S., Altinsaçli, S., and Griffiths, H. 2008. Recent habitat degradation in karstic Lake Uluabat, western Turkey: a coupled limnological-palaeolimnological approach. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2765-2783.

Reed, M. 2008. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2417-2431.

Reif, J., Storch, D., Voríšek, P., Štastný, K., and Bejcek, V. 2008. Bird-habitat associations predict population trends in central European forest and farmland birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3307-3319.

Reitzel, A.M., Darling, J.A., Sullivan, J.C., and Finnerty, J.R. 2008. Global population genetic structure of the starlet anemone Nematostella vectensis: multiple introductions and implications for conservation policy. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1197-1213.

Riffell, S., Scognamillo, D., and Burger, L.W. 2008. Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on northern bobwhite and grassland birds. Environ. Monit. Assess. 146(1-3):309-323.

Robalo, J.I., Sousa-Santos, C., Doadrio, I., and Almada, V.C. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Achondrostoma occidentale Robalo, Almada, Sousa-Santos, Moreira & Doadrio 2005 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):347.

Robb, G., McDonald, R., Chamberlain, D., and Bearhop, S. 2008. Food for thought: supplementary feeding as a driver of ecological change in avian populations. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(9):476-484.

Roberts, P., and Pullin, A. 2008. The effectiveness of management interventions for the control of Spartina species: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aquat. Conserv. 18(5):592-618.

Roe, D. 2008. The origins and evolution of the conservation-poverty debate: a review of key literature, events and policy processes. Oryx 42(4):491-503.

Rose, A., and Nicholas, N. 2008. Coarse woody debris in a southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):342-355.

Rosenthal, D.M., Ramakrishnan, A.P., and Cruzan, M.B. 2008. Evidence for multiple sources of invasion and intraspecific hybridization in Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson) Beauv. in North America. Mol. Ecol. 17(21):4657-4669.

Roudez, R.J., Glover, T., and Weis, J.S. 2008. Learning in an invasive and a native predatory crab. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1191-1196.

Salo, P., Nordstrom, M., Thomson, R.L., and Korpimaki, E. 2008. Risk induced by a native top predator reduces alien mink movements. J. Anim. Ecol. 77(6):1092-1098.

Sánchez, D., Chacón-Ortiz, A., León, F., Han, B., and Lampo, M. 2008. Widespread occurrence of an emerging pathogen in amphibian communities of the Venezuelan Andes. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2898-2905.

Schlaepfer, D.R., Edwards, P.J., Semple, J.C., and Billeter, R. 2008. Cytogeography of Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae) and its invasive ploidy level. J. Biogeogr. 35(11):2119-2127.

Schleier, J.J., Sing, S.E., and Peterson, R.K.D. 2008. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1277-1287.

Shelley, R., Widdicombe, S., Woodward, M., Stevens, T., McNeill, C., and Kendall, M. 2008. An investigation of the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of soft sediments by the non-native polychaete Sternaspis scutata (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae). J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 366(1-2):146-150.

Shenkar, N., and Loya, Y. 2008. The solitary ascidian Herdmania momus: native (Red Sea) versus non-indigenous (Mediterranean) populations. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1431-1439.

Singh, R., and Radha, P. 2008. A new species of Cycas (Cycadaceae) from Karnataka, India. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 158(3):430-435.

Somers, M.J., Graf, J.A., Szykman, M., Slotow, R., and Gusset, M. 2008. Dynamics of a small re-introduced population of wild dogs over 25 years: Allee effects and the implications of sociality for endangered species' recovery. Oecologia 158(2):239-247.

Soto-Galera, E., Paulo-Maya, J., and Lyons, J. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Chirostoma riojai (Solorzano and López, 1965) (Atherinopsidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):343-344.

Sousa, R., Nogueira, A., Gaspar, M., Antunes, C., and Guilhermino, L. 2008. Growth and extremely high production of the non-indigenous invasive species Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774): Possible implications for ecosystem functioning. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 80(2):289-295.

Spear, S.F., and Storfer, A. 2008. Landscape genetic structure of coastal tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei) in protected vs. managed forests. Mol. Ecol. 17(21):4642-4656.

Standish, R.J., Cramer, V.A., and Hobbs, R.J. 2008. Land-use legacy and the persistence of invasive Avena barbata on abandoned farmland. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1576-1583.

Stern, M. 2008. Coercion, voluntary compliance and protest: the role of trust and legitimacy in combating local opposition to protected areas. Environ. Conserv. 35(3):200-210.

Swartz, E., Mwale, M., and Hanner, R. 2008. A role for barcoding in the study of African fish diversity and conservation. S. Afr. J. Sci. 104(7-8):293-298.

Taylor, A., Haynes, J., and Holzman, G. 2008. Taxonomical, nomenclatural and biogeographical revelations in the Zamia skinneri complex of Central America (Cycadales: Zamiaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 158(3):399-429.

Teh, L.C.L., Teh, L.S.L., and Chung, F.C. 2008. A private management approach to coral reef conservation in Sabah, Malaysia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3061-3077.

Thiemann, G., Derocher, A., and Stirling, I. 2008. Polar bear Ursus maritimus conservation in Canada: an ecological basis for identifying designatable units. Oryx 42(4):504-515.

Thompson, S.D., and Gergel, S.E. 2008. Conservation implications of mapping rare ecosystems using high spatial resolution imagery: recommendations for heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes. Landscape Ecol. 23(9):1023-1037.

Tian, B., Zhou, Y., Zhang, L., and Yuan, L. 2008. Analyzing the habitat suitability for migratory birds at the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 80(2):296-302.

Tuberville, T., Norton, T., Todd, B., and Spratt, J. 2008. Long-term apparent survival of translocated gopher tortoises: a comparison of newly released and previously established animals. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2690-2697.

Turvey, S., Meredith, H., and Scofield, R. 2008. Continued survival of Hispaniolan solenodon Solenodon paradoxus in Haiti. Oryx 42(4):611-614.

Valéry, L., Fritz, H., Lefeuvre, J.C., and Simberloff, D. 2008. In search of a real definition of the biological invasion phenomenon itself. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1345-1351.

Van Calster, H., Endels, P., Antonio, K., Verheyen, K., and Hermy, M. 2008. Coppice management effects on experimentally established populations of three herbaceous layer woodland species. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2641-2652.

van Kleef, H., van der Velde, G., Leuven, R.S.E.W., and Esselink, H. 2008. Pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) invasions facilitated by introductions and nature management strongly reduce macroinvertebrate abundance in isolated water bodies. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1481-1490.

van Leeuwen, J., Froyd, C., van der Knaap, W., Coffey, E., Tye, A., and Willis, K. 2008. Fossil pollen as a guide to conservation in the Galápagos. Science 322(5905):1206.

Vaselli, S., Bulleri, F., and Benedetti-Cecchi, L. 2008. Hard coastal-defence structures as habitats for native and exotic rocky-bottom species. Mar. Environ. Res. 66(4):395-403.

Vellend, M., Bjorkman, A., and McConchie, A. 2008. Environmentally biased fragmentation of oak savanna habitat on southeastern Vancouver Island, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2576-2584.

Vos, C.C., Berry, P., Opdam, P., Baveco, H., Nijhof, B., O'Hanley, J., Bell, C., and Kuipers, H. 2008. Adapting landscapes to climate change: examples of climate-proof ecosystem networks and priority adaptation zones. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(6):1722-1731.

Waldron, J., Welch, S., and Bennett, S. 2008. Vegetation structure and the habitat specificity of a declining North American reptile: a remnant of former landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2477-2482.

Walker, K., Trewickz, S., and Barker, G. 2008. Powelliphanta augusta, a new species of land snail, with a description of its former habitat, Stockton coal plateau, New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 38(3):163-186.

Walpole, M., and Wilder, L. 2008. Disentangling the links between conservation and poverty reduction in practice. Oryx 42(4):539-547.

Walters, D.M., Blum, M.J., Rashleigh, B., Freeman, B.J., Porter, B.A., and Burkhead, N.M. 2008. Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1229-1242.

Wang, G., and Li, X. 2008. Population dynamics and recovery of endangered Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) in central China. Waterbirds 31(3):489-494.

Wardle, D.A., Lagerström, A., and Nilsson, M.C. 2008. Context dependent effects of plant species and functional group loss on vegetation invasibility across an island area gradient. J. Ecology 96(6):1174-1186.

Webb, J.K., Pike, D.A., and Shine, R. 2008. Population ecology of the velvet gecko, Oedura lesueurii in south eastern Australia: implications for the persistence of an endangered snake. Austral Ecol. 33(7):839-847.

Weber, E., Sun, S.G., and Li, B. 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biol. Invasions 10(8):1411-1429.

Werner, F.A., and Gradstein, S.R. 2008. Seedling establishment of vascular epiphytes on isolated and enclosed forest trees in an Andean landscape, Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 17(13):3195-3207.

Whitcraft, C.R., Levin, L.A., Talley, D., and Crooks, J.A. 2008. Utilization of invasive tamarisk by salt marsh consumers. Oecologia 158(2):259-272.

Whitehead, A., Edge, K., Smart, A., Hill, G., and Willans, M. 2008. Large scale predator control improves the productivity of a rare New Zealand riverine duck. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2784-2794.

Whitfield, D., Ruddock, M., and Bullman, R. 2008. Expert opinion as a tool for quantifying bird tolerance to human disturbance. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2708-2717.

Wilder, L., and Walpole, M. 2008. Measuring social impacts in conservation: experience of using the Most Significant Change method. Oryx 42(4):529-538.

Williams, I., Walsh, W., Schroeder, R., Friedlander, A., Richards, B., and Stamoulis, K. 2008. Assessing the importance of fishing impacts on Hawaiian coral reef fish assemblages along regional-scale human population gradients. Environ. Conserv. 35(3):261-272.

Woltz, H., Gibbs, J., and Ducey, P. 2008. Road crossing structures for amphibians and reptiles: informing design through behavioral analysis. Biol. Conserv. 141(11):2745-2750.

Yahi, P., Djellouli, Y., and de Foucault, B. 2008. Floristical and biogeographical diversities of the cedar forests of Algeria. Acta Bot. Gallica 155(3):389-402.

Yang, B., Chen, X.Y., and Yang, J.X. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Silurus mento Regon, 1904 (Siluriformes: Siluridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(3):307.

Young, C., Morrison, L., Kelrick, M., and DeBacker, M. 2008. Monitoring Lesquerella filiformis Rollins (Missouri bladderpod): application and evaluation of a grid-based survey approach. Nat. Areas J. 28(4):370-378.

Young, R., Volahy, A., Bourou, R., Lewis, R., Durbin, J., Wright, T., Hounsome, T., and Fa, J. 2008. A baseline estimate of population size for monitoring the Endangered Madagascar giant jumping rat Hypogeomys antimena. Oryx 42(4):584-591.

Yu, H., Yu, F., Miao, S., and Dong, M. 2008. Holoparasitic Cuscuta campestris suppresses invasive Mikania micrantha and contributes to native community recovery. Biol. Conserv. 141(10):2653-2661.

Zhu, R., and Cheng, X. 2008. The status of Amblyolejeunea (Lejeuneaceae) from Ecuador and Guadeloupe. Syst. Bot. 33(4):617-620.

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